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Neanderthal: The Conference. Summary of the Calpe Conference 2018. New paradigm superseding outdated institutional inertia.

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Abstract

A major quagmire at the Calpe 2018 conference had to do with how genetically differentiated human populations of the Upper Palaeolithic are defined. There are three designations to deal with that are causing this morass, Neanderthals (Or equally other introgressive archaic humans), Homo sapiens and Modern Humans. A major reason for this dilemma in designated terms is that ever since the still young science of paleogenetics proffered very strong evidence of Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens hybridizing, there has remained a potent current of institutional inertia making opaque the sequential possibilities that ought to be postulated commonsense scenarios resulting from admixture. Asides from the paradigm shift in Neanderthal/Homo Sapiens admixture to the point of view of its affirmation and the institutional inertia refusing to acknowledge it, there is historically an even greater institutional inertia retarding the attainment of an objective scientific method which thus bears an artefactual evincing due to the subjective subterfuge of the androcentric propensity derived from human primate phylogeny.
SummaryoftheCalpeConference2018
Neanderthal:TheConference
Newparadigmsupersedingoutdatedinstitutionalinertia.
AmajorquagmireattheCalpe2018conferencehadtodowithhowgeneticallydifferentiated
humanpopulationsoftheUpperPalaeolithicaredefined. Therearethreedesignationsto
dealwiththatarecausingthismorass,Neanderthals(Orequallyotherintrogressivearchaic
humans),Homosapiensand Modern Humans. A majorreasonforthisdilemmain
designatedtermsisthateversincethestillyoungscienceofpaleogeneticsprofferedvery
strongevidenceofNeanderthalsandHomoSapienshybridising,therehasremainedapotent
currentofinstitutionalinertiamakingopaquethesequentialpossibilitiesthatoughttobe
postulatedcommonsensescenariosresultingfrom admixture. Iftheseeminglyirrefutable
datathathascomefrom paleogeneticsistobegivenatleastamodicum oftentative
acceptability by thosewhoremaindoubtfulasto itsveracity,itoughtto beequally
consideredtogetherwithanyotherevidencewithinthescopeofbeingplausiblyacceptable.
Sotherefore,thinkingthroughthementalfilterofadmixturefromnowoninthispiece,tobe
clearonallthreeterms,NeanderthalsandHomosapiensareclearlyallopatricallyspeciated
homininpopulations,butnotsomuchsothattheyhavelosttheabilitytointerbreed,and
ModernHumanswillbereferredtoaspossiblyintrogressedpopulationsbutnotnecessarily.
Thus,ModernHumansareHomosapienspopulationsinclusiveofintrogressedHomosapiens
andalsoHomosapiensthatwerenotdescendedfrom admixture,altogetherbothapurely
culturalmanifestationresultingfromthetechnologicalexplosionsoftheUpperPalaeolithic,
Neolithicandalltheothertechnologicalagesthatweretemporallyinconsistentwherethey
firstformed,orweresubsequentlyubiquitouslyadoptedthroughculturaltransmissionat
varyingratesarounddifferentpartsoftheworld.BeingaModernHuman,whichcouldhave
an admixture angle,isdefinable asbeing derived purely from culturaladaptations.
Introgressionisregisteredonthelargerscaleashavingoccurredfrom Neanderthalsinto
ModernHumans,hencethelowerpercentageratioofNeanderthalsDNA inHomosapiens,
despiteoriginallycouplingsproducinghybridchildrenwithintersexuallybilateraldescent
lineageseitherway,becausesapienswerethemoresizablepopulationwhichensuedthat
NeanderthalDNAgotmorediluted.
Therewasnoonebettertoapproachonthetopicofthenow outdatedbutstillpowerfully
influentialparadigmofNeanderthalscategoricallyneverhavinginterbredwithHomoSapiens
thanconferencespeakerSvantePääbo,
1oneofthefoundersofpaleogeneticswhohas
contributedtoanupmostdegreetotheworkontheNeanderthalgenomeproject.Iaskedhim,
me,now atotalNeanderthal/Homosapienshybridisationsupportereversinceithadbeen
demonstratedin2010,
1furtherreinforcedbyhavingalsoreadhisbook
1ontheNeanderthal
genomejustbeforetheconference,abouttheinstitutionalinertiaIkeptcroppingupwithin
anthropologicalliterature in general. In these works,though clearly accepting that
interbreedinghadtakenplace,therapidlyevolvingtechnologicalculturesoftheUpper
Palaeolithicareinvariablyalwayswrittenaboutasifthosepopulationswerecomposedofjust
purelyHomosapienswithnodifferentialintrogressionfrom Neanderthalseverhavingtaken
place.
