Article

“All for One and One for All?” - Knowledge broker roles in managing tensions of internal coopetition: The Ubisoft case

Authors:
  • Montpellier Business School / Ecole Polytechnique
  • Toulouse School of Management
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Abstract

Coopetition, i.e., cooperation between competing actors, has become a pervasive strategy for innovative firms. The primary focus of studies investigating coopetition centers on inter-firm relationships, highlighting the benefits, limits and configurational patterns of cooperative relationships between competing firms. Only a small, emerging group of studies seeks to extend the concept to the intra-firm level, stressing the existence and effects of competition and cooperation between units that are part of the same organization. This paper contributes to this latter group by investigating the effects of internal coopetition on knowledge and innovation sharing and highlighting the fundamental role of knowledge brokers in managing the resulting tensions. Based on a qualitative case study of the video game publisher Ubisoft, we stress how the tensions raised by internal coopetitive settings limit knowledge sharing between units, and we analyze the mechanisms through which the knowledge broker helps to overcome these limits. We identify three main functions of this knowledge broker that allow the promotion of knowledge and innovation transfer to occur between coopeting units: (1) protecting the unit's competitive advantage by introducing a lagging principle in the transfer process, (2) reducing sharing costs by standardizing innovative solutions, and (3) enhancing awareness of and trust in innovative solutions by centralizing knowledge diffusion.

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... El tipo de conocimiento que se intermedia es aquel que se genera derivado de las actividades científicas de investigación y desarrollo (I & D) en diferentes áreas de conocimiento y aplicación, como por ejemplo en el sector salud [22], [23], [24] ; en el ámbito de las ciencias de la educación [25] ; en las ciencias de las energías renovables y agropecuarias [26], [27] ; en las ciencias administrativas [28] ; en la industria de la impresión de cómics [29] ; en la industria de desarrollo de videojuegos [30] y ecología [31], [32], [33] . Aunque la bibliografía consultada se enfocó en esas áreas de conocimiento, la intermediación es multidisciplinaria [34] , lo cual quiere decir que la práctica no es exclusiva a un área científica determinada, sino que puede ser aplicada a cualquier disciplina. ...
... También se incluye toda la evidencia científica producida (reportes de investigación, artículos arbitrados, memorias, libros, textos científicos, etc.) de las actividades de I & D de las instituciones que se dedican a esa labor y que puede ser de utilidad para la sociedad [35] . Además, envuelve la información referente a prototipos, invenciones, patentes y tecnología desarrollada [30] . Se contempla, de igual manera, toda la información relacionada con tendencias tecnológicas, como por ejemplo la transformación digital [36] . ...
... Las entidades que realizan la intermediación de conocimiento se les conoce como intermediadores o brókeres. Pueden ser individuos, organizaciones [10], [20] o profesionales [30], [37] orientados a facilitar la comunicación entre los investigadores y tomadores de decisiones en cualquier área de conocimiento [25], [38], [39], [40] . Se incluyen en esta clasificación a las universidades e instituciones de educación superior como entidades principales en la colaboración y diseminación del conocimiento mediante funciones sustantivas académicas, investigación y vinculación con la sociedad [41], [42], [43] . ...
Article
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La intermediación de conocimiento es una práctica en el cual se facilita la transferencia y el intercambio de información entre entidades que están interesadas en su aplicación en un contexto determinado. Hasta este momento, el concepto ha sido abordado ampliamente dentro de la literatura inglesa en el contexto de la administración y economía del conocimiento. Sin embargo, es probable que haya carencia de información en el contexto latinoamericano. El objetivo de este trabajo es reunir suficiente evidencia literaria para exponer la naturaleza del concepto de manera general contestando las siguientes preguntas: ¿Qué es la intermediación del conocimiento? ¿Qué tipo de conocimiento se intermedia? ¿Quiénes realizan el proceso de intermediación del conocimiento? ¿Cómo se lleva a cabo esta práctica? Para eso se realizó una revisión sistemática en cuatro bases de datos de contenido abierto (ERIC, DOAJ, Elsevier Scopus y Redalyc). Se analizaron trabajos y artículos de investigación, tomando en cuenta su calidad y pertinencia. Luego se extrajeron datos mediante el enfoque confirmatorio temático en base a las preguntas realizadas. Con base en 50 documentos revisados, se obtuvieron diferentes categorías conceptuales de respuesta para cada pregunta. La información extraída sirve para incrementar el conocimiento y la claridad del concepto dentro del campo de interés para los investigadores.
... A few studies have focused on coopetition within firms (e.g. Chiambaretto et al., 2019;Luo et al., 2006;Seran et al., 2016;Tippmann et al., 2018). The issue of the interaction of external and internal coopetition has not been addressed, though they appear to be linked, especially in mergers and acquisitions (M&As). ...
... To our knowledge, research on exploring coopetitive tensions in the negotiation period and the integration process of a merger remains scarce. In addition, scholars have called for further studies investigating internal coopetition (Gurau et al., 2018;Seran et al., 2016) and combining intra-firm and inter-firm levels (Bouncken et al., 2015(Bouncken et al., , 2020Chiambaretto et al., 2019). The objective of the study is twofold: (1) to analyze which regulators influence coopetitive tensions in a merger process (including negotiation and integration stages); and (2) to explore how coopetitive tensions are coped with during the process. ...
... However, post-merger integration is recognized as a challenging period involving divergent forces within the internal boundaries of the organization due to the dual identities of individuals (Steigenberger, 2017). Scholars call for further studies investigating intrafirm and inter-firm levels (Bouncken et al., 2015;Chiambaretto et al., 2019). Hence, analyzing how coopetition dynamics evolve over a merger process includes dealing with interorganizational relationships between firms (during the negotiation period) and with intraorganizational dynamics (within the integration process). ...
Article
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Coopetitive tensions can arise as strategic decisions are imposed on firms that challenge them to pursue competition and collaboration with other organizations. Regulators—such as the state—can interfere in merger strategies. Using a longitudinal case study, the objective of the study is: (1) to analyze which regulators influence coopetitive tensions in a merger process (including negotiation and integration stages); and (2) to explore how coopetitive tensions are coped with during the process. We found that the state and customers have architectural roles as regulators during the process (negotiation period, deal, and integration process). We explore coopetition paradox management at different levels (interorganizational, organizational, and individual levels) over the merger process. Points for practitioners Our study sheds light on tensions experienced by managers with conflicting identities at the beginning of the integration and on the way they coped with such tensions. Indeed, our study shed lights on the integration principle as managers were able to transcend the paradox in their decisions and actions implemented at the organizational level through reorganizing the organization and favoring tandem teams and joint piloting.
... The literature defines two key bridging strategies knowledge brokers use to mediate the relationship between brokered parties depending on the extent to which the relationship is perceived as competitive or cooperative (see Chiambaretto, Massé and Mirc, 2019). First, tertius gaudens, which means the third party who fills the gaps between mediated bodies (see Burt, 2004), is more appropriate when the relationship between brokered parties is competitive. ...
... Other studies focused on knowledge brokers as they are in independent positions. For example, knowledge brokers in healthcare industry (Chew et al., 2013;Kislov et al., 2017), comics publishing business (Boari & Riboldazzi, 2014), environmental R&D firms (Quintane & Carnabuci, 2016), and between competitive business units in video game company (Chiambaretto et al., 2019). ...
... As a result, PMO managers need to develop their liminality competence to ease such role tensions (see Borg and Söderlund, 2015). In terms of the bridging strategy, whether horizonal liaisons adopt tertius iungens or tertius gaudens is somewhat dependent on the extent to which the relationship between mediated projects is perceived as competitive versus cooperative (see Hansen, Mors and Løvås, 2005;Chiambaretto, Massé and Mirc, 2019). However, competition may be more likely as project managers are more concerned about the achievement of their projects' objectives (see Pemsel and Wiewiora, 2013). ...
Article
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Project-based organizations (PBOs) have been widely recognized as powerful generators of knowledge and innovation owing to their autonomous, multidisciplinary, and goal-oriented operations in the form of projects. However, evidence shows that PBOs are likely to suffer a knowledge flow gap between operational and strategic management levels leaving much of PBOs' knowledge trapped within project boundaries. Although several studies advocated the use of project management office (PMO) to enhance the interaction between these levels, very few examined PMO knowledge brokering roles. This study therefore tries to synthesis theories and evidence around PMO knowledge brokering roles to produce a theoretical understanding on how PMO managers mediate every knowledge flow transaction in PBOs. A theoretical model identifying three key levels of knowledge flow transactions, each of which is mediated by a set of knowledge brokering roles, has been developed. The model heights the powerful potentials of PMO knowledge brokering roles in governing PBOs' knowledge by balancing bottom-up explorative with top-down exploitative knowledge flow transactions. Theoretical contributions, practical implications and future research directions have also been outlined as part of this study.
... Its negative impacts on coopetition execution and outcomes stemming from contradictory logic, have been extensively studied in prior research across multiple firm levels, sizes, types, and aspects of coopetition (Dorn et al., 2016). Organizational structures (Chiambaretto et al., 2020), knowledge brokers (Chiambaretto et al., 2019), governance models, and coopetition capabilities (Niesten & Stefan, 2019) were recently emphasized as the most effective pathways by which to manage tension. ...
... In addition to inter-firm situations, a rising number of studies has started to examine the role of intra-firm coopetition in catalyzing knowledge exchanges among internal teams (Estrada et al., 2016). They show how departments working under coopetition can better share knowledge through coordination mechanisms (Nguyen, Ngo, Bucic, & Phong, 2018) or through dedicated knowledge brokers (Chiambaretto et al., 2019). Those can facilitate the knowledge exchange process and reduce tension, aiming at transforming and exploiting acquired knowledge to improve organizational learning (Bendig et al., 2018). ...
... Research (Bouncken et al., 2015) • Coopetition mindset (Bouncken et al., 2015) • Geographic proximities (Nowińska, , co-branding , codesign, co-manufacturing (Depeyre et al., 2018), copromotion (Chim-Miki & Batista-Canino, 2017) Governance model • Negative aspects of tension , types of conflicts Bouncken et al., 2015) • Management through avoidance or mediation from third parties Dorn et al., 2016) • Opportunism through knowledge and resource sharing (Bouncken et al., 2015) Transitioners (separation, integration, mediation) • Structural separation vs. partial separation vs. integration (Bengtsson & Accelerators (trust, emotions and coopetition capabilities) • Levels and types of trust (Lascaux, 2020) and impact on coopetition management (Chai et al., 2020) • Relationship between coopetition intensity and performance (Raza-Ullah & Kostis, 2019b) • Trust, sensemaking and sensegiving (Pattinson et al., 2018) • Coopetition capabilities and coopetition mindset Crick, 2021Crick, , 2020Stadtler & van Wassenhove, 2016) • Emotional and balancing capabilities (Raza-Ullah, 2020) • Emotional ambivalence (Raza-Ullah et al., 2020) Challengers (tension, distrust and opportunism) • Management of tension through organizational structures (Chiambaretto et al., 2020), knowledge brokers (Chiambaretto et al., 2019), governance models and coopetition capabilities (Niesten & Stefan, 2019) • Positive aspects of tension, sources of tension (Chou & (continued on next page) comparing and contrasting findings from different coopetition studies. As a result, the recent body of research enjoys a greater level of conceptual coherence and consistence with more precise, aligned, and indepth theoretical foundations. ...
