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Cocos Nucifera Water: Therapeutic Benefits and Sickle Cell Anaemiaa Review



Coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) is regarded as the most valuable refreshing beverages that is excellent for electrolytes replenishment and is packed with variety of health benefits. Coconut fruit has high nutritional, therapeutic and commercial value and is recently being worked as a process of hydrating the cells. The high medium of potassium ion is studied as a possible mechanism to stop the enzyme Na / K-ATPase in the membrane of HbS, thus enabling potassium ion as an important higher ions moving out of the cell and sodium, water and chloride coming in to account for the water intake or sickling reversal process. Coconut water activate a resistance to osmotic pressure on the red cell membrane, thus decreasing the level of destruction of the cells. Cells with rise in red cell polymerization concentration are popular features of sickle cell disease and this is as a result of lack of the electrolytes-potassium, sodium and chloride from the red cell. The polymerization is as an outcome of dehydration, pressure and low oxygen tension which causes a shift in the balance of potassium, sodium, chloride and water and this leads to polymerization of the haemoglobin causing the crises of the sickle cell disease. The antisickling effectiveness of coconut (Cocos nucifera) water in sickle cell anaemia is reviewed to ascertain the ability of the minerals present in coconut water to stop sickle cell haemoglobin polymerization mechanism. Also reviewed are the minerals such as magnesium, zinc, arginine, potassium, chloride, iron and the antioxidant vitamins which are found to be potent inhibitors of sickle cell haemoglobin polymerization.
Volume 3, Issue 8, August 2018 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
IJISRT18AG60 514
Cocos Nucifera Water: Therapeutic Benefits and Sickle
Cell Anaemiaa Review
Ekpenyong, Ememobong Edison.
Department of Medical Laboratory Science,
Haematology Unit, College of Medical Sciences,
University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.
Okafor , Ifeyinwa Mary Ann
Department of Medical Laboratory Science,
Haematology Unit, College of Medical Sciences,
University of Calabar, Nigeria.
Abstract:- Coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) is regarded
as the most valuable refreshing beverages that is excellent
for electrolytes replenishment and is packed with variety
of health benefits. Coconut fruit has high nutritional,
therapeutic and commercial value and is recently being
worked as a process of hydrating the cells. The high
medium of potassium ion is studied as a possible
mechanism to stop the enzyme Na / K-ATPase in the
membrane of HbS, thus enabling potassium ion as an
important higher ions moving out of the cell and sodium,
water and chloride coming in to account for the water
intake or sickling reversal process. Coconut water activate
a resistance to osmotic pressure on the red cell membrane,
thus decreasing the level of destruction of the cells. Cells
with rise in red cell polymerization concentration are
popular features of sickle cell disease and this is as a result
of lack of the electrolytes-potassium, sodium and chloride
from the red cell. The polymerization is as an outcome of
dehydration, pressure and low oxygen tension which
causes a shift in the balance of potassium, sodium, chloride
and water and this leads to polymerization of the
haemoglobin causing the crises of the sickle cell disease.
The antisickling effectiveness of coconut (Cocos nucifera)
water in sickle cell anaemia is reviewed to ascertain the
ability of the minerals present in coconut water to stop
sickle cell haemoglobin polymerization mechanism. Also
reviewed are the minerals such as magnesium, zinc,
arginine, potassium, chloride, iron and the antioxidant
vitamins which are found to be potent inhibitors of sickle
cell haemoglobin polymerization.
Keywords:- Sickle Cell Disease, Cocos nucifera water,
Coconut, erythrocytes, anaemia.
