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The Drawn Landscape in 3D Databases: The Management of Complexity and Representation in the Historical City

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The complex structure of landscape has motivated recent research into representative systems capable of expressing the complex relationships present within an urban place. Updating the ways of its reading, research has attempted to identify more or less complex urban scenarios, profoundly different from each other both from a formal, cultural and perceptive point of view. The contribution presents examples of methods of analysis, digital acquisition and processing of documentation systems of these landscapes, in order to analyse not only formal differences, but also to structure a documentation and representation methodology for problems of management and planning of the city and territory. The virtual space configures itself through a systematic and structured drawing, demonstrating how interactive reality-based digital models can constitute valid systems of representation of the real landscape. The virtual space maintains relationships and exchanges data with its user, simulating reality and becoming a place where project and experimentation are set in a simplified form to explain critical readings useful for identifying key values that will guide the project. 3D models, together with databases, configure landscapes that outline the future of research through the study of systems of interaction between man, drawing and virtual space. In particular, the contribution deals with the three-dimensional representation of the historical center of the city of Pavia and the territorial relationship with its province, analysing documentation systems that, through digital drawing, contribute to the enhancement and awareness of values of urban landscape heritage. 3D models, used as planning tools, become elements of cohesion between space and time, bringing to light the Roman and Longobard city, till its current configuration, laying the foundations for the project of the city of the future. Each formal choice will be oriented on values of conservation, restoration and interpretation of the historical and cultural dimension of the city.
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ATINER CONFERENCE PAPER SERIES No: LNG2014-1176
1
Athens Institute for Education and Research
ATINER
ATINER's Conference Paper Series
PLA2017-2369
Sandro Parrinello
Associate Professor
University of Pavia
Italy
Francesca Picchio
Research Fellow
University of Pavia
Italy
Pietro Becherini
PhD Student
University of Florence
Italy
Raffaella De Marco
PhD Student
University of Pavia
Italy
The Drawn Landscape in 3D Databases:
The Management of Complexity and
Representation in the Historical City
ATINER CONFERENCE PAPER SERIES No: PLA2017-2369
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An Introduction to
ATINER's Conference Paper Series
ATINER started to publish this conference papers series in 2012. It includes only
the papers submitted for publication after they were presented at one of the
conferences organized by our Institute every year. This paper has been peer
reviewed by at least two academic members of ATINER.
Dr. Gregory T. Papanikos
President
Athens Institute for Education and Research
This paper should be cited as follows:
Parrinello, S., Picchio, F., Becherini, P. and De Marco, R. (2018). "The
Drawn Landscape in 3D Databases: The Management of Complexity and
Representation in the Historical City", Athens: ATINER'S Conference Paper
Series, No: PLA2017-2369.
Athens Institute for Education and Research
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ISSN: 2241-2891
22/01/2018
ATINER CONFERENCE PAPER SERIES No: PLA2017-2369
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The Drawn Landscape in 3D Databases: The Management of
Complexity and Representation in the Historical City
Sandro Parrinello
Francesca Picchio
Pietro Becherini
Raffaella De Marco
Abstract
The complex structure of landscape has motivated recent research into
representative systems capable of expressing the complex relationships present
within an urban place. Updating the ways of its reading, research has attempted
to identify more or less complex urban scenarios, profoundly different from
each other both from a formal, cultural and perceptive point of view. The
contribution presents examples of methods of analysis, digital acquisition and
processing of documentation systems of these landscapes, in order to analyse
not only formal differences, but also to structure a documentation and
representation methodology for problems of management and planning of the
city and territory. The virtual space configures itself through a systematic and
structured drawing, demonstrating how interactive reality-based digital models
can constitute valid systems of representation of the real landscape. The virtual
space maintains relationships and exchanges data with its user, simulating
reality and becoming a place where project and experimentation are set in a
simplified form to explain critical readings useful for identifying key values
that will guide the project. 3D models, together with databases, configure
landscapes that outline the future of research through the study of systems of
interaction between man, drawing and virtual space. In particular, the contribution
deals with the three-dimensional representation of the historical center of the
city of Pavia and the territorial relationship with its province, analysing
documentation systems that, through digital drawing, contribute to the
enhancement and awareness of values of urban landscape heritage. 3D models,
used as planning tools, become elements of cohesion between space and time,
bringing to light the Roman and Longobard city, till its current configuration,
laying the foundations for the project of the city of the future. Each formal
choice will be oriented on values of conservation, restoration and interpretation
of the historical and cultural dimension of the city.
Keywords:3D Modeling, Barbianello, Big Data, Digital landscape, Pavia.
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Introduction1
“The amount of information in architecture is increasing dramatically
while the level of the description techniques is significantly lower than the
iconicity of the original form. This is the reason why returning architectures
in 3D format not only helps to visualize or more intuitively store information
about them, but it is also useful for defining them and making them clearer
in order to draw them.”
(Abraham Moles)
With the increase of digital archives and digital network services, the
virtual information space increases and sets new horizons for information and
communication systems for urban space management.2 Parallel to the growing
demand for data management systems, also allocated to real objects (“Internet
of Things,”) there is the lack of a digital database of historic centers that
protects national heritage by facilitating planning and development of the
territory. In particular, most of the transformations of urban fabrics and territory
still take place without a strict control that allows to assess its congruity in
relation to the landscape system in which they insist and, in parallel, the
inability to set up different models of analysis involves a limitation in the
management and planning of potentials of the city that instead requires precise
answers to different levels of analysis. A historical center taken in its entirety
represents a container of a myriad of information, and the attempt to study and
document its characteristics requires an archive that can be easily consulted
and implemented. For this reason, the need to produce a system of remote use
based on databases, whose images replicate those of the real city, amplify the
expressive potential of urban drawing, defining a management system able to
simulate the activities of reality giving place to a real new survival opportunity
(second life) of cultural heritage.3 The survey process from which the 3D
database will be generated will guarantee the metric and formal reliability of
the virtual space, where vector elements will approximate real phenomena and
where information will be allocated to these specific graphic elements, with the
further possibility to parameterize as far as possible the dimensional values of
different environments or, as already developed for some experiences of virtual
reality for Cultural Heritage, the parameter of time. The virtual city (Figure 1)
thus becomes a discrete model of real space, critically interpreted and redrawn
according to an alternation of automatic procedures and drawings from which
to bring out a simplified form of the main features of the complex space.
1 The author of this paragraph is SandroParrinello.
2 S. Parrinello, “Rilevare, disegnare e organizzare la città digitale,” in Proceeding UID 2015
Disegno e città (ed.) A. Marotta and G. Novello (Torino: Gangemi Editore, 2015).