2Ibelievedandexplainedtohim,thattherewasapossibilitythatallthepopulationsof
theUpperPalaeolithic,alongwiththeirimprovedtechnologiesmighthavebeencomposedof
descendantsofhybridNeanderthalsandHomosapiens
orotherhomininarchaics
suchasthe
DenisovansinAsiaandthatifthatweretruetherewouldhaveexistedthenahigher
percentageofgeneticadmixture
3retrospectively,thecloserintimetothefoundingadmixture
eventsthatmusthavetakenplaceinthepast,thinningoutintrogressivelyintoHomosapiens
astimepassed.Iwasabittakenabackbyhisreply,thereIwasinthecompanyoftheGuru
ofthenewandfactuallyverifiableNeanderthal/HomoSapienshybridsparadigm whichwas
substantivebased,notsubjecttoafancifulrealm becausemereinterpretationfrom bone
fossilscannotbringaboutthedeterminate
4
phylogeneticalresolvabilitythatpaleogeneticscan.
Withoutinanywayrejectingmypositedscenario,Svanteansweredthattoknow thatwe
wouldhavetowaituntilweextractenoughpaleogeneticsevidencefrom themodernhuman
remainsofawiderangeofindividualsthatleftbehindfossils,whosuccessivelycontributed
totheacceleratedrateoftechnologicaldevelopmentthroughouttheUpperPalaeolithic.With
theabsolutedearthofcontemplationinrecentlypublishedpostadmixturediscoverywritings
onNeanderthalsonthepossibilitythatthepeopleoftheUpperPalaeolithicweregenerally
introgressed,theactofaffirmativelyconcludingontheoppositeextremebeforehavinghadit
verified,wouldhavebeenthewayofablindzealot. Temperinganysuchtendencyinme
andinaccordwithacceptedstandardsandusageofthescientificmethod,Svanteverywisely
chosetheonlycourseofactioninwhichitwillonedaybepossibletounbiasedlyansweron
whether Eurasian populations,progressively throughoutthe UpperPalaeolithic,were
composedofintrogressedancestry. ImaginewhentheresultsprovingNeanderthal/Homo
sapiensadmixturefirstcameout,howdifficultitmusthavebeentogoagainstthegrainof
theolder,now generallythoughtdisprovedparadigm! Onlyworkshowingabsolutelyno
errorinitsmethodcouldhavegainedanycredence. Ifpaleogeneticscouldinthefuture
makeuseofhopefullycopiouscasesofpreservedgeneticmaterialfrom theremainsof
ModernHumansrepresentativeofoverallpopulationdistributionthroughouttheUpper
Palaeolithictodetermineintrogression,thiswouldbeastraightforwardwaytoelicitthe
extentofitthen.Additionally,extrapolatingfrom whatisknownatpresent,itspossibleto
calculatethatifthemid-latitudebelt,around40degreesnorthacrossEurasiafairlywell
representsthehomeoftheNeanderthals,
5andeveryonewithrecentancestryfrom outside
Africa,beitEurasian,Australasian,ornativeAmericanhassomeNeanderthalancestry,then
admixturewithNeanderthalsmusthaveoriginallybeen,relativetothepresent,atveryhigh
concentrationslevelsintheNeanderthalhomerangeandinneighbouringregions,possibly
highenoughsothateveryoneintheEurasianUpperPalaeolithicModernHumanpopulation
wasinaveryshortspaceofintergenerationaltimeatleastpartially adescendantof
interbreeding. Thespreadofbeneficialtraitswouldhavebeenhelpedalongandspeededup
byadaptiveintrogression,
6theresultofbeneficialintrogressedtraitswhicharemaintainedby
naturalselectionandcanaccelerateadaptationintheenvironmentoftheevolutionary
adaptivenessevenifthismarkedlychanges.