Numerous works have offered mankind with dependable
information on the importance of numerous diets that are
found in natural foods which are able to inhibit sickle cell
haemoglobin polymerization process (Nwaguikpe et al.,
2012). The therapeutic process to the management of sickle
cell disease have been the most recent and effective method
accepted in the control of sickle cell disease. Sickle cell
disease is a rising world wellbeing challenge and is the
commonest heritable hematologic abnormality affecting
human and estimates shows that 300,000 babies are being
given birth with cell sickle anaemia every year (Frederic et al.,
Coconut water is known to have numerous impacts on
wellbeing since it have electrolytes, inorganic ions, amino
acids, lipids, organic acids, nitrogenous compounds, enzymes,
flavonoids, tannins, phenols, steroids, sugars, proteins,
antioxidants and dietary fibers. It is an excellent drink for
diabetes as it is good in nutrients needed by diabetes to keep
their glucose state in regulation (Nidhi et al., 2017). Studies
have displayed that Coconut water have organic substance that
keep a massive development elevating capacities which is
being applied as a treatment in the caring of kidney stones
(Aggarwal et al., 2017). It has also been reported to act as an
antioxidative agents against red cell fragility. In a study on
how sickle erythrocytes resisted osmotic lysis, it was found
that these features of coconut water could be used to stop the
main crises in sickle cell disease by removing water from the
cell and this could serve as a clue toward alleviating
haemolytic crisis in sickle cell patients (Ajayi and Igwilo,
2016). Furthermore, Alusio et al., 2009 explained that the
fractions of Cocos nucifera water can perform as a natural
oxidant as a result of its free radical strength.
Coconut water has been widely worked since its
beginning to the research community in the1940s. In its
natural form, the micronutrients and vitamins act importantly
in helping the human body antioxidant system (Evans and
Halliwell, 2001). It is also accepted that coconut water was
applied as a vital option for oral rehydration when medical
saline was unavailable and could be used for intravenous
hydration of person in remote areas (Campbell-Falcketal.
2000). In this review, the therapeutic benefits of Cocos
nucifera (Coconut) water and especially its benefit to sickle
cell patients will be highlighted. It is wish that this study will
function as an activator for additional work into the
therapeutic benefits of coconut water in cell sickle anaemia
and a search for real therapeutic process for the medical
management of Sickle Cell Disease.
Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is a vital tree substance in the
native tropical areas and the fruits can be created into
numerous of food and teas. Coconut is described as the most
important and extensively grown palm with local clean water
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found in the undeveloped coconut fruit also termed as “water
endosperm”. It is clear, it also have adequate quantity of
amino acids, proteins, glucose, and antioxidant (Jean et al.,
2009). Cocos nucifera, the botanical name of palm coconut is
a vital member of the Arecaceae palmae and the only kind of
the genus Cocos.
Every part of the plant is useful as it is grouped as
“Functional food” as a result it provide numerous wellbeing
and economic advantage. In countries like Nigeria, coconut
substance are described to be used against harmful substance
and are able to remove dangerous and risky materials
(Aiyeloja and Bello,2006) while it is used as a religious
symbol in Asia, especially in India (Alexia et al., 2012). It is
also used for decoration or horticulture in Oman and United
Arab Emirates (Coconut Research Center, 2004). The trunk
and leaf offer constructing substance, the root is applied as
mouthwash and as medicine for diarrhea and dysentery
(Corleone, 2017). The husk or coir is processed into ropes,
carpets, mats, geotextile and sacks, as substance for boats and
fiber for building materials (Alexia et al., 2012). Also as a
growth supplement in tissue culture/micro propagation (Jean
et al., 2009). Ceremonial gifts especially in India (Rethinam
and Kumar, 2001) and can be processed into vinegar
(Bourdeix et al., 2003) or wine (Augustine, 2007). The
massive brown shell can be assessed into very standard
activated substance - charcoal. The inner portion of the fruit is
grouped into two edible parts; a white kernel meat and a clear
liquid called coconut water (Alexia et al., 2012).
Coconut water is an ancient tropical beverage that is
highly valued due to its nutritional and medicinal (therapeutic)
properties. It is a power house of natural electrolytes,
vitamins, antioxidant, minerals, trace element, amino acids,
enzymes and phytonutrients and is low in sugar but pleasantly
sweet (Unagul et al., 2007). Coconut water is consisted of
numerous bioactive enzymes which are phosphatase, catalase,
dehydrogenase, RNA polymerase, diastase, and peroxidase.
These substances are vital for generating energy, breaking
down harmful growth, and aiding cell development,
conversely these substances aid in digestion and metabolism
(Fonseca et al., 2009).
The natural and sterile liquid carries a good amount of
electrolytes; potassium, sodium, magnesium and phosphorus.