3 M. G. Cianci, Dalla linea ideale alla città virtuale (Firenze: Alinea, 2008).
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Figure 1. Images of 3D Model of the Historical Center of Montepulciano,
Modelled and Mapped in 3D Studio Max, Inserted on a Web Platform for
Navigation and Use in Real-time. 3D Models of Buildings Overlooking the
Main Square of the Historic Center have been enriched with More Complex
Three-dimensional Details while, for an Easier Management of the General
Model of the City, the Other Buildings are made with a Minimum Number of
Polygons
This model can be generated through numerous methodologies, which aim
to optimize surfaces and volumes by identifying a correspondence between the
logical decomposition of the urban model and the creation of three-dimensional
graphic elements necessary for the allocation of data. Moreover, it is necessary
that data are appropriately ordered, to ensure that the guidance system within
the model guarantees a general good functioning of the system, and that the
database can produce meaningful synthesis. Database and model are configured in
this way through layers, different levels of information that show the drawing
of the city itself, stratified by the events that have led to its growth and
characterized its image, as presented at the time of the survey. To ensure that
the database does not age at the time of its creation, its maintenance over time
becomes fundamental, and “time” itself becomes a fundamental parameter
capable of making the urban form dynamic and variable; it will be possible to
travel in the past, through the processes of genesis of the city, but also to plan
or configure the future, giving to the structure of the digital archive the way to
modify itself with the change of the real parameters that define the image and
the status of places.4
4 D. Marini, M. Bertolo and A. Rizzi, Comunicazione visiva digitale: fondamenti di Eidomatica
(Milano: Addison Wesley, 2001).
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Cultural Context and Research Theme5
The issue of documentation of historical centers and urban landscapes has
always represented, and today even more clearly, a line of research of primary
importance for the Italian national territory. Its strength lies in the collective
intention to prepare a study of systems of analysis and interpretation of the
phenomena that exist in the definition of components characterizing both the
architectural and urban scale, which is not limited to the image of the city but
also highlights the need of policies for safeguarding and protecting heritage.
The urban reality in Italy has been at the center, since the '60s, of episodes of
spreed and expansion typical of post-war reconstruction phenomena, which
have generated a renewed confidence in architectural practice as a physical
instrument of human living. The diffusion of reconstruction plans, housing
systems and infrastructural installations has configured a new generation of
architects and architectures, within new ideals of modernity both in formal and
material contents of buildings and new technologies. In this way, constructive
interventions were concentrated mainly in the field of new buildings, devoting
for existing buildings intervention policies poor of sensitivity towards the
previous architectural impressions of historical urban centers. The attention to
the historical patrimony of inhabited centers and its protection has regained
strength in Italian scene since the „80s, in particular following great telluric
events (starting from that of Messina, in Sicily, in 1975) that highlighted the
“fragile” nature of historic villages and their level of insecurity in the absence
of appropriate technical actions. The theme of preservation of historical
architecture, as an expression of secular values and physical image of
constructive and stylistic parameters, has thus begun to express itself starting
from the most ancient cities (such as Florence, Rome, Turin...,) with theoretical
foundations of the first regulatory provisions for documentation and planning
on the existing built heritage, till to extend its conservative policy to secondary
centers, more rural but also characterized by prestigious historical values.
Recent episodes of earthquakes and natural disasters occurred in Italy (in
particular the events of L'Aquila in 2009, of Amatrice, Accumuli and Norcia in
2016 and of Montereale in 2017) have generated a renewed awareness of
public opinion and administrations towards the value of peripheral historical
centers and the persistent absence of adequate documentation systems that
allow restoration or reconstruction interventions, in particular in case of
collapse of entire portions of the city. The architectural richness linked to
traditional building and typological systems, due to the numerous cultural
trends and events that have affected the Italian territory in the course of history,
past and recent, expresses its multiple values in a large collection of
morphological characters and style, developing a national heritage with a high
complexity of classification, control and protection. Buildings of historic
Italian centers, traditionally, were born and remained linked to the original
Roman structure, maintained even in medieval times, and then were affected by
specific local formal directions of planning and renewal interventions, that
have led to profound changes in the image of cities in the last two centuries.
5 The author of this paragraph is Francesca Picchio.
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The demolition of perimetrical military walls and medieval towers, the
reconfiguration of main road systems, the construction of nineteenth-century
palaces, the conformation of urban centers diffused from small to large scale
and their relationship with the surrounding landscape thus become actions “of”
and “on” the city that contribute to define a real framework in which the
contemporary operator is both “receptor” of information and suggestions
coming from the built landscape6 and “emitter” of new impulses and actions on
the city. This system of relationships finds new expression and interaction in
the tools of the “digital age,” in a virtual environment of connection between
users and information where architectural heritage actively interacts with its
digitized image, transformed into a n-dimensional byte system of storage where
each dimension is an expression of the implicit informative content, catalogued
in levels of historical, morphological, constructive and materic analysis of
buildings7. The lines of documentation applied attempt to follow the provisions
of Digital Agenda 2020 of European Committee,8 with initiatives of Digitation
of Cultural Heritage, online accessibility and digital preservation that promote
possibilities of eGovernance where man and drawing interact as animated
subjects in a simulated but reliable space, where every decision of planning,
intervention, restoration and conservation finds its virtual experimentation for
the following implementation in the physical reality.9 These possibilities
coexist and expand through the innovations allowed by the continuous
developments in the management of Big Data coming from the digitization of
the built heritage: 3D databases on architectural systems, through their
completeness and reliability developed by preliminary analysis and survey
operations, affirm themselves as a gold standard within documentary
implementation protocols, and identify a field of application and experimentation
that, between methodological acquisition research and planning purposes,
develops the representative tradition towards new frontiers of evolution and
interaction between man, architecture and landscape.10
6 R. Assunto, “Metaspazialità del Paesaggio,” in Il paesaggio e l’estetica (ed.) Rosario Assunto
(Palermo: Edizioni Novecento, 1994).
7 S. Brusaporci, Sistemi informativi integrati per la tutela, la conservazione e la valorizzazione
del patrimonio architettonico e urbano (Roma: Gangemi, 2010).
8 European Commission Directorate-General for Communication, The EU explained: Digital
Agenda for Europe (Luxemburg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2014).
9 A. Clementi, Interpretazioni di paesaggio. Convenzione europea e innovazioni di metodo
(Roma: Meltemi, 2002).
10 S. Bertocci and M. Bini, Manuale di rilevamento architettonico ed urbano (Novara: CittàStudi,
2012).
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Integrated Survey Methodologies as Documentation Systems for the
Development of Reliable 3D Models on Urban Areas11
Research in the field of documentation of Italian urban centers has seen in
recent decades an exponential growth in the use of digital technologies for the
acquisition and post production of data on built fabrics.12 The traditional
surveying phases, aimed at realizing drawings intended to describe the urban
space, its architectural aspects and the characteristics of the individual buildings,
have been transformed into a more general objective of defining a corresponding
“digital urban image,” through which to acquire and control the overall
morphology of elements of a given settlement context or historical landscape.