StuartFinlaysons
7talkon
DidNeanderthalsliveincolderclimatesthanModernhumans
withinEurasia
?
8Ifound,wascreativelyverythoughtprovokingwhenanalysedusingthe
new,now almostdecadal,paradigm ofNeanderthal/Homo sapiensadmixture. Stuart
convincingly,Ithought,posited thatNeanderthalshad notbeen adapted to a colder
environmentthanModernHumans. Outofcuriosity,becauseoftheinstitutionalinertia
propellingalackoffaithinNeanderthal/Homosapienshybridisation,IaskedStuartduring
questiontimeifwhenhementionedModernHumanshemeantjustpureHomosapiensor
introgressedindividuals? Ihadtoaskmyquestiontwicebecausehedidnotseem to
comprehendwhatIwasasking,butClivedidandcooperativelysaidoutloudhybridsto
audiblyenlightenhim towhichStuartansweredacategoricalno,hehadnottakenthe
possibilityofadmixtureintoaccount,notseemingtomyperceptiontohaveanyinclinationto
doso.Curiously,theinstitutionalinertiaofnotconsideringthepossibilityanyhybridisation
mighthavetakenplacewouldnotaffecttheresultsofhisworkiftheNeanderthalsand
ModernHumansStuartwasreferringtowereNeanderthalsandHomosapiensintrogressed
withNeanderthals. Hadadaptiveintrogressionbeenthesceneofadmixturedifferentially
spreadinglikeselectivewildfire,thenModernHumans,definedasgiveninthebeginningof
thispiece,wouldhavehadinheritedtheexactbiologicaladaptationsforthecoldfrom their
partly Neanderthalancestry. Therefore,ifthe Neanderthal/Homo sapiens admixture
paleogeneticsevidenceissubstantiveandnotartefactual,whatStuartisprovingisthat
NeanderthalsandintrogressedHomosapienswerejustascoldadaptedandgivingevidence
thatbacksadaptiveintrogression. Stuartsevidencestillholdsgroundandthereisno
artefactualresultbutthereispossiblyanartefactualnotion,thatofHomosapienswithout
admixture,justasintheconversationwithSavante,ifitcannotbeyetproved,itshouldat
leastbe considered as a possibility given the available evidence when calculating
environmentalrangeadaptationcomparisonsbetweenbothtypesofhominins.
Othercontributionsbythespeakers,incombination,supportedthesamemeasureofcold
adaptationsascribedtoNeanderthalsandModernHumans,ifthelatterwereintrogressedasa
hypotheticalrule. AfterhearingJohnShea´s
9talkinwhichhementionedthattheincreased
amountoftechnologicalevolutioncomplexityofhomininshasbearingsonaninherently
augmentedexpressionalmeaningabilityinlanguage,Iaskedhim duringanintermission
afterwardsthatifHomosapiensandNeanderthalsconcurrentlybothoriginallyhadthesame
levelofMousteriantechnologicalevolution,washesayingthatbecauseofthatwecanprove
thatbothhomininbrancheswereequallyadeptatlanguage,keepinginmindthatbothhadthe
lingualhyoidbonewiththesamecapacityforspeech?
10 Johnrepliedthatyes,wecan
correlatelanguageabilityfrom technologicalprowessforbothNeanderthalsandHomo
sapiens,whichwouldmakesensebecauseifculturallylanguagehadbeenusedtopropagate
technologiesthehighfidelityofinformationtransmissionbothsupportscumulativeculture
and promotes gene-culture coevolution"
11 John Sheas info complemented Francesco
dEnrrico´s
12 talkentitled,
Neandertalsandtheendoftheone-fossil-species-one-cognition
axiom
inwhichhepositedthatevaluationofcognitionbasedonsymbolicbehaviourshould
notberestrictedtoasinglebranchofhomininspecies. Alltold,thisideologically
supersededthenow discreditednotionthatonlyHomosapienshadevolvedthecognitive
applicationskillstoevolvefurtherthantheMousterianandthatanydistincthomininsthat
hadcomebeforeorexistedcontemporaneouslycouldnotcognitivelycompete."Strategic
highfidelitycopyingconfersfitnessbenefits,
11 soselectionforthatappliedtolanguage
wouldhavepositivefeedbackandthatmustbelinkedtotheacceleratedtechnological
innovationsoftheUpperPaleolithicotherwiseitwouldnothavehappened,ashominins
wouldneverhaveprogressed beyondobligatory toolusage.