These electrolytes aid restore electrolytes lack in the system as
a result to dehydration, vomiting, loose stool and diarrhea
(Umesh, 2009). Its liquid is also an excellent source of
vitamins - biotin, niacin, folic acid, vitamin C and B which
are folate, thiamin, riboflavin and pyridoxine. These
substances are vital in that the human system need them for
enzymatic and cellular functions (Depeint et al., 2006).
Because Coconut water is isotonic, sterile and very
similar to blood plasma with Osmolarity of 300mOsm-l which
is slightly lower in Sodium ions than that of WHO stated ORS
substance, it has been used as intravenous fluid under certain
emergency situations (Campbell- Falck et al., 2000). New
work on the application of coconut water as an intravenous
fluids has shown it to compare favorably with commercial
intravenous solutions. Coconut water has no harm effect on
the red blood cells, is non allergenic, and is readily accepted
by the human system and it has been displayed to be adequate
as commercial electrolytes substance in prolonging survival
times in sick patients (Bruce and Vermen, 2015.).
Because its electrolytes is likely to human plasma, it has
been recognized internationally as a natural sport drink for
oral rehydration (Probhakar and Mohana, 2014). As an
intravenous solution. Anzaldo et al., 1985 inject (500-700) ml
of coconut water into nine volunteers’ individuals and did not
observed any important alteration either in the electrolytes
constituents of the blood or in blood pressure, pulse level or
breathing. However, Campbell- Falck, (2000) stated that
coconut water is not an ideal solution for prolonged
resuscitation but may function as a quick option in emergency.
This rich isotonic solution is given to ill person with loose
stool in tropical remote areas to replace loss of fluids from the
GIT tracts and to decrease the need for hospitalization. The
presence of another functional composition like amino acids,
fatty acids, minerals may account the high in osmolarity.
One of the benefits related with coconut water that is of
importance is its ability to reduce cholesterol levels as well as
reduced blood pressure. However, a 3 weeks study on the
intake of coconut water in rats resulted in the animal having
reduce blood pressure and also decreased total cholesterol and
free fatty acids (Bhagya et al. 2010). Coconut water has also
been reported to have high antioxidant features that can aid
protect the body from numerous abnormal growth (Manna et
al., 2014).
Coconut water improves the function of insulin and
regulates blood sugar. Studies have shown that coconut water
are directly connected with insulin receptor function and can
significantly lower the chances of diabetic episode. Coconut
water is seen to help remove signs and decrease wellbeing
danger related with increased glucose by elevating insulin
release and application of blood glucose. In a study of diabetic
rats treated with coconut water, it shows that coconut water
controlled adequate blood glucose state compared to other
animals not treated with coconut water and it also helps to
balance blood glucose and insulin levels (Pinto et al., 2015).
A similar work showed that the animals had reduced state of
haemoglobin, an assessment of prolonged situation of blood
glucose regulation (Pinto et al., 2015).
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In another study of diabetic animals being treated with
ethanolic extract of coconut water, the results showed that the
pretreated diabetic rat maintained better blood sugar level than
diabetic rats not treated with coconut water (Nidhi et al.,
2017). Another study have shown coconut water to be able to
reduced blood glucose state and elevate other wellbeing signs
in diabetic animal (Preetha et al., 2015). In furtherance, it is an
absolute source of magnesium which has been displayed to
elevate insulin activity and reduce blood glucose state in
individual with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes (Rodriquez
and Guerrero, 2003).
“Coconut water is good at clearing Urinary path” says
Ayurvedic medicine of India. It is stated to remove bladder
contamination, clear hepatic stone and elevate kidney
function. Clinical work has displayed intake of coconut water
to be very adequate in dissolving kidney stone (Bruce et al.,
2008). The use of coconut water on regular basis said Dr
Eugenio Macalalag, head of Urology department at the
Chinese hospital in the Philippines, has shown coconut water
to be effective in ill person experiencing hepatic and kidney
stone problem (Macalalag, 1987).
