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Advances in Architectural Geometry 2018

Chalmers University of Technology

Gothenburg, Sweden

22-25 September 2018

www.architecturalgeometry.org/aag18

Form Finding and Design of a

Timber Shell-Nexorade Hybrid

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to discuss the form-finding of an innovative structural

system through the design and construction of a full-scale timber pavilion.

Nexorades, or multi-reciprocal grids, are structures where members support

each other along their spans. This structural principle allows simple assembly

and connection details, but leads in counterpart to poor structural performance.

Introducing planar plates as bracing components solves this issue, but result in

a complex and intricate geometry of the envelope and supporting structure.

This paper discusses the different challenges for the designers of shell-nexorade

hybrids and algorithmic framework to efficiently handle them in a project

workflow.

Keywords Nexorade, Shell-nexorade hybrid, timber structure, marionette

technique

Fig. 1 The central fan of the pavilion

Author1 Initial. Last Name. Author2 Initial. Last Name

1 Introduction

Nexorades, also known as reciprocal frames or multi-reciprocal grids, are

structures constituted of short members which supports on their ends. They are

simple to assemble because of they avoid the construction of complex

connection details and can be built with short members. For that matter, they

have been used since medieval architecture, for example by Villard de

Honnecourt, or in sketches of Leonardo da Vinci in the Codex Atlanticus (Bowie

1960). Recent examples of nexorades include the ‘Plate Pavilion’ in Malta, the

‘KREOD Pavilion’, designed by architect Chun Qing Li, engineers Ramboll and

geometry consultants Evolute, and timber nexorades in ETH Zürich

(Kohlhammer, et al. 2017).

Despite their ease of assembly, the structural behavior of nexorade is far from

optimal, because of the low valence, which implies a bending-dominated

behavior, even for funicular shapes (Brocato 2011). This has been observed in

the material science community, where this property of nexorades is used to

create auxetic materials. In structural engineering, this behaviour limits the

range of spans where those structure are economical and efficient. The

structural behavior of nexorades can however be improved by bracing them

with planar quadrilateral panels. The authors call ‘shell-nexorade hybrids’ the

new resulting structural system.

The handling of both facet planarity and of the geometry of nexorades at the

same time is unexplored up to now, and requires tailor-made geometrical

algorithm for construction-aware structural form finding. This paper discusses

thus a dialectic approach between constructive geometry and structural

mechanics and its application to the form-finding and construction of a timber

pavilion, shown in Figure 1.

2 Structural and fabrication requirements

In engineering practice, optimization or rationalization have multiple competing

objectives and constraints. When aiming at high slenderness, structural

detailing and envelope detailing merge, so that the fabrication process and

structural design process intertwine. The design of the pavilion is driven by the

structural and fabrication constraints, which are described in this section.

2.1 Project description

The project aims at illustrating the potential of shell-nexorade hybrids as an

efficient and easy-to assemble structural system. First, we have to introduce

some vocabulary specific to nexorades. Nexorades are constituted of load-

bearing members, which support each other along their span and not their

extremities. The generation of their geometry is based on the displacement of

edges of a watertight mesh. The displacements create engagement windows,

Form Finding and Design of a Timber Shell Nexorade Hybrid

shown in thick blue lines in Figure 2. Two values characterize the engagement

windows: their lengths, called engagement lengths, and the eccentricity, which

is the distance between the neutral axis of two concurrent members.

Fig 2 The reference geometry (left), a nexorade resulting from a transformation of the

mesh with engagement windows in blue (middle), a close-up on a fan: the engagement

length is the length of a blue line, while the eccentricity is the distance between the

lines, highlighted in orange (right).

The pavilion is constructed with cross-laminated timber beams and 10mm thick

plywood panels. The pavilion has a span of approximately 7 meters and covers

an area of 50m². Its shape is inspired by the CNIT, a thin shell supported on three

punctual supports: the geometry and pattern topology allow to build by

cantilevering from a central tripod. The beams weigh approximately 5 kilograms

and can be assembled in-situ by two people. Mechanical attachment, as

opposed to chemical attachments, are used to guarantee on-site assembly.

With a thickness of 14cm, the slenderness ratio is of 50, a rather high value for

timber structures.