13 Can thisattributable
commonalityinamountofappliedcognitioninNeanderthalsandH sapiensbesomeday
validatedifitisprovedthattheUpperPaleolithicemergingtechnologieswereproducedby
interbred peoplesand subsequentculturalmerging,becauseanyonealivetoday,even
populationsin sub SaharanAfricawho haveno Neanderthalancestry havethesame
capabilitytolearnfrom andre-applywhateveranylivingNeanderthaldescendantcan?
Motorimitationistheinnateabilityonreproducingthemovementsofanotherpersonso
wouldhavebeenessentialtopropagateculturallytransmittedlearntbehaviour,beitonly
visuallywithoutlanguageasinobligatorytoolusageorenhancedbylanguage,asin
vocalisinginthesamemannertoinduceexigentmeaningthatissymbolicallyreproducible
withfidelity."Fewotheranimalsarecapableofmotorimitation...andthosethatdoexhibit
thisform oflearningcannotimitatewithanythingliketheaccuracyandprecisionofour
species."
11 ProfessorPeterWheeler
14betweentalkscappedonallofthisbyaddingonestep
beyond whatStuartFinlayson had proposed in thatNeanderthalsand Homo sapiens
(Introgressedornot)wereequallyconstrainedtotemperatecoldadaptationsandnotinany
wayhyper-arctic,byadditionallyemphasizingthattheextantInuitfamilyclade,who´dI´d
mentionedtoPeterbuthadnotmyselfrealisedthefollowingdifference,hadthemselves
evolvedtobehyper-arctic. Weknow thattheInuitfamilycladealivetodayarealso
descendedfrom differentiallyintrogressiveNeanderthals/Denisovans
15 toHomo sapiens
populations,and thateven though they have through adaptive introgression inherited
adaptationsforcold environmentsfrom thesearchaichumans,
15 asStuartFinlayson´s
conferencetalkwouldindicateusingmydefinitionofaModernHuman,theyareculturally
hyper-arcticadaptedexclusivelythankstotheirtechnology.
Goodthingwithconferencesinvolvingphylogeneticanthropology,asisthecaseinmany
scientificdisciplines,isthatitdrawsontheconsilienceofnumerousfieldsofexpertiseandso
plentyofsubjectmattercanarisewhichoverlapsorbranchesoffthedesignatedcentraltheme.
Sciencebeingthesystematicstudyofthestructureandbehaviourofthephysicalandnatural
worldthroughobservationandexperimentrequiresthatitspractitionershaveathirstfor
knowledgeandbecausenopersonisanislandontothemselvesinthisgregariousspecies,itis
quitenormalfortangentstopiquethepersonalinterestsofothers.Formetherecouldnot
havebeenabettercommencementtotheCalpeConferencethanthefirstspeakerMilford
Wolpoffandthenoveltyinhistalk.Asidesfrom theparadigm shiftinNeanderthal/Homo
Sapiensadmixturetothepointofviewofitsaffirmationandtheinstitutionalinertiarefusing
toacknowledgeit,thereishistoricallyanevengreaterinstitutionalinertiaretardingthe
attainmentofanobjectivescientificmethodwhichthusbearsanartefactualevincingdueto
thesubjectivesubterfugeoftheandrocentricpropensity derived from human primate
phylogeny.Milfordadoptedthenew paradigm shiftinthataconsciouseffortoughttobe
madeindescribingourspeciesintersexually,nolongerManthespeciesbutHumanthe
species.Itoughttobecommonsensepracticethatwedo,butourprimatelegacyobfuscated
ourperceptivitywithandrocentricmyopiabeforeourcognitivelensgainedanintersexual
focusandrecognitionofit.
