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Material Agency in CAM of Undesignable Textural Effects The study of correlation between material properties and textural formation engendered by experimentation with G-code of 3D printer


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This paper presents intermediate results of an experimental research directed towards development of a method to use additive manufacturing technology as a generative agent in architectural design process. The primary technique is to variate speed of material deposition of a 3D printer in order to produce undetermined textural effects. These effects demonstrate local variation of material distribution, which is treated as a consequence of interaction between machining parameters and material properties. Current stage of inquiry is concerned with studying material agency by using two different materials as variables in the same experimental setup. The results suggest potential benefits for mass-customized fabrication and deeper understanding of how different materials can be employed in the same manufacturing system to achieve a range of effective behaviors.
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Material Agency in CAM of Undesignable Textural Effects
The study of correlation between material properties and textural
formation engendered by experimentation with G-code of 3D printer
Ashish Mohite1, Mariia Kochneva2, Toni Kotnik3
1Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture :Department of Archi-
tecture 2(no affiliation) 3Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture:
Department of Architecture
This paper presents intermediate results of an experimental research directed
towards development of a method to use additive manufacturing technology as a
generative agent in architectural design process. The primary technique is to
variate speed of material deposition of a 3D printer in order to produce
undetermined textural effects. These effects demonstrate local variation of
material distribution, which is treated as a consequence of interaction between
machining parameters and material properties. Current stage of inquiry is
concerned with studying material agency by using two different materials as
variables in the same experimental setup. The results suggest potential benefits
for mass-customized fabrication and deeper understanding of how different
materials can be employed in the same manufacturing system to achieve a range
of effective behaviors.
Keywords: digital fabrication, digital craft
The paper presents series of experiments that are
part of ongoing research directed towards devis-
ing methodology on using 3D printer as a genera-
tive component of design process. The overarch-
ing thesis is that manipulation of fabrication parame-
ters leads to various architectural elements being in-
formed. The objective is to understand interdepen-
dencies between geometry, materials and machin-
ing parameters so that they can be employed to pro-
duce diverse performative effects as tangible artifacts
of the translation from pixel to matter.
In this stage of research, we are focusing on the
role of material properties and behaviors in making
of undesignable textural patterning. Several series of
geometrically identical models were printed in two
different materials: plastic and porcelain. We applied
the same manipulation of speed of deposition in G-
code to fabrication of both material sets. Speed of
deposition controls how much material is extruded
at any given point of a toolpath. The faster printer
moves the less matter it deposits. This simple princi-
MATERIAL STUDIES - Volume 2 - eCAADe 36 |293
ple allows to achieve surface heterogeneity by shed-
ding and accumulating mass in various patterns. Re-
sultant texturization is undesignable due to prolifer-
ation of minute deviation; it also embodies traces of
digital making. Ceramic and plastic groups of mod-
els with matching digital geometry and same manu-
facturing instructions diverge not only in local geom-
etry of ensuing patterns, but in the nature of over-
all effects that they demonstrate. Understanding of
underlying structure of these differences may sug-
gest novel ways of incorporating material agency in
CAM, concurrently, it advances the discourse on dig-
ital manufacturing as a contingent and dynamic pro-
Inquiry’s conceptual base draws primarily from the
discourse on digital craft. Overall framework of the
research is formed by such principles as continu-
ity between design and production through trans-
lation of algorithmic logic from stage to stage, in-
tegral involvement of maker/designer in all aspects
of actualization and an element of risk, for the abil-
ity to modify production parameters converts space
of making into space of discovery (Kolarevic 2008).
Outcome is not pre-determined yet falls within pre-
specified range based on certain criteria (Pye 1968).
Value of indeterminacy, error, glitch and deviation
resides in questioning the use of CAM as a linear
process meant to engender continuous variation, a
process that merely extends industrial mass produc-
tion (Perez 2017). Other promising aspects of error
include an opportunity to study the non-linear re-
sponse of an object to manipulation of the system of
relationships that defines it (Kolarevic 2008) and shift
from ideal, intended state to constrained and limited
reality, a chasm that distinguishes making of archi-
tecture from manufacturing commodities (Frampton
Digital craft sees fabrication machine as a filter
translating data into matter; the role of material is
to process informational input and produce a tan-
gible output informed by innate properties and be-
haviours of the material itself. Through this double
translation the specificity of initial abstracted para-
metric setup increases. Digital craftsman’s project is
to design the process of interaction between digi-
tal and material logics (Gramazio and Kohler 2008)by
building a system that directs how material is going
to be shaped in a specific fabrication environment
and allowing material to affect the outcome (Satter-
field Schwackhamer 2017).
Experiments, presented here are designed in
alignment with principles of digital craft. Continu-
ous involvement of designer is needed during fab-
rication, intermittent necessity to adjust certain pa-
rameters is due to variable behavior of material,
which cannot be precalculated. Designer has to learn
the behaviour of each material, understand its con-
straints and affordances in relation to geometry be-
ing printed so that they can respond appropriately
in-situ. In this way, even though the control is indi-
rect, the research closely relates to traditional craft.
