Green Book 2030: National Science and Innovation Policy for Sustainable Development

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Isbn: 978-958-8290-87-4
Publisher: Colciencias
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NATIONAL SCIENCE AND
INNOVATION POLICY FOR
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
GREEN BOOK 2030 NATIONAL SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
BOOK
2030
GREEN
BOOK
2030
GREEN
NATIONAL SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY
FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Adopted through Resolution 0674 on 9 July 2018
Alejandro O laya Dávila
Director General
Óscar Gualdrón González
Subdirector General
Eduardo Rojas Pineda
Director de Fomento a la Investigación
Julián Pontón Silva
Director de Des arrollo tecnológico e Innovación
Ulia Nadehzd a Yemail Cortes
Directora de Mentalidad y Cultura de l a CTeI
Green Book  Team
María Isabel Vélez Agudelo (Coordination)
Diego Andrés Chavarro Bohórquez
Aleidys Hernán dez Tasco
Ángela Milena Niño Mendieta
Galo Edmundo Tovar Narváez
Iván Clemente Montenegro Trujillo
Content editor
María Isabel Vélez Agudelo
Communications
Alba Liseth Torres López
Johana Galeano Hernández
ISBN (print): ----
ISBN (digital): ----
English translation:
Karen Shash ok
Design:
www.lacentraldediseno.com
Printing:
Proceditor
Bogotá, J uly 
Impreso en Colo mbia - Printed in Colombia
This d ocume nt is distri bute d under t he term s of the
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommer cial-
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BY-NC -ND 4.0), w hich can be co nsul ted at : http s://
creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Contributions
Colciencias tha nks the persons and insti tutions that
contributed to the dif ferent scenarios created in the
process of constructing this policy during the pre-
ceding two years, including the  comments sub-
mitted on the preliminary version. Their reflections,
the questions they raised, their contributions and
proposals were fundamental inputs for structuring
th e pol icy.
Transformative Innovation
Policy Consortium
Founding members
VINNOVA (Sweden)
TEKES (now Business Finland, Finland)
The Research Counci l of Norway
National Rese arch Foundation
of South Africa – N RF
SPRU – Universit y of Sussex Colciencias
International advisors
Johan Schot, Director SPRU – Univers ity of Sussex
Matías Ramírez, Senior Lecturer
SPRU – Universit y of Sussex
Jordi Mola s Galat, Research Professor,
Engineer (CSIC-UPV)
Alejandra Boni, Deputy Director,
Engineer (CSIC-UPV)
Ismael Rafols, Science and Technology
Policy Analyst, Engineer (CSIC-UPV)
Claudia Obando Rodríguez,
SPRU – Universit y of Sussex
In-depth interviews
Mónica Salazar Acosta
Lead specialist, IDB
José Antonio Ocampo Gaviria
Codirector, Banco de la Repú blica
Nicolás Cock Duque
Director, Ecoflora Agro
Cristina Gamboa
Executive Director, Consejo Colombiano
de Construcci ón Sostenible (CCCS)
Paula Caballero
Global Director, Climate Program
World Resources Institute
Sandra Liliana Luna Delgado
Coordinator, Ruta Pacífica M ujeres por la Paz
Brigitte Baptiste
General Director, Instituto
Alexander von Humboldt
Daniel Mitchell Restrepo
Executive President, Acoplásticos
Hernando Gómez Buendía
Director and Editor, Razón
pública online periodical
Participants in SDG panel discussions
Alberto Jaramillo
General manager, Industrias Kahai
Alfredo Bateman
University professor, advisor ONU-Hábitat
Andrés Franco
Researcher, Universidad J orge Tadeo Lozano
Ángela Cadena
Researcher, Universidad de los Andes
Apolinar Figueroa
Researcher, Universidad de l Cauca, Red Ricclisa
Camilo Borrero
Coordinator, Instituto Colombo-Alemán
de Investigacione s para la Paz
Capitán Francisco Arias
Director, Instituto de Investigaci ones
Marinas – Invemar
César Ferrari
Researcher, Universidad Javeriana
Daniel Mitchell Restrepo
Executive President, Acoplásticos
Dolly Cristina Palacios
Researcher and professor, Universidad
Externado de Colombia
Edgar González
Researcher and professor, Universidad Javeriana
Edgar Revéiz
Member, Academia Colombiana
de Ciencias Económicas
Eduardo Aldana
Director, Instituto Innovar – Tolima
Fernando Colmenares
Researcher, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia
Fernando Viviescas
Urban architect, professor and
consultant in urban areas
Francisco de Roux
Director, Programa Des arrollo y
Paz del Magdalena Medio
Gabriel Carrasquilla
Member, Academia Nacio nal de Medicina
Hernando García
Deputy Direc tor for Research, Instituto
Alexander von Humboldt
Horacio Torres
Asociación Col ombiana de Ingenieros – ACIEM
Irma Baquero
Researcher and profe ssor, Escuela
Colombiana de Ingeniería
Jaime Castellanos
Researcher and professor, Universidad El Bosque
Jenny Lieu
Researcher, University of Sussex
Jorge Cabrera
Member, Asociación Co lombiana de
Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos
Jorge Villalobos
Researcher, Universidad de los Andes
Martha Josefina Vives
Researcher and profe ssor,
Universidad de los Andes
Miguel Ayarza
Researcher, AGROSAVIA
Néstor Alejandro Gómez Guerrero
Deputy Direc tor (acting), IDE AM
Ricardo Lozano
Executive Director, People an d Earth Institute
Rodrigo Jiménez
Researcher, Universidad Nacional
de Colombia, B ogotá campus
Saulo Molina
Researcher and professor, Fundación
Universitar ia de Ciencias de la Salud
Discussion workshops – Green
Book 2030 principles
Juan José Plata
Universidad Minuto de Dios
Xavier Durán
Universidad de los Andes
Jorge Medrano
AGROSAVIA
Martha M. Bolaños
Departa mento de Productividad
Sostenible, AGROSAVIA
Silvia Rey
Consejo Colomb iano de Producción
Sostenibl e – CCCS
Olga Lucía Cadena
Universidad del Cauca
Alexander Gómez
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Javier Hernando García Estévez
Universidad de los Andes
Óscar Yandy Romero Goyeneche
University of S ussex – SPRU
Alejandro Gómez Cubillos
Departamento Nacional de Planeación
Jimmy Saravia Arenas
Gestión de Inn ovación de Cotecmar
Luz Andrea Baquero Cru z
Escuela Policía Nacional
Deissy Motta Castaño
Policía Nacio nal
Hernán Pérez Molano
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Eliana María Villa Enciso
Instituto Tecnológico Metropol itano – ITM
Claudia Álvarez
Universidad EAFIT
Andrea Car olina Navas Calixto
Universidad de l Valle
María Alejandra Martínez Polanco
Universidad de l Valle
Edwin Giovanni Rodríguez
Ministerio de Ambiente y
Desarrollo Sostenible
Sandra Galán Rodríguez
Fundación Natura
Rodrigo José Miranda
Universidad Simón Bolívar – USB
José Luis Ramos Camargo
Universidad Simón Bolívar – USB
Carlos Alberto Vargas Jiménez
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Roberto Go nzález Campos
Ministerio de Com ercio, Industria y Turismo
Juan Manuel García
Observatorio Colombiano de C TeI – OCyT
Clara Jiménez
Observatorio Colombiano de C TeI – OCyT
Regional Mentorship Network
Edurne Magr
Orkestra-Instituto Vasco de Competitividad
Diana Velasco
Universidad de Ibagué
Eliana María Villa
Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano – ITM
Dayani Rojas
Universidad de Ibagué
Claudia Álvarez
Universidad EAFIT
Andrea Navas
Universidad de l Valle
Paola Amar
Universidad Simón Bolívar
Elisa Arond
Universidad de los Andes
Fernando Chaparro
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Kennicher Arias
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Liliana Pinzón
University of Sussex
Rodrigo José Miranda
Universidad Simón Bolívar
José Luis Ramos
Universidad Simón Bolívar
Juan Manuel García
Observatorio Colombiano de Ci encia y Tecnología
Clara Carolina Jiménez
Observatorio Colombiano de Ci encia y Tecnología
Luis Jaime Osorio
Gobernación de Antioquia
Jhonjali García Mosquera
Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano - ITM
Alejandro Uribe
Universidad de Antioquia
Karen Cristina Hormecheas
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Jorge Robledo
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Cecilia Murcia
Universidad EAFIT
Geovanny Perdomo
Fundación Universitaria CEIPA
Sebastián Santisteban
Fundación Universitaria CEIPA
Luciano Gallon
Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana
Gabriel Cataño
Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana
Ana Lucía Pérez
Universidad de Antioquia
Haiber Gustavo Agudelo
Universidad de San Buenaventura, Cali
José Santiago Arroyo Mina
Universidad S antiago de Cali
Henry Caicedo
Universidad de l Valle
Julio César Zuluaga
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cali
Mariluz Montoya
Universidad de l Valle
Luisa Prado
Universidad ICESI, Cali
Omaira Calvo
Universidad del Cauca
Álvaro Rendón
Universidad del Cauca
Adolfo Plazas
Universidad del Cauca
Magda Sotelo
Universidad del Cauca
Julio César Contreras
Universidad Simón Bolívar, Cúcuta campus
Valmore Bermúdez
Universidad Simón Bolívar, Cúcuta campus
Adriana García
Gobernación de Norte de Santander
Transformative policy workshops
Delegates to Departmental S cience, Technology
and Innovation Co uncils (DSTIC)
Carlos Alberto Molina
Antioquia
Juan Francis co Fernández Villa
Antioquia
Enrique Vera
Boyacá
Luis Hair Dueñas G.
Boyacá
Luisa Fernanda Torres Duque
Caquetá
Oriol Jiménez Silva
Casanare
Luz Teresa Ayala Castiblanco
Casanare
Juan Manuel Duque Vidal
Cauca
Magda Patricia Sotelo
Cauca
Julio C. Halaby Guerrero
Chocó
Haclem Ibarguen M.
Chocó
Camilo Andrés Mejía
Córdoba
Alba Alarcón Parra
Cundinamarca
Sandra Liliana Ruiz
Cundinamarca
Ezequiel Barragán López
Guaviare
Iván Ricardo Suárez
Meta
Geovany Carvajal
Nariño
Silvia Amaguaña B.
Nariño
Adrián Cardona Alzate
Risaralda
Daniel Rueda
Risaralda
Jesús Saldarriaga Gaviria
Risaralda
Rosibel Roa Mesino
San Andrés
Javier Orlando Ardila Peña
Santander
Juliana Niño Vargas
Santander
Bladimir Gómez
Sucre
Alisson Galindo
Tol ima
Sonia Liliana Cruz
Vaupés
Luisa Fernanda Santos Vargas
Vichada
****
Astrid Jaime
Consultant, Suricato
Constanza Beatriz Pérez
Universidad El Bosque
Alejandro Balanzó
Universidad Externado de Colombia
Alejandro Graciano
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Diego Zuluaga
Consultant, INN COMP
Elisa Arond
Clark University
Kennicher Arias
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Clara Jiménez
OC yT
José Santiago Arroyo
Advisor, Office of th e Mayor, Cali
Gustavo Agudelo
Universidad San Buenaventura, Cali – RUPIV
María Elisa Gómez Rodríguez
Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano
Alejandra Cuadros
Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana
María Luisa Villalba
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Geovanny Perdomo
CEIPA
Marleny Yepes
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Sandra Cecilia Guerra
Advisor, Colciencias
COLCIENCIAS
María Carmela Julio Giraldo
Director, Oficina de Internacionalización
Ulia Nadehzd a Yemail Cortés
Directora, Mentalidad y Cultura
Felipe García Cardona
Director, Colombia BIO
Manuel Moscote
Director, Oficina de Regionalización
Ricardo Andrés Triana Gonzále z
Director, Apropiación So cial de la Ciencia
Claudia Patricia Tinjacá Espinel
Manager, Programa Naciona l de Biotecnología
Claudia Lil iana Castro Vargas
Advisor, Fomento a la Investigaci ón
María Camila Flórez Poved a
Advisor, Subdirección General
Diana Regina Rúa
Advisor, Dirección de Menta lidad y Cultura
Sandra Lucía Lozano
Manager, Programa Ecosistema Científico
Sol Beatriz Martínez
Coordinator, CODECTI
Yesid Ojeda
Manager, Programa Nacional Energía y Minería
Edison Suárez
Manager, Programa Naciona l
Ciencias Agropecuarias
Ingrid Rueda
Manager, Programa Nacional Ciencias
Humanas, Sociales y Educación
Renzo García
Manager, Programa Naciona l TIC
María Isabel Loaiza
Advisor, Oficina de Internacionalización
Fabiola Espejo
Advisor
Paula Judith Rojas
Advisor
Carlos Hernández
Advisor, Oficina de Internacionalización
Table of Contents
Acronyms and
abbreviations
Presentation
1/
The transformative
focus in science and
innovation policy
1.1 The SDGs require transformations 21
1.2 Science and innovation policy
as a means for transformation 22
1.3 Science and innovation policy
needs to evolve 22
1.4 Transformation requires change
in socio-technical systems 24
2/
The SDGs as a space
for transformations
2.1 The SDGs as a policy agenda 27
2.2 Citizenship and the SDGs 28
2.3 Research and the SDGs 30
2.4 Citizenship, research and SDGs 34
2.5 Frontier technologies and SDGs 37
2.6 Relationships between SDGs and
sociotechnical change 37
3/
Goals and principles in
transformative science
and innovation policy
3.1 Directionality 42
3.2 Participation 42
3.3 Learning and experimentation 42
3.4 Interdisciplinarity 43
3.5 Anticipating outcomes and effects 43
4/
Policy guidelines for a
transformative focus
4.1 Guidance for implementing
the Green Book 2030 45
4.2 Policy actions 51
4.3 Guidance for science
and innovation funding 55
4.4 Guidance for evaluating
the Green Book 2030 56
References
11
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
Acronyms and
abbreviations
CODECTI Consejos Departamentales de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Departmental
Science, Technology and Innovation Councils)
CONPES Consejo Nacional de Política Económica y Social (National Council on Economic
and Social Policy)
DNP Departamento Nacional de Planeación (National Planning Department)
MDGs Millennium Development Goals
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
PAED Planes y Acuerdos Estratégicos Departamentales en CTeI (Departmental Strategic
Plans and Agreements in STI)
R&D Research and development
RDI Research, development and innovation
SDGs Sustainable Development Goals
SNCTI Sistema Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (National System of Science,
Technology and Innovation)
SPRU Science Policy Research Unit
STI Science, technology and innovation
STIA Science, technology and innovation activities
TIPC Transformative Innovation Policy Consortium
UN United Nations Organisation
13
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
Presentation
potential toward needed and desirable changes
that contribute to solutions for these major chal-
lenges, as well as efforts to favor active links and
dialog among different actors, disciplines and
knowledge holders, in order to better understand
the challenges and make progress toward their
solution. In addition, the road to change and
transformation necessitates exploring multiple
working methods and alternative solutions; for
this reason, transformative policy opens up a
space for experimentation and learning as valid
foundations for decision making based on an
analysis and understanding not only of the results
but also of the processes involved.