16 Heclearlysaid,talkingabouttoolmakinganduse,howafew
notablepaleoanthropologistsbelievedthat,usingormakingstonetoolswasconsideredthe
keyattributeinbecominghuman,andthathethought,womensadaptationispartofthe
humanadaptation,astheyhadproudlyusedtoolsaccordingtothesexspecificrolesthey
hadtoperform then.Humanshaveculturallyevolvedinwesternisedsocietiestonotbeing
strictlylimitedtosexspecificroles,thereexistingawiderangeofactivitiesthatare
nowadaysintersexuallyinterchangeable,unlikethebearingoforbreastfeedingchildren,
whilstpriortocompleteuniversalsuffrageitwasverymuchmanthehunterandwomanthe
domesticchildcarer.Humanhardwiredplasticity
17hasthroughcultureenabledourspecies
tochangetothepointthatwehaveevolvedintoadiscretepolyphenism,
16thephenomenon
wheretwoormoredistinctphenotypesareproducedfromthesamegenotype.Nothingbetter
asanexampleofhumanbehaviouralplasticitymouldinghumansintoanotherpolyphenismis
coevolving parentalinvestment. Whereby overalltaking care ofchildren was once
ubiquitouslyafemaledomain,menhavefacultativelyculturallyevolvedtobemorelikethe
maleSeahorsefishwhoobligatelygestatesinapouch,eggsthefemalelaysuntiltheyhatch
fullyformed. Eventhoughitisstillverymuchaminority,somestayathomefatherslook
afterthechildren whilstthemothersarethebreadwinnersbringing homethebacon.
Milfordscorrectassigningofconspecificintersexualityisconfirmedbytheintersexually
bilateraldescentnatureofthehumannucleargenome,halfmaternallyinheritedandtheother
halfpaternally.
18 Ithoughtthatitwascommendablethatheemphasisedtechnological
intersexualitybecauseunfortunatelymanyscientists,butnotall
18 stillrefertoourspecies
throughtheandrocentricclassificationofMan,avestigialartefactofbeingaprimatewitha
gensbasedlineagestructurewhichhasinnocentlyperpetuateditselffrom timeimmemorial
throughandrocentricmyopiaintoallmannerofbeingahominin.Idmentionedtohiminthe
CalpeConference2015,ofhowIthoughtthatourspecieshadevolvedeversinceuniversal
suffrageintoanewtypeofpolyphenism,thoughthejargondidescapemeatthetimeandI
gratefullyallowedhim tocorrectmeinwhatIsaidthen.
19 Milfordslecture,onhominin
phylogenyunaidedbypaleogenetics,gavemeapromiseforasenseoffuturemethodical
accuracywhenpaleogeneticsreachesthelimitsoftheagesinwhichancienthomininDNA
canstillbeextractedtoprovidediscernibilityassuch. ImentionedthistoJohnHawkswho
surprisedmeinsayingthatquitepossiblyscientistswillbeabletogobackintimefurther
thanwecanatpresentasancientDNArecoverymethodsimprove.JohnHawkssprediction
maywellsoonturnouttobetrueasCarlesLaluezaFoxstalkwasofstillanothermethodof
assorting species utilizing paleoproteonomic analysis in human evolution.
Paleoproteonomicsanalysisreferstothesystematicidentificationandquantificationof
distinguishableancientproteinsextractedfrom fossilsorganismsinwhichtheyremain,to
learnaboutthem andthesecanbecomparedtootherproteinsfrom otherfossilstofind
relationshipsin clades. Becauseso much ofhominin evolution tookplacein warm
environmentswherethethermalconditionsforDNApreservationlastingmorethanafew
tensofthousandsofyearshavenotexisted,paleoproteonomicswillbeabletoconclusively
enlightenusonthestillindeterminatephylogenyofHomininswhichMilfordhadtriedto
elaborateuponindicatingthatpresenttaxonomicalcategorisationsmightbeunsubstantiated.
Paleoproteonomicsisnottheendoftheverifiablephylogeneticroadinthesearchforancient
signaturesofbiologicaloriginsandscientistshavefoundmethodsofgoingbeyonditsown
erstwhiletemporallimits. JustafewdaysaftertheCalpeconferenceitwasannouncedin
themediathatDickensonia,
20a558millionyearoldfossilofacreaturehadbeenfordecades
sodifficulttoclassifythatithadeludedtaxonomicalgroupingintogeneralcategoriesof
lichens,fungi,protozoans,...plantsandanimals,” hadturneduptobeananimalafterall,
nowknownastheearliestanimalinthegeologicalrecord.Whathadgivenitaway,assisted
byitshigh-qualityfossilpreservationrate,wastheincontrovertiblyretainedresidueof
cholesterolfat,withinthefossils,distinctivelyattributabletoanimallife.
