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Abstract

Background: Food handlers with untrimmed finger nails could contribute or serve as a vehicle for the transmission of food poisoning pathogens. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers and antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolated bacteria in Debre Markos University, Ethiopia. Materials and methods: This laboratory-based cross-sectional study involved 220 food handlers working in food service establishments in Debre Markos University between 1st January 2015 to 31th June 2016. Subjects' finger nail specimens of both hands were examined microscopically for intestinal parasites. For bacterial isolation, samples were cultured and bacterial species were identified following standard laboratory procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for all bacterial isolates by using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results: Of the total 220 subjects examined, 29.5% showed positive culture for different bacterial species from their fingernail contents. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant bacteria species (12.3%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (5%), E. coli (2.7%), Klebsiella species (2.7%), Enterococcus species (1.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.8%), Proteus species (1.4%), Citrobacter species (1.4%), and Serratia species (0.9%). None of the food handlers showed positive culture for Shigella and salmonella and parasites in respect of their finger nail specimens. Isolation of bacteria in finger nail has significant association with finger nail status (P=0.044) and inverse relation with service years (P=0.048). All Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species isolates were uniformly susceptible to vancomycin. Only one (9.1%) of Staphylococcus aureus isolates was resistant for methicillin. Conclusion: To prevent the food poisoning pathogens, implementation and adherence to infection are the key practices, specially food handlers with long finger nail harbor food debris, microbial contaminations, and allergens.
Research Article
Bacterial and Parasitic Assessment from Fingernails in Debre
Markos, Northwest Ethiopia
Abeba Mengist , Yibeltal Aschale , and Alemayehu Reta
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Debre Markos University,
Debre Markos, Ethiopia
Correspondence should be addressed to Abeba Mengist; abymaa@gmail.com
Received 7 July 2018; Revised 8 September 2018; Accepted 27 September 2018; Published 18 October 2018
Guest Editor: Nicola Serra
Copyright ©2018 Abeba Mengist et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.
Background. Food handlers with untrimmed finger nails could contribute or serve as a vehicle for the transmission of food
poisoning pathogens. Objectives. is study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among
food handlers and antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolated bacteria in Debre Markos University, Ethiopia. Materials and
Methods. is laboratory-based cross-sectional study involved 220 food handlers working in food service establishments in Debre
Markos University between 1st January 2015 to 31th June 2016. Subjects’ finger nail specimens of both hands were examined
microscopically for intestinal parasites. For bacterial isolation, samples were cultured and bacterial species were identified
following standard laboratory procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for all bacterial isolates by using Kirby-
Bauer disk diffusion method. Results. Of the total 220 subjects examined, 29.5% showed positive culture for different bacterial
species from their fingernail contents. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant bacteria species (12.3%) followed
by Staphylococcus aureus (5%), E. coli (2.7%), Klebsiella species (2.7%), Enterococcus species (1.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(1.8%), Proteus species (1.4%), Citrobacter species (1.4%), and Serratia species (0.9%). None of the food handlers showed positive
culture for Shigella and salmonella and parasites in respect of their finger nail specimens. Isolation of bacteria in finger nail has
significant association with finger nail status (P0.044) and inverse relation with service years (P0.048). All Staphylococcus
aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species isolates were uniformly susceptible to vancomycin. Only one (9.1%) of
Staphylococcus aureus isolates was resistant for methicillin. Conclusion. To prevent the food poisoning pathogens, implementation
and adherence to infection are the key practices, specially food handlers with long finger nail harbor food debris, microbial
contaminations, and allergens.
1. Background
Food-borne disease is a public health problem in developed
and developing countries due to poor food handling and
sanitation habit, inadequate food safety programs, lack of
clean water supply, poverty, and lack of knowledge of food
handlers [1]. According to the World Health Organization
(WHO) statement, most of the populations suffer from
food-borne diseases every year in both developed and de-
veloping countries [2]. e spread of food-borne disease
through food handlers is a common and persistent problem
worldwide [3]. Infected food handlers with poor hygiene
practice working in food service establishments are potential
sources and transmitters of the disease due to pathogenic
organisms like infection with various intestinal helminths,
protozoal, and enteropathogenic bacteria [4, 5]. ey can
transmit both enteric and nonenteric bacterial and parasitic
infections through the food that they handled [3].
Microorganisms such as bacteria, parasites, and viruses
are the common agents for food contamination. Vibrio
cholera, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia
coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella species, and Polio are the most
common food-borne disease causing organisms in developing
countries [6, 7]. Protozoan and helminthic parasites such as
Giardia lamblia,Entamoeba histolytica,Cryptosporidium
species,Ascaris lumbricoides, and Enterobius vermicularis are
Hindawi
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
Volume 2018, Article ID 6532014, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6532014
also important agents of food-borne disease. ese infections
in food handlers pose a significant threat to food consumers
[6, 7].
Transmission of finger nail bacteria occurs through food,
water, nails, and fingers contaminated with feces demon-
strating the role of fecal-oral person-to-person transmission
[8]. Food handlers who harbor and excrete bacteria may
contaminate foods from their feces via their fingers and then to
food preparation and servicing and lastly infect healthy in-
dividuals [9]. e area under the fingernail spreads pathogenic
microorganisms via cross contamination, and it is challenging
to clean when compared with other parts of the hand [5].
Food storage systems such as temperature and time, food
preparation, handling, servicing practices, and food han-
dlers’ knowledge and skill are some of the factors that affect
the safety of food directly or indirectly [10]. Biofilm for-
mation is an important factor in persistence of microor-
ganisms on the surface. Cells in a biofilm are embedded in an
extracellular polymeric matrix constituent, proving resistant
to conventional therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents
and clearance by the host response. Biofilm formation
proceeds via initial adhesion to the surface and subsequent
aggregation into multicellular structures. us, the devel-
opment of a biofilm requires adhesive forces for the colo-
nization of surfaces and cell interaction. Specifically, S.
epidermidisis, one of the major biofilm-producing bacteria,
works by attaching itself to several surfaces [11].