Considering that the search for solutions
to the country’s major social, economic and envi-
ronmental problems goes beyond the scope of
individual sectors and constitutes a challenge to
be faced equally by the national government and
regional and local administrations, as well as by the
productive and academic sectors and civil society,
adopting a transformative focus constitutes a pos-
sible pathway to interinstitutional, multilevel and
multifactorial efforts aimed at making progress
toward transformation.
The Green Book , which Colciencias is pre-
senting to the country, constitutes a first step in
the renovation of national science and innovation
policy – a step which grounded, in strategic terms,
on defining conceptual foundations, principles and
pathways for public action, as well as interactions
among different actors in the National System of
Science, Technology and Innovation (SNCTI).
This policy is being developed around
what we have termed a “transformative focus”, the
central aim of which is to contribute to the solution
of the major social, economic and environmental
challenges our country is facing, as they are set
forth in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
of the United Nations  Agenda adopted by
this county as a roadmap for sustainable devel-
opment in the middle and long term. To this end,
our focus seeks to facilitate the transformation of
current socio-technical systems to make them
more sustainable.
Acquiring this transformative focus
will require orienting scientific and innovative
1 Available at: http://unctad.org/meetings/es/SessionalDocuments/
ares70d1_es.pdf
2 CONPES 3918 de 2018.
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
14
To implement the Green Book , poli-
cies will advance along three fronts: i) promoting
the adoption of a transformative focus within
the SNCTI and other related systems, ii) guiding
national science and innovation, and iii) supporting
the adoption of a transformative focus to achieve
the SDGs at the territorial level. The book will pro-
mote, in a cross-sectional manner, the incorpo-
ration of five fundamental principles or ideas to
inspire action: directionality, participation, learning
and experimentation, interdisciplinarity, and antic-
ipation of outcomes and effects.
The Green Book  is the result of a
process initiated nearly two years ago, when we
created together with the Science Policy Research
Unit (SPRU) and science and innovation agencies
in Sweden, Norway, Finland and South Africa, the
International Transformative Innovation Policy
Consortium, in which we analyzed new possibilities
to guide public science and innovation policy in a
way that would better respond to major global and
national challenges. This effor t, involving the partic-
ipation of nearly , persons, became the starti ng
point for initiating, at the national and regional level,
a series of conversations and reflections (interviews,
panel discussions and workshops) on how to orient
our science and innovation policy toward a trans-
formative focus.
In addition we created a mentorship net-
work with academics in eight departments, with
whom we explored ideas on transformative policy
and its contribution to our context. Moreover, we
listened to the voices of nearly , citizens
who expressed their most pressing concerns in
relation to the proposed SDGs, as the setting in
which transformations can be achieved. This exer-
cise became the largest citizen consultation effort
to date in the country with the aim of informing
the design of public policy. A complementary
effort consisted of a study of national scientific
and technological capacities, which allowed us
to identify the interests of national researchers in
the last decade regarding the SDGs. On the basis
of our interpretation and analysis of these inputs,
a new national policy was developed, as set forth
in this document.
Clearly, reinterpreting the meaning of
science and innovation for development in our
country, together with rethinking the tools, working
methods and ways we relate with the dif ferent sec-
tors and interest groups in the context of achieving
major shared goals, are medium and long-term
tasks that will require continuing reflection on how
to consolidate the transformative focus this policy
is centered upon. We are nonetheless convinced
that the elements described and discussed herein
show the way forward toward this aim. Accordingly,
we invite all actors in the SNCTI to find their spaces
and opportunities within this new focus.
Alejandro Olay a Dávila
General Director
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
16
1/
17
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
1. The transformative
focus in science and
innovation policy3
Twenty eight years ago Law  of  emp hasized
the need to incorporate science and technology
into economic and social development policies,
when the country initiated its process of eco-
nomic liberalization. Four years later the Science,
Education and Development Mission (Misión de
Ciencia, Educación y Desarrollo) proposed “a new
world view led by advances in science and tech-
nology”, to achieve “the prosperous, just country
we dream of”. Subsequent efforts included a
policy to promote science and innovation under
the “Colombia builds and sows its future” plan of
, which aimed to become an essential tool to
increase productivity and competitiveness, as well
as to achieve social policy goals, which were linked
to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
adopted by the United Nations Organization (UN) in
the year . Later, Law  of  established
3 Johan Schot and Matías Ramírez of the Science Policy Research Unit,
University of Sussex, and Sandra Boni and Jordi Molas of the Instituto Ingenio
made special contributions to this chapter.
4 By which are set forth dispositions for the promotion of scientific
research and technological development, and special powers are granted.
5 Ministerio de Educación Nacional, 1994. Colombia al filo de la opor-
tunidad. Recomendaciones de la Misión de Ciencia, Educación y Desarrollo.
6 By which Law 29 of 1990 is modified, Colciencias becomes an
Administrative Department, the Colombian National System of Science,
increasing scientific, technological and innovation
capacities as a goal of state STI policy, not only to
provide added value to national products and
services, but also to “enhance well-being in the
population, in all its dimensions” (art. ). More
recently, CONPES document  of  referred
to knowledge as an instrument for the generation
of wealth, income, equity and social well-being
(D NP, ).
The foregoing shows that the need to link
economic and social objectives has been explicit
in the view of science and innovation policy in
Colombia. This is not something to be over-
looked, given the huge complexity and diversity
of our national territory, as well as the scale of the
challenges we face in achieving a more equitable
and prosperous society.
In recent years these challenges have
become even greater. Governments, citizens,
researchers, and a growing number of businesses
Technology and Innovation is strengthened, and additional dispositions are
set forth.
7 The expressions “science and innovation policy” and “innovation
policy” should be understood to refer to science, technology and innovation
policies in this document.
The need to link
economic and
social objectives
has been explicit
in the view of
science and
innovation policy
in Colombia.
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
18
face the need to seek growth that is sustainable not
only in economic and social terms but also from
an environmental standpoint. One of the most
relevant expressions of this concern is the 
Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted
by the UN General Assembly in . With its 
goals and  targets, this Agenda represents the
desires, aspirations and priorities of the interna-
tional community for the coming years. Colombia,
as a UN member state, recognizes this Agenda as
a roadmap for sustainable development in the
country, in the medium and long term.
The Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs) that make up the  Agenda, in con-
trast to the previous MDGs, not only give equal
importance to economic, social and environmental
dimensions, but also go beyond a declaration of
the aim to “leave nobody behind”, placing people’s
equality and dignity at the center of the discussion
and inviting us to change our approach to devel-
opment for one that entails greater responsibilities
toward the environment. For Colombia this is
especially important in light of the clear differences
in development between regions and the natural
wealth within its territory.
Having led the process of consensus build-
ing for this global Agenda, the country has taken
decisive steps to implement it. The first step was
the creation of the High Level Interinstitutional
Commission on the Preparedness for and
Effective Implementation of the SDGs (Comisión
Interinstitucional de Alto Nivel para el Alistamiento
y Efectiva Implementación de los ODS) (Decree 
of ), of which Colciencias recently became a
member. The most recent step was the approval
of CONPES document  of , which defines
country-specific indicators and goals, approaches
8 See: DNP and DANE, (s. f.). La Agenda 2030 en Colombia. Available at:
https://www.ods.gov.co/about
9 CEPAL, 2016, p. 7
10 Participants in this High Level Interinstitutional Commission include the
Office of the President of the Republic, the Ministry of the Treasury and Public
Credit, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Environmental Affairs,
the National Planning Department, the National Department of Statistics and
Social Welfare, the International Cooperation Agency, and Colciencias.
Colciencias
has decided to
embrace this
challenge as
an excellent
opportunity
to build new
foundations
for science and
innovation policy
in Colombia,
which will make
it possible
to address
major social,
economic and
environmental
challenges.
for establishing dialog with nongovernmental
actors, and the resources needed to attain the
SDGs. This CONPES document also em phasizes the
importance of participation by a variety of actors,
and thus brings to light the challenge to be faced in
coordinating intersectoral and inter-regional efforts
(D NP, ).
To continue to advance along these lines,
it is now necessary to develop a perspective that
makes it possible to understand and address the
full implications of the  Agenda, and that is
able to attract different sectors of Colombian soci-
ety, in a way that underscores the sense of meeting
the specific goals and targets. This is precisely the
direction that the Green Book  points to.
One of the less explored aspects of the
 Agenda until now has been the contribution
that science, technology and innovation will make
toward its implementation, a fundamental issue for
public science and innovation policy, insofar as it
is necessary to understand that doing things the
same way as before will not suf fice. For this reason,
Colciencias has decided to embrace this challenge
as an excellent opportunity to build new founda-
tions for science and innovation polic y in Colombia,
which will make it possible to address major social,
economic and environmental challenges. Progress
in this direction, however, requires openness and
a willingness to explore new principles and ideas
such as those proposed in the Green Book .
The road ahead to this policy began to
appear in the year , when Colciencias under-
took a search to develop new ways of thinking
about STI policy in conjunction with the well
known Science Research Policy Unit (SPRU) at the
University of Sussex, and peer agencies in Sweden
(VINNOVA), Finland (formerly TEKES, now Business
Finland), Norway (Research Council) and South
Africa (National Research Foundation), co-found-
ers of the Transformative Innovation Policy
Consortium (TIPC).
11 See: www.transformative-innovation-policy.net.
19
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A new policy is
being presented
to the country
– one which,
through a
transformative
focus, aims to
guide science
and innovation
so that they can
contribute to
solutions for the
major challenges
set forth in the
2030 Agenda.
Today, a new policy is being presented to
the country, after a process of reflection, learning
and experience arising from active participation
in the Consortium. All these inputs have been dis-
cussed and adapted in different spaces (interviews,
panel discussions, workshops, expert consulta-
tions and mentorships) with the involvement of dif-
ferent actors at the national level (government, civil
society, academia, businesses and international
organizations). This new policy, through a transfor-
mative focus, aims to guide science and innovation
so that they can contribute to solutions for the
major challenges set forth in the  Agenda.
Here, a transformative focus is understood to
mean one which stimulates long-term changes
in current socio-technical systems to make them
more sustainable. The expression “socio-techni-
cal systems” refers to the configuration of social
and technical elements that interact, evolve and
reinforce each other in a broad sense, and thus
determine the orientation and behavior of types
of production, usage and consumption.
This new policy focus complements the
more traditional approaches in the country, which
have been fundamental in the construction of a
knowledge base, technological modernization,
and the strengthening of productive capacity, but
which did not explicitly address sustainable devel-
opment and open participation by all sectors of
society among its foundational ideas, in the way a
transformative focus does. Thus the combination
of mechanisms, initiatives and tools developed
to promote advances in science and innovation
in the country will continue to consolidate the
institutional bases of governance and scientific
knowledge, while at the same time new initiatives
and tools will need to be designed to make prog-
ress toward technical and social changes that lead
to sustainable development.
The justification and orientation of the
Green Book are structured around four fundamen-
tal ideas, as explained below. The first is that the
solution to social, economic and environmental
problems posed in the SDGs requires transforma-
tions, both in the understa nding of these problems
and in the approaches to their possible solutions.
The second is that STI policy is fundamental to
achieve these transformations; this is the reason
why policy needs to evolve, that is, to acquire new
aims, embodiments and types of participation –
our third fundamental idea. Finally, the fourth
idea is that transformation requires changes at
the socio-technical systems level.
1.1 The SDGs require
transformations
In addition to representing the aspirations of the
international community, the  Agenda, in
its very title, calls for a transformation of society:
“Transforming our World: The  Agenda for
Sustainable Development”. In this sense, prog-
ress toward a path for sustainable development
requires, among other things, transformations in
how we use natural resources, generate and use
energy, produce and distribute food, organize the
means of transportation, and achieve competitive
production processes with low carbon emissions,
among other goals (European Commission, ).
In other words, it requires “fundamental changes
in the way we live, work and do business” (United
Nations, ). For this reason, incorporating the
SDGs into policies and their subsequent imple-
mentation in practice are a worldwide challenge.
Based on previous experience with the
SDGs, the main strategy that has been set in
motion is to incorporate the SDGs into existing
structures, programs and indicators. Establishing
goals and defining indicators are undoubtedly
fundamental aspects, but focusing attention on
them may deflect attention from the actual aims,
particularly those related with transformation and
sustainable development. In this sense, it is much
more useful to establish a single overarching aim,
12 This limitation of the SDGs is discussed by Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko; Yamin,
Alicia and Greenstein, Joshua, 2014.