Article
Research in the field of coopetition, which describes firms simultaneously competing and collaborating to create value, has recently gained enormous momentum. Over the period of 2015 to 2020, scholars published more high-quality studies on this subject than in the entire 25-year history of coopetition research. Despite the relevance of these contributions, their fragmented nature and disjuncture from prior studies limit a connected understanding of the current standing of the field. Our analysis addresses this gap by systematically reviewing, comparing, and connecting a selected sample of 161 recent articles with the body of research established prior to 2015. Our study makes three main contributions. We (1) structure and connect past and present coopetition research across five identified research dimensions: Antecedents, execution, interaction, outcomes, and levels of coopetition. We (2) supplement this review with a qualitative trend analysis, identifying emerging themes for the future of the field. By combining past and present perspectives with the future outlook, we (3) provide a comprehensive, unique, and updated perspective on coopetition research, unifying it into a cohesive, overarching framework. Lastly, we explain crucial interdependencies and suggest areas for future research before we conclude the study.
... La problématique de la coopétition dans l'innovation est un sujet de recherche émergent, nécessitant d'être approfondi. Il a été abordé en étudiant le cas des entreprises frontalement concurrentes (Chiambaretto et Fernandez, 2016) ou le cas de la coopétition interne entre services (Chiambaretto et al. 2019). La coopétition y apparaît alors comme un choix stratégique temporaire permettant de combiner les bénéfices à la fois de la compétition et de la coopération (Bengtsson et Kock, 2014 ...
... Il y a donc un réel enjeu à rendre l'innovation visible par la communication, le partage des connaissances, et une réelle feuille de route stratégique. (Nalebuff et Brandenburger, 1996 ;Yami et al., 2010) (Chiambaretto et al., 2019). Ainsi, dans le contexte interne, la coopétition est de nature à favoriser l'innovation, elle peut également exacerber les tensions préexistantes. ...
... Mais en tant que concurrents, elles sont tentées d'atteindre ce but commun en premier, et pour ce faire, elles sont tentées de protéger les informations qui leur permettraient d'avoir un avantage concurrentiel (Chiambaretto et al., 2019). Ainsi, lorsque la relation de coopétition n'est pas formalisée, maîtrisée et pilotée, les tensions préexistantes sont exacerbées (autour de l'axe de compétition). ...
Thesis
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Depuis les années 80, un nombre croissant de travaux questionnent l'innovation dans les services. Cependant, hormis les productions récentes dédiées à l'InsurTech, l'assurance, en tant que service, fait l'objet d'un intérêt plus limité. La complexité des services et des organisations d'assurance justifie en partie cet état de fait. L'objet de cette thèse est de contribuer à la compréhension de l'innovation dans les services par une approche sectorielle. Nous questionnons un modèle de distribution incarnant la complexité organisationnelle et les différents niveaux d'interaction de l'assurance : l'agent général. Dans une démarche constructiviste, notre étude de cas repose sur une observation participante et une recherche action. Nos résultats mettent en évidence plusieurs spécificités des services d'assurance. Nous démontrons l'existence de problématiques (réglementation, adaptation, exigence opérationnelle) et de dynamiques (coopétition, centralisation des décisions) spécifiques. Nos résultats soulignent la prépondérance des innovations de procédé améliorant la gestion du risque, l'efficacité opérationnelle et la relation client. Nous formalisons ainsi une typologie de l'innovation dans l'assurance. Si nos résultats soulignent la nature coopétitive des relations entre assureur et agent général, nous identifions l'existence de leviers d'optimisation. Enfin, en nous appuyant sur la nature sociale du service d'assurance, nous montrons de quelle manière l'innovation de procédés peut générer de l'innovation sociale. En particulier, nous proposons une grille d'analyse à même de lier les problématiques d'entreprise aux problématiques sociales et territoriales. L'approche originale de cette thèse contribue à une meilleure compréhension sectorielle de l'innovation dans les services. Elle souligne également la proximité entre innovation de services et innovation sociale.
... The two phases arise in a temporally separated fashion Kock, 2000, 2014;Dowling et al., 1996;Gnyawali et al., 2008). The sequential and repetitive combination of competition-cooperation epitomizes a paradoxical strategy over time (Chiambaretto et al., 2019). ...
... Competition and cooperation show a few complementary features (Bidault et al., 1992) since players "may be partly motivated to cooperate around common interests and partly motivated to compete for a large share of resources" (Cox et al., 1991: 831). For instance, coopetition emerges when firms are not able to shape some specialized knowledge and resources in a timely, standalone manner (Dyer and Singh, 1998;Eisenhardt and Schoonhoven, 1996), while knowledge and resource complementarities among competitors support effective resource combination and recombination processes (Arranz and de Arroyabe, 2008;Chiambaretto et al., 2019;Gnyawali and Park, 2009). ...
... Additionally, scholars investigated the roles of resource similarity and market commonality in shaping coopetition (Bouncken et al., 2020;Klein et al., 2020;Minà et al., 2020), as well as understanding the critical success factors and risks of the relationship between coopetition, innovation, and performance (Chiambaretto et al., 2020;de Resende et al., 2018;Nemeh and Yami, 2016). Nonetheless, as Chiambaretto et al. (2019) suggest, unlike cooperation, competition between firms is far from leading to complacency among actors, stimulating the insurgence of rapid innovation processes (Bouncken and Kraus, 2013;Gnyawali and Park, 2009;Quintana-García and Benavides-Velasco, 2004;Yami and Nemeh, 2014), intended as firms' strategic moves for the appropriation of value. ...
Article
Cooperation among divisions is usually thought to explain the performance of diversification strategies. However, such divisions are also in competition. Through the in-depth analysis of an intraindustry diversified firm operating in the global semiconductor industry, this paper identifies the sources of coopetition and the treatment of coopetitive tensions among divisions in the production allocation process. We find a multipoint origin of cooperation within a competitive setting. Then, we extend a previous study that considers uniquely two substitute views: (a) corporate-centric; and (b) division-centric. Additionally, by employing formal organizational mechanisms, we show that corporate headquarters guides divisional interaction to form a circular coopetition process. Thus, it is feasible to consider that intrafirm competition and cooperation phases form in a dynamic loop.
... Ces travaux prolongent les réflexions initiées dans les années 1970 par Howard Becker sur la dimension organisée des « mondes de l'arts » et ouvrent de nouvelles pistes de recherches pour le management. À partir des années 2000, de nombreux travaux ont exploré ces industries, dans leur variété : la publicité (Moeran, 2009), l'architecture (Jones et Livne Tarandach, 2008), la parfumerie (Endrissat et al., 2016), le design (Verganti, 2003), le cinéma (Cattani et al., 2008), la musique (Benghozi et Paris, 2003 ;Thompson et al., 2007), les arts de la scène (Glynn, 2000 ;Agid et Tarondeau, 2003 ;, la grande cuisine (Bouty et Gomez, 2010 ;Durand et al., 2007 ;Svejenova et al., 2010), les jeux vidéo (Cohendet et Simon, 2007 ;Tschang, 2007 ;Lê et al., 2013 ;Chiambaretto et al., 2019), etc. Ces travaux ont nourri des thématiques diverses (développement de produits/innovation, open innovation, écosystèmes, etc.) tout en contribuant à de multiples champs théoriques : communautés, théorie des ressources, néo-institutionnalisme, développement de nouveaux produits, business models, habitus, créativité… L'engouement nouveau autour de ces secteurs s'est traduit par l'apparition de sous-thématiques dédiées dans les conférences de management et par la multiplication des numéros spéciaux de revues. ...
... Certaines organisations donnent par ailleurs lieu à des configurations plus complexes, la direction des projets n'étant rarement l'apanage d'une seule personne. À titre d'exemple, dans le domaine des jeux vidéo, l'entreprise Ubisoft s'inscrit dans la configuration de facilitation, l'entreprise favorisant l'émergence de nouveaux projets de jeux par une grande liberté créative donnée à ses 45 studios répartis dans le monde (Chiambaretto et al., 2019). Néanmoins, l'enjeu de maîtrise du risque sur les projets donne lieu à un ensemble de dispositifs de contrôle, qui impliquent aussi des outils et principes en matière de création (Lê et al., 2013 ;Massé, 2019). ...
... Appropriate competition introduces the coexistence of competitive and cooperative situations. Rivals may cooperate with each other to increase private and common benefits (Khanna, Gulati, & Nohria, 1998) stemming from the competition-cooperation relationship (Chiambaretto, Massé, & Mirc, 2019). ...
... The notion of induced co-opetition is particularly illuminating in understanding not only horizontal co-opetition but also vertical relations within a firm. For instance, Chiambaretto et al. (2019) underscore the role of a neutral third party (as the state in Legalism) that is a 'neutral actor' that reduces any opportunistic behavior underlying the actions developed by the divisions and acts as a 'go-between' by encouraging and facilitating co-opetitive interaction between divisions. ...
Article
This article aims to understand how Eastern and Western philosophies shape the perspectives of scholars and practitioners in framing co-opetition (i.e., the coexistence of competition and cooperation) in distinctive manners and, in turn, how such distinctions shape the behavioral patterns of co-opetition. We disentangle the constructs of competition and cooperation and their coexistence as proposed by three Chinese schools of thought (i.e., Taoism, Confucianism, and Legalism) and three Western philosophers (i.e., Immanuel Kant, Georg W. F. Hegel, and Adam Smith). Based on this groundwork, we unveil four comparative philosophical logics used to address the essence of co-opetition (i.e., either/or, both/and, both/or, and either/and). In addition, we apply such East-meeting-West linkages to a typology of co-opetition strategies.
... Finally, besides coopetition between firms, recent studies have examined coopetition at an intraorganizational level. This form of internal coopetition has been explored by assessing how individuals and functional areas within a firm cooperate but also compete for the internal resources (Chiambaretto et al., 2019), or by exploring how internal cross-functional coopetition is associated with ambidextrous innovation (Strese et al., 2016). Internal coopetition can also enhance a firm's dynamic capabilities, as in the case of Samsung, which has successfully caught up with Apple in the global smartphone industry. ...
... While this literature has often predominantly focused on pooling complementary resources, such as product components or software (Song et al., 2016;Klimas and Czakon, 2018), the management of human resources is an equally important aspect for firms competing and cooperating for the same human resources. For example, it has been found that, even within the same company, teams allocated to different coopeting projects might not share information or knowledge internally, as this would require the allocation of specific human resources to facilitate the task (Chiambaretto et al., 2019). In a study of four Dutch hospitals, van den Broek et al. (2018) investigated how coopetition between hospitals located in the same region affects the adoption of innovative practices in Human Resource Management (HRM). ...