2.2 Fabrication and construction requirements

Fabrication constraints are induced by the robotic fabrication process, the

materiality of timber and by structural considerations. The panels covering the

structure must be as planar as possible, in order to guarantee their fabrication

from plywood and to avoid coupling between bending and axial forces, as they

are used as a bracing system.

The detailing chosen for the connection of beams and panels is shown in Figure

3: beams are connected with end-grain screws, while beam/panel attachment

is made by screws. Tenons and mortises are milled in the beams for the

assembly process. Grooves are milled in the timber beams as alignment failsafe

between panels and beams. The top surface of the beams are milled in order to

avoid timber exposure created by the eccentricities. The higher the eccentricity,

the less material after milling, and the lower the lever arm and resistance of the

connection. The detailing implies thus to minimize the eccentricities, a rather

unusual optimization target in nexorades.

Author1 Initial. Last Name. Author2 Initial. Last Name

Fig. 3 A fan during construction showing the detailing: beams are connected by end-

grain screws which create a moment-rigid connection, grooves are made in the beam

to fit planar panels, and ruled surfaces are milled on top and bottom of the members to

avoid timber exposure.

The beams are fabricated with the aid of 6 axes robots shown in Figure 4: one

robot on a track with a gripper that is used as a mobile frame for the beam and

the other to perform the milling operations. Since the milling of the beam is

performed with 13 (6+6+1) axes, the complexity of the attachment between

beams and panels can be treated with the milling of the beam. The plates are

thus cut with simple 2.5 axes CNC machines. Their width of 1030mm sets

constraints on the bounding box of the panels. Other geometrical constraints

are imposed by the robotic fabrication process: the size of the gripper imposes

a minimal length of 750mm between two mortises, while vibrations restricted

the beam length to 2000mm. The speed of cut was adjusted to avoid vibration

and to minimize cutting forces. Angles between members also had to be

minimized in order to ease the approach of the robotic arms.

Form Finding and Design of a Timber Shell Nexorade Hybrid

Fig 4 Top view of the robotic cell with gripping robot on track, milling robot

(bottom) and fixed tools (top).

2.3 Structural requirements

The structure presented in this paper is a temporary building with a lifespan of

one year. As such, it has to withstand climatic and accidental loads. The

envisioned accidental load is a non-symmetrical load of 700kg (approximately

10 people climbing on the structure). The loads and design capacity of beams

have been derived from the Eurocode 1 and 5 respectively. The connection

details, which use end-grain screws, are not designed within Eurocode, and a

European Technical Approval (European Technical Approval ETA-11/0190) must

be used. The serviceability and ultimate strength requirements are defined as

follows:

(1)

Where L is the span (6.5m), is the maximal deflection under SLS load

combination, f is a convex function defined by the technical agreement of the

screws describing the utilization of the connection details. Buckling was also

checked, but, due to the relatively small span, it is not the governing

phenomenon. The ULS design is conservative because not a single nodal failure

is allowed.

The final structure weighs approximately 15kg/m², so that self-weight is far from

being the governing load case for a temporary building, where creep can be

Author1 Initial. Last Name. Author2 Initial. Last Name

neglected. Therefore, the geometry does not have to follow a funicular shape,

and CAD tools can be used to generate a structural shape. Real-time feedback

from a finite element analysis is therefore necessary to optimize the structural

behaviour (Bletzinger, Kimmich et Ramm 1991). The reference geometry was

thus generated as a collection of NURBS.

2.4 Computational workflow

The fabrication and structural requirements are integrated in a computational

workflow is presented in Figure 5. The workflow is based on several optimization

algorithms that solve construction problems and allow to iterate on the

different design parameters to improve the performance of the design. We

focus here on the geometrical aspects of the computational workflow, treating

the robotic setup as a design constraint. In reality, iterations between the design

and the organization of the fabrication platform have been made to guarantee

the constructability of the pavilion. It is very likely that an industrial with

different machines would have another set of design constraints.

Two levels of geometrical complexity are handled through the design. In early

design stages, the architect and engineer deal at a coarse level, called ‘design

geometry’ in the flowchart: the members and plates are represented by lines

and surfaces respectively, and a priori cross-section are used. This allows to

discard bad designs and to quickly iterate and ‘optimize’ the design, although

some modelling assumptions are up to the knowledge of the designer. Then,

the designer needs to work at a finer level of detail and thus to generate the

‘fabrication geometry’. At this stage, beams are generated as BREP, the proper

cross-sections are assigned according to the as-built geometry. The feasibility of

the fabrication is also assessed, in our case with the aid of HAL (Schwartz 2012).