John Hawksmentioned something elsewhich Ifound quiteimportantwhich isthat
introgressioncanhappenbothways.TheimportanceofthisIthoughtisthatithighlightsthe
factthatonlydifferentialintrogressionfromNeanderthalsintoModernHumanshassurvived
which mightpossibly allbe credited to Homo sapiens being more populous than
Neanderthalsintherangesoutsidetheborderlinecontactzonewherediffusiveadmixture
tookplace.Iftherewerealwayssometypesofhomininslivingintheregionssurrounding
populationdemarcationsofanytendencytoallopatricspeciationtheninterbreedingmust
havebeenconstantwithmoresuccessfullineagesbecomingdominant,alsotendingto
speciate. Thereiscladisticevidencefortherebeingphylogeneticrootsforhumanlethal
violence
21 andifmaleintrasexualselectionwasbeneficialtohomininsingeneral
3their
lineagesmighthavespreadby adaptivedifferentialintrogression between populations
otherwiseinclinedtospeciation,throughintersexualselectionwithinthehomininclade,so
didthesuperiorphysicalstrengthofmaleNeanderthalsfuelintrogressionintoModern
Humans?IoncemoreapproachedSvantePääbo
1withanideainthehopethatpaleogenetics
mightbeabletoprovideananswertothatlastquestion.Afterlearningfromhisbook
1about
theexistenceofnuclearmitochondrialDNAsegments,IwonderedthatifmtDNAfragments
hadbeenincorporatedintoournucleargenomeatdifferenttimesinthepast,willtherebe
somedaysomewayofdeterminingiftheyhadbeenacquiredfromspecificancienthominins
andheaffirmativelyansweredthatquitepossiblyscientistswillindeedbeabletoachievethat.
Humansinheritintersexuallybilaterallineages combinedfrom bothmaternalandpaternal
bloodlines,soifwecouldevergaugethatmtDNA segmentsfrom someancientHomo
lineagesgotintegratedintoourgenomeandnototherancienthumantypes,wecouldperhaps
proveordisprovethatmaledepredationasanadaptationforreproductionhadbeenselected
forastherewouldbeexclusivity inthecompositionofthenuclearmtDNA.Theresults
couldthenbecomparedtothenormalmatrilinealmtDNAcomplimentingthenucleargenome
oftheindividualbeinganalysedandifverydifferenttheninferinterjectionoflineagesinto
anestablishedpopulation.ImentionedtoJohnHawksandheagreedthatfrompaleogenetics
weseem tobeseeingtheextinctionofsomeYchromosomelineageswhilstotherssurvived
thoughthecomplementarymtDNAlineagesmightnotbealwaysthesame,thereforesome
mtDNAlineageswerealsosurvivingorgoingextinctthoughnotparalleltoYchromosome
lineagesfrom thesamepopulation,whichIthoughtsoundedpossiblysuggestiveofthe
forcefultakeoveroffemalepopulationsasareproductiveresource.Whathadpromptedme
totouchondifferentiallycomplementarybilaterallyintersexuallineageswithJohnHawks
hadbeenthe400,000yearoldmtDNAextractedfromahomininfemurfoundatSimaDeLos
HuesoswhichalthoughitwascloselyrelatedthroughfemalelineagemtDNAtoDenisovans,
knownfrom anothersitethousandsofkilometresaway,thenuclearDNA from thesame
batchoffossilsfindscategorisedthem firmlyasNeanderthals.