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
20
interconnected goals, and a coherent vision of
the type of development proposed by the SDGs
in their totality (International Council for Science
and International Social Science Council, ). The
policy proposed here is oriented in this direction,
with the concept of transformation as its basis.
1.2 Science and innovation policy
as a means for transformation
In the Green Book  we propose a science and
innovation policy with a transformative focus
(hereafter, transformative policy) as a necessary
step forward to overcome difficulties and gaps
that arise in policies oriented toward the resolu-
tion of specific shortcomings (in the market or the
system). This focus, by recognizing the complexity
and interconnectivities that underlie the problems
set forth in the SDGs, centers on the promotion of
processes of both technical and social change, in
order to give substance to the expected outcomes
of sustainable development.
Firstly, transformative policy emphasizes
that science, technology and innovation are
cross-sectional elements in the implementation
of the  Agenda which go beyond Goal 
“Industry, innovation and infrastructure”, where
they are mentioned explicitly. For example, gener-
ating clean, affordable energy, addressing climate
change, and improving health across the popu-
lation require decisive contributions from STI to
trigger transformative processes in these areas.
Secondly, this policy proposes rethinking
the relationship between STI and economic, social
and environmental goals. Traditionally, academics
and policy makers have focused their attention on
science, technology and innovation as motors of
economic growth – the ultimate aim that policies
are meant to achieve. In fact, despite the emer-
gence of perspectives such as social innovation
or inclusive innovation, the logic of economics
tends to predominate. Transformative policy, on
the other hand, is based on the growing recognition
of environmental and social goals as strategic
drivers of long-term growth and competitiveness,
and not simply as framework conditions to achieve
these ends. Thus, science and innovation should
be an engine of social and environmental as well
as economic development.
Thirdly, transformative policy seeks to open
spaces for the active participation of civil society,
in the search for and construction of solutions to
problems that affect society, in recognition of the
fact that these solutions may come from a di versity
of sources and may be developed in cooperation
with the productive and academic sectors.
1.3 Science and innovation
policy needs to evolve
If STI can be understood as a factor in successful
efforts to solve problems or challenges such as
those identified in the  Agenda, some ques-
tions that arise are: To what extent is current STI
policy appropriate for this purpose? Can STI policy
address all SDGs and drive transformation? The
view being proposed here is that in its current con-
ception, this policy is limited in scope, and accord-
ingly, new steps should be taken, which include
– among other measures – a reconsideration of it s
aims, the actors involved in policy development
and implementation, the tools and mechanisms
used, and its goals and evaluation methods. The
need for new approaches is intimated by the pro-
cess of evolution of STI policy itself over time: its
orientation and aims have changed in response
to needs and priorities at different moments in
history.
In general terms, STI policy has been built
around three main frames: the linear focus on
research and development (R&D), termed Frame
, ii) the focus on the national innovation system,
termed Frame , and iii) the focus on transformative
13 See: Lundin, Nannan and Schwaag, Sylvia, 2017.
Establishing
goals and
defining
indicators are
undoubtedly
fundamental
aspects, but
focusing
attention on
them may deflect
attention from
the actual aims,
particularly those
related with
transformation
and sustainable
development.
21
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change, termed Frame . The first two are well
established, whereas th e last frame is relatively new
and in the process of consolidation. Each frame is
described briefly below.
1.3.1 R&D and the national
innovation system in STI
policy (Frames 1 and 2)
Frame  first emerged in the postwar p eriod
during the s, in the context of enthusiasm
for greater state involvement in research, and its
upsurge lasted until the early s. This frame
centered on overcoming market shortcomings
that resulted from low investment by businesses
in R& D. The aim of this policy was thus to pro-
vide incentives so that the market would produce
the desired levels of scientific knowledge (R&D)
in social and economic settings, or so that the
Government would invest in public facilities, includ-
ing universities, and in research infrastructure. In
this context, the policy was focused mainly on
science and technology, while innovation was left
to the market. This frame has been implemented
particularly through offers of incentives for R&D
(subsidies, tax benefits, etc.) and the launch of
a new regime of intellectual property rights that
allows private investors to realize profits from R&D.
During the s, policies began to evolve.
A second frame arose in response to growing com-
petition between countries and the widening gaps
in industrial development, with the aim of making
better use of scientific knowledge, supporting its
commercialization, and closing the gap between
science, development, technology and their
commercial application or innovation. This frame
emphasizes different types of learning, the links
between different actors, the capacity to absorb
14 These three frames offer an overall synthesis of the foundations and
characteristics that have informed, in general terms, STI policy design world-
wide, including in Colombia. See: Schot & Steinmueller (2018).
15 The assumption is that businesses do not invest because profits are
realized only in the long term, making investment too risky.
technologies, science, technology, engineering and
math skills, the generation of business capacities,
and entrepreneurship. The reason for public inter-
vention was system failure; i.e., the inability of actors
to take the greatest advantage of available knowl-
edge due to the absence or malfunctioning of
framework conditions and the relationships among
the main actors in the innovation system (busi-
nesses, governments and universities). Innovation
policy began to focus on the creation of national,
regional and sectoral innovation systems, to stimu-
late the spirit of entrepreneurship, and to promote
public–private alliances.
It is clear that these two frames have influ-
enced science and innovation policy in Colombia.
They have formed the basis of support for uni-
versities and research groups, and of the devel-
opment of infrastructure to generate knowledge
and create human resources for STI. Specifically,
since the s there has been a growing empha-
sis on innovation and entrepreneurship, when
the thinking of the national system of innovation
was adopted, as evidenced by the creation of the
National System of Science and Technology in ,
which was complemented in  by the National
System of Innovation – an organism which later, in
, became the SNCTI.
1.3.2 Transformative
change (Frame 3)
The most recent policy frame, i.e. trans-
formative change or Frame , began to take shape
during the fist decade of the st century. Its start-
ing point was the reasoning that although the two
previous frames had been of vit al importance to: i)
construct a knowledge base, ii) bring about techno-
logical modernization, and iii) enhance productive
capacity, they did not address sustainable devel-
opment. Thus initiatives such as policies focused
on socially sustainable environmental innovation
gained strength, through – for example – p romoting
the development of clean technologies, inclusive
Advances within
this Frame
3 in policy
configuration
make even
more sense in
the Colombian
context,
considering
the substantial
inequalities
in regional
development
and the
concentration
of science and
innovation
capacities.
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
22
innovations, and social innovation. In this manner,
policies began to broaden their understanding of
STI to include civil society and citizens, not only
as consumers of knowledge and innovation but
also as promoters and generators of the same, in
order to address social and environmental needs.
STI policy also began to include new types of
innovation centered on socio-technical changes,
new business models, and new agreements for
collaboration among actors, with environmental
and social benefits that go beyond traditional
public–private alliances.
In line with these developments, the most
recent worldwide trends have led to the orientation
of policy objectives toward sustainable develop-
ment. To this end, mechanisms have been created
that point toward solutions to problems, and that
seek to extend the benefits of STI to society as a
whole, that redefine the roles and relationships
among social actors, and that have encountered a
new setting for action (the socio-technical system),
among other effects.
Some characteristics of Frame  are also
apparent in Colombia. For example, in 
Colciencias began to make inroads in policies
aimed at social innovation and the social appro-
priation of science, within the framework of the
National Strategy for the Social Appropriation of
STI (Estrategia Nacional de Apropiación Social de la
CTeI),  the main objective of which was the inclu-
sion of different communities and civil society in
the dynamics of knowledge production and use
(Colciencias, ). In subsequent years a number
of instruments and programs have been character-
ized by a focus on social innovation, where tech-
nology and knowledge are perceived as tools for
development and social transformation.
Advances within this frame in policy con-
figuration make even more sense in the Colombian
16 See: http://www.colciencias.gov.co/sites/default/files/ckeditor_files/
estrategia-nacional-apropiacionsocial.pdf
context, considering the substantial inequalities in
regional development and the concentration of
science and innovation capacities. Indeed, reducing
these differences was one of the main motivations
for creating an STI fund within the fr amework of the
new General Royalties System (Sistema General
de Regalías), which sought the development of
less centralized regional initiatives that would be
more inclusive in terms of economic and social
development, with a program that provides invest-
ments aimed at solving specific local problems.
Although this objective requires policies inspired
by Frame , centered, for example, on building
regional systems for innovation, this will not be
sufficient given that many of the instruments con-
templated within this type of polic y prioritize mainly
economic objectives over social or environmental
ones. Moreover, policies inspired by Frame  tend
to favor the concentration of STI activities and
capacities. Thus policies and instruments within
Frame  will be of key importance in deploying
alternative routes to regional development, and
will represent a significant advance in the evolution
of National Science and Innovation Policy.
1.4 Transformation requires
change in socio-
technical systems
To make STI policy truly transformative at both the
national and regional level, and to ensure that it
meets social and environmental needs, the policy
must be refocused and endowed with new char-
acteristics. The main consideration is that the focus
must be on the pursuit of changes in “socio-tech-
nical systems”.
As noted earlier, by socio-technical
system we refer to the configuration of social and
technical elements that interact, evolve and are
mutually reinforcing, such that they determine the
17 The term “regional” refers to different subnational levels, and can
thus be applied to different levels of administrative division in Colombia, i.e.
departments, cities or municipalities, as appropriate.
In the area of
transformative
policy, real
transformation
can occur only
with changes in
socio-technical
systems that
impact the
economy and
society.
23
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are not widely seen as a substitute for current
automobiles and we continue to use a system of
mobility dominated by this latter arti fact, achieving
an inclusive, low carbon economy will remain a
distant goal. In this sense, it is more appropriate to
focus science and innovation policies in ways that
support the appear ance of new systems of mobility
in which, for example, private automobile owner-
ship is less important, and other modalities such
as public transport, walking or cycling are used
more widely together with electric vehicles, which
could be made available by businesses devoted to
providing mobility ser vices. In a system such as this,
mobility planning and hence reducing the number
of trips would become an objective sought by all
actors, and perhaps even a symbol of modern
behavior; in other words, transformative change
would come about. As a consequence, in the set-
ting of transformative policy, real transformation
occurs only with changes in socio-technical sys-
tems that achieve an economic and social impact.
This chapter presented the thinking that
has led to the adoption of a transformative focus
in science and innovation policy with the inten-
tion of contributing to solutions for the social,
economic and environmental problems set forth
in the SDGs. In the next chapter these problems w ill
be explored in greater depth, insofar as they are
issues that define the area for action in the policy
to promote socio-technical changes.
orientation and behavior of types of production,
usage and consumption. These elements include,
for example, people’s practices and needs, the
skills and capacities of the actors involved, the infra-
structures, governance, regulation and industrial
structure, along with artifacts or technologies. For
example, there are socio-technical systems that
fulfil social functions such as providing energy or
food, public health, mobility, communication,
and so forth. When we speak of changes in these
systems, we refer to alterations in all (social and
technical) elements that go into their make-up, as
well as to the process of developing a new config-
uration and their integration in the economy and
society in general.
In view of the above, transformative inno-
vation policies aim to change these socio-technical
systems into new, more sustainable systems; this
will require a reorientation of social and economic
relationships, and of those between people and
their setting. In this regard, transformative policies
dovetail with the call for social, economic and envi-
ronmental reform proposed in the  Agenda.
Within the Transformative Innovation Policy
Consortium, dif ferent case studies were carried out
which provided evidence that the transformation
of socio-technical systems goes beyond simply
developing new, radical technological solutions.
For example, STI policy can be centered on the
introduction of electric vehicles and their weak
point: overcoming their limited range by developing
longer-lasting batteries. However, if electric vehicles
18 See: Rip, Arie and Kemp, René, 1998 and Grin, John et al., 2010.
19 Some documented cases can be consulted at: http://tipconsortium.
net/materials/
Within the
Transformative
Innovation Policy
Consortium,
different case
studies were
carried out
which provided
evidence that the
transformation
of socio-technical
systems goes
beyond simply
developing
new, radical
technological
solutions.
2/
25
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2. The SDGs as a space
for transformations
as the National Planning Department. Inste ad, the
following text aims to facilitate understanding of
the SDGs as a space in which transformation will
be promoted.
2.1 The SDGs as a policy agenda
The commitment undertaken to the United
Nations shows that the SDGs concern all countries
worldwide; however, compliance raises the need
for transformations and challenges that pertain
specifically to public policy in each country. With
this in mind, in-depth interviews were carried out
with nine Colombian specialists from business,
academia, the Government and organized civil
society, who have a broad knowledge of science
and innovation policy, or who are involved in areas
related with sustainable development. The pur-
pose of these interviews was to learn about their
positions and orientations regarding the charac-
teristics and scope of the  Agenda, including
21 See: www.ods.gov.co.
22 One of the working documents prepared within the frame-
work of the project to compile the Green Book provides a context
for the SDGs and the potential contributions to STI. This document
is available at http://www.colciencias.gov.co/sites/default/files/
objetivos_de_desarrollo_sostenible_y_aporte_a_la_cti_v_3.5.pdf
The SDGs are a political agenda that expresses an
approach to what can be considered sustainable
development in practical terms. To better under-
stand the challenge that this represents to defining
and implementing a science and innovation policy
with a transformative focus, some of the analyses
carried out by Colciencias to prepare the Green
Book  are offered below. These analyses
approach the agenda from different perspectives
with the aim of offering reflections and identifying
needs that should be addressed by public policy
and actors in the SNCTI , inasmuch as it is this setting
where sociotechnical change is to be promoted.