The research, applied in some Italian historical centers, allowed operators to be
able to rely on different methodological protocols, each one aimed at results,
and consequently output elaborates, profoundly different from each other but
developed with complementary and integrable languages and systems. Urban
space drawings are thus effective both to communicate a high diversity of
contents in unified 3D models, viewable on interactive platforms, and to
express in a more technical way graphic conventions, geometric and proportional
characteristics and construction peculiarities of each building unit. Each sector
concerned, from the field of cultural heritage13 to that of architectural survey,
has developed a different system of structuring data, and of managing not only
the image but all the different components in which the urban information
content has been deconstructed and reorganized to compose descriptive elements.
In this way, each single field of survey has generated its own response to
digital applications and developed analysis methodologies based on specific
but different theoretical models. The experience of digital survey has
developed processes of integration of technological tools for the achievement
of digital data, which can be exploited in the form of virtual space, ensuring
metric accuracy and material correspondence, primary objectives of documentary
operations, through indirect acquisition technique of reality, defined reality-
based and classified in: techniques based on active sensors (range-based,)
which employ instruments capable of emitting an infrared signal reflected from
the surfaces and recorded by the instrument in order to obtain its spatial
coordinates (range) in the form of points cloud; techniques based on passive
sensors (image-based,) which exploit the colorimetric properties of the
environment to acquire images, process them and derive 3D information from
them. Range-based instruments applied to the survey of historical fabrics are
laser scanners (terrestrial or mobile) and total stations (for the punctual
restitution of coordinates and positions in space, associated to specific
morphological points of the urban system.) In particular, in the architectural
and cultural heritage field, laser scanners (triangulation type or “time of flight”
type) have found great success and have greatly facilitated the method within
metric and formal data can be acquired relating to simple architectural
11 The author of this paragraph is PietroBecherini.
12 D. Coppo and C. Boldo, Rilievo urbano. Conoscenza e rappresentazione della città consolidata
(Firenze: Alinea, 2010).
13 V. Baldacci, Il Sistema dei Beni Culturali in Italia. Valorizzazione, progettazione e
comunicazione culturale (Firenze: Giunti Editore, 2004).
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buildings or large building comparts; as active sensors, these tools have been
able to supply large amounts of 3D data directly and quickly, returning them in
the form of point clouds, dense but still unstructured. Among image-based
systems, the photomodelling14 from photographic acquisition has seen a
growing use in architectural and urban surveys, offering opportunities for
documentary restitution of wall surfaces and morphological systems with
optimization of colorimetric scales of materials and an adequate reliability of
results for 3D geometric restitution. The main advantage of passive systems
and related image processing techniques, compared to the use of laser scanner
tools, is represented by the convenience and transportability of sensors, as well
as the greater simplicity of acquisition of photographic images in urban
analysis sites. Images can be acquired from aerial views through cameras on
telescopic shafts, drones (more generically UAV) or digital terrestrial cameras
(reflex.) Recently drones, similarly to the use of telescopic shafts, have had a
great success and development both in urban and architectural field, allowing
to acquire horizontal or oblique images from elevated shooting stations with
low costs and discrete acquisition reliability. Their diffusion inserts in the
documentary practices, respect to the use of terrestrial cameras, new perspectives
of analysis where the increase of the vertical visual level introduces an amplified
system of observation and representation, in particular for the analysis of systems
of urban buildings, no longer limited to human proportions but dimensionable
on the basis of specific requests of each built environment. The instrumental
evolution highlights, in all its applications, their impossibility of independence
from the constant supervision of the survey operator, but on the contrary
underlines its integration with high data acquisition capacity to guarantee a
broader and complete knowledge of the fabrics history and their stratification.
The eye of the camera captures the materic reality by observing it dynamically
and from above, and for this reason developing a system of comprehension and
global and complete knowledge. If image-based instruments based on their
affordability of costs, availability and speed of acquisition are classified as fast
survey methodological systems for excellence, on the other the need for
precision at high levels of metric reliability still remains associated with the
integration of range-based instrumentation as reference of high-detail technical
database.15 Three-dimensional data acquired on urban centers, coming from both
image-based and range-based systems (Figure 2,) could easily be integrated
with other metric information coming from direct surveys and cartographic
systems, in order to obtain a correct georeferencing and scaling of the produced
models. Considering the different survey techniques and sensors for the
generation of realistic 3D models, defined by a good metric quality and a detail
coherent with documental aims, the researches of urban documentation carried
out in recent years have highlighted as best approach for the digital survey the
integration and combination of different acquisition tools and modelling
techniques, developing documentary systems, based on integrated methodological
14 L. De Luca, La fotomodellazione architettonica (Palermo: Dario Flacovio Editore, 2011).
15 L. Paris, “Quantità e qualità nell‟utilizzo dello scanner laser 3D per il rilievo dell‟architettura,” in
X Congreso International Espresiòngràficaaplicada a la edificaciòn (Alicante: APEGA, 2010).
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protocols, that combined the potential of different approaches to complementary
investigative solutions.
Figure 2.Image of Global Point Cloud Recorded by Scans from Laser Scanner
Survey Campaign in a Portion of the Study Area of the Historic Center of
Pavia.Starting from the Single Positions, the Merging Process Followed the
Acquisition Path according to Closed Polygons of Shooting Stations, then
Connected in the Obtained Blocks and Defined in the Urban Mesh.Below, the
Façade of San Michele with the Front Re-drawing and the Materic Ortho-front
The exclusive application of a single 3D surveying technology has not
allowed, at the moment, to reach satisfactory results in different working
conditions and in terms of geometric accuracy, portability, automation,
photorealism and low costs, with the same efficiency and flexibility, without
neglecting needs of representation and visualization. The objective of
experimentation of methodological integrations of digital urban documentation
has confirmed that of obtaining an accurate, metric and constructive description of
the territory and its more or less complex built fabrics till individual buildings,
constituting powerful operational protocols for the analysis of architecture to
support reconstruction, restoration and planning. The acquisition and processing of
data was conducted taking into consideration the specific characteristics of
each methodology, both in terms of reliability, accuracy and format, and for the
purpose of mutual integration, to include all products in a common database,
aimed at different applications: cartographic documentation, analysis of urban
fronts, structural analysis, mapping of critical degradation, cultural dissemination.
