ArticlePDF Available

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Breadfruit (A. altilis): Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Commercial Uses and Perspectives for Human Nourishment


Abstract and Figures

The Artocarpus J. R. & G. Forster genus is comprised of about 50 species. Artocarpus is derived from the Greek word artos, meaning bread while karpos means fruit. There are two species that are widely distributed in tropical regions, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., known as jackfruit, and Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg, known as breadfruit, both in the Moraceae or mulberry family. Both of these Artocarpus species have medicinal properties and biological activities that are derived from almost every part of the tree, fruit, seed, wood, bark, leaves and sap. This review examines the limited work that has been conducted on the biology and biotechnology of these two Artocarpus species with the hope that this knowledge may spur further basic and applied research.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation 15: 6180, 2018 ISSN 1823-3902
E-ISSN 2550-1909
Received 30 May 2017
Reviewed 04 October 2017
Accepted 13 October 2017
Published 15 October 2018
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Breadfruit (A.
altilis): Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Commercial Uses
and Perspectives for Human Nourishment
Reza Raihandhany1, Adhityo Wicaksono2, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva3*
1Department of Forestry Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology,
Bandung Institute of Technology (Jatinangor campus), Sumedang, West Java, 45363
2Laboratory of Paper Coating and Converting, Centre for Functional Material, Åbo
Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500 Turku, Finland
3P. O. Box 7, Miki-cho post office, Ikenobe 3011-2, Kagawa-ken, 761-0799, Japan
*Corresponding author:
The Artocarpus J. R. & G. Forster genus is comprised of about 50 species.
Artocarpus is derived from the Greek word artos, meaning bread while karpos
means fruit. There are two species that are widely distributed in tropical regions,
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., known as jackfruit, and Artocarpus altilis
(Parkinson) Fosberg, known as breadfruit, both in the Moraceae or mulberry family.
Both of these Artocarpus species have medicinal properties and biological activities
that are derived from almost every part of the tree, fruit, seed, wood, bark,
leaves and sap. This review examines the limited work that has been conducted on
the biology and biotechnology of these two Artocarpus species with the hope that
this knowledge may spur further basic and applied research.
Keywords: fruit, medicine, Moraceae, secondary metabolites, tropical tree
The genus Artocarpus (Moraceae), which contains food-producing plants that
are spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, consists of
about 50 species (Motley, 2014), but The Plant List (2018) lists 193 accepted
names for Artocarpus, although many of them are synonymous and unresolved
species. The word Artocarpus is a compilation of two Greek words, artos,
which means bread, and karpos, which means fruit (Jones et al., 2011).
Research Article
62 Raihandhany et al.
The species epithet of jackfruit, heterophyllus, is a compilation of two Greek
words, hetero, meaning different, and phyllus, which means leaf (Gupta,
2011). This implies existing variation in the shape and size of the leaves.
Jackfruit, which typically grows in the form of a tree, provides edible fruit and
medically potential secondary metabolites, is a source of timber, and has been
cultivated throughout China, Sri Lanka, India and Southeast Asia, but is also
found in Africa, the Caribbean islands, Brazil, Suriname and tropical parts of
Australia (Thaman & Ali, 1993). Jackfruit is known as nangka in Indonesia and
has various ethnobotanical properties that derive from its ripe fruit which
serve as ingredients for local sweets such as kolak and dodol in Java, young
fruit is consumed as a vegetable, and its leaves are used as cattle feed (Lim,
2012). Ash of leaves can be used to treat wounds and serve as medication to
treat ulcers (Gogte, 2000). Jackfruit timber is a good wood for furniture,
construction material, and musical instruments since it resists bacterial, fungal
and termite attacks (Orwa et al., 2009).
The methanolic extract of stem, root bark and heartwood, leaves, fruit, and
seed have multiple antibacterial compounds (Khan et al., 2003). One of those
compounds, artocarpin, is used as an antitermite agent (Shibutani et al.,
2006). The basal part of the fruit, which is fleshy, fibrous and rich in sugar,
provides a good natural source of carbohydrates and minerals such as calcium,
iron, magnesium, carboxylic acids, and vitamins A, C and E, primarily ascorbic
acid and thiamine (Rahman et al., 1999). Mature seed are edible when dried or
after cooking by boiling and roasting. Fresh mature seed contain 25 IU/100 g of
vitamin A, 4.3-6.6 g/100 g of protein, 23-25 g/100 g of calcium, 80-126 mg/100
g of phosphorus, and 10-17 mg/100 g of ascorbic acid (Acedo, 1992). In fresh
(raw) fruit, there are 23.25 g/100 g of carbohydrate, 24 mg/100 g of calcium,
0.23 mg/100 g of iron, 29 mg/100 g of magnesium, 110 IU/100 g of vitamin A,
13.7 mg/100 g of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and 0.34 mg/100 g of vitamin E (α-
tocopherol) (USDA, 2016). The latex which also has anti-syphilitic and
vermifuge properties, contains 71.8% resin, 63.3% of which are yellow fluavilles
and 8.5% white albanes that are useful for varnishes (Rao et al., 2014). A study
conducted in New Delhi and Kerala, India by Suba Rao (1983) showed that
jackfruit is symbiotically asociated with Azotobacter and Beijerinckia, 35 and 4
× 104/g soil, respectively at pH 6.8-7.5, and 14 and 18 × 104/g soil, respectively
at pH 3.5-5.5. According to Prakash et al. (2009), a hot water extract of
jackfruit leaves when consumed orally by humans at 20 g/kg of the patient’s
weight, improves glucose tolerance for mature-onset diabetic patients, while
the crude methanolic extract of jackfruit parts (stem, root heartwood, bark,
leaves, fruits and seeds) and their subsequent partitioning with petrol,
Jackfruit and breadfruit: a review 63
dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol gave fractions that exhibited
broad spectrum antibacterial activity, the most active fraction being the
butanolic extract of fruits and root bark. An extract from jackfruit shoots also
revealed nematicidal activity against Rotylenchulus reniformis,
Tylenchorynchus brassicae, Tylenchus filiformis and Meloidogyne incognita
(Sharma & Trivedi, 1995 cit. Prakash et al., 2009).