Various measures have been implemented to reduce
incidence of food-borne diseases both in developed and
developing countries. However, there has been increased
occurrence of emerging and reemerging food-borne dis-
eases. Among the factors responsible for this is the resistance
of food-borne pathogens to antibiotics. Humans are exposed
to resistant bacteria through sources such as food products,
environment, and food handlers. Among the factors re-
sponsible for this occurrence and prevalence are poor food-
production processes, inadequate food storage in-
frastructure, unhygienic food handling, limited resources,
and poorly enforced regulatory standards [12].
erefore, appropriate screening method is useful to
detect bacterial and parasitic infections among food han-
dler’s finger nails, thus preventing probable illness and
protecting the health of the consumers. us, this study was
carried out to determine the prevalence and susceptibility
pattern of finger nail bacteria and parasites among food
handlers in Debre Markos University food service estab-
lishments to address appropriate recommendations for the
enhancement of good food safety and sanitary conditions
within food establishments in the University.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design, Area, Period, and Participants. e present
laboratory-based cross-sectional survey included 220 food
handlers working in food establishments of Debre Markos
University during the period from January 2015 to June
2016. e University is found in northwestern part of
Ethiopia at Debre Markos town. e town is located 300 km
northwest of Addis Ababa.
2.2. Data Collection. Data were collected by the data col-
lectors after obtaining written informed consent using
a well-structured questionnaire designed to obtain socio-
demographic data and other relevant data related to food
handlers’ service year, status of medical screening, status of
certification, education, and hand-hygiene practices from
participants following their written informed consent and
the ethical approval of the study from Debre Markos
University ethics review board.
2.3. Sample Collection and Transport. Swab samples under
the finger nails from both hands of each subject were col-
lected using sterile-moistened cotton-tipped swabs and
placed into a sterile test tube. Until inoculated on to re-
spective cultured media, the samples were kept with normal
saline in a test tube for not more than 5 minutes [13].
2.4. Culture and Identification
2.4.1. Processing of Fingernail Swabs and Identification of
Bacteria and Parasites. A single under finger nail swab
obtained from each food handler was cultured immediately
on Mannitol salt agar (MSA) for isolation of S. aureus and
Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CNS). Finger nail swabs
were cultured on to Salmonella-Shigella agar (Oxoid),
MacConkey agar (Difco), and Blood agar (Oxoid) and then
incubated at 37°C for 24 hours for isolation of Gram-
negative bacteria. e bacterial colonies grown on the
agar media were presumptively identified by colonial
morphology and gram staining and a battery of biochemical
tests like reaction on oxidase, catalase, simmon citrate, in-
dole production, urease, motility, KIA, and gas and hy-
drogen sulfide (H
2
S) production [14]. For parasite
identification, samples were examined microscopically fol-
lowing direct wet mount preparations in normal saline and
iodine solution [10].
2.4.2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Antimicrobial
susceptibility tests were performed on Muller Hinton Agar
(Oxoid, Hampshire, UK) by disc diffusion method. e
following antimicrobial agents were used for Gram-positive
isolates: methicillin (10 µg), penicillin (10 µg), erythromycin
(15 µg), ampicillin (30 µg), ciprofloxacin (10 µg), tetracycline
(30 µg), cotrimoxazole (25 µg), and vancomycin (30 µg). To
characterize Gram-negative isolates, ampicillin (10 µg),
tetracycline (30 µg), chloramphenicol (30 µg), gentamicin
(10 µg) and norfloxacillin (10 µg) and cotrimoxazole (25 µg)
and ciprofloxacin (10 µg) have been used. e susceptibility
profiles (i.e., resistance and sensitivity) of the isolates were
interpreted according to the National Committee for
Clinical Laboratory Standards [15].
2.4.3. Data Processing and Analysis. All statistical calcula-
tions were done using SPSS for windows version 20. De-
scriptive statistics were computed to determine the rate of
bacteria and other variables. e relationships between the
presence of bacteria and various risk factors were tested
2Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
using the Chi square test. A Pvalue of 0.05 was considered
indicative of a statistically significant.
3. Result
3.1. Sociodemographic Data. Two hundred twenty food
handlers were participated in this study. Among them, 69.1%
were females and 30.9% were males. e age of the study
participants ranged from 18 through 43 with a mean age of
25.1 (SD ±4.1). Regarding their job, 45.9% had one to two
years of work experience and only 30.9% had more than two
years of work experience (Table 1).
In this study, the majority (97.3%) and only few (17%) of
food handlers had a habit of hand washing after toilet and
after touching different body parts, respectively (Table 2).
3.2. Prevalence of Bacteria Isolated from Finger Nail of Food
Handlers. e frequency and type of bacteria isolated from
fingernail content of the 220 food handlers studied are
presented in Table 3. Bacteria isolated include coagulase-
negative Staphylococcus (12.3%), Staphylococcus aureus
(5%), Escherichia coli (2.7%), Klebsiella species (2.7%), En-
terococcus species (1.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.8%),
Proteus species (1.4%), Citrobacter species (1.4%), and Ser-
ratia species (0.9%). While no bacteria were isolated from
the finger nail content of 70.5% of participants. None of the
food handlers showed positive culture for Shigella and
salmonella in respect of their finger nail specimens. No more
than one enteric bacterium was observed in the subject
under study. In addition, no intestinal parasites were de-
tected from the samples of fingernail contents.