Article
The proliferation of research on innovation-related coopetition calls for a more unified understanding of the current state of knowledge in this domain. Previous reviews on coopetition, however, fall short when it comes to putting innovation at the core of their analysis, often relegating the topic to one of the research themes/dimensions of coopetition, or considering innovation to be a promising area for future research. We fill this gap by systematically reviewing two decades of research on coopetition and innovation. We apply Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) methods to a sample of 128 articles from academic journals published in the field of coopetition and innovation, revealing the major research themes, the theories and methods used, the levels of analysis, and the contexts explored. The holistic representation of coopetition and innovation research hinges upon multiple theories, including the resource-based view, the knowledge-based view, the network view, and the behavioral view, while predominantly focusing on strategy; innovativeness; value creation, appropriation and performance; appropriability and protection; and organizational culture. Given the increasing scholarly interest in both coopetition and innovation, this study proposes fruitful research avenues, and discusses their implications for both theory and practice.
... They suggested that companies should not compete with their competitors, but to cooperate with them in order to gain market advantages. On team level, coopetition can improve the performance (Ghobadi & D'Ambra, 2012b;Raza-Ullah, 2020;Seran et al., 2016;Strese et al., 2016;Thongpapanl et al., 2018;Zhang & Guo, 2019), the relationship (Ghobadi & D'Ambra, 2013;Knein et al., 2020;Strese et al., 2016) and innovation (Chen et al., 2020;Chiambaretto et al., 2019;Nguyen et al., 2018). Crossfunctional rivalry (i.e. ...
... The theory uses the proven approach that cross-functional teams with different mindsets improve the outcome performance (Ghobadi & D'Ambra, 2012b;Raza-Ullah, 2020;Seran et al., 2016;Strese et al., 2016;Thongpapanl et al., 2018;Zhang & Guo, 2019), innovation (Chen et al., 2020;Chiambaretto et al., 2019;Nguyen et al., 2018) and knowledge sharing (Albort-Morant et al., 2018;Ghobadi & D'Ambra, 2012a due to their collaboration and competition. From this assumption it follows that for projects in which sometimes conflicting goals, such as profitability and environment are pursued, cross-thinking individuals can be assembled to optimize outcomes such as performance, innovation & knowledge sharing within the teams. ...
Article
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To ensure global sustainability, the UN has set 17 sustainable development goals (SDG). With the 8th goal, which is described as decent work and economic growth, the UN pursues economic growth with economically more efficient production and consumption. Many critics see these aspects as conflicting, so that meeting one goal in certain cases does not lead to reach the other goal. This paper examines the influence of employees' personalities on their preferences for economic efficiency and environmental friendliness in economically strong countries. This study provides a survey of 117 participants using a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. The results show that individuals can be categorized into the following personality profiles based on their preferences: Open minded and neurotic employee classified to environmental friendly thinking, and extravert employee classified to economic efficient thinking. In the theory of coopetition cross-functional and -thinking teams, it could be potentially assumed individuals can be brought together to improve reaching both aspects of SDG 8.4. The major contribution of this study is to provide a conceptual foundation and identify a possible way to improve team coopetition on the SDG 8.4 that shows promise for future research.
... 189 on map) shared that firms encounter a continuous back and forth between competition intensity and relative exploration in their coopetition alliances. Chiambaretto et al. (2019) (no. 212 on map) have proposed resource dependence theory view in assessing three essential objectives of knowledge broker, which promotes seamless transfer of innovation-related knowledge across coopeting units through the process of cost-sharing by calibrating or finding uniformity in solutions for innovations. ...
... Strese et al., 2016);Learning (Fredrich et al., 2019) European medical device industry;German companies(Strese et al., 2016); European firms (Fredrich et al., 2019) Case study); Hierarchical regression analysis (Bendig et al., 2018); Structural equation modelling (Bouncken et al., 2016); Regression analysis (Strese et al., 2016); Fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (Fredrich et al., 2019)Tension and paradox as a challenge in coopetition Paradox theory; paradoxical tensions(Seran et al., 2016); Knowledge and innovation sharing tension(Chiambaretto et al., 2019) Sweden-multi-industry sample; French banking industry(Seran et al., 2016); Video game publisher Ubisoft (Chiambaretto et al., 2019) Content analysis Vertical Coopetition(Lechner et al., 2016); Disruptive innovations(Ansari et al., 2016); Degrees of interdependence(Leite et al., 2018) Venture capital-backed German company(Lechner et al., 2016);TV industry(Ansari et al., 2016); Information and communication technology (ICT) industry(Leite et al., ...
Article
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Purpose This research aims to conduct a systematic review of the literature on coopetition to assess its impact on firm performance in various contexts. Design/methodology/approach A bibliometric analysis of 144 papers from 1999 to 2021 and analysis of literature under the premise of theory, context, characteristics and methodology using the Theory–Context–Characteristics–Methodology (TCCM) approach was conducted using Institute for Scientific Information Web of Sciences data on coopetition literature. Findings The study enlists the influential journals, evolutions and citations of the articles and particularly identifies six research streams under the domain of coopetition and additionally charts out the future research agenda. Practical implications The results highlighted in this study may be helpful for managers and practitioners to understand the dynamics of a strategic alliance with their competitor organizations. Moreover, managers may utilize the coopetition strategy to enhance customer value and leverage this relationship for more excellent firm performance. Furthermore, the results obtained through cluster analysis can be considered as a start point to develop frameworks for a business relationship with competitors. This study utilizes content analysis and bibliometric analysis to assess the diverse view and understand the development of the field that may help the researchers increase the rigor and transparency of reviewing the literature and answer various questions that may arise to assess competitors’ interorganizational relationships. Originality/value No systematic literature review has analyzed the literature on coopetition using the TCCM approach and identified various research streams under the perspective of different contextual settings.
... 189 on map) shared that firms encounter a continuous back and forth between competition intensity and relative exploration in their coopetition alliances. Chiambaretto et al. (2019) (no. 212 on map) have proposed resource dependence theory view in assessing three essential objectives of knowledge broker, which promotes seamless transfer of innovation-related knowledge across coopeting units through the process of cost-sharing by calibrating or finding uniformity in solutions for innovations. ...
... Strese et al., 2016);Learning (Fredrich et al., 2019) European medical device industry;German companies(Strese et al., 2016); European firms (Fredrich et al., 2019) Case study); Hierarchical regression analysis (Bendig et al., 2018); Structural equation modelling (Bouncken et al., 2016); Regression analysis (Strese et al., 2016); Fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (Fredrich et al., 2019)Tension and paradox as a challenge in coopetition Paradox theory; paradoxical tensions(Seran et al., 2016); Knowledge and innovation sharing tension(Chiambaretto et al., 2019) Sweden-multi-industry sample; French banking industry(Seran et al., 2016); Video game publisher Ubisoft (Chiambaretto et al., 2019) Content analysis Vertical Coopetition(Lechner et al., 2016); Disruptive innovations(Ansari et al., 2016); Degrees of interdependence(Leite et al., 2018) Venture capital-backed German company(Lechner et al., 2016);TV industry(Ansari et al., 2016); Information and communication technology (ICT) industry(Leite et al., ...
Article
Purpose-This research aims to conduct a systematic review of the literature on coopetition to assess its impact on firm performance in various contexts. Design/methodology/approach-A bibliometric analysis of 144 papers from 1999 to 2021 and analysis of literature under the premise of theory, context, characteristics and methodology using the Theory-Context-Characteristics-Methodology (TCCM) approach was conducted using Institute for Scientific Information Web of Sciences data on coopetition literature. Findings-The study enlists the influential journals, evolutions and citations of the articles and particularly identifies six research streams under the domain of coopetition and additionally charts out the future research agenda. Practical implications-The results highlighted in this study may be helpful for managers and practitioners to understand the dynamics of a strategic alliance with their competitor organizations. Moreover, managers may utilize the coopetition strategy to enhance customer value and leverage this relationship for more excellent firm performance. Furthermore, the results obtained through cluster analysis can be considered as a start point to develop frameworks for a business relationship with competitors. This study utilizes content analysis and bibliometric analysis to assess the diverse view and understand the development of the field that may help the researchers increase the rigor and transparency of reviewing the literature and answer various questions that may arise to assess competitors' interorganizational relationships. Originality/value-No systematic literature review has analyzed the literature on coopetition using the TCCM approach and identified various research streams under the perspective of different contextual settings.
... Transparency is a key factor in sharing relationships because in opaque social environments, individuals may feel that sharing is unlikely to be reciprocated nor lead to enhanced reputation (Nowak, 2006). Individuals in a central position and who are trusted by others can facilitate knowledge sharing in coopetition (Chiambaretto et al., 2019). ...
... Formal and informal control mechanisms can be deployed to this aim (Fernandez & Chiambaretto, 2016). Interestingly, individuals who engage in both sharing and an acceptable level of control play an important role in coopetition (Chiambaretto et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Cooperation and competition are often viewed as incompatible, antagonistic forces, thus are operationalized as two extremes on a continuum. However, they can coexist and even enable each other, thus may be operationalized as orthogonal constructs. We address this contradictory phenomenon by developing a more granular view of the cooperation–competition paradox. Building on interdisciplinary research, we develop a three-dimensional model of relational space (fairness–opportunism, sharing–control, and engagement–rivalry), providing a novel tool with which to investigate the paradoxical interplay between cooperation and competition through eight operationalizable configurations. Using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), we test our model by assessing how different configurations of interfirm relationships influence the short- and long-term success of a sample of 217 firms. Our findings show that only two of the eight possible relational configurations are associated with firm success, one in both the long and short term, and the other in the short term only.
... The literature on coopetition has discussed challenges for collaborating partners with a focus on the tensions between protecting their business models and sharing knowledge to improve innovativeness (Bouncken & Kraus, 2013;Bouncken et al., 2015). It has been demonstrated in case studies that the complexities involved in collaboratively developing technological innovation require sufficient resources to successfully coordinate (Chiambaretto et al., 2019;Gnyawali & Park, 2011). In the case study, the creation of firm-driven labs describes making a choice to deal with the coordination problem. ...
... The hope is that intermediaries can serve as boundary spanners, helping in coopetitive settings to improve knowledge transfer and improve the conditions for innovation capacity building. A case study on intermediaries at Ubi Soft shows that they can help to reduce sharing costs via a standard setting in the innovation process and supporting diffusion processes as knowledge brokers due to credibility and trust cooperation (Chiambaretto et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Innovation intermediaries provide support during innovation processes and contribute to clients' innovativeness. In a growing body of literature, innovation intermediaries are considered as knowledge brokers and boundary spanners in regional innovation systems. While previous studies have highlighted insights into intermediaries' impact on clients, observations of their internal policies and working mechanisms remain scarce. Based on a case study of Berlin-based innovation and creativity labs, this paper sheds light on the innovation strategies chosen by intermediaries. I find that a distinct dualism of cooperation and competition shapes the innovation strategies of innovation intermediaries. The growing number of competitors and a lack of transparency shape the role of regional policy that offers information and market coordination. I present policy recommendations based on the results.