The systematization of data has allowed the reading and understanding of each
environment and urban area surveyed not only in its singularity, but also in
function of its broader morphological context and in the deepening of relationships
within the aggregates, expanding the possibilities of study and constructive
understanding. The applied methodologies have led to the creation of dynamic
three-dimensional databases on historical urban centers, implying the addition
of a new information level and the consequent design of corresponding digital
archive, able to take into account of 3D data both for the geometry and
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morphology of surveyed buildings (useful for protection and conservation),
both in the virtual form of containers of information useful for the management
of sites (information aimed at restoration and for scientific purposes) or for the
use by the public through Virtual Reality. In this phase, urban metadata has
acquired increasing importance, until their consideration as constituent part of
the definition of a digital object,16 inseparably composed of informative content
and a series of inputs that make the sequences of bit meaningful, identifiable,
and accessible for their use, storage, conservation, dissemination and other
management operations. It was possible to divide data, organized according to
acquisition methodologies, into source data, such as photographs and point
clouds, and processed files, corresponding to the certified databases, finally
reaching output products, such as graphic drawings, critical maps, censuses and
interactive 3D models, as most effective products to understand the spatiality
of more complex environments and built centers. The purposes of these models
has been multiple, from the development of documentation systems and census
for complex architectures to simulations in virtual environments of historic
centers, conducted to evaluate specific structural conditions, related to the
diagnostics of materials and the state of degradation, to their use in the project
and for planning activities corresponding to both architectural and urban
scale.17 The experimentation also involved modelling systems that exploited
the opportunities offered by virtual reality or augmented reality, where three-
dimensional models can be interacted in virtual space by users, configured as
avatars, moving in first person and observing the new virtual representation on
a tablet or smartphone device through privileged informatics platforms for the
open and widespread use of the digital image and its interpretive systems.
Cases of Research in Central Italy, from the Documentation to the 3D
Model18
Montepulciano, Development of a Cognitive Framework of Historical Center
Starting from experiences conducted from the joint laboratory LS3D
Landscape Survey & Design, of University of Florence and University of
Pavia, between 2003 and 2015 some surveys were carried out in the planning
and redrawing of urban centers in Central Italy. Through a specific agreement
between the Department of Architectural Design of University of Florence and
the Municipal Administration of Montepulciano, in the province of Siena, the
realization of a cognitive updated framework of its historical center was
developed.19 The aspects of the project have been defined by the need to
16 Like something (eg. an image, audio recording, textual document) that has been digitally
coded and integrated with metadata that supports its identification, use and storage.
17 S. Bertocci and S. Parrinello, From the survey to the project Heritage & Historical Town
Centres. Information on urban regeneration (Firenze: Edifir, 2007).
18 The author of this paragraph is Francesca Picchio.
19 S. Bertocci and S. Parrinello, “Rilievo e Piano di Gestione per il Centro storico di
Montepulciano,” in Conference proceedings EARCOM 07 Sistemi Informativi per l’Architettura
(ed.) P. Clini, N. Lancioni and R. Quattrini (Firenze: Alinea Editore, 2007): 108-113.
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describe the relationships between individual characteristics of single building
units and surrounding urban fabrics by identifying the activities carried out
within the urban context. The first project, started in 2003, aimed to check the
quality of new residential systems, built or under construction, both from a
morphological and typological point of view, establishing coherent development
programs for the city's original historical nucleus. Within the second survey
campaign, started in 2007, a new digital map in 1:500 scale return was created,
as support of thematic readings20and new urban planning provisions. The
survey thus led to the identification of thematic issues, and therefore to the data
to which the outputs had to be able to respond. The cataloguing of various
elaborates produced over the years allowed to establish a huge digital archive
of images related to the description of each urban block of the historic center of
Montepulciano. Thanks to this database, it was possible to identify, codify and
then report to the general mapping system each front belonging to each
building unit, every public and religious building, and for each one to represent
its state of fact through drawing and photography. From survey to modeling,
project phases have involved analysis, collection and selection of photographic
data, 3D modeling and the drafting of required information.21 Following this
process, the research project has set itself the dual objective of offering to
visitors, physical and virtual, itineraries of fruition (fixed and mobile) capable
of overlapping to real architectures a series of information in virtual mode.
Such information is able to follow the visitor in the knowledge of the territory
and the city, filling with the minimum environmental impact the gap between
visual perception and knowledge. The project has provided to the visitor
contextualised multimedia contents that can be accessed in any place and time
in which fruition itself has significance, during the visit of the city but also in
other moments and territories far from the city. Research has also allowed to
create a procedural model that can be replicated in other areas and contexts,
useful to make “known” the site and to give it a different light, even
commercial where required, such as the creation of online stores, following the
e-commerce idea that is bringing new life to little-known realities, allowing an
amplified vision even beyond national borders.
20 The thematic charts represent a system of description and representation of the historical
settlement system and of cultural assets and contribute in a fundamental way to the interpretation of
the heritage itself, highlighting its specific characteristics and peculiarities.
21 S. Bertocci, S. Parrinello, S. Bua and F. Picchio, “Montepulciano 3D: modelli virtuali per
l‟urbanistica e lo sviluppo dell‟ambiente urbano,” Town filescittà stratificate V (2014): 1-20.
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Development of "Territorial Museum" for the Conservation of Heritage of the
Sites along via Flaminia
The aim of conservation and accessibility of urban sites outline problems
not only concerning the management of survey, study and conservation
campaign, but also, in the aim of creating a network of museums, problems
related to the improvement of correct use and planning of these sites, through
the realization of an executive program of intervents in order to ensure the best
preservation of heritage itself. Within the territory of Umbria, crossed by the
ancient Roman road of via Flaminia, a framework of digital documentation was
developed22 in order to ensure the dissemination of data inside a Virtual Museum23
for every type of belonging settlements. Conservation and accessibility to heritage
sites as the city of Carsulae, in Sangemini, the settlement of Massa Martana
and the different rural churches and monasteries present in the territory, have
been the basis for a research of urban documentation between 2005 and 2010.
Figure 3. Digital Documentation using 3D Models for Historical Town Settlement
along via Flaminia near Martani Mountains
The "territorial museum," as a social-cultural space, is able to articulate
common conceptual data. The purpose of a territorial museum, as well as a
didactic museum, has been to highlight and facilitate the construction of logic
connections within the cultural heritage. To this aim, surveys of the sites along
Via Flaminia, near Martani Mountains, have produced a useful documentary
database at the territorial scale. For each site of documentation, surveys were
conducted through the use of multiple methods of integrated measurements. In
Carsulaearchaeologic area, laser scanner survey allowed to develop a data
archive of 3D experimental models (Figure 3) to able to permit the navigation
in the database both remotely and within the site. A preventive conscience
22 S. Bertocci and S. Parrinello, “The Flaminian Way in Umbria: an integrated survey project
for the study and conservation of the historical, architectural and archaeological features,” in
From Space to Place (Oxford: Hadrian books, 2006), 427-432.