The species epithet of A. altilis, the word altilis itself is a Greek word that
means fat, refers to the fruit shape (Small, 2011). Breadfruit, also a source of
food, was first cultivated in the Western Pacific about 3,000 years ago and is
native to the eastern part of Indonesia, New Guinea, Malaysia and the
Philippines (Orwa et al., 2009). The migration of Polynesians to South and
South America, Africa (Senegal, Ghana, and Liberia), India, Maldives and Sri
Lanka contributed to the distribution of breadfruit (Deivanai & Bhore, 2010).
The breadfruit tree is often employed in a mixed cropping system with yams,
banana, black pepper and coffee, although details of these cropping systems
are lacking (Ragone, 1997). The fruit of ripe breadfruit can be eaten fresh or
cooked by steaming, roasting and frying (Ragone, 1997). Leaves and the non-
edible part of fruit can be used as cattle feed while tree bark can also serve as
feed for horses (Morton, 1987). In Samoa and several Pacific Islands, bark is
used to cure headaches, in Java and Malaya the toasted flower is used to treat
toothache, while in the Bahamas, leaves of A. altilis are used to relieve
headaches (Kuete et al., 2011). In Indonesia, the methanolic or
dichloromethane extracts of leaves have medicinal properties and are used to
cure liver cirrhosis, hypertension and diabetes (Kasahara & Hemmi, 1988;
Arung et al., 2009). Similar to jackfruit, breadfruit trunk wood is good for
construction and furniture, and its sap can be used to trap birds and houseflies
or to treat human skin and fungal diseases (Ragone, 1997).
Jackfruit and breadfruit are tropical fruits with potential beneficial uses as
food, timber and ethnomedicines, but this requires scientific testing. This
paper, in a bid to expand research of these trees, and expand their sustainable
use and production through biotechnological interventions, highlights their
basic biology such as morphology, medicinal properties and propagation (both
in classical and biotechnological approaches). In this paper, we highlight
research that has been conducted on two species, A. heterophyllus Lam. (syn:
A. integrifolia Linn.) or jackfruit, and A. altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg (syn: A.
communis J.R. Forst & G. Forst; A. incisus (Thunb.) L.f.), or breadfruit.
64 Raihandhany et al.
Jackfruit is an evergreen tree 8-25 m in height and with a trunk diameter of
30-80 cm that can live up to 100 years. Young trees grow with a conical or
pyramidal canopy shape that turns into a dome-shaped canopy as the plant
grows older. Canopy diameter which can reach 10 m, is close to the ground
and provides dense shade (Elevitch & Manner, 2006). Wood of jackfruit is
categorized as medium hardwood with a specific gravity of 0.6-0.7 (Orwa et al.,
2009). When the tree ages, wood turns from yellow to red or brown. Breadfruit
is also an evergreen tree 15-20 m in height and with a 1-2 m diameter trunk
whose bark is smooth, thick and light-grey while wood is golden although, after
exposure to air, it darkens (Ragone, 1997).
Jackfruit inflorescences sprout from a short, thick stalk and emerge from the
lateral side of the main stem and thick branches (Backer & Bakhuizen, 1965).
The male inflorescence forms in the axil of the apical branch with a cylindrical
to conic-ellipsoid shape 2-7 cm in diameter and a 1-5 cm long peduncle with a
tubular calyx that has a two-lobed apex 1-1.5 mm in diameter, pubescent
texture, straight filament and ellipsoid anther while the female inflorescence
has a globose fleshy rachis with a tubular calyx, lobed apex and a one-celled
ovary (Zhou & Gabriel, 2006). Some parts of the male inflorescence are sterile.
As in jackfruit, the breadfruit inflorescence emerges from the apical trunk
(Figure 1).
Figure 1. Jackfruit young fruit (left) and mature fruit (right). White scale bar = 10 cm.
Unpublished figure.
Jackfruit and breadfruit: a review 65
The breadfruit inflorescence has a cylindric-clavate shaped flower with a 3-6
cm long peduncle and globose or ellipsoid inflorescence shape with a diameter
up to 20-30 cm. It has a tubular calyx that is pubescent, has two lobes on its
apical surface and has a lanceolate-shaped lobe while the anthers are elliptic.
Female breadfruit flowers have a tubular calyx, an ovoid ovary with a long
style and two branches on the apex. Each flower consists of a reduced tubular
perianth that covers a single stamen with a two-lobed anther on a thick
filament (Sharma, 1962).
Both jackfruit and breadfruit exude a sticky white latex from the injured parts
of the plant (Rahman & Khanom, 2013), and forms part of the plants’ defense
against herbivory (Agrawal & Konno, 2009). The phyllotaxis (i.e., leaf
arrangement) of jackfruit and breadfruit is distichous or spiral with simple,
leathery leaf blades with a full margin and plants are monoecious (i.e., male
and female flowers on the same tree) with inflorescences growing from the
main branch or trunk (cauliflory) for jackfruit but sprouting from the apex of
the main branch, also where new leaves emerge, and arising from simple,
pseudomonomerous ovaries as in other Moraceae species (Singh, 2016). Both
jackfruit and breadfruit form a single leaf blade that is lobed, but mature
jackfruit leaves become entire and lose their lobes, hence the species epithet,
heterophyllus. The leaves of jackfruit and breadfruit have stipulate leaf types,
with an ovate form for jackfruit and a lanceolate to broadly lanceolate form
for breadfruit. Jackfruit leaves are spirally arranged with an elliptic to obovate
leaf blade, leathery, leaf margins are lobed in seedlings but entire in mature
trees, with pale green on the lower leaf surfaces displaying scattered globose
to ellipsoid resin cells while the axial surface is dark green, smooth and glossy
(Zhou & Gilbert, 2003) with a cuneate, subdecurrent base, firmly coriaceous,
leaf size is 10-20 × 5-10 cm (l × b), the stipule is 1.5-5 cm, and the petiole is 2-
4 cm long (Backer & Bakhuizen, 1965). Breadfruit leaves are also spirally
arranged, elliptic in shape with a broadly cuneate or obtuse base, up to 3-7
lobed along each margin, lobes are oblong, long-acuminate acute, the stipule
is 16-20 cm long, the petiole is 2-4 cm ling, and leaves are 30-100 cm × 25-65
cm (Backer & Bakhuizen, 1965).