In this study, different factors were assessed for possible
association with finger nail bacterial isolation rate among the
study participants (Table 2 and 4). e number of positive
cultures from finger nail contents was higher among female
subjects (30.7%) than those of male subjects (26.9%), but the
difference was not statistically significant (P0.564)
(Table 4).
e isolation rate of bacteria in finger nail of food
handlers was relatively higher 22(43.1%) among food han-
dlers served for a period of less than one year and lower 16
(23.5%)s among those served for a period of greater than 2
years (Table 4). erefore, the inverse relationship between
service year and finger nail bacterial isolation rate was
statistically significant (P0.048). In addition, food han-
dlers with long finger nails showed more 33(37.1%)s bac-
terial isolation rate with their finger nails as compared to
those food handlers with short (properly cut) finger nails 32
(24.4%) (P0.044) (Table 2). However, the other expected
risk factors (i.e., age, educational background, medical
check-up, food hygiene training, and hand washing habit)
had not been found to be associated with bacterial fingernail
rate (Table 2 and 4).
3.3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Isolated Pathogens.
All Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphy-
lococcus species isolates were uniformly susceptible to
vancomycin. Relatively, Staphylococcus aureus showed low
resistance to methicillin (9.1%), cirofloxacin (9.1%) and
erythromycin (18.2%), and cotrimoxazole (18.2%); high
resistance to penicillin (63.6%) and ampicillin (63.6%) fol-
lowed by amoxycillin and tetracycline with 54.5%% and
45.5%, respectively (Table 5). e susceptibility profile of the
Gram-negative isolates is presented in Table 6.
4. Discussion
Improper food handlings practices by food handlers may
cause food contamination and food-borne diseases, which
may pose a possible risk to community or customers [16].
erefore, this study was undertaken to assess the prevalence
of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers and
antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolated bacteria in
Debre Markos University, Ethiopia.
In this study of 220 food handlers examined, 29.5% were
carriers of enteric bacteria including coagulase-negative
Staphylococcus (12.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (5%),
Escherichia coli (2.7%), Klebsiella species (2.7%), Entero-
coccus species (1.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.8%),
Proteus species (1.4%), Citrobacter species (1.4%), and
Serratia species (0.9%) in their finger nail.erefore, food
handlers should ensure that their finger nails are trimmed.
Similar types of bacterial isolate were identified among food
handlers in other parts of Ethiopia including Jimma and
Gondar [10, 17]. Our finding also goes parallel with different
studies carried out in other countries like Nigeria [18], Iran
[19], Brazil [20], and Turkey [21].
Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics of food handlers
(n220) working at food service establishments in Debre Markos
University (1st January 2015 to 31st June 2016).
Sociodemographic characteristics Frequency Percent (%)
Sex
Male 67 30.5
Female 153 69.5
Age in years
20 20 9.1
21–30 189 85.9
31–40 6 2.7
41–50 5 2.3
Educational level
Primary (1–8) 64 29.1
Secondary (9–12) 71 32.3
Postsecondary(>12) 85 38.6
Service years
<1 51 23.2
1-2 101 45.9
>2 68 30.9
Certified in food preparation and
handling
Yes 34 15.5
No 186 84.5
Medical check-up
Yes 138 62.7
No 82 37.3
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology 3
In the present study, approximately one-sixth of cultures
of fingernail contents was found to be positive for coagulase-
negative Staphylococci (12.3%) followed by Staphylococcus
aureus (5%). Our results are in agreement with previous
studies reported from other parts of the country [10, 16, 17]
and are similar to findings of Zaglool et al. from Saudi Arabia
who reported these bacteria as the most common pathogen
isolated from food handlers [9]. Coagulase-negative
Staphylococci are the normal flora of the skin, and this is
the reason why high prevalence in this study. In addition,
isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in this study was because
it is the true pathogenic bacteria included in the resident
microflora of the skin and nose. Food handlers can easily
contaminate food with Staphylococcus aureus (common
cause of food poising) if they do not wash their hands
properly after using toilet and after making contact with
their nose [22]. Tambekar et al. also reported the reduction
in the number of pathogens after hand washing [23].
Different species of Enterobacteriaceae were isolated in
11.5% of food handlers (data not shown) in the present
study. Klebsiella and Escherichia coli were the predominates,
supporting the concept of contamination by fecal bacteria
due to inadequate handwashing by the food handlers, which
are a cause of concern for the public [24]. Furthermore, only
15.5% of the food handlers in our institution had been
trained in safe food handling practices.
Escherichia coli is a normal flora usually present in the
intestine even though some serotypes (i.e., 0157:H7) can
cause serious diseases to humans [25]. It is normally absent
in hands, and the presence of this bacterium gives a clue of
current fecal contamination with enteric pathogens [26].
Foods that are contaminated with Escherichia coli and
Staphylococcus aureus that do not require further heat
treatment could cause food-borne illnesses [27]. Escherichia
coli was detected on the hands of 2.7% of food handlers’ in
the current study, which is in accordance with 1.8%–3.9%
isolation rates reported in earlier studies [17, 28, 29].
However, this figure is lower than 22%, 10.9%, and 7.8%
carriage reported in Jimma, Iran, and Turkey, respectively
[16, 19, 28]. e difference between our results and the other
studies may be attributed to sampling techniques as well as
the different used methods for detection.
Pathogens that can be originated from undercooked or
uncooked animal products like Proteus and Klebsiella can
contaminate hands of food handlers from where they could
be transferred to foods and the customers [16]. Pseudomonas
aeruginosa is resistant to most antibiotics and disinfectants;
hence, when transferred to foods through the nails of food
handlers, food poisoning may occur, and isolating or
identifying this pathogen is dangerous [27].
In the present study, no intestinal parasites were detected
in the fingernails of food handlers. is finding is in line with
the result obtained from study done earlier in Gondar town,
Ethiopia and Makkah, Saudi Arabia [9, 10]. ough, other
previous reports indicated the presence of intestinal para-
sites in the fingernails contents of study participants [29, 30].
Likewise, all of the food handlers were not positive for
salmonella and Shigella species in respect of their fingernail
contents in the present study, which is also in line with
previous studies done in Gondar [10, 17] and Abuja, Nigeria
[29].
e Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative
Staphylococcus found in the finger nail content were re-
sistant to multiple antibiotics in this study. Staphylococcus
aureus isolated from finger nail contents was resistant to
methicillin. If it is transmitted to patients, it may cause
epidemics in patients. e finding of this study is consistent
with the previous study done in Gondar University Cafe-
teria, Northwest Ethiopia [17].