23 F. Antinucci. Musei virtuali. Come non fare innovazione tecnologica (Bari: Laterza, 2007).
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emerged towards the heritage of the area and its safeguard; this consciousness,
in particular, has used social organizations and institutions to protect a specific
set of heritage and environments exposed to devaluation or de-significance.
Therefore, structures and relationships systems have been projected with the
aim to develop a transformation from site into a museum. The object to be
safeguarded was moved to another dimension, spatial but virtual, where some
of its aspects have been captured and transformed to allow its availability and
“web navigation.”
Research Activities in the Territory of the City of Pavia and Oltrepò
Pavese24
Through the studies and the previous acquired experiences, in part
described in the previous studies, in recent years LS3D joint laboratory and
DAda Lab of University of Pavia have analyzed, digitally acquired and
elaborated documentation systems of the cities of Pavia and Barbianello in
OltrepòPavese, trying to find a solution to the widespread problem in the
national territory of the inability to put different models of analysis into a
unique system, launching researches on the documentation of their respective
historical centers.The city of Pavia, the historic Lombard capital in the context
of Northern Italy, has a rich architectural collection of traditional constructive
and typological systems due to the numerous cultural currents and historical
events that have affected it over time.The buildings of its historical center have
a series of morphological features, common to the Italian historical villages,
linked to the original Roman plant, affected in its current form by urban
renewal interventions of the last two centuries that have led to profound
changes in the city's image, including the demolition of the perimetric wall
system. The consequent development of the external infrastructural road-ring
has defined a new perimeter of the urban nucleus, changing the existing
relationships between historic nucleus and expansion areas and developing
permeable systems of relationship between the city, the hinterland of communal
fractions and monumental centers and the landscape system that extends till the
mountains of OltrepòPavese. The relationship between the historic center of
Pavia and the small cities beyond the river Po valley, such as the center of
Barbianello and its municipal fractional systems, have proved to be multiple,
both historically and from bibliographic research on political events and
initiatives promoted by noble families active in the area, and with regard to
reciprocal internal influences perceived by the surrounding regions on
architectural systems, in the use of materials and constructive techniques
characterizing the Lombard tradition.25The use of the brick or “backed clay”
used both as a structural element and within high-quality decorative systems of
local craftsmanship, coupled with the typological characterization of wooden
coverings, internal wall coatings and the systems of parks and gardens in the
urban area, allowed to find comparative research systems. These fields of
24 The author of this paragraph is Raffaella De Marco.
25 F. Del Vecchio, La Lombardia paese per paese (Firenze: Bonechi, 1991).
ATINER CONFERENCE PAPER SERIES No: PLA2017-2369
15
analysis guided the investigation for the verification of systematic protocols,
and at the same time, within the diversity of the analyzed contexts, they have
determined precise approach variations in the investigation phases in order to
obtain a set of elaborates useful for the different studies.To understand the
development of the case studies presented below, a methodological protocol
has been adopted articulated on different processes in relation to the urban
documental purposes.26A historical survey of territorial systems has been
conducted a priori, allowing a careful and precise identification of the historical
political context in which these systems have developed. The evolution of
urban built systems has been studied through the analysis of masonry
stratification and bibliographic knowledge, to facilitate the understanding of
the urban spaces examined; finally, the subdivision of the relative historical
centers into areas, sub-areas, aggregates according to the dimensions of the
context to be analyzed was undertaken. In these spaces the formulation of
cataloging systems was started, through which metadata on building units were
collected, containing conservation and analysis status relating to the conditions
of the individual buildings and fronts, in their structural and architectural
typologies. The main idea of the projects was the possibility to investigate all
the constitutive characteristics of the urban image and the set of relationships
existing between the single building and the surrounding urban context.
Finally, the integrated survey determined a questionable and implementable 3D
model useful for conservation, documentation and planning purposes. In
response to the problems encountered, common to the historic centers and
Italian villages, the research lines were tested on the following two case
studies, for verification of instrumental and methodological operability aimed
at the development of models and digital databases of urban systems addressed
both to the individual citizen and to the municipal administrations for
objectives of census, safeguard and musealization of historical centers.
Pavia, a Database as Protection of the Historic Center from Natural Disasters27
The city of Pavia distinguishes itself as a valuable cultural and architectural
heritage of Romanesque imprint placed in a context closely related to events
and calamities of natural hazards: the presence of Ticino river is an historical
cause of flooding phenomena (among them, the recent in 1994) that have
cyclically involved the margins of the historic center, the perimeter of old
bastions and churches, and the area beyond the shore of BorgoVecchio.In
addition, the recent rise of seismic phenomena in the national territory has also
affected Po valley, in past formerly considered as a “non-seismic” area, from
events of increasing magnitude, with a significant impact on the historical
heritage. In the last few decades, some research initiatives have been interested
in structural analysis and interventions for the safety of some monumental
complexes of the historic center of Pavia, such as for Dome cathedral and the
historical medieval towers, confirming a critical static situation of buildings
26 S. Parrinello and F. Picchio, Barbianello e Palazzo Nocca: un progetto di documentazione
per lo studio dell’Oltrepò pavese (Firenze: Edifir, 2017).
27 The author of this paragraph is Raffaella De Marco.
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16
supposedly extended to the entire urban context. In parallel to the fragile
structural condition of complexes of the historical center, there is an increasing
crowding of the urban area linked to its university nature, where the continuous
increase of population, of international and intercultural provenience, presses
towards new management systems and the creation of public and infrastructural
services that can be developed through virtual prototypes of smart city, where
the digitized image is entrusted with the task of orienting and coordinating
relationships between user and landscape, decomposing and re-assembling it
into themes for analysis queries.The documentation started on the case study of
the old town of Pavia is centered on the reading of morphological complexities
of the space and their graphic transposition by drawing.This survey tool had, as
main goal, to explicit the spatial components of the city and to subdivide the
area into subsets in order to facilitate the acquisition and management of data.