... Ces travaux prolongent les réflexions initiées dans les années 1970 par Howard Becker sur la dimension organisée des « mondes de l'arts » et ouvrent de nouvelles pistes de recherches pour le management. À partir des années 2000, de nombreux travaux ont exploré ces industries, dans leur variété : la publicité (Moeran, 2009), l'architecture (Jones et Livne Tarandach, 2008), la parfumerie (Endrissat et al., 2016), le design (Verganti, 2003), le cinéma (Cattani et al., 2008), la musique (Benghozi et Paris, 2003 ;Thompson et al., 2007), les arts de la scène (Glynn, 2000 ;Agid et Tarondeau, 2003 ;, la grande cuisine (Bouty et Gomez, 2010 ;Durand et al., 2007 ;Svejenova et al., 2010), les jeux vidéo (Cohendet et Simon, 2007 ;Tschang, 2007 ;Lê et al., 2013 ;Chiambaretto et al., 2019), etc. Ces travaux ont nourri des thématiques diverses (développement de produits/innovation, open innovation, écosystèmes, etc.) tout en contribuant à de multiples champs théoriques : communautés, théorie des ressources, néo-institutionnalisme, développement de nouveaux produits, business models, habitus, créativité… L'engouement nouveau autour de ces secteurs s'est traduit par l'apparition de sous-thématiques dédiées dans les conférences de management et par la multiplication des numéros spéciaux de revues. ...
... Certaines organisations donnent par ailleurs lieu à des configurations plus complexes, la direction des projets n'étant rarement l'apanage d'une seule personne. À titre d'exemple, dans le domaine des jeux vidéo, l'entreprise Ubisoft s'inscrit dans la configuration de facilitation, l'entreprise favorisant l'émergence de nouveaux projets de jeux par une grande liberté créative donnée à ses 45 studios répartis dans le monde (Chiambaretto et al., 2019). Néanmoins, l'enjeu de maîtrise du risque sur les projets donne lieu à un ensemble de dispositifs de contrôle, qui impliquent aussi des outils et principes en matière de création (Lê et al., 2013 ;Massé, 2019). ...
... First, without being constrained by preliminary decisions regarding tools or types of data, the single case study allows us to investigate a new phenomenon at various levels without focusing on a specific level of analysis (Eisenhardt, 1989;Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007). Second, recent contributions have highlighted the relevance of single case studies to investigate the possible challenges emerging from innovative organizations interacting at an international level (Scalera et al., 2014;Welch and Piekkari, 2017;Vinokurova and Kapoor, 2020) and from coopetition strategies (Gnyawali and Park, 2011;Fernandez et al., 2014;Ritala et al., 2014;Chiambaretto et al., 2019). Furthermore, our approach incorporates what Yin (2012) calls an "embedded case study," as we study, within the same case, two innovative projects that differ in terms of innovation development mode (internal versus external). ...
... MNEs represent a particular type of firm that holds large resources and knowledge to develop innovation internally (Ciabuschi et al., 2015). At the same time, coopetition practices in MNEs have essentially been investigated through the lens of internal coopetition (Luo, 2004(Luo, , 2005Chiambaretto et al., 2019). We argue that future research should focus on investigating the specificities of the coopetition decisions of MNEs to understand when and how they collaborate with competitors. ...
Article
While multinational enterprises (MNEs) possess the resources and knowledge to develop innovation projects internally with their own international subsidiaries, they sometimes prefer to develop innovation projects with their competitors. We investigate the circumstances under which MNEs prefer to “make” or “coopete” for certain specific innovation projects, which has not previously been addressed in the literature. Based on a case study of Airbus Defence and Space, we study two telecommunication satellite innovation projects (one developed internally and the other with a competitor). We show that both make and coopete strategies lead to short- and long-term benefits as well as risks. More precisely, we underscore that coopete decisions provide more short-term benefits than make decisions. By contrast, in the longer term, make decisions are more beneficial than coopete decisions. Therefore, we emphasize that for a given project, managers weight the options for and against each choice based on specific time frames, keeping in mind the necessity of both making and coopeting at the corporate level.
... Interpreted in the context of interfirm networks, Hansen's results suggest, as argued in this paper, that the location of network partners possessing valuable complementary resources matters for the focal firm's performance. More recently, the study by Chiambaretto, Masse, and Mirc (2019) on the impact of knowledge brokers in managing the tensions of internal coopetition suggests that trusted knowledge brokers have a pivotal role in facilitating knowledge flows between organizational units. In the context of interfirm networks, this finding suggests that direct partners with appropriate levels of resources-trust and knowledge, for examplefacilitate and mediate resource flows originating from indirect partners. ...
Article
PURPOSE: The objective of this paper is to propose a concept of network resource distribution that systematically unifies the resource-based and network-based perspectives on interfirm networks and enables integrated analysis of how firm resources and network structure interact to affect firm performance. METHODOLOGY: This conceptual paper first reviews the extant literature on interfirm networks and then develops the unifying concept of network resource distribution. FINDINGS: The literature review indicates that strategy scholars have long sought to integrate the resource-based view and the social network explanations of firm performance but, thus far, only a partial integration has been achieved. In particular, studies on the resource-level heterogeneity of interfirm networks have largely been limited to the analysis of firm dyads. How firm resources and network structure beyond the immediate network partners interact to affect firm performance has not yet been adequately addressed. The proposed unified concept of network resource distribution systematizes prior research and illuminates how network structure and firm resources interact to affect firm performance beyond the immediate network partners. IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORY AND PRACTICE: For theory, this paper highlights gaps in the extant literature on interfirm networks and proposes a unifying concept that can be utilized to address these gaps and to develop further theory in the area. For practice, this paper encourages managers not to limit their analyses of strategic alliances to immediate partnerships; it is also crucial to consider the partners and their resources, and reflect on how they are related to one another outside of the immediate partnership portfolio. ORIGINALITY AND VALUE: Network resource distribution is a novel concept that ties together and systematizes various strands of research on interfirm networks, thus providing a foundation for future research in the area. The concept is also amenable to detailed operationalization, facilitating subsequent quantitative testing of theoretical arguments combining firm resources and the structure of a network.
... Elements from both supportive and participative leadership allow the necessary emotional and respectful environment for productive efforts on the one hand while allowing all team members equally get involved in decision-making instances to promote the feeling of responsible acting rather than simple task-completing. As a result, redundancies are cut down while shared standards and methods can be established (Chiambaretto et al., 2019). Differing factors like diversity, gender, task activity, education, and knowledge basis positively influence interpersonal exchange (Liu et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Knowledge is crucial, but a transient resource that decides over the success or failure of business operations. Consequently, companies aim for the most profitable method to achieve high gains and conservation of knowledge, while excluding rivals to maintain the position of economic advantage as long as possible. To maximize the efforts of knowledge generation, new concepts of organizational processes were established in recent years. To provide a conceptual foundation and identify promising niches for future studies in the important field of team coopetition, existing literature on the factors of cross-functional team coopetition was reviewed, concluding in a systematic review. For this purpose, leading peer-reviewed journals from 2010 to 2021 offered 25 articles that fall within its established search inclusion criteria. Adding to the change of stakeholder project management, the shift from traditional, cooperative-led organizational approaches towards coopetition between two or multiple rivals can lead to promising results. However, it was indicated that this concept often fails due to misleading coordination in a coopetitive tension. Current studies extracted their results from applied team management mostly on short-term organizational, financial, and technical benefits or drawbacks, excluding long-term innovation effects. Most studies were categorized into three outcomes contributing to knowledge management: performance, relationship, and innovation. As a result, it is pointed out that several factors derived from the literature significantly influence the outcomes.
... The role of knowledge brokers (so characteristic of intellectuals), who are important actors in knowledge transfer, is often overlooked in the analyses, because they function as connectors and catalysts for knowledge flow. They act as intermediaries between unrelated organizations, groups, or individuals concentrated on collecting and disseminating knowledge, and as role models, promoting knowledge sharing [153]. ...
Article
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The energy sector is the epitome of Industry 4.0; therefore, it should be developed in line with the Industry 4.0 implementation framework and be managed according to the guidelines dedicated to knowledge-based enterprises. Under this model of evolution, the layers surrounding the technological aspects are first, knowledge management (in particular, its transfer), and then people, and culture. This study addresses two of the three identified levels by attempting to verify the organizational culture that supports professional knowledge transfer as the leading factor in effective specialist knowledge exchange in the energy sector. Recently, this sector has become highly dependent on IT solutions as the main factor for its development and security. A key role in this respect is played by IT professionals, whose attitudes and employee behavior are critical to the stability, efficiency , effectiveness, and security of IT systems in the energy companies. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical construct, based on indicated norms and values as organizational culture foundation and cultural practices. This article also aims to analyze and diagnose the components that support the professional knowledge transfer in different groups of organizational stakeholders. Systematic analysis of the scientific literature, expert evaluation, and structured questionnaires were used to develop and verify the hypotheses. The research results supported the hypotheses that organizational culture tailored to the knowledge workers' needs and expectations, influence the effective and efficient circulation of IT expert knowledge.
... We seek to understand the management principles and organizational designs of projects in oligo-coopetition. To explore the dynamic and paradoxical aspects of coopetition, a qualitative and explanatory case study design is recommended (Chiambaretto, Massé & Mirc, 2019;Fernandez & Chiambaretto, 2016;Gnyawali & Park, 2011), as it facilitates an in-depth understanding of a particular phenomenon by analyzing it in detail in a limited context (Yin, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has highlighted the importance of management for the success of dyadic coopetition strategies. Coopetition, however, does not always occur in dyadic settings. Oligo-coopetition strategies, i.e., coopetition strategy among more than two but only a small number of coopetitors, and its management remain largely understudied. Oligo-coopetition strategy simultaneously increases both the potential benefits and risks of coopetition. Past research highlights the key role of third parties in managing oligo-coopetition. However, what happens when there is no such third party? We investigate this question through a longitudinal case study of Total Group in its oil and gas exploration and production projects. The results outline how companies manage oligo-coopetition strategy without third parties. More precisely, the results first highlight three strategies of oligo-coopetition: (1) “shareholder” coopetition, (2) “vertical” coopetition, and (3) “combined vertical and horizontal” coopetition. The results, second, outline the specific organizational designs and management principles associated with these three strategies of coopetition.
... Some scholars argue that diverse actors can develop a shared understanding when they participate in shared practices (Brown and Duguid 1991, Lave and Wenger 1991, Orr 1996. However, most studies argue that such shared practices are unusual and emphasize that crossing a semantic boundary requires a particular group of "knowledge brokers" to operate in-between communities by becoming familiar with them in order to gather and disseminate information and knowledge (e.g., Hargadon and Sutton 1997, Brown and Duguid 1998, Carlile 2004, Evers and Menkhoff 2004, Burgess and Currie 2013, Chiambaretto et al. 2019. Accordingly, organizational scholars have paid attention to the role of knowledge brokers in areas such as engineering (Johri 2008), science (Barley 1996, Kissling-Naf 2009, information technology (Pawlowski and Robey 2004), and recently regarding emerging technologies, such as learning algorithms (Kellogg et al. 2020). ...