Also coconut water is seen to convert excess cholesterol
to bile acids in rats and those bile acids are then freely
excreted. In a study of coconut water in rats with kidney
stones, it was found that it prevented the formation of calcium,
oxalate crystals with other compounds from attaching to the
kidneys and other urinary tract. This shows that Coconut water
helps in reducing the quantity of crystals found in urine
(Gandhi et al.; 2013). The researchers also believed that it
aided decrease radicals development that occur due to oxalate
level in urine (Elaine and Fredric, 2010). More works have
displayed that coconut water have organic compounds that
shows massive elevating abilities which is being applied in the
therapy of renal stone (Aggarwal et al., 2017).
Coconut water being a natural diuretic, stimulates
urination (rises urine removal) and decreases the toxicity of
the body. This aids to dilute the urine so that stones formed are
small and easily flush out and also aid in preventing bladder
contamination. Coconut water is known for its rich potassium
constituent and potassium citrate prevent calcium in the urine
from sticking to the urinary tracts and thus prevent kidney
stones. (Spencer, 2007).
Coconut water is abundant in antioxidant which are
effective in removing dangerous free radicals and separate
system from toxins which are the main causes of advanced
and deteriorating disease and even abnormal growth like
cancer. Coconut water has been shown to scavenge numerous
kinds of free radicals substances and protecting haemoglobin
in the blood from nitrite activation. Free radicals are random
substance that are developed in tissue and their development
rises in respond to damage. When there are excess free
radicals, the system is said to be in an oxidative stress of
damaging the cells and increase danger for other diseases
(Gargi et al, 2006).
One research observed that rats with liver injury showed
improvement in oxidative stress when they were treated with
water coconut (Manna et al., 2014). In other work, rats with
high intake of fructose diet and then treated with coconut
water, showed decrease in free radicals process, blood
pressure and insulin level (Bhagya, 2010).
Furthermore, concerning the vitamin antioxidant
component of coconut water, Mantena et al., 2003 performed
an in vitro assessment of Cocos nucifera water, they found the
existence of ascorbic acid in fresh coconut water and they
related these properties with antioxidant properties which help
the body from free radicals molecules that are main reasons
behind deteriorating disease such as abnormal growth and
sickle cell.
Coconut water is also very effective in improving
immunity. It protect body because of its antimicrobial lipids,
lauric acids, capric acids and caprylic acids, which have
antifungal, antimicrobial and antiviral properties (Ricardo et
al., 2004). Coconut water aids the immune system in battling
infection while aiding to remove intestinal worms and
candida. It helps strengthen the immune system by converting
lauric acids into monolaurin, which study has suggested as an
adequate method to eradicate viruses and bacteria that causes
disease likes herpes, influenza, cytomegalovirus and even
HIV. Coconut water helps in fighting harmful bacteria like
Listeria monocytogenes and Helicobacter pylori, and harmful
protozoans such as Giardia lamblia (Matsui et al., 2008).
Coconut water has numerous beneficial effects on health
and on serum sex hormones such as Testosterone, Follicle
Stimulating Hormones (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and
Prolactin. A study shows the level of Testosterone, FSH and
LH to be significantly increased when coconut was
administered to fertile rats. This implies that the intake of
coconut water could boosts reproductive function and is likely
to increases fertility. It also stated that coconut water
possesses sex hormone-like activity that can help boost
fertility because of its effect on menstrual cycle (Sade, 2016).
The amino acids L-arginine is proven to be effective in
increasing sperm count and motility (Sinclair, 2000), while
Vitamin B9, also known as folic acid is shown to increase
sperm count, motility and morphology (Safarinejad et al.,
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Coconut water has been found to have blood pressure
benefits and potentially decrease the risk of blood clots
forming in the arteries as it contains high levels of mineral
ions especially potassium that has been found to help prevent
heart attacks (Anurag et al, 2003). In the West Indian Medical
Journals, coconut water is seen to be effective in treating
hypertension. The research involved participation of 28
individuals who are tested for 14 days without treatment,
followed by another 14 days with treatment. The study
showed remarkable finding as the group who drank coconut
water showed a decrease in both systolic and diastolic pressure
(Alleyne et al., 2005).
It is believed that coconut water aids in the quick
absorption of drugs and makes their peak concentration in the
blood easier by its electrolytes effect and plays an instrumental
role in reducing the susceptibility of HIV patients. Preliminary
research shows an indication of this effect of coconut
component in reducing the viral load of HIV patients (Li et al.,
2009). The HIV-AIDS organization has documented that in
most HIV-AIDS patients, the viral load fell to undetectable
levels, when they took coconut component or when they
added coconut water to their anti-HIV medication
(antiretroviral); the medication that had previously not been
active became effective (Matsui et al., 2008).