The subdivision was organized on levels, based on signs and structures present
in real space: open spaces, urban paths and volumes were configured as macro
categories that relate to points that determine elements of singularity in the
image of fronts and urban structure.In this scenario, towers, domes, architectural
elements and other discernable become autonomous and privileged entities in
the reading of space, dominating the general urban image of street fronts.The
drawing, as more complex as the number of categories to describe, required
combined actions of perceptual capacities, to identify it, and representational
solutions to express it.Synthesizing the data obtained from drawing and
decomposing the space to set up survey campaign for macro-areas was a
necessary task for space knowledge, condensing into a single cultural mediation
system a communicative system that could be easily understood.28 The
integrated survey campaign launched in 2013 in the historical center of Pavia,
for the documentation of a sample of urban blocks including Garibaldi's
original Roman decumano and the Basilica of San Michele Maggiore, has
determined a set of questionable, navigable, integrable and selectable data for
exporting images describing 3D space and environments.The area was selected
within a perimeter of particularly complex urban fabrics, capable of
representing many of the major identifying features of the historic center of
Pavia.For this purpose, laser scanner survey has allowed to obtain useful
information about hazard‟s effects by comparing the surveys of different point
clouds (Figure 4) carried out over time, defining displacements in millimetric
terms, abnormalities and levels of structural risk and producing a monitoring
tool capable of be updated over time and to be constantly consulted at multiple
layers of depth. The developed database thus provided an already pre-established
information system, where the querying by set of search values allows users to
interface directly with data; in this way it is possible for experts to develop
targeted surveys according to displacement tolerance ranges by evaluating their
value scales in each particular situation29 (Figure 5.) In this sense, photogrammetry
has shown as the most versatile technique for the determination of
28 C. De Vecchi, La rappresentazione del paesaggio. Funzione documentaria e riproducibilità
tecnica (Milano: CUEM, 2000).
29 S. Parrinello, F. Picchio and R. De Marco, “New generations of Digital Databases for the
development of Architectural Urban Risk Management,” in Proceedings of Le Vie dei Mercanti XV
International Forum World Heritage and Disaster (Napoli: La scuola di Pitagora, 2017).
ATINER CONFERENCE PAPER SERIES No: PLA2017-2369
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superfetations due to the degradation of buildings and more in detail of wall
surfaces. Within the study phases, some criticalities were found with both
range-based and image-based acquisition methodologies due to the morphological
complexity of the context, such as the progressive increase in the vertical
dimension of palaces, compromising in part the reading of architectural elements,
because of “shadow areas” of survey. In some cases, it was possible to implement
data by increasing the number of acquisition positions; however, it is desirable
to apply integration campaigns with aerial scans and drone surveys to determine
data in the higher parts of buildings, compared to street urban section.
Figure 4. Point Cloud View, along Via Luigi Porta in Pavia. It is Possible to
Distinguish Building Units and the Monumental Complexes of Medieval Towers
(San Dalmazio Tower and Belcredi Tower.)The Point Cloud Confirms itself as
a Highly Reliable Tool for Measuring Urban Architectural Morphological
Characters
Figure 5. Two-dimensional Drawing, from Point Cloud and Photogrammetric
Survey, of the Street front of a Medieval Tower Adapted to a Residential Unit,
in the Historic Center of Pavia. Analysis of Structural Deformations on
Different Tolerance Ranges (0.01 - 0.005 - 0.001 Meters.)
The integrated approach of acquisition of metric and colorimetric urban
morphology allowed a complete assessment of most visible aspects of
conservative state of building units, material degradation pathologies and
structural evaluations on deformational and kinematic phenomena such as
ATINER CONFERENCE PAPER SERIES No: PLA2017-2369
18
calamities represented from earthquakes and floods to which the area is
subject.The potential of the acquired digital model resides in its interactivity, in
its three-dimensional view not limited to representative goals but developed
between content and cognitive interface, between documentary source and
archiving tool.30The scientific value of the 3D database was underlined thanks
to its measurement accuracy for architectural and diagnostic analysis,
diversifying data according to possible queries variables. A subsequent phase
of reprocessing of the acquired data has started with the elaboration of useful
census records linked to a G.I.S. system questionable, implementable and
interactive, through the definition of homogeneous descriptors, specific fields
of informative contents that order and structure the urban chaotic reality
according to architectural, technological and cultural sectors of elements and
services. The heterogeneity of urban objects, visible both as architectural
buildings and technologic and commercial containers, has been reflected in the
vastness of compilable fields aimed at structuring a synthetic cognitive
investigation and immediate understanding from the various disciplinary
sectors involved. Documentary research on the historical center of Pavia resulted
in an interactive archive system, still under implementation, able to provide
information on operational actions on the city planning, covering the areas of
investigation and intervention from structural monitoring to service portal. The
cloud model combines both 3D graphics interface and the structuring of an
expandable database not only in architectural and engineering disciplines but
also in terms of broader and heterogeneous content, from landscape management
practices to safeguard environmental protocols, urban census and increased use
of services by users and citizens. Through the study and a continuous research,
it is therefore possible to obtain useful information for the purpose of a better
management of the territory aimed at the prevention of seismic calamities and
alluvial problems.
Barbianello, a Database as a Requirement for Urban Planning and
Development31
The case study32 of the historic center of Barbianello, in the rural
countryside of OltrepòPavese, was organized with the main purpose of analysis
and understanding of landscape by identifying the relationships between
buildings and environment. The study of the structure of the site, in its natural
and artificial systems, led to the elaboration of a vast knowledge framework,
appropriate to the synthesis and interpretation of the city, with the aim of
30 S. Parrinello, F. Picchio and R. De Marco, “Pavia 3D: Reading and decomposition of the city
for the construction of dynamic databases on heritage,” Vestnik permskogo nacionalʹnogo
issledovatelʹskogo politehničeskogo universiteta. prikladnaâ èkologiâ, urbanistika 1 (2017):
33-45. ISSN: 2409-5125.
31 The author of this paragraph is Pietro Becherini.
32 In collaboration with the Municipality, the documentation of Barbianello and Palazzo Nocca
was carried during 2015-2016, with the organization of thematic seminars by Prof. S.
Parrinello, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture of University of Pavia, and Prof.
S .Bertocci, Department of Architecture of University of Florence, with activities of students,
researchers and graduate students.