It is important to clarify, nonetheless, that
this chapter is not intended to present a diagnosis
of the status of SDGs in Colombia, since this task is
being undertaken judiciou sly by other entities such
20 The concept of sustainable development has no single, unique
definition. However, historians of this concept situate its origins in the
environmental movement and in environmental economics (Meadows et
al. 1972). Although the concept has several definitions, it can be concluded
that sustainable development seeks a social, environmental and economic
equilibrium. However, this balance is a “dynamic equilibrium” (Gallopín,
2001), because systems are in constant renewal. In current public policy, the
idea of sustainable development has become a widely accepted framing,
basically because of the impulse of multilateral organizations such as the
United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD). These organizations have brought different countries
together over the years with a focus on joint programs for cooperation and
shared aims. One such program is the 2030 Agenda.
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
26
its pertinence to Colombia, and to document the
main challenges in science and innovation policy
in order to support its implementation. Some of
the most noteworthy points to come out of the
information thus obtained are as follows:
Three fundamental characteristics of the
 Agenda are: globality, interaction
and fostering changes. Briefly, the global
goals involve local actions that require an
awareness of the interactions between
different goals (poverty and economic
development, water and responsible
consumption, etc.), fostering intersectoral
dialog, and involving diffe rent social groups
(citizens, entrepreneurs, academics and
government representatives) in decision
making processes. An additional point to
be underscored is that any policy to con-
tribute to the SDGs involves a change in the
concept of development, from a focus on
economic growth to one centered on an
equilibrium between economic, s ocial and
environmental aspects.
Achieving the  Agenda may be com-
promised by three main risks: i) lack of
commitment by different sectors (gov-
ernment, business, civil society) owing to
inadequate dissemination; ii) a focus on
indicators rather than actions, which can
detract from the main aim, as expressed by
one of the interviewees: “the challenge is to
achieve actual improvement in conditions
and not merely a change in the indicators”,
and iii) lack of adequate funding.
The greatest challenges to public sci-
ence and innovation policy in Colombia
regarding the SDGs are: i) institutional
strengthening of the organizations related
with STI, particularly Colciencias; ii) better
23 The document the provides a record of these interviews and analyses
is available at: http://www.colciencias.gov.co/sites/default/files/percepciones_
agenda_2030.pdf
articulation both within the national gov-
ernment and in other sectors, especially
civil society, and iii) prioritizing research
agendas in connection with social needs.
In addition to the in-depth interviews,
seven panel discussions were held in which
the participants reflected on STI policy and its
contribution to the SDGs. Among the aspects
noted as science and technology policy needs
are the following:
Achieving greater participation by different
social groups in decisions about STI (Panel
discussion V on climate change, and Panel
discussion II on peace).
Fostering interdisciplinarity and dialog
among knowledge holders (Panel discus-
sion VI on social transformation, and Panel
discussion V on climate change).
Developing the regional nature of solutions
for sustainable development (Panel dis-
cussion V on climate change, and Panel
discussion II on peace).
Incorporating ethics and uncertainty
into STI policy for sustainable devel-
opment (Panel discussion VI on social
transformation).
The need to experiment in public policy
(Panel discussion I on transition to renew-
able energy sources.
2.2 Citizenship and the SDGs
A notable aspect within the transformative focus
or Frame  is that it generates spaces where civil
society or actors who have not traditionally been
24 The topics discussed were: sustainable productive development,
paths toward transition and analysis of renewable energy sources to mit-
igate and adapt to climate change, STI in the construction of peace, STI in
the consolidation of sustainable cities and regions, STI and climate change,
oceans and life on land, STI and social transformation, and the role of water in
the environment and society. In all, a total of nearly 1,200 people participated.
Details of each panel discussion are available on the “Participación ciudad-
ana” section at: www.libroverde2030.gov.co.
Global goals
involve local
actions that
must consider
interactions
between goals,
and foster
intersectoral
dialog and
participation by
different social
groups.
27
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
involved in science and innovation policy initia-
tives can become engaged in processes of change.
One way to propitiate this engagement, which has
gained ground in recent years, is through exer-
cises in citizen consultation on the direction that
should be imparted to public policy. With regard
to the SDGs, countries such as Finland, Greece
and Turkey have used this type of consultation to
define strategies related with their implementation
(OECD, ).
In this regard, and with the aim of captur-
ing the interest of different groups to propitiate
their participation in science and innovation policy
design, as well as to contribute to the dissemina-
tion of the SDGs, Colciencias carried out the “ What
road shall we take?” citizen consultation between
October  and January . In this exercise,
citizens, researchers, entrepreneurs (hereafter,
groups consulted) were asked which SDGs they
and their families were most concerned about,
and whether they believed that the status of these
SDGs in Colombia had improved or not in the last
two years. A total of nearly , responses
were received – the greatest level of participation
thus far for the purposes of informing the design
of science and innovation policy in the country.
Tables  and  present the overall results.
Among the possible analyses of the results
of this consultation, two in particular are of rel-
evance to inform science and innovation policy
oriented toward SDGs. The first analysis, centered
on the main concerns expressed by different
groups consulted, disclosed noticeable similari-
ties between concerns noted by citizens and by
25 Within the area of science these consultations are intended to
motivate participation “as a mechanism to improve the efficiency, quality and
relevance of research, and improve transparency and trust in science” (OECD,
2017, p. 5). Examples of research agendas shaped with citizen participation are
CIMULACT in the European Union, the Great New Zealand Science Project,
RISTEX in Japan, and X-Project in South Korea (OECD, 2017).
26 This part of the consultation was carried out in alliance with UNO, as
part of the “My World 2030” world survey.
27 The results of this consultation are available as a set of dynamic tables
that can be accessed at: http://colciencias.gov.co/la-ciencia-en-cifras.
researchers. Both groups concurred in ranking
“Quality education” (SDG ), “Clean water and
sanitation” (SDG ) and “Health and well-being”
(SDG ) in the top three positions. Entrepreneurs,
for their part, reported somewhat different levels
of relevance for different goals, noting “Industry,
innovation and infrastructure” (SDG ), “Decent
work and economic growth” (SDG ) and “Quality
education” (SDG ) as their greatest concerns.
Respondents in this group shared this last SDG
with citizens and researchers. The differences may
be a result of discrepancies among stakeholders /
actors lógicas who rarely par ticipate in dialog in this
country; in this connection it should be recalled
that both sociotechnical change and meeting
the SDGs require participation and dialog among
different groups, especially for the construction
Table 1. Overall participation in the consultation by group consulted
Group Women Men NR To tal
Citizens ,  , -,
Researchers ,  ,  ,
Entrepreneurs , ,  ,
Tot al ,  ,  ,
Source: Results from the “What road shall we take?” citizen consultation.
Table 2. Number of responses by region*
Region No. of responses
Bogotá D. C. ,
Eje Cafetero ,
Pacífico ,
Caribe ,
Centro oriente ,
Centro sur  ,   
Llanos ,
Not repo rted  ,  
Tot al ,
Regions shown here are identified according to designations used by government
agencies in Colombia. The capital district Bogotá D. C. is shown separately.
Source: Results from the “What road shall we take?” citizen consultation.
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
28
of shared visions and expectations (direction) in
the face of change.
Table  shows the results of the consulta-
tion by group, with the SDGs ranked in decreasing
order of concern expressed by different groups.
The second analysis centers on the con-
sultation results at the regional level, a pertinent
approach considering the predominant need to
interpret the  Agenda in the light of territo-
rial realities. In general, the concerns were similar
across all regions. The main consensus is that
“Quality education” (SDG ) is the greatest con-
cern. There is also agreement that “Clean water
and sanitation” (SDG ), “Climate action” (SDG ),
“Heath and well-being” (SDG ) and “Life on land”
(SDG ) are the other goals of greatest concern,
although the rank order varies somewhat across
regions. The main difference is seen in the Llanos
region, where “Affordable, clean energy” (SDG ),
“Industry, innovation and infrastructure” (SDG )
and “Zero hunger” (SDG ) are among the top five
concerns, whereas “Climate action” (SDG ) and
“Clean water and sanitation (SDG ) are accorded
a different level of importance. Table  shows the
totals from the consultation in each region, ranked
from highest to lowest number of responses.
These figures constitute an initial step in
our region-by-region analysis, which will require
further study. Note, for example, that although the
goals ranked by citizens as having the most wide-
spread levels of concern overlap across territories,
the most appropriate solutions in a given territory
may differ or require adaptation.
2.3 Research and the SDGs
Regarding the importance of STI in meeting the
SDGs, particularly the central role of scientific
research and technological development, a
study was undertaken to identify the dynamics
in Colombia in topics related with different SDGs
in recent years, which would give us a preliminary
idea of the greatest current strengths and point to
Table 3. Results of the citizen consultation according to group consulted
SDG Name Aggregate Citizen Researcher Entrepreneur
Quality education , , , ,
Clean water and sanitation , , , ,
Health and well- being , , , ,
 Climate action , , , ,
 Life on land  , ,  , ,
End povert y ,, , ,
Decent work and econ omic growth ,  , , ,
 Sustainable cities and communities ,, , ,
Affordab le, clean energy  , ,  ,  , 
Zero hunger , , , ,
 Peace and justice, strong institutions ,  , , ,
 Reduced inequalities , , , ,
 Responsible production
and consumption
 ,    ,   , ,
Industry, innovation and infrastructure  ,   ,   , ,
Gender equality ,, , ,
 Life below water , ,, ,
 Partnerships to achieve goals , , ,  
Total consulted , ,, ,
Source: Results from the “What road shall we take?” citizen consultation.
29
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
areas that need strengthening. For this purpose, the
analysis centered on scientific and technological
production related to the SDGs during the period
from  to  (hereafter, bibliometric exer-
cise). The results have been grouped into three
main topics: i) bibliographic output and impact,
ii) collaboration, and, iii) patenting.
i) Bibliographic output and impact
Table  presents the number of bib-
liographic products (original articles, litera-
ture reviews or conference presentations) by
Colombian authors (CO) and the leading coun-
tries in bibliographic output worldwide in different
SDGs: United Kingdom (UK), United States (US),
28 The study was carried out by Elsevier for Colciencias in 2018.
Detailed results can be consulted on the Green Book 2030 website: www.
libroverde2030.gov.co. Although the analysis was based on information
in the “high impact” databases, the methodology, technical descriptions
of the databases used, and search algorithms are open access for anyone
who wishes to extend this type of analysis to other scientific publication
databases. See: http://www.colciencias.gov.co/sites/default/files/portada-in-
tro-anexos.pdf
China (CN) and Australia (AU): figures for Brazil
(BR) and Mexico (MX) are also shown for com-
parison with research outputs by Latin American
countries. The total worldwide bibliographic
output in the SDGs between  and 
was , products, with the largest numbers
of products in “Life on land” (SDG ), “Climate
action” (SDG ), “Life below water (SDG ) and
“Responsible production and consumption (SDG
). For Colombia, the number of bibliographic
outputs during this period was ,. The num-
bers of products dealing with different SDGs, in
decreasing order, were as follows:
) Life on land (SDG ).
) Climate action (SDG ).
) Life below water (SDG ).
) Responsible production and
consumption (SDG ).
) Health and well-being (SDG ).
) Industry, innovation and infrastructure
(SD G ).
Table 4. Results of the citizen consultation by region
SDG Name Tot al Bogotá Caribe Centro oriente Centro sur Eje Cafetero Llanos Pacífico
Quality education , , , , , ,, ,
Clean water and sanitation , ,  , , , ,  , , 
 Climate action  , , ,  , , , , ,
Health and well- being , ,  , , , , , ,
 Life on land , , , , , , , ,
End povert y  , , , , , , ,,
Decent work and econ omic growth , ,  , , , , ,,
 Sustainable cities and communities , ,  ,  ,, , , ,
Affordab le, clean energy , , , , , ,, ,
Zero hunger , , , , , , , ,
 Peace and justice, strong institutions ,  , ,  , , , ,  , 
 Reduced inequalities , , ,  , ,,, ,
 Responsible production and consumption , , , , , , , ,
Industry, innovation and infrastructure ,    ,  , ,  ,  ,  , ,
Gender equality , , , , , ,  ,
 Life below water , ,, , , ,  ,
 Partnerships to achieve goals ,  , ,  , ,,  ,
Total consulted ,  , , ,  ,   , , ,
Source: Results from the “What road shall we take?” citizen consultation.
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
30
) Partnerships to achieve goals (SDG ).
) Zero hunger (SDG ).
) Sustainable cities and communities
(SD G ).
) Clean water and sanitation (SDG ).
) Affordable, clean energy (SDG ).
) End poverty (SDG ).
) Decent work and economic growth
(SD G ).
) Peace and justice, strong institutions
(SD G ).
) Reduced inequalities (SDG ).
) Gender equality (SDG ).
) Quality education (SDG ).
The main difference between Colombia
and worldwide output is in “Health and well-bein g”
(SDG ), which ranks fifth in the number of outputs
from Colombia but fifteenth worldwide.
Regarding the impact of bibliographic
production in terms of the numbers of citations
received (citation impact), Table  shows that this
impact for Colombia is equal to or greater than
the world average for eleven of the SDGs, and is
particularly notable for SDG , “Gender equality”.
This result indicates that research produced in
Colombia is being used in SDG-related studies at
a worldwide level, and that in some fields, such as
gender equality and research on reducing hunger,
Colombia attains citation levels very simil ar to those
of leading countries.
ii) Collaboration
One hundred seventeen institutions from
 countries make up the network of collaboration
by Colombian researchers in SDG-related topics,
based on a cut-off point of  collaborators
to identify the most active ones in terms of the
number of bibliographic outputs for each SDG.
The countries with the greatest levels of collabo-
ration with Colombia are the United States, Spain,
the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands.