Also concerning Nutraceutical effect, coconut water was
found to reduce histopathological changes in the brain induced
by hormonal imbalance in menopausal women (Redenahmad
et al., 2009). It is also known to contain the neurotransmitter
GABA which has anti- anxiety, anti- convulsive and relaxing
effect to the body.
According to a 2016 study on the therapeutic efficacy of
coconut water in sickle cell patients, the extract is said to
correct anaemic condition by stimulating haemoglobin
synthesis, production and early release of immature red blood
cells to the blood stream as a result of the presence of reducing
compounds. This research shows that coconut water contains
mucilage and reducing compounds which is a good
therapeutic efficacy and may be considered as remedy to
anaemia (Tchongu et al., 2016). Similarly, another 2016 study
published in the Journal of African Association of
Physiological Sciences showed how sickled erythrocytes
resisted osmotic lysis and how the resistivity at different
potential tonicities were observed as fresh Cocos nucifera
water was used as test and physiological salt as control ((Ajayi
and Igwilo, 2016). It was discovered that with fresh or tender
Cocos nucifera water, there was a remarkably resistance
significant to the osmotic pressure on the red cell membrane
thereby reducing the rate of osmotic destruction of the cell
during hypotonic stress and it was concluded that this may be
a clue towards alleviating haemolytic crisis in sickle cell
Meanwhile, previous study had demonstrated on the
relativity of different haemoglobin genotypes on high
potassium ion obtained from Cocos nucifera water and how it
could possibly inhibit Na+/k+- ATPase enzyme activities
within the membrane of sickled haemoglobin, thereby
allowing for higher potassium efflux and influx of sodium,
chloride and water to account for the rehydration/sickling
reversal process (Ajayi and Arishe, 2015). Expert had
suggested that coconut water is a rich source of potassium and
chloride ions and Ajayi et al., 2010 proposed a membrane
counter transport for potassium and chloride ions by
demonstrating a significant rehydration channel for sickle cell
erythrocytes with different high potassium- isotonic solution.
It was concluded that the composition of Cocos nucifera water
could be employed to block the major pathway in which sickle
cells could easily be dehydrated before sickling process.
In a 2016 study published in the Physiological
Association Journals, it indicated there was a high resistance
to the osmotic lysis of sickled erythrocytes induced by coconut
water and has shown that this resistance may be a
physiological advantage towards viability and reduction in
haemolytic anaemia (Ajayi et al., 2016).
In another study, it was found that coconut water which
is rich in vitamins, minerals and trace element ( including
Zinc, Selenium, Iodine, Sulfur and Magnesium) could be a
potent inhibitors of sickle cell haemoglobin polymerization
and could equally improve the oxidant status of sickle cell
erythrocytes ( Nwaoguikpe and Braide, 2012). Further
research on the antisickling effects of coconut water by Ajayi
and Ogbee demonstrated a significant rehydration of sickled
erythrocytes with high potassium- isotonic solutions and a
possible remarkable reversal of the sickled shaped
A study on the therapeutic efficacy in anaemia was
performed and the results of the constituent analysis revealed
the presence of tannins, flavonoids, leucothocyanes, quinone
derivatives, reducing compound and mucilage. The extract
was shown to correct anaemia completely before two weeks
by stimulating haemoglobin synthesis, production and early
release of immature red blood cells in the blood stream. The
study shows that coconut water have a good therapeutic
efficacy and may be considered for treatment of anaemia
(Tchongu and Senou, 2016).