This step is much more resource demanding, as a considerable amount of

fabrication data has to be generated.

The main geometrical operations performed for the form finding of the pavilion

aim at complying with the main fabrication constraints. First, the designer sets

an input geometry, it is then fitted by a mesh with planar facets. This mesh is

then transformed with a custom algorithm, so as to create a nexorade with

planar panels. The different fabrication data can then be generated and the

structural response is evaluated. The next section discusses in detail these

design steps.

Form Finding and Design of a Timber Shell Nexorade Hybrid

Fig 5 Computational workflow

3 Construction-aware form finding

3.1 Form finding of nexorades with the translation method

The form-finding of shell-nexorade hybrid is based on translations of the

members, as initially proposed by Baverel (Baverel 2000) and as illustrated in

Figure 6. The method takes a mesh as input, the edges correspond either to the

neutral axis of the member or the member apex. The geometrical object

resulting from the translation of the mesh edges is a collection of lines, which

are non-concurrent in general. The translation technique is based on the fact

the eccentricity between two lines varies linearly with the translation

components (Mesnil, Douthe, et al., Form-finding of nexorades with translation

technique 2018). As such, nexorades can be form-found by solving linear least

square problems, in the manner of what has been done for polyhedral meshes

(Poranne, Chen et Gotsman 2015).

The simplicity of the problem is not surprising, although it has not been noticed

before: indeed, edge translations appear in polyhedral mesh modelling.

Transformations that preserve edge orientation also preserve facet planarity,

and create a linear subspace for shape modelling (Pottmann, et al. 2007)

(Poranne, Chen et Gotsman 2015). As a consequence, if the input mesh has

planar facets, the nexorade created with the translation technique can be

covered with nearly planar panels, although the designer has to deal with

eccentricities (distance between the non-concurrent neutral axes of the beams).

Author1 Initial. Last Name. Author2 Initial. Last Name

The translation technique allows to cover nexorades with planar panels, which

can be used as a bracing system. The authors call shell-nexorade hybrid the

resulting structural system. The practical generation of the structural layout

requires first to generate a mesh with planar facets, and then to optimally fit a

panel in order to accommodate eccentricities.

Fig 6 Some planar tiling (top) and associated nexorade patterns created by edge

translation (bottom)

3.2 Shape-fitting problem

The input geometry is fitted with the marionette technique, which considers a

projection of the mesh as an input, in our case, the plane view, leaving only the

altitudes of the mesh vertices as design variables. The technique allows to

express the planarity constraint with a linear equation. Additional positional

constraints are imposed to some nodes for a better control of the shape, and

are also linear.

(2)

The matrix encodes the planarity constraint for the facets, as described in

(Mesnil, Douthe, Baverel, & Léger, Marionette Mesh: from descriptive geometry

to fabrication-aware design, 2016). The matrix is a sparse matrix, the only

non-zero coefficients are so that the ith node has the altitude . The two

constraints can be assembled by stacking the matrices A and B in columns. The

optimization becomes a linearly constrained linear least square problem.

Form Finding and Design of a Timber Shell Nexorade Hybrid

(3)

The solution of the problem is classical, but recalled here for the sake of

completeness. The constrained problem is easily solved with the aid of Lagrange

multipliers : optimal values and satisfy following linear equation.

(4)

In practice, the system is solved by performing Cholesky decomposition of the

symmetrical matrix on the left-hand side. Few position constraints are chosen

so that the problem is not over-constrained, and the matrix of the left-hand side

remains invertible. This guarantees the feasibility of the solution using Cholesky

decomposition. The solution is fast, even for large number of facets (Sorkine et

Cohen-Or 2004).

3.3 Mesh planarization

The transformation of a mesh into a nexorade introduces eccentricities, as

illustrated in Figure 7, where the end the members are highlighted with black

dots (notation P+i) and the corresponding closest point on the attached

member is highlighted in white (notation: P-i). We write ti= P-i – P+i.