Article
This paper presents research on how knowledge brokers attempt to translate opaque algorithmic predictions. The research is based on a 31-month ethnographic study of the implementation of a learning algorithm by the Dutch police to predict the occurrence of crime incidents and offers one of the first empirical accounts of algorithmic brokers. We studied a group of intelligence officers, who were tasked with brokering between a machine learning community and a user community by translating the outcomes of the learning algorithm to police management. We found that, as knowledge brokers, they performed different translation practices over time and enacted increasingly influential brokerage roles, namely, those of messenger, interpreter, and curator. Triggered by an impassable knowledge boundary yielded by the black-boxed machine learning, the brokers eventually acted like “kings in the land of the blind” and substituted the algorithmic predictions with their own judgments. By emphasizing the dynamic and influential nature of algorithmic brokerage work, we contribute to the literature on knowledge brokerage and translation in the age of learning algorithms.
... However, it is difficult to understand game production practices without reference to the social and situated context in which games are created and developed (Whitson, 2020). In this article, we focus on a particular aspect of this production environment, that of coopetition, where competition and cooperation exist between firms and between units that are part of the same organisation (Chiambaretto, et al., 2019). It has emerged as an interesting paradigm for understanding corporate innovation strategies. ...
Preprint
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Introduction. Studies on the information practices in a cooperative context are rare. Yet, issues of access, sharing or retention of information are crucial. This study investigates how professionals in a global digital entertainment company define their information source horizon and the factors that influence them. Methods. Using Savolainen's information horizon methodology, we conducted an exploratory study based on interviews organised at the Montreal studio during which our 29 participants had to place their sources of information on mind maps. Analysis. Quantitative data was collected and analysed on participants' preferences for information sources. We also employed grounded theory techniques to review our interview transcripts using NVivo software. Results. We propose a new categorisation of sources and confirm the typology of Savolainen's criteria. The results revealed that coopetition and technological contexts shaped information practices of gameworkers. Conclusions. The results of our study on the informational practices of gameworkers could find application in strategic information and knowledge management.
... This is an old saying adopted from the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, but it can still be universally applied today (Luo 2007). Many studies believe that the current inter-firm relationship can no longer be simply classified as a competition and cooperation relationship (Bengtsson and Kock 2000;Chen, Dai, and Li 2019;Crick and Crick 2020). Based on the paradoxical forces of cooperativeness and competitiveness, engaging in coopetition activities has become a fundamental marketing decision for many organizations . ...
Article
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Purpose: We argue consistent with the knowledge-based theory that variances in the outcome of firms’ coopetition strategy depend on the characteristics of industries. Industry characteristics are one of the reasons for the heterogeneity of existing research. Design/methodology/approach: This article conducts a meta-analysis on the relationship between coopetition and performance. Empirical evidence was collected from 86374 firms nested in 49 independent samples. Meta-regression was used for moderator analysis. Findings: Empirical evidence from 86374 firms nested in 49 independent samples reveals a positive relationship between coopetition and performance. Industry positively moderates the relationship between coopetition and innovation. In contrast, we neither find a significant relationship between the intensity of coopetition and performance nor for industry’s moderation on the coopetition- performance association. Originality/value/contribution: In the field of coopetition, there is a lack of literature that uses meta-analysis to integrate existing empirical studies. The present article provides a more detailed perspective in explaining the heterogeneity prevailing in the coopetition and performance relationship. This paper ends with a series of limitations and avenues for future research.
... En effet, les blocages cognitifs (c'est-à-dire le blocage des acteurs sur une vision ou sur un paradigme partagé) peuvent éventuellement arrêter un certain temps ou ralentir un cycle, mais ceux-ci auront toujours lieu. (Becker, 1982) et de la culture (Bourdieu, 1992 (Benghozi, 1989 ;Creton, 2004Creton, , 2007Creton, , 2014Cattani, Ferriani, 2008), le jeu vidéo (Cohendet, Simon, 2007 ;Parmentier, Gandia, 2013 ;Chiambaretto, Massé, Mirc, 2019), la musique (Hadida, Paris, 2014), la peinture (White, White, 1965 ;Delacour, Leca, 2011 ;Sgourev, 2013) ; mais aussi autour de secteurs comme le design (Verganti, 2008), le parfum (Islam, Endrissat, Noppeney, 2016 ;Paris, Lang, Massé, 2020), la gastronomie (Rao, Monin, Durand, 2003 ;Svejenova, Mazza, Planellas, 2007 ;Paris, Leroy, 2013), l'architecture (Jones, Livne-Tarandach, 2008), la danse (Sgourev, 2015) ou la mode (Khaire, 2014). Cette liste n'étant pas exhaustive. ...
Thesis
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Cette thèse étudie l’émergence des mouvements artistiques d’un point de vue gestionnaire. L’histoire de l’art est rythmée par l’existence de mouvements artistiques. Dans une approche plus moderne qui considère les industries où sont produites les œuvres d’art, nous faisons le constat de ces mêmes observations : ces industries connaissent des processus de renouvellement qui, analysés a posteriori, font état de l’existence de mouvements. L’intérêt ancien qu’ont pu porter les sciences humaines et sociales à l’étude de l’art, à sa production et aux acteurs participant à cette production nous incite à étudier les mouvements artistiques via ce prisme afin de comprendre les mécanismes à l’œuvre dans leurs émergences pour ainsi appréhender le dynamisme des industries dans lesquelles ils ont lieu.En nous appuyant sur les travaux du sociologue Howard Becker, nous définissons alors un mouvement artistique comme la résultante d’un monde de l’art composé d’un nombre important d’acteurs ayant créé des œuvres suffisamment disruptives pour remettre en cause les conventions existantes de manière importante et ainsi marquer durablement l’histoire de l’art. L’objectif de la thèse est alors de préciser cette définition de mouvement artistique et de proposer des premiers éléments de compréhension de leurs émergences. À travers une démarche compréhensive prenant appui sur trois cas (un équipement, un atelier et une entreprise) des industries créatives, nos travaux suggèrent une caractérisation des mouvements et des conditions nécessaires à leurs émergences : la création d’un nouveau monde de l’art associé à des nécessaires innovations qui se traduisent par la remise en cause des conventions existantes ou la création de nouvelles, une forme de proximité reconnue par des acteurs externes au mouvement lui-même que nous définissons comme une proximité perçue, et un nécessaire phénomène d’ancrage qui traduit la pérennité des éléments précédents et l’inscription de l’émergence de ce monde, de ses œuvres et de ses acteurs dans l’histoire de l’art.
... When observing the narratives of support in these developmental support paths, we found that, underlying these configurations, was the notion that knowledge obtained by supporters had to be translated into a situation faced by the entrepreneur, and that supporters were able to overcome relational barriers between the third party and the entrepreneur that impeded such translation. A clue here is that actors in support relationships shape these networks to enhance their relevance to each other, which confers the supporter a role as advisor and articulator in the wider support network (see Chiambaretto, Massé, & Mirc, 2019). ...
Thesis
Starting from the notion that entrepreneurs' supporters, willingly provide resources, this thesis asks the question, "why do supporters willingly support entrepreneurs and their projects?" The investigation searches for the answer in relational mechanisms around the supporters. This thesis observes how a supporter's own relationships enable their response to an entrepreneur's needs. Instead of seeing network relationships as channels through which resources flow, this thesis approaches networks as relational contexts where entrepreneurs' challenges can be developed through actions that reconfigure these contexts. The mechanisms presented in this thesis reveal a social experience that guides supporters in their own lives, where support to an entrepreneur makes sense to the supporters and improves their own lives. Our conclusions show that entrepreneurs can improve their access to resources when they encourage their supporters to deepen and enrich their own relationships, both within the theme of entrepreneurship and in their general issues.
... Because commitment and trust accrue along with strong network ties, opportunistic tendencies may be reduced (Umashankar, Ward, & Dahl, 2017). In contrast, studies have shown that weak ties generate superior innovation because they provide access to diverse and novel knowledge while reducing redundant information (Chiambaretto, Massé, & Mirc, 2019). Such equivocal findings suggest that the relationship between tie strength and innovation outcome is a complex one, which may motivate a more detailed examination of this relationship. ...
Article
This paper investigates the unexplored aspects of network effects considering the position of strong and weak ties, in particular, whether these are adjacent or non-adjacent to a focal firm in a triad network. To examine the effects of a network on a firm’s breakthrough innovation, we develop six configurations of strong and weak ties to explore a theoretical framework how such a network may affect a firm’s breakthrough innovation in terms of knowledge redundancy and relational risks. Further, we found that a firm’s absorptive capacity may significantly moderate such a relationship. Among the implications for network theory is whether a firm’s breakthrough innovation depends on the position and characteristics of networks in a triad relationship.
... Within this context, coopetition creates a more efficient use of resources (Czakon, Gnyawali, 2020), improves the partners' competitive positioning (Ritala, 2012), advances innovation (Ritala, 2012), and enhances new product development . With regard to tension management, appropriation can stand at the core of coopetition (Chiambaretto et al., 2019), rendering mitigating tensions a major task in coopetition management (Czakon, Klimas & Marianim, 2020;Czakon, Gnyawali, et al., 2020). ...
Article
Coopetition entails tensions inherent to collaboration with competitors. This paper focuses on the coopetition formation stage and its effects on the development of tensions. We performed interviews with executives of coopeting firms, create case studies of organizations that initiate and execute coopetition agreements for other firms, and then study firms engaged in mutual coopetition. While this study confirms previous findings that coopetition formation can be deliberate or emergent, it also reveals that the two approaches differ in strategy development patterns, which influence the type and intensity of tensions, as well as the scope and sustainability of the coopetition. The deliberate approach mainly includes tensions due to lack of trust, knowledge exposure and cultural gaps, and the scope and timeframe of the coopetition are clearly delimited. Previous acquaintance and existing trust correspond to a lower intensity of tensions for the emergent approach, and the scope and timeframe are open for extension.
... Este valor agregado obtenido de la estrategia es una capacidad dinámica que las organizaciones están intentando desarrollar, (O'Reilly lll y Tushman, 2008), si explotan oportunidades de mercados interesantes integrando los conocimientos de varias organizaciones, y si exploran generan productos innovadores en ellas, posiblemente podrán obtener mejores resultados en conjunto (Bierly et al, 2009, Bouncken y Kraus, 2013, de igual forma pasa en las alianzas ambidiestras del sector turístico, se ha evidenciado que las relaciones de cooperación son una buena alternativa para enfrentar el entorno y la competencia, aun cuando hay diferencias entre las organizaciones turísticas rurales y urbanas (Jesus y Franco 2016) y las relaciones externas e internas de los directivos mediadas por las capacidades dinámicas, logran resultados de innovación al detectar cambios en el entorno que permea el sector turístico, lo que conlleva a generar valor en cada una de las organizaciones que participan en la alianza (Nieves, 2014). Pero lograr esa simultaneidad de ambos procesos de exploración y explotación cooperativa, no es sencillo por sus múltiples tensiones (Chiambaretto et al., 2019), Vieira y Amaral (2016) consideran que cuando se tiene una cultura muy arraigada, o una comunicación poco clara se crean barreras, para lo cual los líderes ambidiestros deben alinear y complementar la estrategia con los objetivos relacionados con el conocimiento, la coordinación, la comunicación y el control son determinantes para una asertiva toma de decisiones (Fan y Ku, 2010, Lawson et al., 2009, Haugstetter y Cahoon, 2010. ...