Table 2: Hygienic practices of food handlers (n220), in relation to finger nail bacterial isolates, working at food service establishments in
Debre Markos University (1st January 2015 to 31st June 2016).
Variables Total Bacterial culture result from finger nail Association
Positive n(%) Negative n(%)
Finger nail status
Trimmed 131 32 (24.4) 99 (75.6) X24.075
Not trimmed 89 33 (37.1) 56 (62.9) P0.044
Hand washing after using the toilet
Yes 214 63 (29.4) 151 (70.6) X20.043
No 6 2 (33.3) 4 (66.7) P0.837
Hand washing after touching body parts
Yes 22 5 (22.7) 17 (77.3) X20.546
No 198 60 (30.3) 138 (69.7) P0.460
Table 3: Types of bacteria isolated from finger nail content of food
handlers (n220) working at food service establishments in Debre
Markos University (1st January 2015 to 31st June 2016).
Bacteria Frequency Percent (%)
Coag. Neg. Staph 27 12.3
S. aureus 11 5
Klebsiella spp. 6 2.7
Escherichia coli 6 2.7
Enterococcus spp. 4 1.8
Proteus species 3 1.4
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 1.4
Serratia species 2 0.9
Citrobacter species 3 1.4
None 155 70.5
Total 220 100
Coag. Neg. Staph: coagulase-negative Staphylococcus.
4Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
In the current study, there was significant association
between bacterial isolation rate and service years (P0.048).
is finding is in line with the result obtained from the
previous study done in Debre Markos Ethiopia [13]. However,
this was in contrary with the findings from Addis Ababa and
Arba Minch University, South Ethiopia [31, 32] where no
statistical significant association between bacterial isolation
and service was seen. is result indicated that food handlers
with more work experience have less risk of bacterial finger
nail isolation. is could be explained as food handlers with
more work experience have better personal hygienic practices
than inexperienced food handlers [13].
Colonization of bacteria on hands can be facilitated by
having untrimmed fingernails because it makes hand
Table 4: Sociodemographic characteristics of food handlers (n220), in relation to finger nail bacterial positivity, working at food service
establishments in Debre Markos University (1st January 2015 to 31st June 2016).
Variables Total Bacterial culture result from finger nail Association
Positive n(%) Negative n(%)
Sex
Male 67 18 (26.9) 49 (73.1) X20.332
Female 153 47 (30.7) 106 (69.3) P0.564
Age in years
20 20 6 (30) 14 (70)
21–30 189 56 (29.6) 133 (70.4)
31–40 6 1 (16.7) 5 (83.3) X20.743
41–50 5 2 (40) 3 (60) P0.863
Educational level
Primary (1–8) 64 20 (31.2) 44 (68.8)
Secondary (9–12) 71 20 (28.2) 51 (71.8) X20.155
Postsecondary(>12) 85 25 (29.4) 60 (70.6) P0.926
Service years
<1 51 22 (43.1) 29 (56.9) X26.092
1–2 101 27 (26.7) 74 (73.3) P0.048
>2 68 16 (23.5) 52 (76.5)
Certified in food preparation and handling
Yes 34 10 (29.4) 24 (70.6%) X20.000
No 186 55 (29.6) 131 (70.4) P0.985
Medical check-up
Yes 138 43 (31.2) 95 (68.8) X20.463
No 82 22 (26.8) 60 (73.2) P0.496
Table 5: Antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. aureus and CNS isolated from finger nail cultures of food handlers working at food service
establishments in Debre Markos University (1st January 2015 to 31st June 2016).
Antimicrobial agents tested Sensitivity pattern Staphylococcus aureus (n11), no. (%) CNS (n27), no. (%)
Methicillin S 10 (90.9) 25 (92.6)
R 1 (9.1) 2 (7.4)
Vancomycin S 11 (100) 27 (100)
R 0 (0) 0 (0)
Amoxicillin S 5 (45.5) 17 (63)
R 6 (54.5) 10 (37)
Ampicillin S 4 (36.4) 19 (70.4)
R 7 (63.6) 8 (29.6)
Penicillin S 4 (36.4) 16 (52.3)
R 7 (63.6) 11 (40.7)
Ciprofloxacin S 10 (90.9) 22 (81.5)
R 1 (9.1) 5 (18.5)
Tetracycline S 5 (45.5) 15 (55.6)
R 6 (54.5) 12 (44.44)
Erythromycin S 9 (81.8) 24 (88.9)
R 2 (18.2) 3 (11.1)
Cotrimoxazole S 9 (81.8) 25 (92.6)
R 2 (18.2) 2 (7.4)
CNS: coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus, N number, R resistant, S sensitive.
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology 5
washing difficult and less effective. Wachukwu et al. have
showed that food handlers with long nail become colonized
and become a possible risk for transmission of pathogens
[27]. In addition, a study conducted by Lau et al. on removal
of Escherichia coli hands with natural or artificial fingernails
indicated that untrimmed fingernails tend to carries more
microorganisms than untrimmed nails [33]. Our study also
indicated statistically significant association between the
isolation of bacteria and finger nail status (P0.044).
In our study, no significant association was found for
finger nail bacterial content by sex, age, educational back-
ground, medical checkup, training status, and hand washing
habit of food handlers. However previous study conducted
in Jimma indicates significant association between bacterial
hand contamination rates with age [16]. Similarly, finding in
Sari, northern Iran, showed that statistical significant as-
sociation was observed particularly bacterial infestation
comparable for educational level and handwashing practice
after using toilet [22]. But this may be due to the small
sample size.
5. Conclusion
In general, the present study emphasized the use of different
intervention measures that can be used to decrease or
eliminate contamination of foods by food-handlers as well as
spread of pathogens to the customers or the public.
erefore, creating awareness specially on food handling
practices and hygienic measures of food handlers is a crucial
issue to prevent the food poisoning pathogens. Specially,
individuals with long finger nail harbor food debris, mi-
crobial contaminations, and allergens. erefore, their use
should be under control or supervision by the responsible
body in the institution with much customers.