Jackfruit and breadfruit have a compound fruit or syncarp that is classified as
a compound false fruit or pseudofruit that forms from the enlargement of the
stigma, and the inflorescence is composed of 1,500-2,000 flowers attached to
the fruit’s axis (Jarret, 1976). The fruit of jackfruit can weigh 4.5-30 Kg and
can reach 30-40 cm in length, with an oblong-cylindrical shape and dark green
coloration when young that turns greenish-yellow or brownish when mature.
66 Raihandhany et al.
The fruit grows and matures on the trunk for 90-180 days (Elevitch & Manner,
2006). Some jackfruit achenes contain multiple fruits, each with a bulk
composed of seed and with a waxy and soft texture, golden-yellow with a
sweet and aromatic aril (Orwa et al., 2009). The fruit of breadfruit is formed
from the fused flower perianth, except for the base (Reeve, 1974), young fruit
is light-green but turns yellowish-green when mature, and as the fruit
develops, perianths fuse, becoming the fleshy edible portion of the fruit
(Ragone, 1977). When sliced, breadfruit has a white flesh composed of dense
perianths (Figure 2).
Jackfruit seed are semi-round, light brown to brown, 2-3 cm in length and 1-
1.5 cm in diameter, wrapped in a whitish seed coat/testa, and a yellow aril
(Figure 3). The seed is recalcitrant and can be stored for up to a month in
humid conditions (Elevitch & Manner, 2006). Adelina et al. (2014) air-dried
seeds for 0 h (control) to 5 h (treatments separated by 1 h) at 28°C and 70%
humidity, noticing that water content was reduced from 75.03% to 22.95%,
seed respiration rate declined from 7.189 mg CO2/kg h to 5.32 mg CO2/kg h,
and seed viability dropped after 14 days of germination from 97.33% to 24.67%.
The seed of breadfruit is brown, round or obovoid in shape with a thin wall 1-2
cm thick with reduced or no endosperm, hence its recalcitrance to storage or
desiccation (Ragone, 1997). Some modern bread breadfruit cultivars are
seedless (Devanai & Bhore, 2010). The male inflorescence of seedless cultivars
produces less viable pollen than fertile, less-seeded cultivars and only few
flowers in the male inflorescence produce and release pollen (Devanai &
Bhore, 2010). In seedless breadfruit cultivars, nectar is only produced in male
flowers but not in female flowers (Ragone, 1997). In general, the loss of
Figure 2. Breadfruit: whole (left) and sliced (right). Scale bar = 5 cm. Unpublished figure.
Jackfruit and breadfruit: a review 67
fertility in breadfruit is caused by triploidy (2n = 3x = ~84) or by sterile diploids
(2n = 2x = 56) that result from hybridization (Ragone, 2001).
Medicinal properties
Artocarpus produces various secondary metabolites and biologically active
compounds, particularly phenolic compounds such as flavonoids (Table 1),
stilbenoids, and arylbenzofurans (Hakim et al., 2006), extracted from leaves,
the stem, fruit and bark, which have ethnomedicinal uses and antibacterial
(Khan et al., 2003), antiviral (Likhitwitayawuid et al., 2005; 2006), antifungal
towards Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
(Jayasinghe et al., 2004; Trindade et al., 2006), antiplatelet (inhibitory of
thromboxane formation) (Weng et al., 2006), antiarthritic (Ngoc et al., 2005),
tryrosinase inhibitory (Arung et al., 2006; Likhitwitayawuid & Sritularak, 2001)
and cytotoxicity properties (Hakim et al., 2006) (reviewed in greater detail by
Figure 3. Mature fruit of jackfruit (A), sliced (B), part of the fruit with arils and the seed
covered with testa (C), and jackfruit seeds with testa (left) and still wrapped with aril
(right). Blue lines indicate the direction of cuts. Scale bar = 5 cm. Unpublished figure.
68 Raihandhany et al.
Jagtap & Bapat, 2010). Jacalin, which is a tetrameric two-chain lectin
extracted from A. heterophyllus, has strong mitogenic activity against human
CD4+ T lymphocytes, serving as an immunobiological diagnosis agent for HIV-1
patients (Kabir, 1998).
Jackfruit contains various components used for medical benefits. Some
flavonoids (Table 2) are used as antinflammatory agents (Wei et al., 2005).
Fang et al. (2008) extracted three phenolic compounds from the ethyl acetate
fraction of jackfruit fruit: artocarpesin (5,7,2’,4’–tetrahydroxy6–β–methylbut
3–enyl flavone), norartocarpetin (5,7,2’4’-tetrahydroxyflavone), and
oxyresveratrol (trans-2,4,3’,5’tetrahydroxystilbene). All three compounds
showed a potent anti-inflammatory property after inhibiting
lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Other
Table 1. Typical flavonoids, modified flavonoids, and flavonoid-derived xanthones found
in Artocarpus (Hakim et al., 2006)
Compound class
Modified flavonoids
Flavonoid-derived xanthones
Table 2. Flavonoids with anti-inflammatory properties (Wei et al., 2005)
Flavonoid Compounds
Cudraflavone A
Artonin A and B
Artocarpanone A
Heteroflavone A, B, and C
Jackfruit and breadfruit: a review 69
compounds, cycloheterophyllin and artonins A and B, showed antioxidant
properties as they inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation after exposure to
oxygen radicals in more than 60% of a rat brain homogenate after the addition
of 1 μM of each of the three compounds and in more than 80% when 3 μM was
used (Ko et al., 1998). A chitin-binding lectin, jackin, which was purified from
a saline crude extract of jackfruit seed, displayed anti-fungal properties,
inhibiting the growth of Fusarium moniliforme and Aspergillus niger cultures
(2.25 mg/ml, but no effect for A. niger at 4.5 mg/ml) and induced
hemagglutination against human and rabbit erythrocytes (with at least 0.15
mg/ml) (Trindade et al., 2006). Jacalin, a 65 kDA two-chain lectin, has
potential as an immunomodulatory agent, having shown mitogenicity against
human CD4+ T lymphocytes when added at 100 μg/ml (Blasco et al., 1995). The
addition of 10, 20, 30, and 40 μg/ml of jackfruit lectin displayed in vitro
inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type HSV-2, varicellazoster virus
(VSZ), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) via a cytopathic effect, and inhibited HIV-1
infection in vitro by preventing the binding of the virus to host cells (Wetprasit
et al., 2000; Swami et al., 2012).
The methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from breadfruit fruit contain
steroids, phenolics and flavonoids that can inhibit the growth of human
pathogenic bacteria like Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus,
Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by establishing a defense
mechanism (Pradhan et al., 2013). During a test on mice, the methanolic
extract of breadfruit fruit and leaves (500 μg/ml each) was used to treat
inflammation by lowering the intensity of leukocyte infiltration by preventing
skin tumor growth and angiogenesis induced by carcinogenic chemicals 30
minutes after treatment (Lin et al., 2014). Fruitackin, a lectin isolated from
the saline crude extract of breadfruit seed, induced hemagglutination against
human and rabbit erythrocytes when added at 0.15 mg/ml and exhibits
antifungal activity against Fusarium moniliforme and Aspergilus niger at the
same concentration as used for jackin (2.25 mg/ml, but no effect on A. niger
at 4.5 mg/ml) (Trindade et al., 2006).
Propagation (classical and biotechnological)
Conventional vegetative propagation using cuttings, grafting and rootstocks
have unsuccessfully been used to propagate A. heterophyllus and A. altilis,
thus seed serve as an effective choice to propagate A. heterophyllus (Roy et
al., 1993). In vitro culture is an effective solution to cultivate and mass-
produce both species. Roy et al. (1993) first washed adventitious shoot buds in
100 ml of 0.7% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with 2% sucrose, shook them at 100
70 Raihandhany et al.
rpm for 3 minutes then washed buds with tap water to remove PVP. Buds were
disinfected in 0.2% HgCl2 for 5 minutes then rinsed with sterile double-distilled
water (SDW) for 3 minutes and this procedure was repeated 3-5 times. Buds
cultured on Difco bacto-agar-solidified Murashige & Skoog (1962) (MS) basal
medium supplemented with 8.88 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 2.68 μM α-
naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) induced 10 shoots/explant after the 7th
subculture. Shoots were elongated on MS medium with 4.44 μM BA, 0.54 μM
NAA and 10% (v/v) coconut milk. Shoots were rooted in vitro on half-strength
MS medium with 5.37 μM NAA and 4.92 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 80% of
shoots being able to root. Plantlets were transplanted into earthen pots
containing sterile sand, soil and humus (1:2:1, v/v/v), and 75% survived after
30 days.
Amin & Jaiswal (1993) used 10-20 days old terminal buds from an A.
heterophyllus trunk from a 30-50 year-old tree grown from seeds. Stems were
washed in running tap water, treated with 1% (v/v) Cevalon® (an antiseptic and
detergent), disinfected in 0.1% HgCl2 for 5 minutes, then rinsed with SDW 4-5
times. Explants (5-10 mm denuded buds) were prepared by removing the outer
cover of green stipules and excising inner buds encased by creamy-white
stipules before implanting them vertically on growth medium, and placing
cultures at 26±1°C, a 16-h photoperiod (50-70 μmol m-2 s-1), and subculturing
them every 4-5 weeks. MS basal medium with four concentrations (4.5, 9.0,
18.0, and 36.0 μM) of BA and kinetin (Kin) and a combination of BA and Kin
(4.5 μM each) were used to induce shoots while MS with two concentrations of
BA (4.5 μM and 9.0 μM) and BA with Kin (4.5 μM each) were used to multiply
shoots. Roots were successfully induced from shoots with four combinations
(0.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 25.0 μM) each of NAA and IBA, or two combinations (5.0 +
5.0 and 10.0 + 10.0 μM of NAA and IBA). The highest percentage of bud break
resulted from 9.0 μM BA (82 ± 6%) while BA + Kin (4.5 μM each) resulted in 90 ±
7%. The highest number of shoots/explants formed with 4.5 μM BA (3.5±0.6),
or 38±1.1 for BA + Kin (4.5 μM each). Under ex vitro conditions, the survival
percentage of regenerated plantlets was 50%.
A. altilis can be propagated vegetatively in vivo and in vitro. In vivo
vegetative propagation can be achieved by cuttings and air layering of
branches by removing the ring bark, covering the wound with peat moss and
then encapsulating in plastic to induce rooting before being cut and placed on
soil (Deivanai & Bhore, 2010), although details about how long it takes to
achieve each step was not explained. In vitro propagation of A. altilis can be
achieved using shoot tips (Rouse-Miller & Duncan, 2000; Murch et al., 2008).
Jackfruit and breadfruit: a review 71
Rouse-Miller & Duncan (2000) collected shoot tips from a 6-7 year-old tree
during the dry season (December to April in Trinidad-Tobago). Explants with
one or two expanded leaves and 3-6 cm of associated stem were collected and
placed in water (period of time not specified). Expanded leaves and bracts
surrounding the shoot tip were removed and shoots were rinsed in tap water
before cleansing in 70% ethanol for 1 minute. Shoots were reduced to 1 cm,
dipped in 70% ethanol for 30 seconds, 10% household bleach (5.25% available
chlorine) for 10 minutes and rinsed three times in sterile distilled water. The
Rouse-Miller & Duncan (2000) study used Margara (1978) nutrients (Table 3).
For shoot induction, N5K and N15K macronutrients (Margara, 1978), MS
micronutrients and vitamins with 3% sucrose, 0.8% agar and 4.4 μM BA were
necessary. Shoot proliferation required Margara (1978) N30NH4 macronutrients,
MS micronutrients, vitamins, 3% sucrose and 2.2 μM zeatin. Rooting required
N30NH4 macronutrients, vitamins, 2% sucrose, with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5
μM IBA. However, IBA alone could not induce roots, and 60% of shoots formed
roots in auxin-free medium (N3ONH4 in Table 3; Margara, 1978). Murch et al.
(2008) used MS or B5 (Gamborg et al., 1968) media with 2.5 g/L gelrite and 3%
sucrose, 2 μM BA and 3 μM Kin to induce shoots in A. altilis within one week
and 1 μM IAA to induce roots.
72 Raihandhany et al.
Table 3. Margara (1978) nutrient lists according to Karla da Silva (2010).