Fig 7 The form-found nexorade as a collection of lines and the local planarization

problem

With the geometry of Figure 7, the designer does not deal with a watertight

mesh anymore and must fit envelope panels to the beams and wants thus to

minimize following quantity:

(5)

With a planarity constraint and the additional design restriction:

Author1 Initial. Last Name. Author2 Initial. Last Name

(6)

This optimization is a specific example of the marionette technique, with non-

parallel lines and is also expressed as a linearly constrained least square problem

(Mesnil, Douthe, Baverel, & Léger, Marionette Mesh: from descriptive geometry

to fabrication-aware design, 2016). Each equation can be solved independently

for each facet. This makes the computation extremely fast and reliable.

In order to better understand why eccentricities arise from the transformation

into a nexorade pattern when constructing with planar facets, one can count

the degrees of freedom imposed by the planarity and member straightness. We

write and the number of edges and vertices in the nexorade, as shown on

the bottom of Figure 6. Each edge of a nexorade pattern contains four nodes,

except at the boundaries (see bottom of Figure 6), so that , in addition

there are alignment constraints in the whole nexorade patterns. For two-

dimensional nexorade patterns (for example in the XY plane), there are initially

degrees of freedom and alignment constraints. The estimation of the

number of degrees of freedom for nexorade patterns without eccentricities is

thus given by equation (7).

(7)

The dimensions of the design spaces are similar, and differ slightly in practice

essentially because of “free” borders (where some members have less than four

nodes). When adding planarity constraints on the facets (the number of

constraints is proportional to the number of facets ), one over-constrains the

design space of eccentricity-free nexorade patterns and is left only with

nexorade patterns inscribed in a plane. The complexity of milling operations

mentioned in this article is thus not a limitation of the proposed form finding

technique, but rather an intrinsic limitation of nexorades.

3.4 Beam orientation

In timber structures, rectangular cross-sections are commonly used. It is

therefore preferable to build torsion-free beam layouts, i.e. to find beam

orientation where the beam central plane meet along a common axis. The

solution for this problem is not obvious for quadrilateral meshes, but three

valent meshes always admit constant face offsets (Pottmann, et al. 2007).

Form Finding and Design of a Timber Shell Nexorade Hybrid

For nexorades, the offsetting problem can easily be solved, because there are

only three-valent connections (from a combinatorial point of view), but two-

valent connections from a technological point of view: any choice of beam

discrete normal yields a torsion-free beam layout. Figure 5 illustrates this

statement and the notations for orientation of the beams and panels. The

letters Y and Z describe the local material frame corresponding to the strong

and weak axis respectively.

Fig 8 Notations for the orientations of beams and panels

We can define the normal as the bisector vector between the adjacent faces

normal, as shown in equation (8).

(8)

This choice minimizes the maximal angle between a panel and its supporting

beams, which is a constraint in the chosen fabrication set-up. Indeed, as shown

in Figure 9, a robot mills the groove for the assembly between beam and panel:

large angles can lead to collisions between the tools or robots.

Fig. 9 Groove milling for panel/beam attachment.

Author1 Initial. Last Name. Author2 Initial. Last Name

3.5 Optimization of connection details

The choice of structural connection details depends on mechanics and

assembly. End grain screws are used in the pavilion because they are simple to

assemble and do not constrain the assembly kinematics. Details using

connecting plates in the timber could not be implemented due to the small

width of the members (60mm), but could be used if high structural performance

is required. Their main limitation is however the restriction of assembly

kinematics, which add an new challenge for the construction sequence planning

and execution. Fire safety can also be an issue if the plates are exposed to fire.

Glued connections are another alternative with good mechanical performance,

but are not suited for in-situ assembly, and do not fit the design requirements

of the project. End-grain connections are thus a good alternative to more

conventional connections. Moreover, the forces in the connectors are limited in

shell-nexorade hybrid, so that yield of connections is a lesser design issue than

in classical nexorades, and their lower mechanical performance is not as critical

as in other timber structures. Nonetheless, they yield some difficulties for the

detailed planning, which are discussed in this section.

The end-grain screwed connections are subject to practical limitations,

illustrated in Figure 10: the distance between the screw axis and the beam

boundary should remain inferior to 24mm, while the distance between screws

should be superior to 24mm. For some fans, the engagement length is inferior

to the screw length (200mm), meaning that some collisions between screws

might occur: as a result, the position of the screw must be adjusted.

Form Finding and Design of a Timber Shell Nexorade Hybrid

Fig. 10 Geometrical constraints for the screws layout. Left:Admissible position for

screws (white area), and minimal spacing between screws (blue area). Right: a nexor

where the screws are longer than the engagement length and potential intersections

between them.