Thesis
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Investigaciones recientes indican que la capacidad de gestión de alianzas representa un recurso potencialmente importante para el desarrollo de la ambidestralidad. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la mediación que tiene la capacidad de gestión de alianzas entre los procesos de (co�explotación, co-exploración organizacional), y las alianzas ambidiestras. Este trabajo de tesis doctoral reporta una investigación mixta, al desarrollar un enfoque cualitativo a la vez que se realiza un enfoque cuantitativo, utilizando como fuente de investigación, entrevistas a varios gerentes, mediante un cuestionario semi-estructurado, aplicado en hoteles del departamento de Antioquia y, finalmente utilizando el método de modelo de ecuaciones estructurales, con el fin de observar los fenómenos de manera inductiva y deductiva. Se develarán los tipos y características de los procesos y alianzas que poseen, la capacidad de gestión de la alianza que han desarrollado y a partir de ahí, su mediación para conseguir alianzas ambidiestras. En general, esta investigación examina el posible papel mediador de la capacidad de gestión de alianzas entre los procesos de (co-explotación, co-exploración organizacional), y las alianzas ambidiestras, explorando cómo una empresa a partir de su desarrollo de la capacidad de gestión de alianzas, beneficia o no la ambidestreza de la alianza, además, para avanzar en la línea investigativa de estudio, se proponen y validan las hipótesis.
... Thus, we identify the importance of innovation ecosystem coopetition and further define it as the coexistence of competition and cooperation in the innovation ecosystem (Hoffmann et al., 2018). These cooperation and competition are not mutually exclusive, but work together and influence each other (Bengtsson et al., 2016;Chiambaretto et al., 2019). ...
Article
Disruptive green innovation stands out in an important way to achieve corporate sustainable development. Although the general importance of innovation ecosystem has recently been emphasized, little research has considered the influence of innovation ecosystem coopetition on disruptive green innovation. Combining resource‐based view and resource orchestration theory, this study sheds light on the relationships among innovation ecosystem cooperation and competition, environmental resource orchestration, and disruptive green innovation under the moderating role of big data analytics capability. Using data collected from 295 manufacturing enterprises in China, the results show that both innovation ecosystem cooperation and competition have positive effects on environmental resource orchestration,and that environmental resource orchestration has a positive effect on disruptive green innovation. Furthermore, environmental resource orchestration is found to partially mediate the relationship between innovation ecosystem cooperation and disruptive green innovation, and to fully mediate the relationship between innovation ecosystem competition and disruptive green innovation. Moreover, we find that big data analytics capability has a moderating effect on the relationship between innovation ecosystem cooperation and environmental resource orchestration, whereas it does not moderate the relationship between innovation ecosystem competition and environmental resource orchestration. This study opens avenues for understanding the relationship between innovation ecosystem coopetition and disruptive green innovation, which enriches literature on both innovation ecosystem and green innovation. Likewise, this study has important implications for practitioners who attempt to promote market disruption and sustainable development with the help of ecosystems.
... Three main types of tensions have been acknowledged at the intra-organizational level: 1) tensions between different business units that compete for resources (Arvidsson, 2009;Chiambaretto, Massé, & Mirc, 2019;Luo et al., 2006;Tsai, 2002); 2) tensions between different levels of management who do not share the same opinion on the value of coopetitive relationships (Bengtsson, Raza-Ullah, & Vanyushyn, 2016;Raza-Ullah et al., 2014); and 3) cognitive and emotional tensions between employees in competing companies who might find it challenging to regard each other as partners (Gnyawali et al., 2011;Raza Ullah, 2017). ...
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Coopetition is a paradoxical phenomenon that encapsulates the dynamic interplay between cooperation and competition. Management of tensions, inherent in coopetitive relationships, is a success factor for this type of collaboration. Previous research has extensively examined management of tensions in the implementation phase of coopetitive innovation projects but has paid little attention to the dynamics of these tensions across different project phases. This gap is disconcerting since the innovation management literature recognizes the fuzziness and uncertainty of the pre-project phase as critical to the continuity of an innovation project. We argue that differences between project phases are likely to affect tensions, and qualitatively investigate their nature and management in the pre-project and implementation phases. The findings indicate that companies in mature industries often experience strong intra-organizational tensions during the pre-project phase due to performing and organizing paradoxes. These tensions may harm companies' participation in projects and need to be handled by a working-through strategy at the company level. In contrast, inter-organizational tensions are identified as the dominant type of tensions during the project implementation phase due to performing, organizing and learning paradoxes. Inter-organizational tensions need to be addressed by working-through strategy, splitting-and-integration strategy or a combination of the two strategies, respectively.
... It is a strategy to combine the need to innovate due to competition while allowing access to new resources and capabilities resulting from the cooperation (Osarenkhoe, 2010). Studies in this theme have focused on the paradox and tensions between competition and cooperation (Bengtsson et al., 2016), knowledge sharing and protection , the success factors in coopetition relationships (de Resende et al., 2018) and the managerial implications of coopetition, such as its benefits and limits (Chiambaretto et al., 2019). Additionally, most of the coopetition research concerns large companies, such as multinationals (e.g. ...
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Organisations often suffer from knowledge flow gaps between operational and strategic management levels, leaving much knowledge trapped within operations’ boundaries. Prior studies viewed the project management office (PMO) as a knowledge broker that can enhance the interaction between these levels. However, they take a single-faceted knowledge brokering perspective that fails to define the specific knowledge brokering roles of the PMO and offer highly fragmentary evidence on the associated enabling factors. To fill this void, we draw on the brokerage theory to develop a comprehensive theoretical framework in which we define specific knowledge brokering roles of the PMO and delineate their enabling factors for facilitating multidirectional knowledge transactions. We elaborate on three sets of knowledge brokering roles, each of which corresponds to one of three categories of knowledge transactions. Our model shows how PMOs can broker knowledge trapped in organisational silos by balancing bottom-up experiential learning with top-down deliberate learning while maintaining horizontal knowledge synchronisation.
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The research on how to manage the openness paradox in corporate innovation networks makes for an interesting topic in the innovation literature. This study investigates the configurational effects of innovative search, appropriability, and open network characteristics on corporate innovation performance. To this end, the study samples 593 Chinese manufacturers using the qualitative comparative analysis method. Empirical findings show that three open strategies improve innovation performance—the patent applicant-dominant, balanced, and explorative search-dominant strategies in low-level, high-level, and high- or low-level geographic and organizational research and development (R&D) networks, respectively. This study also reveals the critical role of an R&D network in open strategies. Specifically, firms with high-level geographic or organizational R&D networks tend to adopt complementary open strategies, whereas those with low-level R&D networks prefer substitutive open strategies. These findings guide firms to choose suitable open strategies in innovation networks.
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While a growing number of contributions rely on the concept of coopetition, they adopt very different, and sometimes contradictory, perspectives. Our article aims to lay a foundation for future research on coopetition by defining what can and cannot be categorized as coopetition. Building on a Lakatosian approach, we identify three assumptions that compose the "hard core" of coopetition as a research program. We argue that coopetition requires (1) simultaneous competition and cooperation; (2) an intense competition between partnering firms in critical markets, and (3) an intense cooperation between competing firms in critical activities or markets. In addition to the hard core, the Lakatosian approach enables us to highlight eight key debates that compose the "protective belt" of coopetition and that are represented as many research avenues. As coopetition becomes a trending research topic, defining its nature to lay its foundation is now more important than ever. This research thus contributes to a clear definition of what coopetition is and what it is not.
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The researchers study coopetition in various levels such as individual, intraorganizational or interorganizational. However, there is a gap in coopetition studies at the society level, at the meta-level. We consider Social Coopetition as the capacity of the society's stakeholders to work together, oriented to create social value to generate solutions to economic, social and environmental problems, providing local development based on cooperation and social commitment. This research has twofold objectives, i) to define Social Coopetition and propose its dimensions, ii) to validate a scale to measure coopetition at society level. An expert's panel analyzed 101 variables extracted by the literature review, and they selected 75 variables grouped in 7 dimensions as a qualitative pre-validation. In the sequence, we performed an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to validate the scale. Our findings indicated 12 dimensions could express the social coopetition level: social asymmetry, perceptions of individual and collective benefits, socio-political characteristics, communication, competition, social competence, social commitment, previous experience, social governance, interdependence, technological and innovation level and cultural similarity. The findings provide a scale to monitor the social coopetition through 48 variables. Our results bring a novel in the coopetition field and have theoretical and practical implications. The findings explore a new coopetition level. Also, it provides a tool for municipal management to improve the coopetition strategies performance toward the generation of social value.
Article
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Initially developed in strategic management, the concept of coopetition is increasingly used in the marketing field or in a marketing empirical context. In this chapter, we aim to define what we call coopetitive marketing. To do so, we first come back on the origins of the coopetition concept and underline how they relate to the marketing field. We then highlight the main contributions, investigating coopetition strategies through a marketing lens such as pricing or branding policies. Finally, we provide a set of research directions to further our knowledge of coopetitive marketing.
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Progress in coopetition research is impeded by two problems in the literature: (a) superficial conceptualization of simultaneity and outcomes and (b) lack of theorizing about core properties of coopetition and how they influence outcomes. This paper addresses these interrelated problems and charts a path towards a theory of coopetition. We systematically analyze competition and cooperation and illuminate how the interplay between specific aspects of competition and cooperation manifests through unique coopetition mechanisms. We explicate a range of possible outcomes from coopetition—joint value creation for all firms, value creation for individual firms, and value destruction—and suggest that coopetition mechanisms help explain how and why coopetition may lead to varying outcomes. Furthermore, we explain how effective navigation of simultaneity and value creation intent, two fundamental elements of coopetition, may be instrumental in deriving beneficial outcomes. Navigating simultaneity involves balancing competition and cooperation and maintaining both at moderately strong levels, and navigating value creation consists of managing the trade-off between joint value creation and firm value creation without compromising overall value creation. By explaining how coopetition manifests, what its unique underlying properties are, and how such properties influence outcomes, our paper provides a deeper understanding of the phenomenon and progresses the literature towards a theory of coopetition.
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This paper examines the engagement of subsidiaries in coopetition, the simultaneous pursuit of competitive and cooperative behavior, in subsidiary role development. Drawing on twelve detailed case studies, we uncover how framing of the mandate situation shapes subsidiary actions to influence role development, thereby leading to competitive and cooperative subsidiary behavior. This paper advances our understanding of coopetition in MNCs by developing the concept of subsidiary coopetition competence and extends theory on subsidiary evolution.