Table 5. Number of publications dealing with each SDG by country (world values shown for reference)
SDG Name World CO BR MX UK US CN AU
 Life on land  ,   , , ,  , , ,
 Climate action ,   ,, , , , ,
 Life below water ,   , ,  , , , ,
 Responsible production and consumption , , , , ,
Industry, innovation and infrastructure ,    ,  , , , ,
 Partnerships to achieve goals ,  ,  ,, , ,
 Sustainable cities and communities ,  ,   , , , ,
Clean water and sanitation ,  , , , ,,
Affordab le, clean energy ,  , ,, ,
Zero hunger , , , , , ,
End povert y ,   , , ,  , 
Decent work and econ omic growth ,   , , , ,
 Reduced inequalities ,   , , ,
 Peace and justice, strong institutions ,    , , 
Health and well- being ,  ,   ,   
Gender equality ,     ,  
Quality education ,     ,  
Note: Empty fields indicate that the country is not one of the top 5 non-Latin American countries in the respective SDG.
Source: Prepared by the authors of this document based on Elsevier, 2018.
31
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
iii) Patenting
A total of , patents for inventions were
awarded worldwide in relation with SDGs. The
SDG with the largest number of associated pat-
ents is “Climate action” (SDG ), which accounts
for %. This SDG together with “Responsible pro-
duction and consumption” (SDG ), “Affordable,
clean energy” (SDG ) and “Life on land” (SDG )
accounts for % of all patents for inventions. As in
other areas, the largest number of patents is con-
centrated in the United States (%), whereas Latin
American countries including Colombia account
for a small contribution (.%). Table  shows
the number of patents for SDG-related inventions
awarded to each applicant country.
In synthesis, the bibliometric exercise
shows that the production of SDG-related
research in Colombia is growing at an annual
29 The source consulted for this study is Lexis Nexis (www.lexisnexis.com),
a platform that compiles data from the US Patent Office, Esp@cenet and WIPO.
Outputs from these collaborations account for
approximately % of the bibliographic produc-
tion associated with the SDGs. The five institu-
tions that collaborate the most with Colombia
are, in decreasing order, Wageningen University &
Research (Netherlands), Stanford University (United
States.), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (Spain),
Imperial College London (United Kingdom), and
the International Crops Research Institute for the
Semi-Arid Tropics (India).
Figure  shows the collaboration between
Colombia and dif ferent countries, together with the
predominant SDGs. The SDGs are shown as yellow
nodes, and countries are shown as green nodes.
These relationships are based on the number of
coauthored publications, with thicker lines indicat-
ing larger numbers of publications. Larger nodes
indicate greater numbers of coauthor relationships.
As shown, the SDGs that benefit most from collab-
oration are “Life on land” (SDG ), “Climate action”
(SDG ) and “Life below water” (SDG ).
Table 6. Citation impact for each SDG in different countries (ranked with reference to values for Colombia)
SDG Name World CO BR MX UK US CN AU
 Life on land . . . . .  .. .
 Climate action . . .  . . .  . .
 Life below water . . . .  . .  . .
 Responsible production and consumption . . . . . . .
Industry, innovation and infrastructure . . . .  . .. .
 Partnerships to achieve goals . . . . .  .. .
 Sustainable cities and communities . . . . . . . .
Clean water and sanitation . . . . . . . .
Affordab le, clean energy . . . - . . . .
Zero hunger . .  . . . . .  .
End povert y . .. . . . . .
Decent work and econ omic growth . . . . .  .. .
 Reduced inequalities . . . .  . . . .
 Peace and justice, strong institutions . . . .  . .. .
Health and well- being . . .  . . .  . .
Gender equality .  . .. . . .
Quality education . . . . .  . .
Note: Empty fields indicate that the country is not one of the top 5 non-Latin American countries in the respective SDG.
Source: Prepared by the authors of this document based on Elsevier, 2018.
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
32
Figure 1. Countries that collaborate with Colombia on SDGs
ODS 1
ODS 2
ODS 3
ODS 4
ODS 5
ODS 6
ODS 7
ODS 8
ODS 9
ODS 10
ODS 11
ODS 12
ODS 13
ODS 14
ODS 15
ODS 16
ODS 17
Argentina
Australia
Belgium
Brazil
Canada
Chile
China
Cuba
Denmark
Egypt
France
Germany
India
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Kenya
Mexico
Netherlands
Norway
Pakistan
Peru
Philippines
Portugal
South Africa
South Korea
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
Source: Prepared by the authors of this document based on Elsevier, 2018.
rate of % and surpasses the worldwide cita-
tion average by %, although this figure varies
across specific SDGs. Of the total Colombian SDG
output, % is situated among the most widely
cited worldwide. These indicators reflect the high
level of impact and usage of Colombian research
production in sustainable development, although
the total number of bibliographic products is still
low compared to other countries such as the
United States, Spain, the United Kingdom, France
and the Netherlands. It is also below that of the
countries closest to Colombia geographically and
culturally, such as Brazil and Mexico. Moreover,
the number of patent awards in Colombia for dif-
ferent SDGs is very low. The above results offer
valuable inputs to inform public policy regarding
the incentives that should be generated as a way
to favor the development of scientific research
and technological development pertaining to
the SDGs. In principle, these stimuli should focus
on: i) SDGs with the greatest research dynamics,
ii) SDGs that require a fresh impetus in R&D, iii)
opportunities for international cooperation, and
iv) opportunities for technological development
and innovation.
2.4 Citizenship, research and SDGs
Sections . and . above set the scene for explor-
ing the relationships in Colombia between scienti fic
research dynamics, technological development
and citizens’ concerns regarding the SDGs. In a way,
this analysis is an opportunity to bring together
the ideas in policy Frame , which assumes that
knowledge creation is translated “naturally” into
33
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economic and social benefits, and the ideas in
Frame , which emphasize policy orientation
toward solving social problems, with the partici-
pation of and guidance from society.
Viewing the results for citizen concerns
in the light of the dynamics of bibliographic pro-
duction, considered here as research intensity,
identified four types of relationships:
High research interest and high citizen
concern.
High research interest and low citizen
concern.
Low research interest and high citizen
concern.
Low research interest and low citizen
concern.
The seven SDGs that accounted for the
greatest national bibliographic production were
classified as high research intensity, and the six
SDGs that were reported as of greatest con-
cern by some of the groups consulted (citizens,
researchers or entrepreneurs) were classified as
high citizen interest. The results of this classifica-
tion are shown in Table .
To provide a broader vision of the rela-
tionships between research, citizen interest and
the SDGs, Figure  below illustrates a projection
of the first two factors on a relationship map of
the SDGs. The relationship map was built from
worldwide citations to SDG-related bibliographic
outputs. Nodes in the network represent SDGs,
with larger nodes indicating higher proportions
of Colombian publications for a given SDG.
Relationships among SDGs are shown as lines,
with thicker lines indicating larger numbers of cita-
tions among linked SDGs. Dif ferent colors are used
for nodes in each of the four quadrants in Table .
Yellow indicates high research intensity interés and
high citizen interest. Green indicates low research
intensity and high citizen interest. Red indicates
low research intensity and low citizen interest. Blue
is used to indicate high research intensity and low
citizen interest.
Table 7. Patents awarded for SDG-related inventions in different applicant countries
Country US GB CN AU DE CO MX BR World
SD G  ,        ,
SD G      ,
SDG        - 
SD G       - 
SDG     --
SD G     -
SDG     - - 
SDG     - - 
SDG     -
S DG     - - - 
SD G   -
SDG  -  ------
SD G   - - - - - 
SDG   -------
SDG    - -  - - - 
SD G   ------
SDG ---------
,     ,
Source: Prepared by the authors of this document based on Elsevier, 2018.
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
34
Figure 2. SDG network, citizen interest and research intensity
SDG 1
SDG 2
SDG 3
SDG 4
SDG 5
SDG 6
SDG 7
SDG 8
SDG 9
SDG 10
SDG 11
SDG 12
SDG 13
SDG 14
SDG 15
SDG 16
SDG 17
Source: Prepared by the authors of this document based on results from Elsevier, 2018, and from the “What road shall we take?” citizen
consultation.
Table 8. Classification of SDGs according to research interest and citizen concern
Citizen concern
Low High
Research interest
High Life under w ater (SDG )
Partners hips to achieve
goals (SDG )
Life on land (SDG )
Climate action (SDG )
Responsible pro duction and consumption (SDG )
Health and well- being (SDG )
Industry, innovation and infrastructure (SDG )
Low Zero hunger (SDG )
Affordab le, clean energy (SDG )
Peace, justice and strong
institutions (SDG )
Gender equality (SDG )
Sustainab le cities and communities (SDG )
Clean water and sanitation (SDG )
End poverty (SDG )
Decent work and econ omic growth (SDG )
Reduced inequalities (SDG )
Quality educ ation (SDG )
Source: Prepared by the authors of this document based on results from Elsevier, 2018, and from the “What road shall we take?” citizen consultation.
35
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on health, water supplies and climate change,
among other challenges (UNCTAD, ). These
developments are evidence of the potential of fron-
tier technologies to contribute to solutions for the
problems set forth in the  Agenda.
Nevertheless, from a sociotechnical point
of view, it is understood that the effects of frontier
technologies are not limited to providing solutions,
but can also have a variety of social and environ-
mental applications – which may not always be
positive. For example, it has been argued that big
data, artificial intelligence and D printing technol-
ogies can have negative effect s on employment by
replacing human labor with automated processes.
Moreover, there are ethical consideration regarding
the use of these technologies, because they can
be used for purposes of espionage, information
manipulation and market control. Further con-
cerns are related with the fact that because frontier
technologies are generated mainly in developed
countries, they widen the gap between wealthy and
poor countries. Consequently, policies focused on
sustainable development should create mecha-
nisms to evaluate, anticipate and weigh the risks
and implications of the development and imple-
mentation of these types of technology.
2.6 Relationships between SDGs
and sociotechnical change
Just as they have made it possible to identify
relationships among SDGs in terms of scientific
research, the conceptual bases of transformative
policy also allow relationships to be discerned
among SDGs from the standpo int of sociotechnical
systems and the direction of transformations. As
a starting point for these insights, three types of
SDGs are distinguishable:
Type : SDGs covering sociotechnical sys-
tems that perform specific social func-
tions by providing goods or services, or
by protecting a resource. Among these
are SDG  in health,  in education,  in
From the relationships thus identified
among SDGs situated in different quadrants, it
can be assumed that policy actions to link the
dynamics of scientific research and technological
development with citizens’ interests can utilize the
relationships among different SDGs to achieve
leverage among them. This type of overarching
vision, moreover, can also be extended to areas
other than R&D, such as (for example) technolo-
gies, actors, or even public policy.
It should be noted that a transformative
focus in public policy places emphasis on the
active participation of different social groups in
decision making about the direction and develop-
ment of science and innovation agendas.
2.5 Frontier technologies
and SDGs
As noted, technological artifacts are one of the
components of sociotechnical systems targeted
for transformation. In this connection, frontier
technologies are noteworthy for their potential to
radically transform how we live. With specific refer-
ence to the SDGs, different international organisms
including the OECD and UNO have emphasized the
relevant role these technologies can play in achiev-
ing the goals. For example, technologies related
with big data are helping to understand climate
behavior at a worldwide level, improve medical
diagnostics, and reach better decisions in complex
scenarios. Artificial intelligence is making reasoning
methods and performance more accurate, safer
and more efficient in a variety of tasks. D printing
makes the manufacture of complex products f aster
and more efficient. Si gnificant developments in bio-
technology and nanotechnology, and in renewable
energy sources, are also having positive impacts
30 The term “frontier technologies” refers generally to technological areas
in the process of development or refinement and are therefore not widely
commercialized, although they have great application and market potential.
Currently the main frontier technologies are, among others, robotics, drones,
autonomous vehicles, augmented reality, artificial intelligence, digital man-
ufacturing, big data, biotechnology, the Internet of Things, blockchain, and
synthetic biology.
The emergence
of Frame 3
does not imply
the complete
displacement
of other policy
frames but acts
in contrast to
complement
them.
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
36
clean water and sanitation,  in affordable,
clean energy,  in industry, innovation and
infrastructure,  in life below water, and
SDG  in life on land.
Type : SDGs that emphasize direction-
ality, i.e. that indicate pathways for prog-
ress toward specific outcomes. Among
these are SDG  on the end of poverty, 
on zero hunger,  on gender equality, 
on decent work and economic growth, 
on reducing inequalities,  on sustainable
cities and communities,  on responsible
production and consumption, and SDG 
on climate action.
Type : SDGs centered on the setting con-
ditions needed to carry out transforma-
tion, including governance arrangements
between the State, the market, civil society
and science. These framework conditions
are generally not predefined, and therefore
need to be developed as part of the process
of change. This type comprises goal  on
peace, justice and strong institutions, and
goal  on partnerships to achieve the SDGs.
This SDG classification makes it possible
to identify connections and types of relationships
between the goals that are not explicit in presen-
tations of the full set of seventeen goals, or when
individual goals are considered separately. For
example, to ensure attainment of the overarching
goal of the  Agenda, i.e. sustainable develop-
ment, ideally initiatives associated with SDGs that
31 The term ‘initiatives’ refers to programs, projects or instruments imple-
mented by the national government, departments or municipalities aimed
perform social functions (type ) should be linked
with at least one of the SDGs that emphasizes
directionality (type ). It is this interaction between
SDGs which considerably enhances the potential of
different initiatives for impact and transformation,
and thus makes such links a relevant topic in polic y.
This interpretation of the possible relation-
ships among SDGs is illustrated schematically in
Figure . The central panel shows the space where
transformative initiatives are carried out thanks to
the connectivity between type  (left panel) and
type  SDGs (right panel), which is further influenced
by type  SDGs (upper panel). The lower part of the
diagram illustrates the three policy frames noted
earlier, which, together with different types of inter-
vention, stimulate the development of transforma-
tive initiatives. It is important to keep this in mind,
given that the emergence of Frame  does not imply
the complete displacement of other policy fram es,
but acts, in contrast, to complement them. While
policies inspired by Frame  may be focused, for
example, on achieving specific SDG t argets through
the generation of knowledge and capacities, policies
inspired by Frame  can facilitate greater participa-
tion by civil society in processes of innovation and
productive development. Because this will not be
sufficient, policie s within Frame  will come into play
to facilitate and stimulate transformative change.