Abbreviations
WHO: World Health Organization.
Data Availability
e data used to support the findings of this study are
available from the corresponding author upon request.
Conflicts of Interest
e authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ Contributions
AM was the primary researcher and conceived the idea for
this study. AR participated in data collection, conducted data
analysis, and drafted and finalized the manuscript for pub-
lication. YA participated in data collection, conducted data
analysis, and drafted and finalized the manuscript for pub-
lication. AR and YA read and approved the final manuscript.
Acknowledgments
e authors acknowledge the financial support by the Debre
Markos University College of medical and health sciences.
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Table 6: Antimicrobial resistance pattern of different Gram-negative bacterial species isolated from finger nail content of food handlers
working at food service establishments in Debre Markos University (1st January 2015 to 31st June 2016).
Bacterial isolate Total Sensitivity pattern n (%) Ampicillin Gentam Tetracy Ciprof Cotrimoxazol Chlora Norflo
Escherichia coli 6S 2 (33.3) 4 (66.7) 3 (50) 6 (100) 5 (83.3) 3 (50) 6 (100)
R 4 (66.7) 2 (33.3) 3 (50) 0 (0) 1 (16.7) 3 (50) 0 (0)
Klebsiella spp. 6S 2 (33.3) 4 (66.7) 4 (66.7) 6 (100) 5 (83.3) 4 (66.7) 6 (100)
R 4 (66.7) 2 (33.3) 2 (33.3) 0 (0) 1 (16.7) 2 (33.3) 0 (0)
Citrobacter spp 3S 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3) 2 (66.7) 3 (100) 3 (100) 1 (33.3) 3 (100)
R 1 (33.3) 2 (66.7) 3 (33) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (66.7) 0 (0)
Enterobacter spp 4S 3 (75) 3 (75) 3 (75) 4 (100) 4 (100) 3 (75) 4 (100)
R 1 (25) 1 (25) 1 (25) 0 (0) 1 (25) 0 (0)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3S 1 (33.3) 2 (66.7) 2 (66.7) 3 (100) 2 (66.7) 2 (66.7) 3 (100)
R 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3) 1 (33.3) 0 (0) 1 (33.3) 1 (33.3) 0 (0)
Seratia 2S 1 (50) 1 (50) 2 (100) 2 (100) 2 (100) 1 (50) 2 (100)
R 1 (50) 1 (50) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (50) 0 (0)
Proteus 3S 2 (66.7) 3 (100) 2 (66.7) 3 (100) 3 (100) 1 (33.3) 3 (100)
R 1 (33.3) 0 (0) 1 (33) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (66.7) 0 (0)
SPP: species; Gentam: gentamycin; Tetracy: tetracycline; Ciprof: ciprofloxacin.
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Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology 7
... Escherichia coli (1.9%) and Klebsiella spp (0.7%). This is similar to bacterial isolates from fingernails of food handlers in other countries like Saudi Arabia (23), Nigeria (28), Ethiopia (29)(30)(31) and Iran (32). Coagulase-negative staphylococci are normal flora of the skin, which explains why they are the predominant bacteria isolate from finger nails in the present study. ...
... The prevalence of S. aureus reported in the present study (14.8%) is lower than the rates in studies conducted in Gondar, Ethiopia with 16-16.5% (29,30), Saudi Arabia with 17.5% (23) and Iran with 46% (32), but is higher than the rates reported from studies from Nigeria with 7.1% (28) and northwest Ethiopia with 5% (31). Many studies have reported high prevalence of S. aureus from nasal and throat swabs including 21.6% in Sudan (3), 20.5% in Gondar, Ethiopia (33), 31% in Egypt (34) and 23.1% in Anatolia, Turkey (21). ...
... The S. aureus isolates showed multiple resistance to antibiotics and were resistant to fosfomycine (82.6%), erythromycin (47.8%), ofloxacin (43.5%), ciprofloxacin (43.5%), and gentamicin (39.1%), but highly sensitive to pristinamycin (87%). Although, we did not test for methicillin resistance among the S. aureus isolates in our study, other studies had reported high resistance of S. aureus to methicillin and emphasized the importance of the emergence and dissemination of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which has complicated the therapeutic management of staphylococcal infections (30,31,33). ...
Article
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Background: Food-borne diseases are a global public health problem, most especially in developing countries. Food handlers with a low level of personal hygiene may be colonized or infected by a wide range of enteric pathogenic micro-organisms including intestinal parasites and bacteria. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among male food handlers in Laghouat province, southern Algeria. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, stool samples and fingernail samples of both hands were collected from 155 randomly selected male food handlers. Stool specimens were examined by direct wet mount, formalinether concentration, xenic invitro culture and staining methods for parasitological identification. For bacterial isolation, standard culture media including Hektoen agar, Salmonella-Shigella (SS), Mannitol salt, and Blood agar plates were used. Conventional biochemical tests were used for identification of S. Typhi and S. aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) was performed for bacterial isolates by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Data analysis was done using Minitab version 19 software, and Pearson’s Chi-square test was used to determine association between categorical variables. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The overall prevalence rate of intestinal parasites among the study subjects was 40% (62/155). Blastocystis spp was the most frequent parasite isolated (16.8%), followed by Giardia intestinalis (8.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.7%), Entamoeba coli (3.2%), Trichomonas intestinalis (2.6%) and Endolimax nana (1.3%). Stool cultures revealed 4 (2.6%) positive samples for S. Typhi, and S. aureus was isolated from fingernail contents of 23 (14.8%) subjects. All S. Typhi isolates were sensitive to imipenem and ciprofloxacin while S. aureus isolates show high sensitivity to pristinamycin. Hand washing with soap, finger nail status and clinical manifestations were significantly associated with intestinal parasitic infections, while clinical manifestation was the only factor associated with S. aureus infection. Conclusion: The present study indicates a high prevalence of pathogenic micro-organisms among male food handlers which highlight the important role of food handlers in the spread and transmission of foodborne infections, and thus requires more attention.
