To read the file of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors. Similar to how stealth materials were developed to reduce the radar wave energy returning from an aircraft, here we explore a low-cost laboratory demonstration that uses similar principles to prevent detection of an object by an ultrasonic sensor. This demonstration setup can be used as a starting point to encourage students to explore the surface properties of materials and the ways in which ultrasonic ranging sensors operate.
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July 2008 · Physiological Entomology
We investigated relationships among body size, the frequency of peak auditory sensitivity (best frequency) and acoustic conspicuousness (measured as target strength) to simulated bat echolocation calls in a range of tympanate moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Audiograms of Amphipyra pyramidea Linnaeus, Agrotis exclamationis Linnaeus, Omphaloscelis lunosa Haworth and Xestia xanthographa Denis and
... [Show full abstract] Schiffermüller are described for the first time. Best frequency was inversely related to forewing length, an index of body size. Models predict that target strength falls off rapidly once wavelength (1/frequency) exceeds some defined feature of target size (e.g. circumference for spheres). We investigated how target strength varies in relation to target size and emitted frequency for simple targets (paper discs) and for moths. Target strength fell rapidly when target radius/wavelength < 2 for paper discs of similar size to many noctuid moths. Target strength fell rapidly below wing-length/wavelength ratios of 2 in relatively small (O. lunosa, wing-length = 15.2 ± 0.4 mm, best frequency = 45 kHz) and large (N. pronuba, wing-length = 24.6 ± 0.8 mm, best frequency = 15 kHz) noctuid species, and decreased rapidly at frequencies below 25 kHz in both species. These target strengths were used to predict the detection distance of the moths by bat sonar between 10 and 55 kHz. Predicted detection distances of both species were maximal for fictive call frequencies of 20 kHz, and were reduced at lower frequencies due to decreased target strength and at higher frequencies by excess atmospheric attenuation. Both relatively large and small noctuid moths are therefore strong acoustic targets to bats that echolocate at relatively low frequencies. Bats may emit allotonic calls at low frequency because the costs of reduced detection range are smaller than the benefits of reduced audibility to moths. Because best frequency scales with body size and maximum detection distance is not very sensitive to body size, noctuid moths in the size range examined do not necessarily have best frequencies that would match the call frequencies of bats that may detect the moths at greatest distance precisely. Hence, best frequency may be constrained in part by body size. Read more July 2006 · Journal of Experimental Biology
It's an everyday scene, which only happens at night. A hungry bat pins its acoustic gaze on a flitting moth, engages its high-precision echolocation system and closes in for the kill. But something goes wrong at the last moment. The bat unexpectedly pulls back within millimetres
Read more Last Updated: 05 Jul 2022 Looking for the full-text?
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