Moreover, attributes of transformative policy can
be incorporated into policies within Frames  and
, thereby generating further conditions for the
emergence of sociotechnical change.
at solving SDG problems, such as projects undertaken by specific organized
communities or social groups that seek to advance in the same direction.
37
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Figure 3. Approach to different SDGs via transformative innovation policy
Source: Prepared by the authors of this document based on Schot, Johan et ál., 2018.
1
END POVERTY
2
ZERO
HUNGER
16
PEACE AND
JUSTICE
STRONG
INSTITUTIONS
17
PARTNERSHIPS TO
ACHIEVE GOALS
5
GENDER
EQUALITY
8
DECENT WORK
AND ECONOMIC
GROWTH
10
REDUCED
INEQUALITIES
13
CLIMATE ACTION
12
RESPONSIBLE
PRODUCTION AND
CONSUMPTION
3
HEALTH AND
WELL-BEING
4
QUALITY
EDUCATION
6
CLEAN WATER
AND SANITATION
7
AFFORDABLE,
CLEAN ENERGY
15
LIFE ON LAND
TRANSVERSAL
DIRECTIONS
14
LIFE BELOW
WATER
11
SUSTAINABLE
CITIES AND
COMMUNITIES
9
INDUSTRY,
INNOVATION AND
INFRASTRUCTURE
FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS
TRANSFORMING
OUR WORLD
SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS
THAT PROVIDE GOODS OR
SERVICES, OR PROTECT
RESOURCES
FRAME 3
TRANSFORMATIVE
CHANGE
FRAME 2
NATIONAL SYSTEMS OF
INNOVATION
FRAME 1
R&D AND REGULATION
DIRECCIONES
TRANSVERSALES
3/
39
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3. Goals and principles in
transformative science
and innovation policy
i) case studies of different initiatives with trans-
formative potential carried out within the frame-
work of the Transformative Innovation Policy
Consortium, ii) project mentorship in different
departments, iii) interviews with Colombian
specialists in STI and sustainable development, iv)
in-house workshops in Colciencias and with other
actors, and v) review of the diagnoses and pro-
posals for the SNCTI. These analyses were com-
plemented by a review of the relevant literature.
32 The methodology for the case studies was based on histories of
transformative innovation developed within the framework of the TIPC
(http://tipconsortium.net/). Seven common features indicating transformative
potential were identified across all cases: directionality, system-wide impact,
inclusion, space for dissent, focus on major challenges, and learning and
experimentation.
33 The mentorship network is an experimental exercise carried out within
the framework of the Green Book 2030 project by Colciencias and the Science
Policy Research Unit at the University of Sussex. This network identified initia-
tives with transformative features in seven departments, which were provided
with supplementary support to enhance their transformative potential. See:
http://www.libroverde2030.gov.co
34 In all, four workshops were held: the over one hundred participants
included employees holding different positions in national government
bodies, regional STI agencies, researchers, and members of the Consejos
Departamentales de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (CODECTI)
(Departmental Science, Technology and Innovation Councils).
35 See: Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales,
2018 and Amigos de Colciencias, 2018.
36 See, among others: Kuhlmann, Stefan and Rip, Arie, 2014; OECD, 2010;
Vessuri, 2016; Cepal, 2016; Cepal, 2017 and Kallerud, Egil et al., 2013.
The goal of this national policy is to guide science
and innovation so that they contribute to solutions
for the country’s social, environmental and eco-
nomic problems, from a transformative focus, i.e.,
by acting as catalysts of change at the socio-techni-
cal level. Initially, these problems will be considered
as the ones set forth in the SDGs, which have been
adopted by the national government as a roadmap
for sustainable development in the medium and
long term.
To carry out this task, policy will be orie nted
in three directions: i) promoting and supporting the
adoption of a transformative focus in the SNC TI and
other related systems; ii) guiding national science
and innovation in order to meet the SDGs; and iii)
promoting and supporting the deployment of a
transformative focus to achieve the SDGs at the
territorial level. Advancing in any of these directions
will require the strategies and mechanisms used
to for policy implementation to be endowed with
specific features, as a way to generate favorable
conditions for change –in other words, for trans-
formation– within socio-technical systems.
The identification and definition of these
features has been the outcome of several analyses:
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
40
In light of these activities, five features were
identified as essential to stimulate, promote and
facilitate processes of transformative change. For
this reason, it is felt that they should be incorpo-
rated into the different initiatives, instruments, pro-
grams or projects that implement this policy, and
that are oriented toward compliance with the 
Agenda in Colombia, or other STI init iatives that aim
to help solve complex problems. In addition, the
presence of these characteristics can serve as an
indicator of the transformative potential of a given
initiative driven by public policy or by actors within
the SNCTI, including civil society.
To emphasize the importance of these
features and facilitate their uptake, they are here
accorded the status of policy “principles”, that is,
they are viewed as fundamental ideas that should
inspire action, and without which the transfor-
mative focus would be lost. Consequently, these
policy principles should be kept in sight whenever
the desired outcome is: i) to enhance the transfor-
mative potential of initiatives or instruments already
under way, including those based on Frames  and
, ii) to set in motion new initiatives, instruments,
programs or projects oriented toward achieving
the SDGs, or iii) to characterize the transformative
potential of initiatives currently in progress. It is
important to emphasize that their application will
not be limited to bodies that implement public STI
policies, but will also involve all actors in the SNCTI
that carry out initiatives with potential to transform
socio-technical systems. These five principles are
described below.
3.1 Directionality
This principle refers to the collective process
through which different alternatives are consid-
ered, in a way that brings to light their connections
as well as their social and environmental conse-
quences, in order to guide actions toward needed
and desirable changes in the SDG setting. It consti-
tutes a starting point for transformative policy, its
instruments, and its initiatives. Further, it implies
the creation of shared visions for a sustainable
future in the long term.
3.2 Participation
This principle refers to active linking and dialog
among different actors for the generation, use of
and access to knowledge, and to transformative
innovation that can contribute to sustainable
development. The scope of this participation
goes beyond receiving information, and aims to
open spaces where processes of change can be
influenced. Among the dif ferent actors are not only
the dominant individuals, groups or entities within
the socio-technical system to which the process
of change is related, but also those from a vari-
ety of backgrounds who represent new potential
alternatives, such as producers, civil society, users,
consumers and policy makers.
Public policies should assume major
responsibility for creating suitable conditions for
participation, by helping actors overcome conflicts
and generating greater trust in the process.
3.3 Learning and experimentation
This principle has to do with the creation of spe-
cific spaces and concrete actions for processes of
reflection, and for the transmission and acquisitio n
of knowledge and experience, which should reaf-
firm or reorient the directions of change and tailor
public policy. These processes of reflection involve
rethinking traditional ways of understanding and
addressing social, economic and environmental
issues, along with the comprehension and analysis
of socio-technical systems.
A fundamental element related with
experimentation is “niche” management, i.e.
spaces in which transformative processes are
created and developed on a small scale. Niche
management is fundamental to explore the trans-
formative potential of different possible paths to
change, and constitutes one of the most effective
vehicles for building or positioning a given practice
within current socio-technical systems. For this
Policy principles
are viewed as
fundamental
ideas that must
inspire action,
and without
which the
transformative
focus is
weakened.
41
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reason, niches should be identified and fostered
over time to allow them to reach their potential.
3.4 Interdisciplinarity
This principle is understood as collaboration
among different disciplines and knowledge
areas in order to understand and seek solutions
to complex problems, with the aim of exploring
different alternatives that can generate socio-tech-
nical changes.
3.5 Anticipating outcomes
and effects
This principle refers to the open evaluation and
critique of the aims, motivations and intentions
in processes of research and innovation, so that
impacts and ethical limit ations that might compro-
mise sustainable development can be est ablished.
These exercises are carried out jointly by leaders in
research or innovation processes and actors who
may be affected or impacted.
Public policy plays an essential role in the
promotion, incentivization and dissemination of
this type of exercise.
4/
43
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4. Policy guidelines for a
transformative focus
advance toward meeting the SDGs with support
and guidance from science, technology and inno-
vation in the Colombian context.
4.1 Guidance for implementing
the Green Book 2030
4.1 .1 Working methods
Although many public policy initiatives
(programs or instruments) currently under way
were not designed with a transformative focus in
mind, this does not mean that they lack potential
or that they cannot be adapted in ways that incor-
porate the principles of transformative science and
innovation policy. To achieve this, three working
methods are suggested here; they should not be
assumed to be sequential, given that each of them
can be applied independently, depending on the
type and scope of specific instruments or pro-
grams. Moreover, these working methods serve to
stimulate, within public settings, the development
of initiatives with transformative potential or that
aim to solve problems related with the SDGs and
that originate within civil society (“bottom up”).
The complexities of meeting the goals proposed
in the Green Book  via a new policy focus
leads one to appreciate the need to work from a
long-term perspective, with gradual advances on
different fronts. The first of these fronts consists
of opening spaces to understand the scope of
a transformative focus in practical terms for all
social sectors and actors. Accordingly, the first
set of guidelines centers on the working methods
to be incorporated, and how this focus is to be
interpreted in specific settings where the greatest
concerns have arisen during the process of pro-
ducing the Green Book  (business sector and
articulation with other public policies).
The second working front comprises the
definition of specific actions that make it possible to
envision potential approaches toward incorporating
a transformative focus. Progress on this front will
occur gradually, as the National System of STI exper-
iments, learns and readjusts overall. In this connec-
tion, it should be remembered that only appropri ate
articulation and complement arity among the three
policy framings, R&D and innovation systems, and
transformative innovation will make it possible to
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44
i) Deepening
This working method is applicable to ini-
tiatives already under way, whether “top down” or
“bottom up”, which take some of the principles of
transformative policy into account, but where addi-
tional efforts could enhance their transformative
potential. To this end, the responsible bodies will
work to incorporate transformative policy princi-
ples that are absent or only weakly represented.
ii) Expansion
This working method is recommended
for initiatives under way that have been identified
as useful in solving SDG-associated problems,
for purposes of demonstration. To support their
expansion, bodies will work to widen the scope or
coverage of the instrument, program or project, at
the population, regional or national level.
iii) Acceleration
This working method is useful fo r initiatives
with transformative potential, but in which the rate
of transformation is insufficient to reach the targets
set for . To stimulate such initiatives, bodies
will work to generate incentives or remove barriers
and thus accelerate the process of change.
With regard to new policy instruments
and programs, the Green Book seeks to ensure
that they are designed with a view to applying the
five principles of transformative policy. This can be
done by using orientation questio ns such as those
suggested in Table .
4.1 .2 Managing transition
Transition management is centered on
developing niches with transformative potential,
and on integrating different actors in order to raise
their awareness of the need for change, involving
them in processes aimed at visualizing transforma-
tion and in pilot exercises or experiments.
Niches, understood as spaces in which
transformative processes are managed or come
about on a small scale, constitute the most basic
level at which processes of change can be triggered
within socio-technical systems, especially consid-
ering that the desired solutions to social, economic
Table 9. Orientation questions for the design of policy instruments and programs
Principle Orientation questions
Directionality How is the instrum ent/program/project oriented to sp ecific social or
environmenta l challenges, such a s (for example) one of the SDGs?
What alternatives were cons idered to address the challenge or provide solut ions?
Were the implicatio ns of these possible alternatives considered?
Participation What spaces are generated to link all actors with a stake
in the instrument throughout the process?
What specific space s are generated for the participation o f civil
society and en d-users of the intended solutio n or change?
What mechanisms have be en considered to facilitate dialog and in clusion of all ac tors?
Learning and
experimentation
What spaces are available for reflectio n on advances in the process of change?
How are the lessons learned, failures and multifunctional inputs permanently
incorporated in order to enhance the instrument/program/project?
How can belief s and ways of thinking influence t he rate of change or progress toward solutions?
Interdisciplinarity What spaces are provided for d ialog among different disciplines and knowledge holders?
Is the complexit y of the problems acknowledged, and are
they analyzed from different p erspectives?
Is the formation o f interdisciplinary working grou ps promoted
to develop transformative processes?
Anticipating out-
comes and ef fects
Have the possible implications of progress toward a solution or tr ansformation
been identified at the social, environmental and economic level?
Is society bei ng informed about the possi ble effects, and a re appropriate measures being t aken?
Are the possible e ffects being taken into accou nt in decision
making about the continuity of p rocesses of change?
45
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and environmental problems may arise at dif ferent
levels in the SNCTI and from different actors. For
these reasons, niches are given particular attention
in the sphere of transformative change.
As part of transition management, this
policy proposes five activities which are not mutu-
ally exclusive; in fact they can be implemented in
parallel and overlap with one another at different
times depending on the level of maturity of a given
niche, as explained below.
i) Identify areas of application or
socio-technical systems targeted for
transformation
Identifying which socio-technical systems
to target for action is the starting point for manag-
ing transition. Several mechanisms can be used for
identification, including sectoral agendas, territorial
development plans, or specific exercises such as
those utilized for this policy via the “Which road
shall we take?” citizen consultation. Identification
exercises will yield, as a result, a large variety of
issues around which a strategy should be devised
to stimulate and manage processes of transfor-
mative change.
Once the systems or issues that need to be
addressed have been identified, existing initiatives
and their level of maturity can be mapped, or pilot
exercises and experiments can be designed (see
subsection iii below). When strong initiatives that
present options for change in current socio-techni-
cal systems cannot be mapped, transition groups
can be established (see subsection ii below) as a
mechanism to stimulate de novo initiatives. If more
advanced initiatives have been mapped, pilot
studies or experiments can be carried out (see
subsection iii below), or support networks can be
created (see subsection iv below).
ii) Create groups for transition
When complex problems such as the SDGs
are faced, possible solutions may be incipient, frag-
mented or isolated; this will make it necessary to
help frame them within the imagin arium of possible
transformation. To this end, actors can be grouped
according to their interest in exploring alternatives
for change or transition in specific areas such as
education, health, affordable energy, etc.