... The odds ratio for the most hand used was (0) that disapproved the affection of left nor right hand in increasing the bacterial growth on fingernails of children in agreement with the study done by WatutantrigeRanjit De Alwis., et al. who studied the CFU count of hands and showed no significant difference between both hands (right-hand P = 0.097, left-hand P = 0.096)[20]. Abeba Mengist., et al.[21] agreed with the current study that found the insignificant association between handwashing after using the toilet and bacterial growth on fingernails with a P value (0.837) while it disagreed with Watutantrige Ranjit De Alwis., et al. who studied The mean CFU count of both hands of the students and it was significantly higher after toilet use (right-hand P = 0.001, left-hand P = 0.003)[20]. However, the other expected risk factors (i.e., recent GIT infection) were not associated with bacterial fingernail rate.61 ...
... A lot of studies isolated the same bacteria from fingernails such as; Ukaegbu-obi et. al. and Mengist., et al.[12,21] 58 (93.5%) of the isolated bacteria were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin as in the study conducted by AbebaMengist et. al. who found also; all of the isolated bacteria from fingernails were more sensitive to ciprofloxacin[21] 40 (64.5%) of isolated bacteria were sensitive to Gentamicin, except for Staphylococcus aureus as Kelechi M. Ukaegbu-Obi., et al. also reported the sensitivity for Gentamicin by all of the isolated bacteria except for Staphylococcus spp. ...
... al. and Mengist., et al.[12,21] 58 (93.5%) of the isolated bacteria were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin as in the study conducted by AbebaMengist et. al. who found also; all of the isolated bacteria from fingernails were more sensitive to ciprofloxacin[21] 40 (64.5%) of isolated bacteria were sensitive to Gentamicin, except for Staphylococcus aureus as Kelechi M. Ukaegbu-Obi., et al. also reported the sensitivity for Gentamicin by all of the isolated bacteria except for Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp[12]. ...
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Abstract Background: Recently a lot of studies focused on the global occurrence of resistant bacteria carriages. Fingernails are a perfect area for harboring bacteria. Children are the most age categories who harbor pathogenic bacteria in their fingernails. Objective: This was a prospective cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to identify the pathogenic bacteria isolated from the fingernails of children in the Shendi locality; it also studied their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methodology: The study included (70) participants, 37 (53%) males, and 33 (47%) females, within the age group (1- 10) years. Nails were collected and firstly cultured on nutrient broth then on blood agar and MacConkey incubated aerobically at 37c° for 24 hours.Isolated organisms were identified according to their colonial morphology, indirect gram staining reaction, biochemical tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done by the disc diffusion method. Result: The study revealed that 61 (87%) of children showed bacterial growth from fingernails. The isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus18 (29.1%), Bacillus spp 11 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 2 (3.2%), Klebsiella spp12 (19.3%), Enterobacter spp8 (13%),Citrobacter spp6 (9.6%), Proteus vulgaris4(6.5%) and Salmonella spp1 (1.6%). Ciprofloxacin 58 (93.5%) and Gentamicin40 (64.5 %)were the most effective antibiotics against the isolated bacteria in contrast they were mostly resistant to Nitrofurantoin 53 (85.5%),Amoxiclav 45(72.6%) and Doxycycline 39 (63%). Conclusion: Long nails and playing behaviors of children were the main factors for harboring bacteria in fingernails. Staphylococcus aureus was the most isolated bacteria while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antimicrobial agent used. Keywords: Pathogenic Bacteria; Fingernails; Shendi; Children; Antimicrobial Susceptibility
... Food handlers that are chronic carriers and excrete bacteria may contaminate foods. Beneath the fingernail is a habitat for spreading pathogenic bacteria because it is an area where people hardly concentrate when performing hand hygiene (Mengist et al., 2018). Although, in Ahmadu Bello University food handlers are screenedyearly for some foodborne pathogens, published research on the risk factors and bacterial contamination associated with the food handler's hand are scarce. ...
... However, it is not normally found in the hands, and the presence of Escherichia coli gives an indication of recent fecal contamination with enteric bacteria. Escherichia coli is considered one of the enteric pathogens capable of being transmitted by food handlers if hand hygiene is inadequate (Mengist et al., 2018). Salmonellasub-specie 3b isolated from one of the food handlers' hand showed that hand hygiene practice was grossly inadequate, as it is known that Salmonellae specie, is always pathogenic anytime it is isolated from human body. ...
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Food and water borne diseases are leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This study identified bacterial agents contaminating the hands of food handlers at Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. A total of 205 food handlers were recruited, their hands were swabbed, processed to isolate and identify bacteria using standard microbiological techniques. Of the two hundred and five (205) participants, fifty-five (55) were positive for bacterial contamination (26.8%). Fifty-nine (59) different bacteria strains were isolated; Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest with the frequency of 29(49%). Other foodborne pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli 4(6.8%) and Salmonella subspecies IIIb 1(1.7%). It has been shown from this study that a significant proportion of food handlers’ hands were contaminated with bacterial agents. Therefore, optimizing hand hygiene programmes among food handlers will help to minimize food contamination. Keywords: Hygiene, Food, contamination, Bacteria
... Besides, food handlers with untrimmed fingernails may contribute to or facilitate the spread of microorganisms that cause food poisoning. (Mengist et al., 2018). However, it was found that a small number of 6.5% in Kuching, 3% in Kuala Penyu, and 17% in Gurun were using nail polish which is against the law. ...