Previously, studies has shown the presence of L-arginine
(300mgL-1) in coconut water which is said to have a cardio
protective effect through its production of nitric oxide, which
favors vaso relaxation (Girish et al., 2010). Another study also
investigated the production of nitric oxide from its precursor-
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arginine which is in abundant in coconut water to be able to
relax the blood vessels (Sagar et al., 2011) and according to
researchers at the Duke University and Howard Hughes
Medical Institute who attributed the pains associated with
sickle cell anaemia to decrease in production of nitric oxide
from the sickle cell membrane. They also stated that sickled or
distorted membrane has no ability to produce nitric oxide and
so circulation of blood cells are restricted and oxygen
starvation occurs causing the painful episode and ischemia
seen in sickle cell patients (National Academy of Science,
Previous study revealed the treatment of sickle cell
disease to include medications to reduce pains and prevent
dehydration, arginine, magnesium supplementation, blockage
of K+ loss from the erythrocytes to prevent the increase in
sickled haemoglobin concentration and reduced sickling
hemolysis. Sickled erythrocytes are fragile and dehydrated and
they require a delicate balance for minerals and antioxidant to
maintain erythrocytes hydration and membrane integrity
(Malik, 1999). Studies shows that magnesium (Mg) is
effective in reducing not only the painful episode in sickle cell
disease but affect the hydration of Red blood cells. Nitric
oxide which is derived from arginine has been shown to
reduce painful symptoms and also relieve anaemia by causing
expansion of the blood vessels to enable easy passage of the
blood and this causes less sickling because fewer red cells
would be lost to hemolysis (National Academy of Science,
Previous studies on the benefits associated with coconut
water that is of greatest interest for the sickle cell patients is its
potential to reduce sickling process by inhibiting the enzyme
activities within the membrane of HbS, thereby allowing for
significant higher potassium ion by preventing loss of
potassium through dehydration. Dehydration causes reduction
in the extracellular fluids and a reduction in blood volume and
a possible efflux of potassium ion and influx of sodium and
chloride ion (Bhagya et al., 2010).
According to another study which demonstrated a
decreasing osmotic lysis and an induced increase resistance in
erythrocytes from different haemoglobin genotypes (AA, AS,
and SS) pre-treated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) water, the
increase in extracellular concentration of potassium coupled
with that of calcium to the intracellular concentration may
have reversed the osmotic pressure on the red cell membrane
(Brungnara et al., 1993). In the high potassium medium
provided by cocos nucifera water, it seems probable that
hypotonic stress process is slowed and this may indirectly
reduce the rate of osmotic destruction of the erythrocytes
(Ajayi et al., 2016).
Maintaining the membrane integrity is the bottom line in
the control of anaemia in sickle cell disease. Disruption of the
membrane integrity arises from fragility, dehydration as well
as increased production of reactive oxygen species. Protection
of the red cell membranes from free radical- mediated
oxidative stress is crucial to the successful management of
sickle cell crises. Certain minerals, copper, iron, magnesium,
selenium as well as some antioxidant and vitamins have been
found to effectively relieve the oxidative stress that prevails in
sickle cell disease. Some minerals and vitamins have been
found to be beneficial in the control of anaemia under this
condition, these include iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and
folate (Prasad, 2002). Iron is very important in the synthesis of
haemoglobin, copper and zinc plays very important roles in Fe
metabolism (Prasad, 2002). There has been evidence of low
circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins e.g. vitamin E and C
in the plasma of HbS patients. Many researchers have reported
on the administration of vitamin C to human sickle cells which
inhibited the formation of dense cells (Adewoye et al., 2008).
Other report proposed that vitamin C prevent Heinz body
formation (Jaja et al., 2008). These vitamins and trace element
include vitamins C, E, B12, B9, iron ( Fe), copper ( Cu), Zinc
( Zn) are abundant in coconut water ( Jean et al., 2005).
This review shows the use of coconut (Cocos nucifera)
water to be very effective in the management of various
diseases especially sickle cell anaemia. The therapeutic
benefits is seen in its ability to alleviate the symptoms and
painful crises associated with the disorder. Further studies
should be done to actualize the mechanism in alleviating
sickle cell crises and also possible ways of harnessing these
properties to formulate a pharmaceutical agent that can be
beneficial to sickle cell patients.
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... It is a healthy sports drink that has immense rehydration potential (Cappelletti et al., 2015). Coconut water exhibits reasonably high therapeutic effects and may be used for relieving many ailments (Edison & Ann, 2018). It can be employed to mitigate urinary tract infections, stomach pain, prevent hot rashes, and helps maintain body pH level (Rajashri, Rastogi & Negi, 2020). ...