ATINER CONFERENCE PAPER SERIES No: PLA2017-2369
19
preserving and enhancing the architectural, cultural and historical reality to
solve the issue of urban planning and building control that concerns this
community as the many surrounding centers. The objective was therefore to
allow the analysis of the image, the state of conservation and the census of
urban fronts in order to create an urban planning tool aimed to maintain
homogeneity between neighboring municipalities, preserving the cultural
historical value of the territory. These rural realities are lower involved in
tourism, but they have been characterized by valuable cultural currents in
history of Lombardy and have a great potential in the direction of historical
tourism.A research activity was started, which, through the integrated survey,
has foreseen the structuring of a laser scanner and photogrammetric analysis
campaign of the territory. This was developed in two phases: in the first one,
more general, the municipality territory and the hinterland were analyzed at
territorial level and then redrawn; in the second phase, the analysis was
deepened and focused to the case of the historic center of Barbianello where
the main street fronts were acquired, as well as the census of building units of
the center, in order to have a detailed catalog of the reality of the place. This
type of research represents one main tool for any kind of intervention or
prevision, considering future planning, management and preservation of the
historic center.Following this iter, the “Territory Use Card” was written,
serving to represent the state of utilization of the territory deriving from the
physical and morphological characteristics of the municipality.After a
preliminary phase involving an indirect analysis (represented by historical and
thematic mapping of territorial development, by the consultation of the
Territorial Government Plan and given by satellite images at different scale of
territorial survey) and a direct analysis (given by a photographic campaign
assisted by the creation of eidotypes of significant morphological points by
means of which it was possible to describe and analyze the territory,) an
identification of the objective territorial components, defining the site structure
as a result of the coexistence of the natural and artificial system, was carried
out.The first one defines the structure and properties of components of a
specific territory and its environmental system: configuration, hydrographic
position and vegetation.The second system is defined by the part of artificial
environment and it concerns the drawing and complement of urban context:
this is composed by infrastructures, settlement structure and open and equipped
spaces. Cities, based on a “inertia” phenomena, tend to grow along paths and
directional axes that keep their position unchanged over time.Different housing
densities have been identified within the territory, dividing it into urban
centers, groups of houses and isolated ones. Perceptual analysis was later
started as an interpretation of reality by a typical user.This type of research is
part of the study of analytical interpretative methodologies of reality in close
contact with cultural components that can offer reading key of qualitative
aspects. Starting from the surveyed information, distinctive signs that allow a
division into homogeneous zones have been identified in the territory to
describe the peculiar characteristics of analyzed landscapes.33The elements
considered were Environmental Layers, Surfaces, Margin Lines, and Centers.
33 A. Dell‟Amico, “Survey and documentation for the valorization of the landscape and
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Figure 6. The Diagram Below Shows, on the Left, the Subdivision into Macro
Areas of the Territory of Barbianello; in the Right, the Subdivision of the
Macro-area 7, Previously Highlighted in Red, in the Relative Micro-zones,
Including the One Analyzed through an Integrated Survey of the Historic
Center of Barbianello
Barbianello's communal territory has presented an almost homogeneous
morphology with few small inhabited centers; within its territory, different
visual or perceptual limits such as channels, trees, ditches and infrastructures
has allowed to distinguish homogeneous areas within the municipality, in
particular 7 macro-zones have been identified (Bottarolo, casa Storini, San Re
area, Cascina Gilberta, Frappeta, Cemetery of the Assumption and Barbianello‟s
center). A "macro-zone" (Figure 6) is therefore a homogeneous area located
within the municipal territory based on the limits established during the analysis
phases. The subdivision of the landscape into Macro-zones has allowed to create a
territorial hierarchy in support of landscape analysis and categorization, in
order to create a significant representation of reality through codes and
according to representative signs, useful for modeling the space structure.
Within each macro-area, margins were analyzed and centers, nucleus and
blocks were identified. Then also paths were analyzed, defining for each one
the type of mantle and its state of conservation, the presence or absence of
highlights and the amount of traffic present in certain time slots.Macro-zones
have been divided into micro-zones, representing homogeneous regions
determined by a logic of hierarchization to order the spaces, and, similarly to
macro-zones, they were defined by physical and perceptual limits.The
detection of micro-zones served to deepen the analysis carried out from a
wider, territorial scale to a more detailed point of view and going to study the
individual elements that characterize physical and relational space.Each area
has been analyzed for the destination of use and the distinctive features of its
elements, identifying its margins and analyzing agricultural and built areas. In
the case of agricultural areas, the type of cultivation was identified and the
change of landscape during the periods of the year was analyzed;as for the built
areas, the different types of buildings have been identified.In the case of
Barbianello municipality, macro-zones have been distinct in homogeneous
areas, some composed of compact urban fabrics of modest size, others mostly
historical center of Barbianello,” in Proceedings of X Encuentro Internacional CIM “Ciudad
Imagen y Memoria” (Santiago de Cuba: Ediciones UO, 2017).
ATINER CONFERENCE PAPER SERIES No: PLA2017-2369
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agricultural areas with groups of houses or scattered farmhouses.Through
thematic maps characterized by different levels of analysis, the various
considerations on the municipal territory were summarized. Following the
detailed urban system analysis, it was possible to express considerations of
future planning, management and conservation activities in the center. By
careful analysis of each macro-area, through seasonal comparisons made both
in the same year and in different years, it was shown that, as time passed,
specialized crops have been developed, which have transformed the
agricultural landscape.34This great development led to the need to upgrade
production and distribution facilities. Following the analysis of the territory, a
laser scanner survey in the historic center of Barbianello was carried out, since
it was considered the most useful in creating an urban spatial planning
tool.This phase was carried out by programming the position of the instrument
along the main streets of the historic center and in some of secondary streets,
located on the border between cultivated area and the city center, developing
the mapping of facades. This census analysis has led to the drafting of thematic
cards (Figure 7) which enabled a general overview of fronts information.
Figure 7.Census Scheduling was used to Reorganize Surveyed Data, to Organize
Levels of Reading Defining the Significant Image of Urban Context. A First
Analysis was carried out Directly on Site where Each Front was analyzed to
Define the Structure of the Card. Subsequently Fronts of the Historic Center were
divided into Building Units. Each Board has been referred to the Main Front of
Each Building Unit, Identified in a Well-defined Volume by Type, Building Use,
Height, Number of Floors, Architectural Characters
34 F. Picchio and A. Dell‟Amico, “Sings and structures of OltrepòPavese: summary for the
graphic representation of the traditional cityscape,” in Proceedings of 5° INTBAU international
Annual Event (ed.) G. Amoruso (Milano: Springer, 2017).
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The thematic drawings were important since they helped to draw a cognitive
framework based on the conservation and management of the territory, they
described and represented the historical settlement system, they allowed to
understand the heritage of the center, highlighting its specific characteristics
and peculiarities, and finally they constituted an effective tool for immediate
reading of the urban aggregate.The main axis existing between Palazzo Nocca
and Church of San Giorgio has determined an integrated survey that has
provided for the study and analysis of Palazzo Nocca, the most important
historic building in the city, obtaining a set of digital documentation to enhance
the building and thus giving value to the whole context of Barbianello,
including the adjacent centers. To implement the research, considerable interest
has involved the study of the Palace and its relevance within the territory. The
acquisition was carried out on internal environments today used by the
Municipality, on the exterior facades overlooking the park and the urban
courtyard and the cellars below the building, with access from the street.The
obtained point cloud in this case had a purpose that was set in the future
perspective to give more breath and emphasize a not well enhanced reality. 3D
virtual modeling of environments acquired through Structure from Motion
photogrammetric methodology was used for materic restitution of architectural
surfaces and for defining a surface mapping. The collection of metadata for
each single facade and building highlighted its characteristics, thus enabling
them to be recorded in an increasable digital database and to be able to rely on
future comparisons of the preserved state of analyzed fronts (Figure 8.) 3D
models, integrated and scaled with metric data acquired by the measurements,
represented for the first time a category of documentary material, important to
define through a digital way Palazzo Nocca.35
Figure 8. Environmental Section that Cuts the Village of Barbianello from East to
West. In Particular, we can see the Important Relationship that Emerges between
Palazzo Nocca and the Church of San Giorgio
35 Localized in the center of the town of Barbianello, the 18th-century mansion was the
residence of Beccaria family, then from 1820 of Nocca family that some decades later, with the
chemist Carlo Francesco Nocca, confers the garden with a symbolic value of alchemical matrix.