Macronutrients (mg/L)
Micronutrients (μg/L)
* only the macronutrients were used in the Rouse-Miller and Duncan (2000) study
Jackfruit and breadfruit: a review 73
Molecular advances and future perspectives
Molecular studies of both jackfruit and breadfruit offer promising prospects for
exploiting biotechnology- and industry-derived benefits. Breadfruit molecular
genetics has been studied more than in jackfruit. Studies on the genetic
identification and profiling of breadfruit used microsatellite or short sequence
repeats, identifying around 65 loci for nuclear genomic DNA (Witherup et al.,
2013; De Bellis et al., 2016) or 15 loci for chloroplast genomic DNA (Elliot et al.,
2015). Multi-access identification key software to identify breadfruit cultivars
has been developed from a prototype version on a Lucid 3.3 platform based on
quantitative and qualitative traits (Jones et al., 2013). Amplified fragment
length polymorphism (AFLP) has been used to identify and track the origin of
breadfruit cultivars as linked to the routes of human migration in Oceania
(Zerega et al., 2004), or to assess genetic diversity (Shyamalamma et al.,
2008). Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was also used to assess
genetic diversity (Prasad et al., 2014) and fruit cracking in jackfruit (Singh et
al., 2011). Chloroplast and nuclear DNA were used to assess the phylogeny of
60 Moraceae taxa, including the Artocarpus genus (Zerega et al., 2010).
Gibberellin 20-oxidase genes isolated from breadfruit allowed for the
detection of sequence variants, their role in stem elongation after cuttings
were treated with paclobutrazol (a GA inhibitor), and their regulation of
abiotic stress, namely salinity and drought (Zhou & Underhill, 2015, 2016).
Future research needs to identify breadfruit and jackfruit genetic diversity
more precisely while studies on molecular genetics related to metabolic
biosynthetic pathways, for example the elucidation of genes coding for
artocarpatin synthesis, would allow for applications in the pharmaceutical
Jackfruit and breadfruit are still known locally and may be good sources of
nutrients ranging from carbohydrates to secondary metabolites. These fruits
could be useful germplasm in future plant breeding projects for improving fruit,
such as fortifying stress tolerance. Roy et al. (1993) bred flood-resistance
jackfruit plants in vitro as a way to solve the problem of annual flooding in
Bangladesh. A breeding programme conducted in South Florida aimed to
improve jackfruit aroma, edible percentage, flesh firmness, colour and flavour
(Campbell et al., 2004). A red-fleshed variant of jackfruit exists in India
(International Tropical Fruits Network, 2011). These colour variants can be
used to attract more consumers and thus achieve the maximum benefits of
jackfruit, thus breeding for more colourful fruit flesh could be important. For
the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries, future jackfruit breeding for
higher content of specific metabolites can be achieved in a similar way as
“Gama Melon Parfum,a melon cultivar that was developed in Indonesia to
74 Raihandhany et al.
obtain higher yield of sesquiterpenes aimed for perfume production (Maryanto
et al., 2014). Breadfruit colouration is mostly only white, but it has some
shape variants ranging from oval to long fruits (McCormack, 2007). As
breadfruit appears to have potential as a better source of starch used in drug
tablets than cornstarch (Adebayo et al., 2006), a breeding programme to
produce a higher yield of starch in breadfruit could be a good prospect. Similar
prospects for jackfruit could also be applied to breadfruit in future by creating
colour variants for increased appeal or to improve metabolite content for the
food, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. As one example, breadfruit
flour was found to be a good substitute for wheat flour when used as a
composite breadfruit-wheat flour mix for donuts, with a larger ratio of
breadfruit flour resulting in lighter donuts, apparently as a result if its lower
gluten content, although panelists preferred the color, aroma, taste, and
texture of donuts with more wheat flour in the dough (Oke et al., 2018).
Acedo AL. 1992. Multipurpose Tree Species Network Series: Jackfruit biology,
production, use, and Philippine research. Forestry/Fuelwood Research and
Development Project. [Online] Available from: [Last accessed: May 5,
Adebayo SA, Brown-Myrie E, Itiola OA. 2008. Comparative disintegrant activities
of breadfruit starch and official corn starch. Powder Technology 181(2):
Adelina E, Sutopo L, Guritno B, Kuswanto. 2014. Mutual effect of drying on
jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk.) seed viability to water critical
level for storage indicator. Scholars Academic Journal of Biosciences
2(12B): 909-912.
Agrawal AA, Konno K. 2009. Latex: a model for understanding mechanisms,
ecology, and evolution of plant defense against herbivory. Annual Reviews
of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 40: 311-331.
Amin MN, Jaiswal VS. 1993. In vitro response of apical bud explants from mature
trees of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ
Culture 33: 59-65.
Arung ET, Shimizu K, Kondo R. 2006. Inhibitory effect of artocarpanone from
Artocarpus heterophyllus on melanin biosynthesis. Biological and
Pharmaceutical Bulletin 29(9): 1966-1969.
Arung ET, Wicaksono BD, Handoko YA, Kusuma IW, Yulia D, Sandra F. 2009.
Anti-cancer properties of diethylether extract of wood from sukun
(Artocarpus altilis) in human breast cancer (T47D) cells. Tropical Journal
of Pharmaceutical Research 8(4): 317-324.
Jackfruit and breadfruit: a review 75
Backer A, Bakhuizen van den Brink RC Jr. 1965. Flora of Java (Vol II). Noordhoff.
The Netherlands.
Blasco E, Barra A, Nicolas M, Lecron JC, Wijdenes J, Preud'homme JL. 1995.
Proliferative response of human CD4+ T lymphocytes stimulated by the
lectin jacalin. European Journal of Immunology 25(7): 2010-2018.
Campbell RJ, El-Sawa S, Wasilewski J, Ledesma N, Ayala-Silva T. 2004. Breeding
and selection of jackfruit for south Florida. Proceedings of the Florida
State Horticultural Society 117: 193-194.
De Bellis F, Malapa R, Kagy V, Lebegin S, Billot C, Labouisse J-P. 2016. New
development and validation of 50 SSR markers in breadfruit (Artocarpus
altilis, Moraceae) by next-generation sequencing. Applications in Plant
Sciences 4: 8.
Deivanai S, Bhore Subhash J. 2010. Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis Fosb.) - an
underutilized and neglected fruit plant species. Middle-East Journal of
Scientific Research 6: 418-428.
Elevitch CR, Manner HI. 2006. Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit), ver. 1.1. In:
Elevitch CR (ed.). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry.
Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Hōlualoa, Hawai‘i. [Online]
Available from:
heterophyllus-jackfruit1.pdf [Last accessed: May 5, 2018].
Fang SC, Hsu CL, Yen GC. 2008. Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds
isolated from the fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Journal of
Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56(12): 4463-4468.