The designer aims at maximizing the distance between the top and bottom

screws, as it increases the lever-arm, and thus resistance of the connection

detail. This must be done without collisions between the screws. This is

therefore a constrained optimization problem: the screw layout must be

collision-free and respect the bounding box shown on the left of Figure 10. The

parameters of the problem are the position of the neutral axes in the local plane

of the in-coming beam: the screws can be moved along the red arrows drawn in

Figure 10. The screws have a determined orientation: they are aligned with the

beam neutral axis. Just like in the form-finding of nexorades by translations

presented in Section 3.2, the distance between two screws depends linearly on

the amplitude of the translation. The optimization problem of equation is thus

a linear programming problem. Fortunately, this problem is not highly coupled:

the optimization problem can be solved for each fan separately with the simplex

method.

4 Structural behavior of shell-nexorade hybrids

4.1 Modelling assumptions and design iterations

The structure is modelled with the finite element technique, in order to assess

the structural response under non-symmetrical loads. In the preliminary

structural design, the cross-section was set to 120mmx60mm, assuming that

20mm of static height at most would be milled because of the eccentricities.

This conservative assumption allowed to quickly iterate over the geometry

without calculating the beam cross-section after milling. The plywood plates can

be modelled with an isotropic material law with a Young’s Modulus of 8GPa. A

linear elastic model is computed with Karamba, a finite element software

integrated in Rhino/Grasshopper (Preisinger 2013), and it was checked that

every connection detail was safe. This ensures that the pavilion satisfies the

ultimate limit state, but a better approximation of the collapse load could be

given by yield design theory or by a geometrically and materially nonlinear

analysis (GMNA).

Author1 Initial. Last Name. Author2 Initial. Last Name

Design iterations were performed at the level of the design geometry, without

generating the final geometry of the members. It allowed to create a shape with

a strong curvature that provide geometrical stiffness. It also appeared

unsurprisingly that decreasing the engagement length improved the structural

response of the structure. A design approach purely driven by the optimization

of the structural response would result in reducing the engagement lengths. The

engagement lengths of individual fans became thus design parameters once a

satisfying geometry was found. The minimization of engagement lengths is

limited in practice by two constraints: it widens the bounding box of the panels,

and small engagement lengths might result in unreachable areas to insert the

end-grain screws. The design iterations had thus to take structural response,

fabrication and assembly constraints into account.

4.2 Benefits of shell-nexorade hybrids

We propose to assess the benefits of introducing plates as bracing elements by

comparing the performance of the as-built geometry and cross-sections for the

shell-nexorade hybrid and a nexorade without panels. We assume that the load

apply in the same way to both structures. The displacements are significantly

lower in the shell-nexorade hybrid, especially for non-symmetrical wind and

accidental loads, as seen on the left of Figure 11. Forces are also significantly

decreases: the right of Figure 11 shows the utilization factor of timber under

wind load alone, as prescribed by the Eurocode 5 (the material class is GL24h).

It can be seen that, even without combination factor, some members of the

unbraced nexorade are over-stressed. Under ULS combination 1.35G+1.5W, the

utilization factor can go up to 200%, even without considering reduction factor

for long term load (kmod=0), which is absolutely not conservative. The utilization

factor of the beams in the shell nexorade hybrid is approximately ten times

lower. The introduction of plates as a bracing system is thus highly beneficial,

since forces and displacements are divided by ten, with an additional mass of

30%.

Form Finding and Design of a Timber Shell Nexorade Hybrid

Fig 11 Displacement under different loads (left) and utilization ratio of beams under

wind load alone.

4.3 Scalability of nexorades and shell-nexorade hybrid

Different structural systems are available to cover areas with doubly curved

structures. This paper focuses on nexorades, or reciprocal systems, and shell-

nexorade hybrids. They are easy to assemble and do not require complex

connection details. Gridshells are also a classical solution: they are highly

efficient, but at the cost of more complex connection details. The relative

performances of the different structural systems with respect to the change of

scale are assessed in the followings with a simplified comparative study. The

geometry of the built pavilion is used as a reference but re-scaled to span larger

areas. Then, a sizing optimization is performed under the constraint that the

structure satisfies serviceability criterion and ultimate strength criterion, set

here to 30% of the characteristic yield strength. The height-over-width ratio of

the beams is set arbitrarily to 2.5, and the plates have a thickness-over-span

ratio of 100. The only parameter in the sizing optimization is thus the beam

width b.