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Food safety remains a major issue around the world particularly when the COVID-19 pandemic becomes the main issue nowadays. Food safety is essential to the human population worldwide because food is the primary energy source and nutrition for humans. Therefore, food handlers' personal hygiene is one of the factors that are necessary to maintain food safety. The purpose of this study was to assess the food handler’s compliance with personal hygiene practices in randomly any food outlets across Malaysia including Kuching, Sarawak; Lawas, Sarawak; Johor Bahru, Johor; Kuala Penyu, Sabah, and Gurun, Kedah. A quantitative method, a cross-sectional descriptive study to one thousand and five (N = 1005) food handlers who participated in the questionnaire and observation checklist was developed by modifying questions in accordance with the Food Hygiene Regulations 2009. Overall, the mean percentage of conformity in adhering to food handler attire was the highest observed at Gurun, Kedah and Kuala Penyu, Sabah with 86.96% and 80.79%, respectively, followed by Kuching, Sarawak with 77.5%, Johor Bahru with 76.71%, and Lawas, Sarawak with 74.93%. Personal hygiene practices conformity showed a high mean percentage with all districts scoring >91% higher than non-conformity. The food handlers also show less unhygienic behaviour while on duty and scored a mean percentage of > 92%. Although in that positive behaviour, some of the food handlers did not perform some unhygienic practices (≤ 8 %). In conclusion, there is no significant difference (p-value > 0.05) in the level of conformity between the mean percentages among all districts. Thus, this issue shall raise a concern to the food industries in order to make sure their workers comply with the legal requirement and to avoid any food poisoning outbreak related to food hygiene and food safety in the future.
... Paha ayam merupakan bagian yang sering disentuh oleh pembeli pada saat memilih ayam yang akan dibelinya. Kuku diketahui dapat menjadi transmisi mekanis dari ayam ke kembali dan dari kuku pembeli ke ayam yang disentuh selanjutnya [46]. E. coli juga ditemukan pada jaringan kulit tangan yang terinfeksi [47]. ...
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... The microbiota of the hair and fingernails, highly keratinized structures, is highly variable among human beings, but the presence of unique individual signatures might have applications in forensic science [78]. Moreover, fingernails can be easily colonized by a range of microbes, including pathogens that can represent a possible source of infection [79][80][81]. ...
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The human skin microbiota is essential for maintaining homeostasis and ensuring barrier functions. Over the years, the characterization of its composition and taxonomic diversity has reached outstanding goals, with more than 10 million bacterial genes collected and cataloged. Nevertheless, the study of the skin microbiota presents specific challenges that need to be addressed in study design. Benchmarking procedures and reproducible and robust analysis workflows for increasing comparability among studies are required. For various reasons and because of specific technical problems, these issues have been investigated in gut microbiota studies, but they have been largely overlooked for skin microbiota. After a short description of the skin microbiota, the review tackles methodological aspects and their pitfalls, covering NGS approaches and high throughput culture-based techniques. Recent insights into the “core” and “transient” types of skin microbiota and how the manipulation of these communities can prevent or combat skin diseases are also covered. Finally, this review includes an overview of the main dermatological diseases, the changes in the microbiota composition associated with them, and the recommended skin sampling procedures. The last section focuses on topical and oral probiotics to improve and maintain skin health, considering their possible applications for skin diseases.
... Staphylococcus colonies showed resistance to most antibiotic that had been used in the study as listed in table (2), Staphylococcus spp. Also show sensitivity to three types of antibiotics (Nitrofuranton, Gatifloxacin and Clindamycin), many researchers reported that Staphylococcus which isolated from finger nail have multiple antibiotic resistant [6,17,18] . ...
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Full-text available
This study was designed for isolation and diagnosis of bacteria from under long dinger nails of a wide population of student (kindergarten, primary schools, elementary schools and university students) and study the antibiotic sensitivity for isolated bacteria. From 100 sample the bacterial isolate were Staphylococcus sp.(56 isolate), Bacillus sp.(1 isolate), Streptococcus sp. (1 isolate), Escherichia coli (40 isolate), Salmonella (2 isolate), Enterobacter(10 isolate), Klebsiella (10 isolate), Serratia (5 isolate) and Pseudomonad (6 isolate). The most effected antibiotic on all types of bacteria isolated from under the long nail was Gatifloxacin and the lowest effect was Cefazolin antibiotic. The concept of the study was isolating and determining bacteria, found under the long fingernails and studying their antibiotic sensitivity.
... Staphylococcus colonies showed resistance to most antibiotic that had been used in the study as listed in table (2), Staphylococcus spp. Also show sensitivity to three types of antibiotics (Nitrofuranton, Gatifloxacin and Clindamycin), many researchers reported that Staphylococcus which isolated from finger nail have multiple antibiotic resistant [6,17,18] . ...
... Staphylococcus colonies showed resistance to most antibiotic that had been used in the study as listed in table (2), Staphylococcus spp. Also show sensitivity to three types of antibiotics (Nitrofuranton, Gatifloxacin and Clindamycin), many researchers reported that Staphylococcus which isolated from finger nail have multiple antibiotic resistant [6,17,18] . ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed for isolation and diagnosis of bacteria from under long dinger nails of a wide population of student (kindergarten, primary schools, elementary schools and university students) and study the antibiotic sensitivity for isolated bacteria. From 100 sample the bacterial isolate were Staphylococcus sp.(56 isolate), Bacillus sp.(1 isolate), Streptococcus sp. (1 isolate), Escherichia coli (40 isolate), Salmonella (2 isolate), Enterobacter(10 isolate), Klebsiella (10 isolate), Serratia (5 isolate) and Pseudomonad (6 isolate). The most effected antibiotic on all types of bacteria isolated from under the long nail was Gatifloxacin and the lowest effect was Cefazolin antibiotic. The concept of the study was isolating and determining bacteria, found under the long fingernails and studying their antibiotic sensitivity.