... In addition, TCW intake safeguards the heart from myocardial infarction and reduces high blood pressure and hypertension. The TCW effectively alleviates severe diseases such as sickle cell anemia (Edison & Ann, 2018). However, overconsumption of TCW may increase the potassium levels in the blood that lead to kidney problem (https://www.webmd. ...
Tender coconut water (TCW) possesses appreciable nutritional and health-promoting benefits. The high nutritional potential of the drink had raised the overall demand globally among the consumers. Nevertheless, the processing and appropriate shelf-life extension is significant hurdles in tapping the nutritional potential of TCW. Besides, the possible chance of enzymatic browning and the associated biochemical reactions impart unfavourable effects to the TCW quality parameters. Although thermal processing techniques are being widely explored, their inherent limitation and the generation of off-flavor and discoloration urge to explore alternative non-thermal techniques. The major mechanism of non-thermal techniques behind enzyme inactivation and antimicrobial effect is the conformational change of protein structure and cell destruction, respectively. In this review, the application of non-thermal techniques viz. ozone technology, high-pressure processing, filtration, ultrasound, ultraviolet, cold plasma, pulsed light, and electric field treatments are explored and compared.
... There are several reports which affirm that coconut water mimics intracellular fluid as its sodium and potassium levels are similar to that of the blood plasma. [11,12] TCW consumption reduces hypertension as well as high blood pressure [13] and protects against myocardial infarction. [14] The presence of organic compounds in TCW helps to promote growth, cures malnourishment, and makes it an excellent isotonic solution for all ages. ...
Tender coconut water is sweet and clear water obtained from the immature green coconut. It is transparent and sterile liquid inside the nut, which, once opened, starts deteriorating due to enzymatic reactions and microbial contamination. Several processing techniques were attempted to preserve the coconut water; however, maintenance of fresh like quality remains a challenge. Thermal processing alters its organoleptic and nutritional properties and therefore, several nonthermal techniques like pulsed electric field, high-pressure processing, ultra-violet treatment, pulsed light, dense pressure carbon dioxide, irradiation, etc., have been investigated. This review summarizes nonthermal techniques currently available to preserve the tender coconut water quality and extend its shelf life.
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Plant materials, derived from thousands of plant species from lichens to towering trees, represents substantial portion of the global market. When we think about the highly nutritious plant parts then we can’t move beyond Cocos nucifera. Many scientists around the world have worked on Cocos nucifera and revealed too may bioactivities such as antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, antineoplastic, insecticidal, and leishmanicidal activities. In this review also, we focused on various pharmacological aspects of Cocos nucifera, with different extraction methods and isolated compounds.
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Coconut water (CW) is a natural nutritious beverage, which contains several biologically active compounds that are traditionally used in the treatment of diarrhea and rehydration. Several works with CW have been related with antioxidant activity, which is very important in the diabetic state. To evaluate the hypoglycemic and nephroprotective activities of CW, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were pre- and post-treated by gavage with CW (3 mL/kg), caffeic acid (CA) (10 and 15 mg/kg), and acarbose (Acb) (714 μg/kg) during a period of 16 days. Body weight, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and Amadori products in plasma and kidney homogenates were evaluated in all groups and used as parameters for the monitoring of the diabetic state. The results showed that rats of the CW+diabetic group had maintenance in blood glucose compared with the control group (P<.05) in addition to a decrease of HbA1c levels and increase of body weight when compared with the diabetic group rats (P<.05). The animals of the CA and CA+diabetic groups did not have significant variation of body weight (P<.05) during the experiment; however, they showed decrease in their HbA1c and urea levels in plasma as well as Amadori products in kidney homogenates when compared with the diabetic group (P<.05). Our results indicate that CW has multiple beneficial effects in diabetic rats for preventing hyperglycemia and oxidative stress caused by alloxan.
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Purpose: Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Materials and methods: The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control) were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Results and conclusion: Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.