The transition groups can make progress in
the creation of scenarios for transition, i.e., spaces
where transformations are structured by design-
ing desirable futures along with their correspondi ng
pathways and agendas. The latter should include
actions to be carried out to advance along one
or more of the previously defined pathways. In
this connection, building transition groups is an
exercise that makes it possible to put the policy
principles into practice, e.g. directionality, by estab-
lishing desirable future scenarios; participation,
by integrating different actors interested in the
goals; learning and experimentation, by consid-
ering different pathways for progress toward the
future scenario; interdisciplinarity, by considering
the process of transition in all its dimensions; and
anticipation of outcomes and effects, by choosing
the most feasible and suitable pathways.
This group should be diverse, including
civil society, producers, users, consumers, policy
makers, and in general, agents of change among
its participants. This can take place not only at the
national level by identifying major socio-technical
systems, but also at the regional level, where part-
nerships can arise among different projects and
actors committed to change.
iii) Perform experiments or pilots
Experiments are spaces where users and
designers of policies, programs and projects can
interact, learn, articulate processes and build net-
works around technical design, user preferences,
37 Two main tools are available to facilitate transition management:
prospective and backcasting, sometimes called “retrospective”.
38 Agents of change are persons or bodies that promote and enable
change within a group, organization or social system.
Niches,
understood as
spaces where
transformative
processes are
managed or
come about on
a small scale,
constitute the
most basic
level at which
processes of
change can be
triggered in
socio-technical
systems.
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46
help to connect regionally disperse ideas and proj-
ects, bring users together and help establish new
emerging systems. In addition, they can promote
experiments and coordinate projects, aggregate
knowledge, and aid in resource mobilization,
among other tasks.
The actions described here are illustrated
in Figure .
4.1 .3 The business sector
in transformative science
and innovation policy
The Green Book  proposes that
achieving the SDGs, from a transformative per-
spective, goes beyond the sectoral scope and
constitutes a challenge for governments, civil
society, the academy and the productive sector.
In addition, it involves introducing changes at the
socio-technical systems level, where goods and
services provided by the business sector, along
with the types of commercialization and produc-
tion used, are among the essential elements in the
construction of this process. In this connection,
neither achieving the SDGs nor socio-technical
regulations, infrastructure requirements and cul-
tural meanings of desired solutions or changes.
A fundamental characteristic of experi-
ments is that they should allow spaces for error,
reflection and learning. Only in this way will th ey be
able to generate results that are adaptable, trans-
ferable and scalable. These are highly relevant
aspects in the Colombian setting, with its marked
diversity of regional contexts and experiences that
can be transferred and then adapted.
iv) Support transition networks
These networks comprise sets of niches
which may be near or far apart in spatial terms,
and which share visions for the future. These net-
works make it possible to codify and formulate
best practices, and to connect broad and diverse
sets of actors through the transfer of dif ferent types
of knowledge.
To build and galvanize these networks,
intermediaries or mobilizers are needed, who will
39 See: Rip, Arie and Kemp, René, 1998, and Geels, Frank and Raven, Robs,
2006.
40 See: Luederitz et al. 2017.
Figure 4. Actions for transition management.
Experimentation
Niche management
Partnerships
Mobilizing actors
Preparation
Exploration
Shared vision
Directionality Areas of
application or
socio-technical
systems
Transition
groups
Experiments
/ Pilots
Transition
networks
Source: Adapted from Frantzeskaki et al., 2017.
47
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iii) Incorporate green technologies that
make it possible to improve business pro-
ductivity through sustainability criteria,
along with responsible and sustainable busi-
ness practices, not only in environmental
terms but also in social and economic terms.
iv) Participate in co-constructing alterna-
tive, sustainable ways to provide good s and
services, for example by interacting with
different actors (users, scientists, policy
makers) to develop technical designs, iden-
tify infrastructure or regulatory needs, or
redefine cultural meanings, among other
steps. This will help to diversify the system
of production.
4.1 .4 Regional deployment
of transformative science
and innovation policy
Regions, understood as all forms of terri-
torial organization within the country, will play a
vital role in interpreting the transformative focus
in order to work together with Colciencias toward
its implementation. Firstly, the proximity of actors
in geographical spaces that share similar issues
favors more participatory processes; this in turn
facilitates the emergence of sustainable solutions
that meet territorial needs. Secondly, science and
innovation have gained relevance in regions as a
result of specific resources allocated to strengthen
them through the STI Fund of the General
Royalties System. In this scenario progress has
been made toward the consolidation of a type of
governance able to notably enhance the scientific
and technological potential to achieve the SDGs
from a transformative focus at the regional level,
as noted below.
42 Law 1530 of 2012, by which the organization and functioning of the
General Royalties System are regulated. Available at: https://www.sgr.gov.co/
LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=EZij8T5b0Jc%3D&tabid=95&mid=517
change will be possible unless there are active link-
ages among public and private businesses – of all
sizes and in all sectors.
Regarding how the business sector in
Colombia views the  Agenda, the “What
road shall we take?” citizen consultation showed
that % of the nearly , entrepreneurs who
responded indicated that they performed activ-
ities related with meeting the SDGs; the activities
they reported most frequently were i) new sustain-
able business models, ii) integrating sustainability
criteria into business processes and activities, and
iii) cooperating with other businesses and actors
to develop solutions for social and environmental
issues. These responses can be understood to
reflect a clear willingness by the productive sector
to contribute to achieving the SDGs.
In light of the above and considering,
moreover, that the business sector currently partic-
ipates in other national policies such as Productive
Development (Desarrollo Productivo) (CONPES
 de ) and Green Growth (Crecimiento
Verde), businesses and entrepreneurs are called
upon to consider the following as priorities within
the framework of transformative science and inno-
vation policy:
i) Explore new business op portunities to
provide solutions for problems set forth in
the SDGs, by developing innovations that
meet sustainability criteria and represent
opportunities to diversify the system of
production.
ii) Develop new sustainable business
models, to put solutions into practice for
SDG-related issues.
41 Responses from entrepreneurs in the “What road shall we take?”
citizen consultation, along with other actions taken, can be consulted on
the Colciencias website in the “La ciencia en cifras” section, available at:
http://www.colciencias.gov.co/la-ciencia-en-cifras/que-camino-cogemos/
ods-empresarios
Achieving the
SDGs, from a
transformative
perspective,
goes beyond the
sectoral scope
and constitutes
a challenge for
governments,
civil society, the
academy and
the productive
sector.
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48
i) The CODECTI, as organs that articulate
the National System of Science, Technology
and Innovation, and which stand as the
advisory bodies to departmental govern-
ments for the formulation, implementation
and management of their STI policies (art.
, Decree  of ), ensure that differ-
ent sectors of society will be represented.
This favors the creation of shared visions
in STI matters and greater commitment by
all actors.
ii) The Departmental Strategic Plans and
Agreements (Planes y Acuerdos Estratégicos
Departamentales; PAED), as regional
planning exercises, make it possible to pri-
oritize investments according to regional
development needs, and in consonance
with national STI targets, which can be
interpreted in the light of the SDGs.
iii) The integrated agendas for competi-
tiveness, science, technology and innova-
tion, conceived as the mechanism to put into
practice the aim of integrating the working
agendas of the SNCTI and the National
System of Competitiveness and Innovation
and which “contain high-priority projects
of a cross-sectoral nature and sectoral
priorities identified by regions to enhance
the system of production”, are a strategic
43 Article 19 of Law 1286 of 2009, by which Law 29 of 1990 is modified,
Colciencias becomes an Administrative Department, the Colombian National
System of Science, Technology and Innovation is strengthened, and addi-
tional dispositions are set forth. Available at: http://www.colciencias.gov.co/
sites/default/ files/upload/reglamentacion/ley_1286_2009.pdf
44 Decree 584 of 2017, by which regulations are set forth for the
Departmental Scinece, Tehcnology and Innovation Councils (CODECTI).
Available at: http://www.colciencias.gov.co/normatividad/decreto-584-2017
45 The PAED are the instruments through which territories and the nation
reach agreements and articulate efforts and resources to prioritize, specify
and harmonize their STI plans. In addition, the PAED are intended to serve as
the mechanism for prioritizing strategic and impact-generating projects for
departments in harmony with national STI targets. See: http://www.colcien-
cias.gov.co/ portafolio/gestion-territorial/planes-de-acuerdo/paeds-ctei
46 Article 186 of Law 1753 of 2015.
47 See: http://www.colombiacompetitiva.gov.co/sncei/Paginas/Agendas-
Integradas-Departamentales-CCTI.aspx
mechanism to articulate efforts by different
actors toward solving issues associated with
the SDGs in the territories.
4.1 .5 Links with other policies
The Green Book  is connected in
different ways with other development policies
in the country. The main connections are with
the Productive Development Policy (Política de
Desarrollo Productivo), the Green Growth Mission
(Misión de Crecimiento Verde) and CONPES 
related with the SDGs. The Green Book  shares
with the Productive Development Policy the need
to diversify economic activities and issues with
articulation among governmental bodies and the
private sector. It also shares the need to regionalize
public policy in a countr y like Colombia, character-
ized by diversity, and the need to improve condi-
tions for innovation and enterprise. To these areas
the Green Book adds the need to view economic
growth and productivity within the context of social
and environmental sustainability, insofar as it con-
siders these components to be just as important
as economic sustainability. Moreover, introducing
the concept of socio-technical systems broadens
the policy spectrum and calls on different actors
to participate in transformation, which may well be
achievable through environmentally and socially
responsible strategies.
The growth mission also shows that in
addition to fiscal and economic policy, cross-sec-
tional policies need to be undertaken in order
to stimulate green growth at the systemic level,
through innovation and research. To this end, the
mission identified necessary actors related with STI
for sustainable development, and also identified
technical and financial instruments, including those
managed by Colciencias, that favor green growth.
Two import ant shortcomings were identified by the
green growth mission: i) some of these instruments,
although directly related with green growth, have
not been fully developed in terms of their poten-
tial to contribute via STI; and ii) STI in the country
The geographical
proximity
of actors
with similar
issues favors
participatory
processes that
allow sustainable
solutions for
territorial needs
to emerge.
49
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lacks a concrete mission to contribute to green
growth, although the potential is there. The Green
Bo ok   is a proposal for advances in these two
directions: it suggests ways to design STI policies
and instruments related with sustainable develop-
ment, and to construct a conceptual framework for
understanding the role of STI in social, economic
and environmental challenges, some of which
transcend the achievement of green growth.
CONPES resolution , “Strategy
to implement the Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs) in Colombia” (Estrategia para la
implementación de los Objetivos de Desarrollo
Sostenible (ODS) en Colombia), marks a national
undertaking that identifies strategies to comply
with the  Agenda in this country. To this
end, it establishes national baseline indicators
and sets forth clear targets, with institutional
responsibilities. In addition, it proposes stronger
statistical approaches, a territorial strategy, and
the need to build partnerships to meet the 
Agenda targets. Among these is the partnership
for knowledge, to be spearheaded by Colciencias.
This initiative seeks to create a space where the
academy, the private sector, the government and
other citizen groups build knowledge to contribute
to sustainable development. In addition, the G reen
Book provides a perspective for understanding
and addressing the  Agenda in its entirety,
by calling upon different actors and contributing
working methods and organizational approaches
to achieve the goals and targets.
In recent years we have seen how regions
have taken the initiative to deliberate on their
STI policies. For example, the Public Policy on
Science, Technology and Innovation for the region
of el Valle incorporates principles of sustainabil-
ity. Bogotá is also developing an STI policy that
includes transformative principles for sustainable
development. Likewise, the Medellín policy was
intended to address major challenges in three
areas, e.g. (among others) energy, health, and
information and communication technologies.
These initiatives illustrate how concerns about sus-
tainability and major challenges form part of the
agenda in regional policies. In this connection, the
Green Book  underpins this perspective and
provides a framework for policy implementation
at the regional level.
4.2 Policy actions
4.2.1 Adopting a
transformative focus
Colciencias will continue to participate
as a member of the Transformative
Innovation Policy Consortium throughout
its -year program. Within the framework
of this program, it will bring SNCTI actors
to the table to advance along the following
fronts: i) development of a TIPC program
and research network, ii) development of
capacities and capacity-building programs
for transformative innovation focused on
researchers and policy makers, iii) develop-
ment of tools for policy experimentation,
and iv) development of new practices,
techniques and metrics for the evaluation
of socio-technical change and transforma-
tive policy.
Promote the systematic integration of
different STI governance bodies at the
national and regional level (Advisory
Council on Science, Technology and
Innovation (Consejo Asesor de Ciencia,
Tecnología e Innovación), the National
Commission on Competitiveness, Science,
Technology and Innovation, CODECTI
organs, and the Regional Commissions on
Competitiveness (Comisiones Regionales
de Competitividad), University-Business-
State Committees, among others), to
engage in reflections and analyses similar
to those carried out in the construction
of this policy (citizen consultations, panel
discussions and specific studies, among
The
Green
Book
adds that
economic growth
and productivity
should be viewed
within a context
of social and
environmental
sustainability,
considering
these
components just
as important
as economic
sustainability.
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50
others), in order to support the implemen-
tation of the  Agenda, articulate the
different organizations involved, broaden
understanding of the role of science and
innovation in generating transformations
in the setting of the SDG, and report on
advances in public policy.
Colciencias will drive the development
of initiatives (both bottom up and top
down) with the potential to contribute to
socio-technical trans formations, with due
attention to the principles of transformative
policy in order to incorporate the element s
needed to create favorable conditions
for change. To this end, in coordination
with the other actors in the SNCTI, it will
design and implement a new portfolio of
promotional instruments to be used in
meeting the needs arising from processes
of socio-technical change in its various
stages and dimensions.