Gardner EM, Laricchia KM, Murphy M, Ragone D, Scheffer BE, Simpson S,
Williams EW, Zerega NJC. 2015. Chloroplast microsatellite markers for
Artocarpus (Moraceae) developed from transcriptome sequences.
Applications in Plant Sciences 3(9): 1500049.
Gogte VVM. 2000. Ayurvedic Pharmacology and Theurapetic Use of Medicinal
Plants. Swami Prakashananda Ayurvedic Research Center, Mumbai, pp.
Gupta R. 2011. Plant Taxonomy: Past, Present, and Future. New Delhi: The Energy
and Resource Institute (TERI)
Hakim EH, Achmad SA, Juliawaty LD, Makmur L, Syah YM, Aimi N, Kitajima M,
Takayama H, Ghisalberti EL. 2006. Prenylated flavonoids and related
compounds of the Indonesian Artocarpus (Moraceae). Journal of Natural
Medicines 60(3): 161-184.
International Tropical Fruits Network. 2011. India’s Unique Treasure: Red
Fleshed Jackfruit.’s-unique-
treasure-red-fleshed-jackfruit/ [Last Accessed: May 5, 2018]
Jagtap UB, Bapat VA. 2010. Artocarpus: A review of its traditional uses,
phytochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 12(9):
76 Raihandhany et al.
Jarrett FM. 1976. The syncarp of Artocarpus - a unique biological phenomenon.
Gardener’s Bulletin 29: 35-39.
Jayasinghe L, Balasooriya B, Padmini WC, Hara N, Fujimoto Y. 2004. Geranyl
chalcone derivatives with antifungal and radical scavenging properties
from the leaves of Artocarpus nobilis. Phytochemistry 65(9): 1287-1290.
Jones AMP, Murch SJ, Wiseman J, Ragone D. 2013. Morphological diversity in
breadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae): Insights into domestication,
conservation, and cultivar identification. Genetic Resources and Crop
Evolution 60: 175-192.
Jones AMP, Ragone D, Tavana NG, Bernotas DW, Murch SJ. 2011. Beyond the
bounty: breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) for food security and novel foods in
the 21st century. Ethnobotany Journal 9: 131-132.
Kabir S. 1998. Jacalin: a jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seed-derived lectin
of versatile applications in immunobiological research. Journal of
Immunological Methods 212(2): 193-211.
Karla da Silva P. 2010. Desenvolvimento de protocolo de regeneração e indução in
vitro e in vivo de autotetraplóides em mamoneira (Ricinus communis L.).
Postgrad thesis, Universidade Federal Da Paraíba, Brazil, 37 pp (in
Portuguese with English abstract).
Kasahara S, Hemmi S. 1988. Medicinal Herb Index In Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia,
PT. Eisai Indonesia, pp. 1-2.
Khan MR, Omoloso AD, Kihara M. 2003. Antibacterial activity of Artocarpus
heterophyllus. Fitoterapia 74: 501-550.
Ko FN, Cheng ZJ, Lin CN, Teng CM. 1998. Scavenger and antioxidant properties of
prenylflavones isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus. Free Radical
Biology and Medicine 25(2): 160-168.
Kuete V, Ango PY, Fotso GW, Kapche GD, Dzoyem JP, Wouking AG, Ngadjui BT,
Abegaz BM. 2011. Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract and
compounds from Artocarpus communis (Moraceae). BMC Complementary
and Alternative Medicine 11(1): 42.
Lewis WK. 1961. The principle of counter-current extraction. Journal of Industrial
and Engineering Chemistry 8(9): 825-833.
Likhitwitayawuid K, Chaiwiriya S, Sritularak B, Lipipun V. 2006. Antiherpetic
flavones from the heartwood of Artocarpus gomezianus. Chemistry &
Biodiversity 3(10): 1138-1143.
Likhitwitayawuid K, Sritularak B, Benchanak K, Lipipun V, Mathew J, Schinazi
RF. 2005. Phenolics with antiviral activity from Millettia erythrocalyx and
Artocarpus lakoocha. Natural Product Research 19(2): 177-182.
Likhitwitayawuid K, Sritularak B. 2001. A new dimeric stilbene with tyrosinase
inhibitory activity from Artocarpus gomezianus. Journal of Natural
Products 64(11): 1457-1459.
Jackfruit and breadfruit: a review 77
Lim TK. 2012. Artocarpus heterophyllus. In: Lim TK (ed.) Edible Medicinal and
Non-Medicinal Plants, Springer, Netherlands, pp. 318-336.
Lin JA, Chen HC, Yen GC. 2014. The preventive role of breadfruit against
inflammation-associated epithelial carcinogenesis in mice. Molecular
Nutrition and Food Research 58: 206-210.
Margara J. 1978. Mise au point d’une gamme de milieux minéraux pour les
conditions de la culture in vitro. Comptes Rendus des Seances de
l'Academie d'Agriculture de France 64: 654-661 (in French).
Maryanto SD, Ranis RE, Daryono BS. 2015. Stability phenotypic characters and the
scent of Gama Melon Parfum cultivar. IPTEK Journal Proceedings Series 1:
McCormack G. 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook
Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rorotonga. [Last
Accessed: May 5, 2018]
Morton J. 1987. Breadfruit. In: Fruits of Warm Climates. Morton Collectanea.
University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, pp. 50-58.
Motley TJ. 2014. Breadfruit origins, diversity and human facilitated distribution.
[Online resource] Available from: [Last accessed:
May 5, 2018].
Murashige T, Skoog F. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays
with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15: 473-497.
Murch SJ, Ragone D, Shi WL, Alan AR, Saxena PR. 2008. In vitro conservation and
sustained production of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): modern
technologies for a traditional tropical crop. Naturwissenschaften 95: 99-
Ngoc DDT, Catrina AI, Lundberg K, Harris HE, Ha NT, Anh PT, Larsson P. 2005.
Inhibition by Artocarpus tonkinensis of the development of collagen-
induced arthritis in rats. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 61(3): 234-
Oke EK, Tijani AO, Abiola OT, Adeoye AK, Odumosu BO. 2018. Effects of partial
substitution of wheat flour with breadfruit flour on quality attributes of fried
doughnut. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 13(1): 72-80.
Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S. 2009. Agroforestree
Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World
Agroforestry Centre, Kenya.