22 Thiscanonlymeanthat
intersexualselectionmusthaveactedonthepopulationthatoncelivedaroundSimadelos
Huesos,replacingthemtDNA inthepopulationsthatremainedlateronasrecognizably
genomicallyintersexuallybilateralNeanderthals. ItispossibletheSimadeLosHuesos
populationhadatsometimeinitsfuture,throughdepredationasmeansofreproduction,
usurpedthefemalelineages,hencethemtDNA,ofanotherpopulationthroughselectivemale
intrasexualcompetitionwithintheHomogenus.Thedescendantsofsuchaneventcould
havebeenmoresuccessfulthantheirancestors,otherwiseallNeanderthalvariationwithin
andasadistinctgroupwouldnotbeidentifiableasNeanderthal,butallthatvariationanyway
mightalsobeconsequentiallyproducedbydepredatorymaleintrasexualcompetitionbut
cladisticallycloser. ItmightjustbethattheSimaDeLosHuesosmtDNA lineagewent
extinctbutwhyistheresuchacontrastinmtDNA ancestrywhencomparedtothefuture
branchesoftypicalNeanderthalmtDNA?Homicideisaveryplausibleexplanationgivenfor
thesituationtheSimadeLosHuesosfossilswerefoundinandiftheNeanderthalsaretheir
descendantstheycouldhaveinheritedhomicidaltendenciesfrom them. A previously
referencedstudyontheoriginsandevolutionoflethalviolenceinhumans,
21suggeststhata
certainleveloflethalviolenceinhumansarisesfrom theoccupationofapositionwithina
particularlyviolentmammalianclade,inwhichviolenceseemstohavebeenancestrally
present.Thismeansthathumanshavephylogeneticallyinheritedtheirpropensityforviolence.
Webelievethatthisphylogeneticeffectentailsmorethanameregeneticinclinationto
violence. Infact,socialbehaviourandterritoriality,twobehaviouraltraitssharedwith
relativesofH.sapiens,seem tohavealsocontributedto theleveloflethalviolence
phylogeneticallyinheritedinhumans.Ouranalysisofhumanlethalviolenceshowsthatlethal
violenceinprehistorichumansmatchesthelevelinferredbyourphylogeneticanalyses,
suggestingthatwewere,atthedawnofhumankind,asviolentasexpectedconsideringthe
commonmammalianevolutionaryhistory.Thisprehistoricleveloflethalviolencehasnot
remainedinvariantbuthaschangedasourhistoryhasprogressed,mostlyassociatedwith
changesinthesocio-politicalorganizationofhumanpopulations.Thissuggeststhatculture
canmodulatethephylogeneticallyinheritedlethalviolenceinhumans.” Inaconference
onprehistoryatJerezDeLaFronterainOctober2018,
23CecilioBarrosoRuiz,
24prehistorian
andpresidentofFIPEH
25 mentionedthatitwasratheroddthatNeanderthalremainswere
oftenfoundinplacesthatwererelativelydifficulttoaccesssuchasZafarrayacaveinthe
provinceofMalagabuthehadnoideawhy. TheNeanderthalbonesfoundtherehad
markingsstronglyindicatingthattheyhadbeendefleshedforthepurposeofcannibalistic
consumptionsoIsuggestedthatthesite,whichhadonlyshownsignsofrepetitiveveryshort
term usagemayhaveservedtoconcealconspecificpredation,thereforepossiblyshedding
light,Ithought,onNeanderthalbehaviourwhichmighthavehadatabooagainstthepractice,
or,ifnotonalargerpopulationscale,bepronetoretaliatorymeasuresbythesmallerscale
kingroupofthemurdereddeceased.IpositedsuchanideatoCecilioduringoneofthe
breaksbetweentalksandheremainedneutralonmyinterpretationofprehistoriceventsat
Zafarraya,replyingthathewasmerelyreportingonthescenariothereasitwasfound,thus
recordedinaccordance.IfCeciliosregisteringofcannibalisticbehaviourinrelationshipto
placesdifficulttoaccesswithmoredigsturnsouttobemorethanacoincidenceandcovert
behaviourinconspecificpredationasacomestibleresourcesuggeststhatbehaviouraltaboos
canbeascertained,thenallcreditshouldbegiventohimforemphasisingduringhistalkthe
peculiarityofthelocationoffindsandhisinabilityofexplainingtheconundrum.
Whatevertheoutcomeofmylatterhypothesisbuiltfrom Ceciliosstalk,beitproved
incorrectorvalidatedbyevenmorecorroboratingevidenceeitherway,oneveryimportant
lessonIlearntfrom theCalpeconferenceisevenifindividualscientistsorthegroupthey
associatethemselveswithareproventobewrongintheirassertions,havingformally
publishedthem,theycouldbeveryrightaboutotherthingswithoutwhichonesown
conclusions,thoughcontradictorytotheauthorspersuasions,wouldnothavebeenableto
materialisecoherentlywithout. Inanthropology,Ifind,itisimpossibletonothypothesise
becauseofthelackofdeterminateknowledgethereis,andscientistshavebeendoingtheir
best,takingmentaltackaccordingtothethenavailableevidencehenceostensiblyfactually
supportedconclusionsareboundtoberelegatedasartefactualwhennewevidencecomesin.