In order to gradually guide some of its
main instruments toward a transforma-
tive focus, Colciencias determined their
transformative potential based on the
presence or absence of elements related
with transformative policy principles. On
the basis of this exercise, working methods
for short- and medium-term adoption are
proposed here, as detailed in Table .
To enable actors in the SNCTI and other
governmental institutions to determine
the transformative potential of their policy
instruments, and to take measures to
incorporate the principles of transfor-
mative policy, Colciencias will create an
in-house working group to help guide
these processes and build capacities in
different organisms.
Colciencias, as the organism charged with
formulating, orienting, directing, coordi-
nating, executing and implementing state
STI policy, should rethink how it operates
and undertake institutional redesign, as
a way to gain access to the tools needed
to face the responsibilities and challenges
of transformative policy. This institutional
make-over will not only consider aspects
concerned with organizational architecture,
but will also focus on ensuring the avail-
ability of human capacities able to drive
processes of transformative change.
48 To increase the visibility of different actors that take part in the SNCTI, in
2016, Colciencias enacted the National Policy on Actors in the National System
of Science, Technology and Innovation. See: http://www. colciencias.gov.co/
sites/default/files/ckeditor_files/politiciadeactores-snctei.pdf
49 Article 5, Chapter II of Law 1286 of 2009.
Colciencias
will drive the
development
of initiatives
with potential
to contribute to
socio-technical
transformations,
with due
attention to the
principles of
transformative
policy.
Table 10. Working methods to guide Colciencias instruments toward a transformative focus
Instrument Deepening Expand Accelerate
Fiscal benefits
Innovation systems (innovation management)
Knowledge and techno logy transfer (Convenio
 and , cofunding, Bancoldex credi t line)
√ √
Science ecosystem
Funding calls for applied research
A Ciencia Cierta
Ideas para el C ambio
Colombia Bio
51
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Colciencias will create a national program
to guide research and development in
frontier technologies that contribute to
solutions for sustainable development
problems, as set forth in the  Agenda.
This program will be interdisciplinary and
intersectoral, and will carry out prospec-
tion exercises to explore possible areas
of application, anticipate their possible
effects, and reach appropriate decisions.
Among other tasks, the program will
consider the effective exploitation of
technology transfer for national capacity
development, along with mechanisms of
cooperation, scientific collaboration and
access to existing frontier technologies.
Based on the principle of experimentation,
Colciencias will lead the creation of transi-
tion groups in the six SDGs for which the
greatest levels of concern were expressed
by citizens, entrepreneurs and researchers,
as a way to explore desirable and neces-
sary transformations. These SDGs are edu-
cation (), clean water and sanitation (),
climate action (), health and well-being
(), life on land () and ending poverty ().
The learning obtained from these experi-
ments will be used as a reference to set up
transition groups in other SDGs.
Colciencias, through articulation with the
other national and regional organisms that
promote business innovation, will incen-
tivize business R&D and the introduction
of innovations in the setting of type  SDGs
(SDG , , , , , ,  and ), aimed at
helping to meet type  SDGs (SDG , , ,
, ,  and ).
Colciencias will call on other national- and
regional-level organisms to design and
carry out a national program to scale up
and accelerate green technologies that
enhance business productivity sustainably
4.2.2 Guiding research and
innovation toward the SDGs
Colciencias, through dialog with other
actors in the SNCTI and other related sec-
tors, will help to redesign the National STI
Programs related with the SDGs, in order
to guide resources (human, physical and
financial) toward major RDI initiatives that
can leverage transformative changes for
issues that have been designated as high
priorities. This make-over will take into
account the principles of directionality,
participation, learning and experimenta-
tion, interdisciplinarity, and anticipation of
outcomes and effects. Within the frame-
work of these new national programs,
-year agendas will be devised for scien-
tific research, technological development
and innovation, with the participation of
different population groups.
Redesign of the National STI Programs and
their respective -year agendas should
consider the organization and promotion
of basic research as a basis for frontier
knowledge generation, which will make it
possible, in the long term, to develop inno-
vative solutions for issues designated as
high priorities in the  Agenda.
Colciencias, through dialog with actors
in the SNCTI, will structure the Special
Programs in Science and Innovation
(Programas Especiales de Ciencia e
Innovación, PECI), with the aim of artic-
ulating human, physical and financial
resources to respond to regional interests
with impact on a national level. The PECI
will create conditions that allow econ-
omies of scale, establish connections
among issues in different parts of the
country, and generate links with other
national science and innovation initiatives
or programs.
Colciencias,
through dialog
with actors in
the SNCTI and
other related
sectors, will help
to redesign the
National STI
Programs.
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
52
and help to enrich and diversify systems
of production.
To make steady advances in the adoption
of a transformative focus with due appre-
ciation for the implications of incorpo-
rating new criteria and working methods
into the SNCTI, progress will be needed
to explore new evaluation, follow-up and
supplementary support methodologies
for actors within the SNCTI, to ensure that
measures are consistent with this focus.
Colciencias will work to consolidate a net-
work of researchers and transformative
policy managers in science and innovation
with three aims: i) to broaden the under-
standing of processes of transformative
change through knowledge generation,
ii) to support the implementation of a
transformative focus on the regional and
local levels, and among different actors,
and iii) to generate spaces to reflect upon
and identify good practices, as a way to
simulate transformation.
A new institutional architecture will be
proposed to stimulate the growth and con-
solidation of existing public research insti-
tutions and centers in the country that are
affiliated with or linked to dif ferent national
government organisms. This architecture
should consolidate its leadership in strategic
areas for the solution to social, environmen-
tal and economic problems in the countr y,
and facilitate their articulation with private
centers and institutions. The structuring of
a proposal for this new architecture will be
coordinated by Colciencias and the partici-
pating institutions, within the framework of
the National Commission of RDI Institutes.
4.2.3 Deploying a regional policy
Colciencias will create a supplementary
support strategy for the CODECTI, in order
to convert them into regional leadership
spaces to consolidate the transformative
focus for solving social, economic and
environmental challenges faced by dif-
ferent regions in the country. This strategy
will include, among other aspects, i) the
preparation of orientation documents to
reinterpret and incorporate transforma-
tive policy at the department and local
levels, and ii) the generation of spaces
where experiences and knowledge can
be exchanged among the CODECTI.
The following recommendations are
offered to regional governments, CODECTI
and other regional actors who wish to
become involved in the implementation
of the Green Book  as a way to adopt
a transformative focus at the regional level:
»Work to identify and interpret challenges pre-
sented by the SDGs at the territorial level, rec-
ognizing that the types of issues and levels of
concern will var y from one territory to another.
To this end, participator y exercises such as citi-
zen consultations c an be broadened and deep-
ened. In addition, inform ation generated by the
National Planning Department on the status of
SDGs at the departmental level constitutes an
important reference.
»Incorporate meetin g the SDGs via a transforma-
tive focus into science a nd innovation policy an d
regional planning instruments such as the PAED
and the integrated agendas for competitiveness,
science, technology and innovation, in a way
that channels regional efforts toward these aims.
To this end, it is anticipated that future regional
STI policies will incorporate the principles and
guidelines proposed in the Green Bo ok. Those
policies that have already been formulated
50 Department-level results for the “What road shall we take?” con-
sultation can be viewed on the Colciencias website, in the “La ciencia
en cifras” section: http://www.colciencias.gov.co/la-ciencia-en-cifras/
que-camino-cogemos/ods-empresarios
51 Department-level advances in meeting national SDG goals can be
consulted at: https://www.ods.gov.co/departments.
Colciencias
will work to
consolidate
a network of
researchers and
transformative
policy managers
in science and
innovation.
53
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
should be updated to incorporate these prin-
ciples and guidelines.
»Define strategies to ide ntify, manage and provide
supplementary support for niches with transfor-
mative potential in the setting of the SD Gs at the
regional level, in accord ance with the recommen-
dations in section .. (Managing transition) to
include, among other aspects, the adoption or
creation of specialized agents or intermediaries
who work closely with d ifferent actors to ca rry out
the followingactivities (among others): promote
and guide policy experiments, connect niches,
promote their growth, and mobilize resources
for growth.
4.2.4 Follow-up indicators
Table  shows the indicators proposed to
verify progress in the implementation of policy
actions described here. However, this set of indi-
cators is not yet exhaustive, insofar as there are
plans to design a detailed evaluation strategy.
4.3 Guidance for science and
innovation funding
Estimates by the UNO show that to achieve the
 Agenda goals, developing countries will
need to invest approximately . trillion dollars
annually. However, the estimated investment
gap amounts to . trillion dollars per year, which
reflects the lack of resources being devoted for
this purpose (UNCTAD, ). Part of the resources
needed corresponds to investments in STI, which
have historically been low in these countries. In
Colombia, investment in STI is below both the
OECD average and the average for Latin America,
indicating that available resources are in sufficient
to bring about the transformations needed to
comply with the  Agenda. To implement a
transformative focus, the proposals in this policy
document as a way to meet the  Agenda goals
require considerable increases in both public and
private investment. Colciencias estimates that the
national investment in science, technology and
innovation activities (STIA) should be at least .%
of the GDP by the year , and .% in . The
Colciencias budget should be at least  billion
pesos in . In addition, the share of private
investment is expected to stabilize at % and that
of public investment at % from  onward.
Table  summarizes these estimates.
On the basis of the figures given here,
Colciencias will present to the national government
Table 11. Indicators of progress
Indicators of progress   G oal  Goal  Go al
Adoption of a trans-
formative focus in
the SNCTI an d other
related sy stems
Actors/bo dies that adopt the five principles of transformative po licy   
Experiments in transformative policy  
Citizen consultations to support decision making 
Proposal for the institutional make- over of Colciencias % - -
Orientation of national
science and innovation
to achieve SDGs
Redesign of the National Programs for ST I % - -
-Year agendas for scientific rese arch, technological development and i nnovation  
Support for green technologies   
Creation of transiti on groups  
Models for ap propriate measurement and follow-up % % %
Members of the network of researchers and transformative
policy managers in science and innovation   
Support deployment
of a transformative
focus to achieve SDGs
at the territorial level
Supplementary support strategy for the CODECTI % - -
PAED that prioritize investme nts to achieve the SDGs   
Specialized agents or intermediaries for niche support   
Support for transformative niches   
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
54
the estimates and proposals needed to attain
these levels of investment.
Moreover, to impart directionality to the
investment of the resources detailed here, and to
broaden their scope and impact, the dispositions
set forth in Law  of  need to be enacted
regarding the development of a framework for
investment in science, technology and innova-
tion, in order to make it possible to identify and
articulate all resources that national government
bodies will devote to STI.
4.4 Guidance for evaluating
the Green Book 2030
Evaluation in the context of transformative polic y is
a continuing process that should serve not only to
audit the use of resources and verify compliance
with proposed actions and investments, but al so to
learn and reach decisions that enhance their imple-
mentation. An evaluation of this nature should be
grounded on the goal that policy seeks to attain,
which is “to guide science and innovation so that
they contribute to solving the country’s social, envi-
ronmental and economic problems, thus acting
as catalysts for change at the socio-technical level”
(see Chapter ). Accordingly, this goal constitutes
the overall focus of policy evaluation.
Given that implementation of the policy
proposed in the Green Book covers the time frame
up to the year , an evaluation plan should be
designed that goes at least two years beyond this
date. Two types of evaluation should be c arried out
within this period. The first is a form ative evaluation
with the aim of generating knowledge to enhance
policy implement ation. The second is a summative
or outcome evaluation with the aim of examining
the extent to which actions proposed in the Green
Book have been achieved. In principle, formative
evaluations should be performed in two-year
cycles, while outcome evaluations should be done
at three times: in spring , in , and in .
In view of this proposal, Colciencias will
design, within the framework of the TIPC and
through interactions with Colombian researchers
and specialists, a plan for both formative and out-
come evaluations. The outcome evaluation plan
should be developed to take into account how
well the actions proposed in the Green Book 
have been achieved, while the formative evaluation
plan should focus on analyzing the processes of
incorporation of public po licy principles, the exper-
iments performed, the implementation of actions
for deepening, expansion and acceleration, as well
as the work with transition groups. In addition, these
plans should take into account the ways in which
information from the evaluations will be dissemi-
nated and internalized by Colciencias and the other
actors that participate in policy implementation.
Colciencias
estimates
that national
investment
in science,
technology
and innovation
activities (STIA)
should be at
least 1.5% of the
GDP by the year
2022 and 2.5% in
2030.
Table 12. Estimated national STI investment and Colciencias budget
  
STIA as % GDP  % .% .%
Public STIA % % %
Private STIA % % %
Colciencias budget  billion pesos . trillion pesos . trillion pesos
Note: These estimates assume 2.5% growth in GDP for the country in 2018, 3% growth from 2019 to 2024, and 3.5% growth from 2025 to 2030.
The Colciencias budget is estimated as 50% of public investment in STI actions. Source: Oficina Asesora de Planeación, Colciencias
57
www.libroverde2030.gov.co
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    Over the past few decades, there has been a growing concern about the social and environmental risks which have come along with the progress achieved through a variety of mutually intertwined modernization processes. In recent years these concerns are transformed into a widely-shared sense of urgency, partly due to events such as the various pandemics threatening livestock, and increasing awareness of the risks and realities of climate change, and the energy and food crises. This sense of urgency includes an awareness that our entire social system is in need of fundamental transformation. But like the earlier transition between the 1750's and 1890's from a pre-modern to a modern industrial society, this second transition is also a contested one. Sustainable development is only one of many options. This book addresses the issue on how to understand the dynamics and governance of the second transition dynamics in order to ensure sustainable development. It will be necessary reading for students and scholars with an interest in sustainable development and long-term transformative change.
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