Pradhan C, Mohanty M, Rout A, Das AB, Satapathy KB, Patra HK. 2013.
Phytoconstituent screening and comparative assessment of antimicrobial
potentiality of Artocarpus altilis fruit extracts. International Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmaceuticals Sciences 5(3): 840-843.
78 Raihandhany et al.
Prasad MP, Prasad K, Ceera M. 2014. Phytochemical, antioxidant activity and
determination of genetic diversity in Artocarpus heterophyllus using RAPD
molecular markers. International Journal of Science and Research 3(10):
Ragone D. 1997. Breadfruit. Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg. In: Promoting
the Conservation and Use of Underutilized and Neglected Crops. 10.
Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research,
Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.
Ragone D. 2001. Chromosome numbers and pollen stainability of three species of
Pacific Island breadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae). American Journal of
Botany 88(4): 693-696.
Rahman AHMM, Khanom A. 2013. A taxonomic and ethno-medicinal study of
species from Moraceae (mulberry) family in Bangladesh flora. Research in
Plant Sciences 1(3): 53-57.
Rahman M, Nahar N, Jabbar M, Mosihuzzaman M. 1999. Variation of carbohydrate
composition of two forms of fruit from jack tree (Artocarpus
heterophyllus L.) with maturity and climatic conditions. Food Chemistry
65: 91-97.
Rao J, Singh L, Singh S, Mishra SK, Bajpai M. 2014. Artocarpus heterophyllus
(jackfruit) potential unexplored in dentistry an overview. Universal
Journal of Pharmacy 3(1): 50-55.
Reeve RM. 1974. Histological structure and commercial dehydration potential of
the breadfruit. Economic Botany 28(1): 82-96.
Rouse-Miller J, Duncan JE. 2000. In vitro propagation of Artocarpus altilis (Park.)
Fosberg (breadfruit) from mature plant marerial. In Vitro Cellular &
Developmental Biology - Plant 36(2): 115-117.
Roy SK, Islam MS, Sen J, Hossain ABME, Hadiuzzaman S. 1993. Propagation of
flood tolerant jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) by in vitro
culture. Acta Horticulturae 336: 273-278.
Sharma MR. 1962. Morphological and anatomical investigations on Artocarpus
Forst. IV. The flower. Phytomorphology 15(2): 185-201.
Shibutani S, Yusuf S, Doi S. 2006. Anti-termite (Isoptera) component
from Artocarpus heterophyllus heartwood. Sociobiology 47(3): 711-719.
Shyamalamma S, Chandra SBC, Hegde M, Naryanswamy P. 2008. Evaluation of
genetic diversity in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) based on
amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Genetics and Molecular
Research 7: 645-656.
Singh G. 2016. Plant Systemaics, an Integrated Approach. Science Publisher. India.
Singh SR, Narayanaswamy P, Banik BC, Shyamalamma S, Simon L. 2011.
Development of RAPD-based SCAR marker related to fruit cracking in
jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam). Crop Research 42(3): 151-156.
Small E. 2011. Top 100 Exotic Fruit Plants. CRC Press, Canada.
Jackfruit and breadfruit: a review 79
Suba Rao NS. 1983. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with plantation and
orchard plants. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 29: 863-866.
Swami SB, Thakor NJ, Haldankar PM, Kalse SB. 2012. Jackfruit and its many
functional components as related to human health: a review.
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 11(6): 565-576.
Thaman RR, Ali I. 1993. Agroforestry on smallholder sugar-cane farms in Fiji. In:
Clarke WC, Thaman RR (eds.). Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands: Systems
for Sustainability. United Nations University Press, Tokyo.
The Plant List. 2018. Artocarpus. [Online] Available from: [Last accessed:
May 5, 2018]
Trindade MB, Lopes JL, Soares-Costa A, Monteiro-Moreira AC, Moreira RA, Oliva
MLV, Beltramini LM. 2006. Structural characterization of novel chitin-
binding lectins from the genus Artocarpus and their antifungal activity.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Proteins and Proteomics 1764(1): 146-152.
USDA. 2016. Full report (all nutrients) 09144, jackfruit, raw. [Online] Available
mt=pdf&pdfQvs=%7B%7D [Last accessed: May 5, 2018]
Verma M, Satyawati S, Rajendra P. 2009. Biological alternatives for termite
control: A review. International Biodeterioration & Degradation 63: 959-
Wei BL, Weng JR, Chiu PH, Hung CF, Wang JP, Lin CN. 2005. Anti-inflammatory
flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllus and Artocarpus communis.
Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 53(10): 3867-3871.
Weng JR, Chan SC, Lu YH, Lin HC, Ko HH, Lin CN. 2006. Antiplatelet
prenylflavonoids from Artocarpus communis. Phytochemistry 67(8): 824-
Wetprasit N, Threesangsri W, Klamklai N, Chulavatnatol M. 2000. Jackfruit
lectin: properties of mitogenicity and the inhibition of herpesvirus
infection. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 53(4): 156-161.
Witherup C, Ragone D, Irish B, Scheffler B, Simpson S, Zee F, Zuberi MI, Zerega
NJ. 2013. Development of microsatellite loci in Artocarpus altilis
(Moraceae) and cross-amplification in congeneric species. Applications in
Plant Sciences 1(7): 1200423.
Zerega NJC, Nur Supardi MN, Motley TJ. 2010. Phylogeny and recircumscription
of Artocarpeae (Moraceae) with a focus on Artocarpus. Systematic Botany
35: 766-783.
Zerega NJC, Ragone D, Motley TJ. 2004. Complex origins of breadfruit
(Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): Implications for human migrations in
Oceania. American Journal of Botany 91: 760-766.
80 Raihandhany et al.
Zhou Y, Underhill SJ. 2015. Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) gibberellin 20-oxidase
genes: sequence variants, stem elongation and abiotic stress response.
Tree Genetics & Genomes 11(4): 1-13.
Zhou Y, Underhill SJ. 2016. Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) gibberellin 2-oxidase
genes in stem elongation and abiotic stress response. Plant Physiology and
Biochemistry 98: 81-88.
Zhou Z, Gilbert MG. 2003. Moraceae. Flora of China 5: 21-73.