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Collaboration with rivals is viewed as a way to achieve superior performance of firms in terms of innovation output. Yet empirical results show that coopetition may either foster, hamper or be neutral to innovation. The motivation of our study resides in firms’ heterogeneity in terms of their innovative capacity, that is innovativeness, in order to better understand the complex relationship between coopetition and innovation. We explore the interdependency between organizational innovativeness and coopetition. Our study has been conducted in the Polish video game industry. The data has been collected through a survey administered to all 506 identified Polish video game developers, with an effective sample of 84 coopetitors. We run correlation and regression analyses in a multidimensional approach to organizational innovativeness and coopetition. Our findings show that coopetition is a popular strategy for video game developers, and is adopted by 68% of firms. Organizational innovativeness and its particular dimensions are positively and significantly related to both direct and indirect coopetition. Based on factor analysis we find its three components to be reliable: openness and encouragement to innovate; strategic innovative focus; and extrinsic monetary motivation. While extrinsic monetary motivation does not play a role in coopetition of video game developers, openness and encouragement to innovate stimulates especially indirect coopetition, while strategic innovative focus affects especially direct coopetition.
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Considering the increasing number of cobranding agreements taking place between competing firms, by highlighting its different forms, benefits and risks. To better understand this phenomenon, we develop a theoretical framework in which we explore different coopetitive branding situations. Based on the literature on coopetition and co-branding, we identify two key dimensions of coopetitive branding: the nature of the agreement (hybrid vs. symbolical) and the type of partners (direct vs. indirect competitors). These dimensions structure our proposed typology of four coopetitive branding situations. We further develop our theoretical framework by presenting and discussing the specific short-term (for the joint product) and long-term (for the parent firms) benefits and risks associated with each type of coopetitive branding, which are synthesized in four research propositions and illustrated through four case studies. The findings are discussed in direct relation to the relevant literature, resulting in a series of insights relevant for both the academic and managerial communities. The limitations of our study are properly acknowledged, providing us with the opportunity to develop a set of research directions for coopetitive branding agreements and their management.
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There is increasing interest among management scholars in “coopetition”, which is simultaneous cooperation and competition between at least two actors. The research interest in coopetition has grown remarkably in the past few years on a variety of levels of analysis, including the intra-firm level, the inter-firm level, and the network level. However, this research has emerged along tracks that are often disconnected, and involves different terminologies, theoretical lenses, and topics. Accordingly, scholars have called for consolidation and synthesis that makes it possible to develop a coherent understanding of the coopetition concept and that reconciles its inherent heterogeneity. In this study, the authors address this issue by means of a systematic literature review that gathers, analyzes, and synthesizes coopetition research. Current knowledge on coopetition is consolidated and presented across multiple levels of analysis along a phase model of coopetition. On the basis of this in-depth review, the authors synthesize a conceptual map that highlights five multilevel research areas: (1) the nature of the relationship, (2) governance and management, (3) the output of the relationship, (4) actor characteristics, and (5) environmental characteristics. The major research themes are identified for each of these areas, enabling the authors to suggest future research avenues.
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Most articles studying coopetition focus on horizontal relationships between homogenous actors using a single level of analysis. However, several recent theoretical contributions have emphasized that coopetition is a more complex phenomenon and could imply vertical relations or heterogeneous actors. We contribute to this debate on the nature of coopetition by constructing a typology of coopetition. This typology is the result of an abductive process in which we mobilize the concept of “level.” Using the airline industry, we combine activity levels and organizational levels to identify seven forms of coopetition. Finally, we discuss the implications of a multilevel analysis to gain a better understanding of coopetition.
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This study seeks to provide insights into the management of tensions related to information in coopetition. The literature on coopetition management recommends a separation principle, an integration principle or a combination of both. Focusing on tensions related to information in coopetition at the project level, we consider which principle is most appropriate. We theoretically discuss the control mechanisms used to address information criticality and information appropriability. In addition, we conduct an in-depth case study of a space project involving two competitors, Astrium and Thales Alenia Space. First, we describe the tensions related to information that arose in the context of this coopetitive project. In particular, financial and technical information presented dilemmas. Second, we explain how the coopetitors used formal control mechanisms to separate critical information from non-critical information. Specifically, information that was critical to the project's success was shared through a common information system specially designed for the project, whereas non-critical information was withheld from the partner. Third, because formal control mechanisms were insufficient to address critical information that was also appropriable, we show how project managers implemented informal control mechanisms. For example, project managers transformed appropriable information into non-appropriable information by aggregating data and withholding details such as calculation methods and cost structures. Our findings suggest that the management of tensions related to information in coopetitive projects requires a combination of formal control mechanisms (to manage information criticality) and informal control mechanisms (to manage information appropriability).
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We argue for a broadened approach to brokerage by distinguishing between brokerage emphasizing a particular structural pattern in which two otherwise disconnected alters are connected through a third party ("brokerage structure") and the social behavior of third parties ("brokerage process"). We explore a processual view of brokerage by examining three fundamental strategic orientations toward brokerage: conduit, tertius gaudens, and tertius iungens that occur in many different forms and combinations. This processual view is especially relevant in increasingly complex and dynamic environments where brokerage behavior is highly varied, intense, and purposeful, and has theoretical implications for studying multiplexity, heterogeneity, and brokerage intensity.
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In this study, we apply a paradox perspective on coopetition to investigate the effects of coopetition paradox on managers' experience and perception of coopetitive tensions, and the role of coopetition capability in managing such tensions. We propose a theoretical model to posit that the intensity of coopetition paradox positively associates with managers' experience of external tension, which in turn lead them to perceive internal tension. Further, coopetition capability plays a dual role—moderates the relation between coopetition paradox and external tension, and reduces internal tension. We tested hypotheses on a representative multi-industry sample of 1532 firms in Sweden and the results confirm them. Our study contributes to understanding the critical role of coopetition capability that enables firms to maintain a moderate level of tension regardless of the intensity of coopetition paradox.
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With a focus on inter-firm relationships involving the simultaneous pursuit of competition and cooperation, we develop a conceptual framework that explicates key paradoxical conditions, paradoxical tension, and performance implications of tension in such relationships. We propose felt tension as the actual manifestation of the paradox and offer insights on critical capabilities necessary to understand and manage the paradox. Our paper extends the paradox literature in the inter-organizational context and provides a set of concepts and propositions designed to stimulate systematic empirical research on the competition–cooperation paradox.
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Firms introducing disruptive innovations into multisided ecosystems may confront the disruptor’s dilemma – they must gain the support of the very incumbents they disrupt. We examine how these firms may address this dilemma through a longitudinal study of TiVo, a company that pioneered the Digital Video Recorder. Our analysis reveals how TiVo navigated co-opetitive tensions by continually adjusting its strategy, its technology platform, and its relational positioning within the evolving U.S. television industry ecosystem. We theorize how (a) disruption may affect not just specific incumbents, but also the entire ecosystem, (b) co-opetition is not just dyadic, but also multilateral and intertemporal, and (c) strategy is both a deliberative and emergent process involving continual adjustments, as the disruptor attempts to balance coopetitive tensions over time..
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This study seeks to provide insights into the management of coopetitive tensions at the working-group level. We theoretically discuss the principles of separation and integration and a combination of both to manage coopetitive tensions at this level. An in-depth case study of a space programme conducted by two competitors − Astrium and Thales Alenia Space − was conducted. At the organizational level, according to the separation principle, we found that the coopetitors implemented a Coopetitive Project Team separated from the rest of their organization. At the individual level, according to the integration principle, we evidenced that project managers internalize the coopetitive paradox. At the working-group level, we revealed a new principle, that of co-management. The co-management principle, in the case of dyadic coopetition, relies on the implementation of a dual, equally shared governance structure and a dual management committee. To efficiently manage coopetitive tensions, firms are combining the separation principle at the organizational level, the co-management principle at the working-group level and the integration principle at the individual level.
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To survive and prosper, organizations must reconcile stability, reliability, and exploitation with change, innovation, and exploration. These imperatives and the mechanisms that support them are generally seen as incompatible and mutually exclusive. I present an alternative: A duality view in which stability and change are fundamentally interdependent-contradictory but also mutually enabling. This view revisits several enduring ideas about stability and change and offers theoretical and pragmatic opportunities to dissolve and transcend their paradoxical relationship.
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This study underlines the limitations of commonly used proxies to measure value creation in interfirm alliances and addresses these limitations in two ways. First, this study adopts a coopetition- based approach in theoretically conceptualizing value creation in interfirm alliances as a three-dimensional construct and argues that in addition to “common benefit” and “private benefit cooperation” (generally known as “private benefits”), a third dimension, namely “private benefit competition” should also be considered as an integral dimension of value creation. Second, by analyzing data collected from 155 firms of five high-technology research-intensive sectors in India that engaged in 288 alliances characterized by varying degree of co-opetition, this study empirically validates the distinctiveness of these three dimensions and presents a 17-item multidimensional scale of value creation.
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Extant marketing literature tends to view cross-functional relationships as primarily cooperative or competitive in nature, but not both. In contrast, this research focuses on cross-functional “coopetition” (i.e., the joint occurrence of cooperation and competition across functional areas within a firm). Using responses from midlevel managers and top executives, the authors find that cross-functional coopetition enhances a firm's customer and financial performance. The authors further show that this influence is mediated by market learning, indicating that performance returns to cross-functional coopetition occurs through an underlying learning mechanism.
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We show how the tension between cooperation and competition affects the dynamics of learning alliances. ‘Private benefits’ and ‘common benefits’ differ in the incentives that they create for investment in learning. The competitive aspects of alliances are most severe when a firm's ratio of private to common benefits is high. We introduce a measure, ‘relative scope’ of a firm in an alliance, to show that the opportunity set of each firm outside an alliance crucially impacts its behavior within the alliance. Finally, we suggest why firms might deviate from the theoretically optimal behavior patterns. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The authors develop a framework for examining how and why marketing personnel interact with personnel in other functional areas in planning, implementing, and evaluating marketing activities. Building on theoretical developments from social systems theory and resource dependence models, they provide a general framework that can be used to understand such interaction across different functional areas and different types of marketing positions. A partial test of this framework based on the responses of 151 managers in three different divisions of a Fortune 500 firm shows preliminary support for the propositions developed.
Book
This reference volume is the first to provide a comprehensive international survey of co-opetition research. Organised thematically and written by the world’s most cited researchers in the field, it views the topic through the lens of a variety of disciplines including innovation, strategic management, marketing and operations management. This reference book is the definitive resource for researchers looking to understand the field of co-opetition throughout business and management. © 2019 selection and editorial matter, Anne-Sophie Fernandez, Paul Chiambaretto, Frédéric Le Roy, and Wojciech Czakon.