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The acquisition of this data made possible to draw a digital archive from
which to gain to define studies on the territorial context.In this particular case,
the goal of drawing a Color Plan,36for the conservation and redevelopment of
urban spaces, has represented a fundamental cognitive step for conscious
planning, preserving the unitary image of urban fronts. The Color Plan has
constituted therefore a fundamental tool for coordinating the maintenance,
renovation and refurbishment of wall parameters that include not only the
colorimetry of the facade, but also the set of architectural components that
contribute to define the color perception of the street axis. The original colors
of facades have been found into iconographic and photographic documents and
on the traces of weak and contradictory colors survived. Colors of visible
facades have been detected and reproduced as faithfully as possible, thus
representing the palette of colors in the historic center, and then the paintings
were identified. The census listing of buildings in the historic center of
Barbianello constituted the basis for subsequent planning interventions. This
allowed a synthesis of the current urban state, with the identification of critical
and dissonant elements with the character of the urban context.Within the
planning guidelines identified, it was highlighted how the historic center does
not need significant interventions on urban fronts, as is evident for example
from the analysis of a portion of the front of Via Barbiano, while it was
considered more urgent a selective procedure for the demolition of the entrance
to Palazzo Nocca due to the profound deterioration conditions. For the other
building units, minor interventions were shown for the recovery and
replacement of architectural elements, restoration of masonry surfaces,
tamponing of windows, removal of plates, signs and road signs that conceal or
disturb the decorative devices, until the replacement of wall cladding materials
with the most suitable types and in harmony with the territory.
Conclusions37
“In the last fifty years our country has experienced the most radical and
most extraordinary socio-economic and cultural transformation of its
modern history. The migrations from the South to the North, from the
countryside to the city, from the mountains to the plains, from the inside to
the coasts, have disrupted and upset the territory. Rural areas are
scattered while the peripheral parochial structure that had resisted
fearless for centuries dissolved like snow in the sun. The ancient villages
were studied while the building speculation destroys the landscape, the
most important and most envied cultural asset of historical Italy. The
ancient villages were studied while the building speculation destroys the
landscape, the most important and most envied cultural asset of historical
Italy. The entry into Modernity, in other European countries which had
36 The Color Plan is a tool for researching the quality of public space by identifying the actions
to be taken to conserve and enhance urban and environmental architectural components, which
together define the fabric of historical nucleus and that contribute to the identification of a
place.
37 The author of this paragraph is SandroParrinello.
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been consummated a hundred years earlier, has tumultuously exploded
here in the second half of the twentieth century.” (Valentino Baldacci)38
The potential of an archive and its digital model lie in the mechanisms of
interaction between data and image and in the systems of use between user and
database. In this sense, the 3D model facilitates the movement and the connection
between information content and virtual space, enhancing a cognitive interface
moving every reflection towards virtual reality. The cloud model combines
both 3D graphic interface and the creation of a heterogeneous expandable
database, including document sources, databases and archives and, in wider
terms, every possible approximation of a qualitative data of the space or of a
real function. The interactivity of the database through the obtained model aims
to provide a navigable documentation system, decomposing the observed
reality from the urban scale towards the architectural detail. The system
interface should be able to provide different way of access to guarantee for the
different kind of public a more appropriate way of use. Whereas, on one hand
there are professional users and experts engaged in architectural recovery and
planning, on the other hand there are private companies that can create data on
network systems or more specific dealers who can enrich the information
model about the specific business to activate virtual portals from which to
promote their activity. Future city services are interconnected in databases of
the present time and the image of the city builds itself into tablet and terminals
of technical offices, becoming the mirror of a city providing multiple images of
itself to contemplate and give answer to the “social identity.” A city that offers
more images of itself, whose dialogue moves on several media channels, will
provide its inhabitants with a greater context in which to identify their own
identity. For this reason, it is important today to continue to develop studies
and research in this area. One of the main problems that remains today is that
the results obtained require constant expenses for a continuous verification of
the elements analyzed. As repeatable on the national and international territory,
such a quantity of data is in fact useless if there are no continuous updates with
the latest technologies and checks for those monuments that, otherwise, are
destined to disappear, "eaten" by mother nature or by the non-care of man who,
for restructuring, prefers demolitions for new buildings.
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Article
Full-text available
Urban morphology and its study for the preservation of the image of city centers represents a topic of increasing scientific interest in the representation of cultural and perceptive values of landscape, especially in a context such as the Italian one where the rich architectural heritage requires a use of innovative monitoring technologies for more conscious intervention methods. The city of Pavia, Longobard capital of Roman origins, in its dual nature of historical center and university town, starts a research that combines the protection of architectural heritage to the evolution of Smart City, through a detailed documentation aimed at virtual modeling and fruition for the restitution of symbolic values and the identity of place, seismic monitoring and urban planning evolution, which develops from first metric analysis phases of urban building units and their fronts through detection campaigns and data processing of point clouds from laser scanners. The digital database obtained, result of investigations and survey actions, aims to figure as the best appropriate representative instrument to transform buildings into multimedia information containers that will guide visitors in the knowledge of their territory and city and technical planners in the control and intervention on buildings, generating new frontiers of interaction with the virtual space where users can find themselves actors and builders of visible and "invisible" reality around them, creating the bases for the project of the City of Future.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Italian architectural scene is center of research and intervention campaigns for its preservation, due to its location in a territory of natural hazards which since ancient times have denoted the issue of transmission. Investigations performed a great variety of studies, through multidisciplinary approaches within centuries in analysis and monitoring, from environmental safety to damage and structural mechanisms. In time an archive of knowledge was structured, with a fragmentation and difficulty of consultation due to the lack of a union instrument of architectural morphology to scientific content. The paper shows how Pavia, historical and university city, is starting a research that combines urban morphology to heritage preservation through the development of a 3D database, as a valid system of representation and container of heterogeneous data for archiving. The historical center of the city, between conservation and contemporary evolution, can experiment an N-dimensional database of information, where the drawing is basic tool to represent complexity of systems and the model, result of laser and photogrammetric survey, becomes a graphic interface to transform buildings in informative containers for seismic, architectural and environmental monitoring actions. 3D modeling can generate new frontiers of interaction between city and users, and creates in Pavia the bases to design a smart city, building the groundwork for new protocols of conservation and planning.
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