... Jackfruit is an evergreen tropical tree which lives up to 100 years (Raihandhany et al., 2018) and growing up to 8-25 m in height. The male and female inflorescence are present on the same tree due to monoecious pattern. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit) is a widely grown perennial fruit tree having numerous pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-cariogenic, anti-fungal, antineoplastic, hypoglycemic and wound healing effects. The present study was undertaken to determine total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of different edible parts (seeds, bulbs, seed-shells and rags) of fruits of two varieties of jackfruit viz. Fartherlong and Hirosa in two maturity stages (mature and ripen). The TAC, TPC and TFC were determined using ferric iron reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, modified Folin-Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method respectively. The significantly highest TAC (14.13± 0.17 mg TE/ g DW), TPC (9.36± 1.41 mg GAE/ g DW) and TFC (18.63± 1.07 mg RE/ g DW) were recorded in rags of ripen fruits of Fatherlong variety. The lowest TAC, TPC and TFC values were observed in bulbs of ripen fruits in both varieties. Rags and seed-shells had higher TAC, TPC and TFC values than seeds and bulbs. The TAC, TPC and TFC of rags and seed-shells in both varieties have been increased with maturity. However, with maturity slight reduction of TAC, TPC and TFC in seeds and bulbs of both varieties was observed. Present study revealed that rags and seed-shells which are normally removed when processing, contain higher bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity. Therefore, rags and seed-shells of fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus can be used to develop value added products instead of disposing them as waste.
Full-text available
Premise of the study: Using next-generation sequencing technology, new microsatellite loci were characterized in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) and two congeners to increase the number of available markers for genotyping breadfruit cultivars. Methods and Results: A total of 47,607 simple sequence repeat loci were obtained by sequencing a library of breadfruit genomic DNA with an Illumina MiSeq system. Among them, 50 single-locus markers were selected and assessed using 41 samples (39 A. altilis, one A. camansi, and one A. heterophyllus). All loci were polymorphic in A. altilis, 44 in A. camansi, and 21 in A. heterophyllus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 19. Conclusions: The new markers will be useful for assessing the identity and genetic diversity of breadfruit cultivars on a small geographical scale, gaining a better understanding of farmer management practices, and will help to optimize breadfruit genebank management.
Full-text available
Taxonomy and ethno-medicinal investigation on the family Moraceae growing throughout the Rajshahi city, Bangladesh was carried out during September 2012 to August 2013. A total of 9 species under 7 genera belonging to the family Moraceae were collected and recorded for their use in various ailments. Herbal medicines have a strong traditional or conceptual base and the potential to be useful as drugs in terms of safely and effectiveness, leads for treating different diseases. The present article gives an account of such a medicinally important family Moraceae which comprise both wild and cultivated species. Out of the total number of species Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk., Artocarpus lacucha Buch-Ham., Ficus benghalensis L., Ficus hispida L., Ficus racemosa L., Ficus religiosa L., Morus alba L. were very common and Ficus elastica Roxb ex Hornem. and Ficus pumila L. were rare species in the study area. Thus a survey was carried out, to record the traditional health care remedies currently practiced by the local people.
Full-text available
Parfume is one of the cosmetic product and its use is consistent. High prices of cosmetic product cause dependence on imported product. Innovative research is needed to reduce dependence on imported product. Melon is one of the potential horticultural crops to be developed in plant breeding. Gama Melon Parfum cultivars has strong of fragnant so its potentially to be used as parfume material. Research on morphological characters to support of Gama Melon Parfum as superior cultivar. The research aims to determine the level of stability of phenotypic characters and aroma of melon Gama Melon Parfum cultivar. Research methods was cultivated Gama Melon Parfum in Kebun Pendidikan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian (KP4) UGM Yogyakarta. Furthermore, the phenotypic characters was observed consist of qualitative and quantitative characters. The methods of sampling used Randomize Complete Block Design (RCBD) and quantitative phenotypic characters were analyzed using software PKBT-STAT-2. The result of qualitative characters on Gama Melon Parfum cultivars has oblate shape, small size, yellow-orange skin of colour with 9-10 lobes and longitudinal, white of flesh colour, crunchy texture, bitter taste, zero score of nett (not netted), strong of fragnant, and has spesific qualitative characters called turbin. Quantitative characters on Gama Melon Parfume cultivars consist of average weight of 160 gram; circumference of 21,8 cm; horizontal diameter of 6,89 cm; vertical diameter of 6,44 cm; thick skin of 1 mm, thick flesh of 1,06 cm; the number of seed of 200-300; weight of 100 seed of 1,74 gram; harvest 63-65 day after cultivate; and 17 days of storage time.
The main components that show termite resistance in extractives of nangka heartwood were identified, The component which elicited the highest antitermite activity was artocarpin which was active against both Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes speratus.
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a traditional staple tree crop throughout the tropics. Susceptibility to windstorm damage is the primary constraint on breadfruit cultivation. Significant tree loss due to intense tropical windstorm in the past decades has driven an increasing interest in developing dwarf varieties of breadfruit. As a first step toward understanding the molecular mechanism of growth regulation in the species, we investigated the role of gibberellin and the regulation of GA20-oxidase genes in breadfruit. We provided first evidence that the stem elongation in breadfruit could be manipulated by exogenous gibberellin-related growth regulators. We then cloned six GA20-oxidase cDNAs, AaGA20ox1–AaGA20ox6, in full length from breadfruit. Sequence analysis showed that the predicted proteins of the AaGA20ox1–AaGA20ox3 bear all the hallmarks of functional GA20-oxidase of other species, but predicted AaGA20ox4–AaGA20ox6 as expressed, unprocessed pseudogenes closely related to AaGA20ox2. AaGA20ox1, AaGA20ox3 and AaGA20ox4 were predominantly expressed in green vegetative organs, but displayed different expression pattern in roots and reproductive organs. AaGA20ox2, AaGA20ox5 and AaGA20ox6 were expressed mainly in leaves at low level. AaGA20ox1, AaGA20ox3–AaGA20ox6 were subjected to GA feedback regulation following treatment of exogenous gibberellin and/or gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitors. AaGA20ox1 and AaGA20ox3 were down-regulated under drought and salinity stress, but AaGA20ox2 was up-regulated under salt stress. Pseudogenes AaGA20ox4 and AaGA20ox5 were up-regulated under drought or/and salt stress condition. The function of AaGA20oxs is discussed with particular reference to their role in stem elongation and involvement in abiotic stress response in breadfruit.