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The product. Coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) is an ancient tropical beverage whose popularity on the international market has been continuously increasing in recent years. Uses. Besides its various traditional uses, this refreshing liquid extracted from the coconut fruit has recently been described as a "sport beverage" and has drawn the attention of manufacturers as a natural functional drink. Composition. Coconut water has a low matter content (2% to 5% wet basis), mainly comprising sugars and minerals. Quality criteria, such as the water per nut ratio, Total Soluble Solids (TSS), total sugar per nut, and [reducing sugars / total sugars] ratio, are good indicators for estimating the suitability of coconut cultivars for the production of coconut water. Regarding these criteria, dwarf varieties are the most suitable cultivars to obtain a tasty product. Properties. The quality of coconut water can not only be attributed to sugars and minerals because it also has a typical flavour and some original properties. Although many authors have cited medicinal uses or growth-promoting activities, only a few publications have clearly identified the components responsible for these properties. Discussion. Results of former and recent investigations are discussed. Finally, suggestions are made for further research to increase our knowledge of this original tropical juice.
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A series of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones was reduced using plant cell preparations from coconut juice, Cocos nucifera, also called ACC (água-de-coco do Ceará). The reduced products were typically obtained in excellent yields (%) and with very high enantiomeric excess. Esters, amides, and nitrobenzene, yielded acids, amines and an azoxyderivative with satisfactory results.
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In the present study, the cardioprotective action of tender coconut water (TCW) in experimental myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats was studied. The results indicated that feeding TCW afforded protection against induction of myocardial infarction. There was decreased concentration of total cholesterol, VLDL + LDL– cholesterol and HDLcholesterol in the serum of isoproterenol treated rats fed TCW. The cholesterol levels in the heart and aorta were also lower in these groups. Triglycerides and phospholipids in the serum, heart and aorta were lower in isoproterenol treated rats given TCW. Recovery from myocardial damages was evident from the values of marker enzymes viz creatine phosphokinase (CPK), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Induction of myocardial infarction in rats by isoproterenol administration resulted in increased activities of SGOT, SGPT and LDH in the serum and heart and CPK in the serum. On the other hand, isoproterenol treated rats fed TCW showed decreased activities of these enzymes. Histopathological studies showed very little myocardial damage in isoproterenol treated rats fed TCW. The observed beneficial effects of TCW may be due to several factors viz potassium, calcium, magnesium, L-arginine that are present in the water.
The aims of the present study were to assess whether the antidiabetic activity of mature coconut water (MCW) is mediated through L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in diabetic rats, and to study the effects of MCW on blood coagulation. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting them with alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight). MCW (4 mL/100 g body weight) and L-arginine (7.5 mg/100 g body weight) was given orally for 45 days. L-NAME was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight. Concentrations of blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), L-arginine, urine volume and urinary creatinine levels, activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and arginase as well as the abnormalities in hemostasis and thrombosis were measured in all the experimental groups. Treatment with MCW and L-arginine reduced the concentration of blood glucose and HbA1c in diabetic rats. MCW and L-arginine treatment exhibited significant antithrombotic activity in diabetic rats, which was evident from the reduced levels of WBC, platelets, fibrin, and fibrinogen. MCW and L-arginine treatment prolonged the prothrombin time in diabetic rats and reduced the activity of Factor V. In addition to this, the activity of nitric oxide synthase, liver and plasma arginine content, and urinary nitrite were higher in MCW-treated diabetic rats whereas L-NAME treatment inhibited the beneficial effects induced by MCW and arginine. The results clearly indicate that L-arginine is a major factor responsible for the antidiabetic and antithrombotic potential of coconut water, and is mediated through the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway.
The inactivation kinetics of enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) was studied for the batch (discontinuous) microwave treatment of green coconut water. Inactivation of commercial PPO and POD added to sterile coconut water was also investigated. The complete time–temperature profiles of the experimental runs were used for determination of the kinetic parameters D-value and z-value: PPO (D92.20 °C = 52 s and z = 17.6 °C); POD (D92.92 °C = 16 s and z = 11.5 °C); PPO/sterile coconut water: (D84.45 °C = 43 s and z = 39.5 °C) and POD/sterile coconut water: (D86.54 °C = 20 s and z = 19.3 °C). All data were well fitted by a first order kinetic model. The enzymes naturally present in coconut water showed a higher resistance when compared to those added to the sterilized medium or other simulated solutions reported in the literature. The thermal inactivation of PPO and POD during microwave processing of green coconut water was significantly faster in comparison with conventional processes reported in the literature.