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Research Summary: Building on game theory and the transaction costs paradigm, this paper systematically examines the interplay between competitive and cooperative behavior and its effect on differential benefits in alliances. Cooperative behavior leads to joint value creation that yields common benefits, while competitive behavior is linked with value appropriation resulting in private benefits. Differential benefits arise when partners extract private benefits. Yet, private benefit extraction depends on the associated reduction in the common benefit potential of the alliance. This paper demonstrates that differential benefits decrease as partners refrain from private benefit extraction when the common benefit potential is high and common benefits are equally distributed. Differential benefits increase when a partner holds dominant operational control under high levels of task interdependence. Managerial Summary: While alliances create synergy potential unavailable to individual firms, they may also lead to differential benefits to the partners. Since differential benefits may hurt a partner both within and outside the scope of the alliance, it is important to understand how they arise. A key source of differential benefits is private benefit extraction through the misappropriation of partner resources. Overall, private benefit extraction depends on the associated reduction in the common benefit potential of the alliance. The findings suggest that partners may refrain from private benefit extraction when the common benefit potential is high and when the expected common benefits are equally distributed among partners. In contrast, private benefits increase when one partner holds dominant operational control under high levels of task interdependence.
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This research focuses on the project structure used by coopetitors to achieve common innovation projects. Scholars have recently identified an original but complex project structure that they call the Coopetitive Project Team (CPT). However, other project structures can also be implemented by coopetitors to achieve innovation. Therefore, we address the following question: for which types of innovation projects is CPT appropriate? We argue that coopetitors need to use CPT for high-risk and high-cost projects when the aim is to develop radical innovation. CPT allows coopetitors not only to develop innovation capabilities through close resource and knowledge sharing but also to manage the risk of opportunism. Conversely, coopetitors should use another project structure, Separated Project Teams (SPTs), for low-cost and low-risk projects when the aim is to develop incremental innovation. The SPT design allows coopetitors both to achieve the goal of the project and to minimize the risk of opportunism. To confirm our assumptions, we studied the project portfolios of Airbus and Thales, two firms in the space satellite industry. Our findings confirm that coopetitors should implement CPTs to handle innovation projects that are costly, risky and highly innovative. CPTs permit the sharing of knowledge and the management of high opportunism risk, both of which are necessary to achieve radical innovation. Conversely, coopetitors rely on SPTs for low-cost projects that require a low degree of knowledge sharing, thus avoiding the risk of opportunism in achieving their incremental innovation objectives.
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- This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies from specifying the research questions to reaching closure. Some features of the process, such as problem definition and construct validation, are similar to hypothesis-testing research. Others, such as within-case analysis and replication logic, are unique to the inductive, case-oriented process. Overall, the process described here is highly iterative and tightly linked to data. This research approach is especially appropriate in new topic areas. The resultant theory is often novel, testable, and empirically valid. Finally, framebreaking insights, the tests of good theory (e.g., parsimony, logical coherence), and convincing grounding in the evidence are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.
Article
Coopetition (collaboration between competitors) can facilitate product innovation, but there is still debate about how it is suited to radical or incremental innovation. This paper argues that the early and later phases of coopetitive new product development (NPD) pose different benefits and risks for the innovation types. Building on the tensions approach to value creation and appropriation, we develop a series of hypotheses on the role of coopetition in NPD alliances and focal firm's innovation output. The hypotheses are tested on a quantitative data set of 1049 NPD alliances in the German medical and machinery sectors. The results show that, while coopetition is advantageous for incremental innovation in both pre-launch and launch phases, radical innovation benefits from coopetition in the launch phase only.
Article
This article describes advances in the study of knowledge transfer in organizations over the fifteen years since Argote and Ingram (2000) appeared in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Argote and Ingram developed mechanisms of knowledge transfer and discussed factors that facilitate or impede transfer. Conditions under which knowledge transfer improves organizational performance were identified and conditions under which knowledge transfer is a source of competitive advantage for organizations were theorized. The current article concludes that research subsequent to the publication of Argote and Ingram has both increased the depth of our understanding of knowledge transfer and broadened the factors considered as predictors and consequences of transfer. Challenges to studying knowledge transfer, primarily in the area of measurement, are described, and new measurement approaches are discussed. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions that are likely to be productive and suggest that expanding the study of knowledge transfer to new problem domains, such as entrepreneurship, would advance knowledge of those domains as well as increase understanding of knowledge transfer.
Article
While dyadic coopetition drivers have been explored in a number of studies, network coopetition has not received similar attention. Available studies tackle network coopetition from the central actor's perspective, leaving other members beyond the scope of attention. In this study, we aim to develop the understanding of network coopetition adherence by exploring the role of trust-building mechanisms. Interviews with 66 key stakeholders in a mountain tourism destination have been analysed through the lens of the five trust-building mechanisms. Our findings indicate that transference by third-party legitimization and reputation in the network play a vital role in the decision to enter into network coopetition. Inversely, calculative, capability-based and intention-based trust are shown to be difficult to develop and are rarely used. This paper discusses the theoretical and managerial implications of these findings on network coopetition formation.
Article
This study examines how an organization can redefine its core process when faced with a major crisis of creative efficiency. We analyze the case of the experimentation of the "Always Playable" project at Ubisoft Montreal, a leading video game development studio, where a crisis of creativity triggered an active reconfiguration of routines and their artifacts. To address this crisis, the organization attempted to restore a balance between efficiency and flexibility by modifying the generative relationship among the ostensive aspect, the performative aspect, and artifacts of routines. Our study shows that one way to reach this balance is by deliberately breaking, partitioning, and recombining aspects from different routines.
Article
This research studies the evolution of the composition of an alliance portfolio from a coopetition perspective. Building on resource dependence theory, market uncertainty appears to be a driver of alliance portfolio formation and evolution. Scholars have previously neglected key dimensions in analyzing the composition of firms’ alliance portfolios: the partner type (pure partner or competitor) and partner interactions (horizontal, vertical or mixed). We build on the coopetition and alliance portfolio literature to explore (1) the composition of an alliance portfolio and (2) its evolution over time. We illustrate our theoretical framework with a longitudinal single-case study of Air France’s alliance portfolio. First, we show that when market uncertainty is high, firms do not increase their reliance on collective strategies, but they do modify the composition of their portfolio. Second, to address high levels of market uncertainty, firms rely more on coopetitive alliances than on collaborative alliances. Third, firms use more horizontal than vertical interactions when market uncertainty is high.
Book
'This book provides a diverse set of perspectives on the topic. It is very useful reading for anyone interested in understanding coopetition in multiple contexts.' - Devi R. Gnyawali, Virginia Tech, US. © Saïd Yami, Sandro Castaldo, Giovanni Battista Dagnino and Frédéric Le Roy 2010. All rights reserved.
Article
Pursuing a nodal (i.e., subsidiary) level of analysis, this paper advances and tests art overarching theoretical framework pertaining to intracorporate knowledge transfers within multinational corporations (MNCs). We predicted that (i) knowledge outflows from a subsidiary would be positively associated with value of the subsidiary's knowledge stock, its motivational disposition to share knowledge, and the richness of transmission channels; and (ii) knowledge inflows into a subsidiary would be positively associated with richness of transmission channels, motivational disposition to acquire knowledge, and the capacity to absorb the incoming knowledge. These predictions were tested empirically with data from 374 subsidiaries within 75 MNCs headquartered in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. Except for our predictions regarding the impact of source unit's motivational disposition on knowledge outflows, the data provide either full or partial support to an of the other elements of our theoretical framework. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Coopetition is an important new product development strategy; yet, studies addressing the impact of collaboration with competitors on product innovation performance provide mixed evidence. Conducting Tobit analyses on a sample of 627 manufacturing firms that responded to the fifth wave of the Flemish Community Innovation Survey, we find that the innovation performance implications of competitor collaboration depend on fine-grained intra-organizational design characteristics. In particular, our results show that competitor collaboration has a significant positive impact on product innovation performance only when internal knowledge sharing mechanisms and formal knowledge protection mechanisms are present. These findings contribute to the emerging contingency perspective on coopetition and provide specific recommendations to managers that are involved in coopetitive endeavors.
Article
Coopetition strategy is often considered critical for firm performance (Gnyawali, He & Madhavan, 2008; Yami, Castaldo, Dagnino & Le Roy, 2010). However, this paradoxical strategy creates tension, especially when coopetition occurs within an organization (Tsai, 2002; Luo, Slotegraaf & Pan, 2006). This paper addresses existing knowledge gaps by providing the first analysis of the specific managerial methods and the key approaches needed to reduce internal tensions within multi-unit and multi-brand organizations. Using an in-depth study approach in the banking industry, we examine two exemplary cases: Crédit Agricole (CA), which is the leading bank in France and the third leading bank in Europe, and Banque Populaire Caisse d'Epargne (BPCE), which is the third leading bank in France. Our findings indicate that firms simultaneously use formal and informal coordination to manage coopetitive goals. Moreover, to reduce tensions due to coopetition, the banks have developed an original organizational model that allows for the distribution of the antagonist powers and fosters integration. The research shows that inter-unit projects balance responsibilities across the firm, while horizontal coordination and social interaction also eliminate blocking and facilitate decision making. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to examine the management of coopetitive tensions within a multi-unit and multi-brand organization.
Article
Cross-functional coopetition (the joint occurrence of cooperation and competition between departments) has received increasing interest from academia and practice. However, there is still little evidence on how cross-functional coopetition can be fostered. We investigate in how far leadership styles (consideration and participation) and organizational structures (centralization and formalization) can be employed to enable a firm's management favoring cross-functional coopetition between departments. Analyzing survey data from 234 German companies, we demonstrate that both consideration and participation have a positive effect on cross-functional coopetition. Additionally, we find that formalization has positive effect on cross-functional coopetition, whereas the effect of centralization is negative. We show that our findings are valid for a multitude of organizational cultures. Finally, we derive implications for research and practice as well as avenues for future research.
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to contribute to defining the concepts of boundary spanner, gatekeeper and knowledge broker. Design/methodology/approach – A review of the literature covering more than 100 sources. Findings – A review of past research leads to proposing a set of new definitions and also to the detection of six research avenues. Originality/value – The ability of organizations to recognize, source and integrate key information or knowledge is important for their strategy, innovation and performance over time. Three types of individuals have information gathering and knowledge dissemination roles at the frontier of organizations and groups: boundary spanners, gatekeepers and knowledge brokers. Although research on these individuals is well-developed, we found that in practice, the definitions of the concepts overlap and still need a clarification. So far, no systematic comparison of these roles has been undertaken.
Article
This study searches for the underlying specific features of contemporary digital products using Finnish game industry as the case study example. One interesting outcome is the existence of various forms of coopetition, or simultaneous competition and cooperation relationships. In addition to relationships among producers, coopetition occurs among consumers and between consumers and producers. This study finds that the active role of consumer as co-producer or prosumer and consumer coopetition are parts of the business model in the branch of game industry. Companies, especially in game industry, are jointly arranging events for the employed and unemployed game developers and professional consumers to meet each other and co-innovate future product ideas. These events contain consumer coopetition, which is here called 'degree two consumer coopetition'. This study expresses two kinds of consumer coopetition: the type of coopetition focused on co-production at the end of the product life cycle, that is, the consumer coopetition type identified by Walley (2007), and the type of coopetition noticed in this study, which focuses on co-innovation and is located at the beginning of the product life cycle. The first type is called degree one consumer coopetition and the second