A supersededparadigm,accordingtotheevidencethatisusedtoembodyit,mightretain
manyelementswhichwillcontributetothenewreplacedparadigm.Ifoundsuchasituation
withCliveFinlayson,thedirectoroftheGibraltarNationalMuseum,whenIreadhisbook
TheHumansWhoWentExtinct
.
26Ialreadyknewbeforehandthathedcategoricallywritten
thathethoughtthatsubstantialadmixturebetweenNeanderthalsandHomosapiensnever
happened,buthisencyclopaedicknowledgeofecologicalcontextissecondtononeandI
wishthatotherwritersonAnthropologyweretousehisuniqueapproachasstandardwhich
unfortunatelytheystilldonot.Unlessweuseconsiliencetoexplainreality,whetherinthe
presentorinterpretedfrom thepast,theresultsweobtainwillbemoreindeterminate.
Accuracyininterpretationoftheenvironmentoftheevolutionaryadaptivenesshasbeenkey
tobeabletohavesuccessfullysurvived.InClivesbook,
26 he´dwrittenabouthow well
evolvedtheUpperPalaeolithicartwasin theartisticperfectexecutionofwildlife.
PromptedtoseesuchartmyselfonaGoogleimagesearch,Iwonderedasifcaughtupinan
enchantmentbyreadingthatparticularpassageathowstrangethatUpperPalaeolithicartists
couldpaintinsuchfinedetailbuthadnever,asfarasweknow,evercreatedanelaborate
depictionofthefaceofaconspecificeventhoughthey´dhadtheabilitytodoso. Imagine
thatifwehadfoundsuchaportraitofapersonwe´dbeabletotellwhattheylookedlike,
even,perhaps,seefacialsignaturesofintrogressionorornamentation. Iwonderedifthere
hadoncebeenatabooinrecreatingthefacesofconspecificsbecauseartmighthave
originated as interspecific futuristically directed behaviour with intenton hunting.
Alternatively,thinkingoutsidetheboxIhadjustnewlyinhabited,Ialsowonderedifthere
mightbesomeportraitonsomeundiscoveredcavethatweshallsomedaymarveluponbut
havejustnotfoundityet. Imentionedtheseideasandhow Icameaboutthem tothe
paleoartistMauricioAnton
28 whowasgivingatalkattheconferenceofshowinghow his
anthropologicallyrecreativeworkgivesabetterpictureofthepastbecauseitisportrayedin
thecorrespondingecologicalcontextofthetime.Hereallylovedmyideasandhadnever
himselfquestionedtheabsenceofUpperPalaeolithicportraitsthoughhethoughtitwasa
validpointwhenItoldhim.ThemorethatisinvestedbyGovernmentsandprivateconcerns
indiscoveringingreaterdetailaboutourancestorsthemorewewillhaveabetterpictureto
knowthereasonswhyModernHumanswithalltheirfailingshaveevolvedtobeastheyare
andbebetterequippedtosolvetheproblemsthatwehaveretainedorbecauseofthe
evolutionarybaggagewecarry,recentlydeveloped.
MythankstothefundersandorganizersoftheCalpeconferencesinbeingattheforefrontof
thisendeavourasthe motivatorsand information sourcesforan improved paradigm
exactitudeevolution,bringingtogetheraneclecticism ofideasthatsurvivethetestoftime,
reinforced by allthe new discoveriesmaking pastconundrums fade away into the
determinate.
References
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3)PlanetAndrew
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4)MenezAlex.BorrowingfromAlex´swordsoveraconversationwehadaftermeetingwalkinginIrishTowninwhichwhilstdiscussing
DavidReich´sbook,
WhoWeAreAndHowWeGotHere
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5)JohnHawksquotingCliveFinlaysononTwittertowhicheventIhadbeenwitnesstoandmentionedbacktoJohnrelativetoextentof
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m
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IdhadtheideathatbecausetheSimaDeLosHuesosproto-
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