(9)

The results of the sizing optimization for different spans are shown in Figure 12.

The connections between beams are assumed to be extremely rigid (more than

10 000kNm/rad), in order to sensitivity to nodal stiffness, an important issue for

gridshells. The shell-nexorade hybrid and gridshell follow the same trend: the

weight increases linearly with the span for spans superior to 25 meters, while

the nexorades follow a power law and are clearly outperformed by the two

other structural systems. Notice that the gridshell is lighter than the shell-

Author1 Initial. Last Name. Author2 Initial. Last Name

nexorade hybrids: the plates represent a significant part of the total weight in

shell nexorade hybrids with large spans here. This could be fixed by working on

hollow plates, or by using a finer mesh pattern for the shell nexorade hybrid. A

precise comparison of gridsells and nexorades should be the topic of a more

precise study.

Fig 12 Influence of the span on the weight of different structural systems.

The trends seen in Figure 12 can be explained with simple arguments. First, it

should be noticed that for large spans, the governing load case for the nexorade

is self-weight, although the shape is close to a funicular shape.

We explain this trend by considering a cylindrical vault of radius under

uniform load , proportional to the self-weight. We write b,h the width and

height of the beams, E the Young’s modulus and the volumic mass of timber.

An equivalent in-plane membrane stiffness can be computed with

homogenization techniques, as already done in (Mesnil, Douthe, Baverel, &

Léger, linear buckling of quadrangular and kagome gridshells: a comparative

assessment, 2017). It has already been observed that the membrane stiffness is

proportional to the flexural rigidities of the members, which depends on the

and their length , defined as , where is the number of subdivisions.

(10)

The applied load is proportional to the mass:

(11)

The meridian force is given by the classical formula , so that the

strain is simply given by:

(12)

Form Finding and Design of a Timber Shell Nexorade Hybrid

The value

should be limited by a SLS criterion, for example

. This

imposes a condition on the beam width. The proportionality laws derived

previously allow to affirm that there exist a factor so that:

(13)

The height being proportional to by hypothesis, one can thus conclude on

the trend of the optimal weight for a nexorade that satisfies serviceability under

self-weight.

The power law observed in Figure 12 does therefore find a simple analytical

explanation. However, we observe a strong dependency of the result with

respect to the number of subdivision in equation (13). The study presented in

this section should thus be further extended to evaluate the influence of

subdivision.

The membrane stiffness of gridshells and shell-nexorade hybrids is proportional

to the cross-sectional area, which itself is proportional to the surface weight.

Thus the sizing optimization under self-weight is scale-invariant, and gridshells

and shell-nexorade hybrids are sized with respect to out-of-plane loads.

5 Conclusion

Nexorades are structures based on an elegant assembly principle that generally

suffer from poor structural behavior. Introducing planar plates as a bracing

system opens a new potential of application for nexorades. This paper illustrates

the possibilities offered by shell-nexorade hybrids and practical implications of

using this new structural principle for fabrication and geometrical modelling.

Several optimization problems must be solved to guarantee facet planarity,

structural reliance and constructability. The understanding of geometrical

properties of nexorades is fundamental in the design workflow. The numerous

design iterations are made possible by the flexibility, robustness and speed of

the proposed framework and by the handling of geometrical representations of

increasing complexity.

A full-scale timber pavilion, shown in Figure 13, was built to validate the

methodology proposed in this paper. The structural calculations show that the

plates multiply the stiffness by ten with a mass increase by 30%. The pavilion is

checked as a temporary building with building codes and technical agreement,

so that despite innovations on form finding and fabrication, it has the potential

to be proof-checked by an independent engineer. The robotic fabrication within

Author1 Initial. Last Name. Author2 Initial. Last Name

tolerances allowed the manual assembly of the structure with minimal

difficulties. Shell-nexorade hybrids combine thus the ease of assembly of

nexorades with the stiffness of ribbed shell structures.

Form Finding and Design of a Timber Shell Nexorade Hybrid

Fig 13 A view of the completed pavilion.

Author1 Initial. Last Name. Author2 Initial. Last Name

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