Article
This study was conducted to isolate and identify bacteria from human finger nails. A total of three nail samples were collected. The samples were collected from random people in which two of them were from females and one was from male. The isolated pathogens from finger nails include Bacillus species (2 isolates), coccus species (one isolate). Highest contamination of Bacillus species was isolated. After the colonies were being isolated, they were further characterized on the basis of biochemical characteristics including Indole test, Citrate test, Nitrate reduction test and Urease test. After that Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed to identify the resistance of a particular bacteria towards a given antibiotic i.e. Ampicillin, Chloromphenicol, Norfloxacin, Co-Trimoxazol and Ciprofloxacin. However the results obtained showed the resistance of isolates towards Ampicillin indicating the prevalance of potentially disease causing microbes under fingernails. This study showed the importance of nail hygiene.
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Background: Food borne diseases are major health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. The present study determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Shigella and Salmonella among food handlers working in students and staff food service establishments in Debre Markos University. Materials and methods: a laboratory based cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 food handlers from January 2015 to June 2016. Subjects stool and fingernail samples were cultured on bacteriological culture media and Shigella and Salmonella were isolated and identified following standard procedures. An antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for all isolates by using Kirby-baur disk diffusion method. Results: The overall prevalence of Shigella and Salmonella in this study was5.9%. Of these, 3.6% and 2.3% of the stool specimen tested positive for Salmonella and Shigella species, respectively. None of the food handlers showed positive culture for Shigella and Salmonella in respect of their finger nail specimens. Isolation of either Shigella or Salmonella hadsignificantly inverse relation with service years (P=0.017). All isolates of Shigella and Salmonella were 100% susceptible to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacillin and gentamicin. However, all isolated pathogens were resistant to ampicillin(100%). Conclusion: The findings of this study highlight the importance of food handlers in the transmission of pathogens to the customers (the students and general population). Screening of food handlers, training for food handling and hand hygiene practices and regular monitoring of the food handling practices should be done in order to avoid diseases that can be acquired through improper food handling like bacterial infections.
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Background The availability of safe food improves health of the people that contributes to productivity and provides an effective platform for development and poverty alleviation. On the other hand, unsafe food handling and processing can serve as a vehicle for the transmission of a variety of disease causing agents. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are therefore a public health problem in developed and developing countries which is also true for Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of Shigella and Salmonella among food handlers in Arba Minch University, South Ethiopia. MethodsA cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers in Arba Minch University students’ cafeteria from April- June, 2015. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic data and associated risk factors. Stool sample was collected and examined for pathogens following standard procedures. Biochemical tests were done to identify the species of pathogens and sensitivity test was done using Kirby- Baur disk diffusion technique. ResultsA total of 376 food handlers were enrolled in the study with the response rate of 100% for data collected by questionnaire. About 7.4% were aged less than 20 years with majority (63.3%) lay in the working age group of 21-35 years. However, a total of 345 food handlers participated for stool examination of whom, stool cultures revealed 6.9% of Salmonella and 3% Shigella isolates. Finger nail status (AOR=0.033), hand washing practice after toilet (AOR= 0.006) and touching food with bare hands (AOR= p < 0.001) were independent predictors of infectious enteric diseases among the food handlers. All isolated pathogens were resistant to amoxicillin (100%), followed by clarithromycin (41%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (35%). Conclusion The present study showed high prevalence of enteropathogens among the study participants. The study also revealed poor personal hygiene like poor practice of hand washing. Therefore, pre placement, in service training on personal and food hygiene should be provided to all food handlers with regular sanitary inspection to improve adherence of food handlers to personal hygiene and food safety practices.
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Food handlers with poor personal hygiene could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic bacteria. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of bacterial infestation among the food handlers attending the public health center laboratory in Sari, northern Iran for annual check-up. This study was performed from September 2013 to August 2014. Stool samples, fingernail specimens of both hands and nasal swabs were collected from 220 male and female food handlers of different jobs, aged between 17-65 years. The samples were cultured on bacteriological culture media and bacterial species were identified following standard procedures. A structured questionnaire was used to record sociodemographic and behavioral data analysis of the food handlers. Of the total 220 subjects examined, 62.2% showed positive culture for different bacterial species from their fingernail contents, 65.4% were found to be harboring Staphylococcus aureus in their nostrils and 0.9% tested positive for Shigella boydii from stool samples. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant bacteria isolated from fingernail specimens (46%), followed by Escherichia coli (29.2%), Coliforms (18.2%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.6%). This study showed a statistically significant difference in the rate of bacterial infestation between different occupational categories (p=0.04). Butchers showed the highest prevalence of bacteria (86.6%) in their fingernail contents, followed by fast food workers (76.5%), bakers (73.5%), chicken store workers (73%), school cafeterias staff (53.3%), restaurant workers (46.9%) and fruit/vegetables sellers (42.5%). The highest rate of nasal carrier for Staphylococcus aureus was observed among chicken store workers 14/17(20.8%). These findings indicate the need for intensive training/retraining and health education of all food service employees and strengthening the existing screening methods to control the problem of bacterial infestation in food handlers.
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Background Food contamination may occur at any point during its journey through production, processing, distribution, and preparation. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are a public health problem in developed and developing countries like Ethiopia.MethodA cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers in Addis Ababa student¿s cafeteria from January to May 2013. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic data and associated risk factors. Stool specimens were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Biochemical tests were done to identify the species of bacterial isolates. Sensitivity testing was done using Kirby- Baur disk diffusion method.ResultA total of 172 food handlers were enrolled in the study. The majority of study participants were females 134 (77.9%). About 78 (45.3%) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entameoba histolytica/dispar 68 (70.8%) followed by Giardia lamblia 18 (18.8%), Taenia species 5 (5.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 2 (2.1%), hookworm 2 (2.1%) and Trichuris trichiura 1 (1.1%). Stool cultures revealed 3.5% of Salmonella isolates (Sero-grouping on Salmonella isolate was not done), while Shigella species was not isolated from any of the stool samples obtained from Food handlers. All isolates of Salmonella were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin but resistant to ampicillin, clindamycin, and erythromycin.Conclusion The present study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasite in asymptomatic (apparently health) food handlers. Such infected food handlers can contaminate food, drinks and could serve as source of infection to consumers via food chain.
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