More advanced approach to continuity of the mak-
ing hand is found in the work of (Brugnaro and Hanna
2017) . They tackle the problem of introducing mate-
rial feedback in CAM. By utilizing machine learning in
robotic carving to process force feedback, they were
able to teach the robot to adjust the pressure and di-
rection of the cut according to specific material be-
haviour. Robot acts as instrumentalization of carpen-
ter’s expertise constantly adapting to respond to con-
crete constraints.
Fundamental part of the work is to encourage
the emergence of such 3D-printing effects, com-
monly perceived as erroneous, as stringing and loop-
ing. The system is designed to produce a deviation
from the homogeneous norm. Undesignable inter-
section between machine configuration and mate-
rial agency performs as effect generator. In terms of
exact surface articulation, the most direct precedent
of this research is Andrew Atwood’s work on nego-
tiating heterogeneous architectural system and ho-
mogenous skin through design of continuous pro-
cess of structuring (Atwood 2012). Striving to main-
294 |eCAADe 36 - MATERIAL STUDIES - Volume 2
tain continuity of logic throughout CAD and CAM re-
vealed a range of surface irregularities, by-products
of the system. For Atwood, the effects were a part
of discovery, for this research they are part of the
method. An example of intentional insertion of error
into the automatic machining process is the work of
Yota Adilenidou on introducing deviation into mat-
ter distribution by using cellular automata systems
(Adilenidou 2015). Her work presents an insight
into inducing differentiated repetition; it presents an-
other method to modulate production concurrently
and positions error within the space of digital fabri-
cation as source of variation.
Another case of embracing imperfection that
arises during translation from ideal digital geome-
try to a specific material-workflow and tooling proce-
dure is Robofab pavilion by Santiago R. Perez. Pavil-
ion’s shape was intended to be a continuous spi-
ral patterning of sticks, however, robotic fabrication
caused rotational shear effects and therefore sub-
verted original geometric logic. Perez argues: ”The
subtle shift from the ideal diagram to a space of pro-
jection, on the one hand, and the tactile space of
material process and manual skill, on the other, in-
troduces unforeseen properties and affects, that may
otherwise lay dormant and unrealized within the la-
tent spaces of digital simulation”(Perez 2017). Act of
imperfect translation enriches the object. He sees the
source of imperfection to be linked with the neces-
sary ”re-skilling’ of a designer, so they can be fluent
in creating and managing a feedback loop from data
to matter and from matter to data.
Throughout the experiments we designed and
manipulated only the G-code in order to construct
a system of relationships, not a form. In previous
work, speed of deposition was a single variable, keep-
ing system simple allowed to understand and pre-
dict effects; in this stage, a second material is added
to study material agency. Organizing forces of ma-
teriality and surface heterogeneity as trace of forma-
tion feature as a secondary to form-finding theme in
a succession of work, dedicated to technique of flexi-
ble formwork. Flexible formwork for concrete panels
is legacy of Miguel Fisac, who felt that the true na-
ture of concrete as a fluid, pliable material was sub-
verted by use of wooden formwork . Inspired by it,
MATSYS’s series of P projects, P Wall and P Folds are a
link between multi-scalar formation, materiality and
physical forces. P-Wall is irregular on surface scale,
there are bulges, creases, wrinkling, only the larger
pattern is predetermined. Imperfection is allowed
within the limits of surface range of effectiveness
(Kudless 2012 ). Partially drawing from these prece-
dents, VarVac wall by HouMinn Practice uses flexible
wire formwork to shape polystyrene sheets achiev-
ing variation throughout the surface which could not
be accurately predicted. Variables, whose interaction
causes it are very simple (Satterfield and Schwack-
hamer 2017) .
Presented precedents explore various facets of
digital craft: material agency causing unpredictable
variation, imperfection produced by the machine as
an extension of a making hand, significance of de-
signing the process from digital geometry to fabri-
cation setup to material behavior as one continuous
feedback loop. The research strives to draw from
these examples and explore their themes in its own
specific context.
Methodology of research is experimental; series of
experiments were carried out aiming to produce
controlled yet undetermined surface texturization in
plastic and ceramic by manipulating the G-code of a
generic FFM printer and a self-made universal paste
extruder. Experimental framework consists of three
main agents: geometry, fabrication setup and mate-
rial. Each of the agents in the system has a set of pa-
rameters, variables and constants that inform behav-
ior of each agent and their relationships.
Geometry is a constant, it is a simple cylinder in
all experiments. G-code has a set of variables: retrac-
tion (on/off and edited pressure parameter), toolpath
geometry and direction, speed of deposition. Main
generative variable is speed of deposition, printer is
instructed to move faster or slower at certain points
MATERIAL STUDIES - Volume 2 - eCAADe 36 |295
Figure 1
12 ribs with 60°
rotation, extrusion
5mm Vrib:
400mm/min, Vcyl:
800 mm/min
Figure 2
18 ribs with 60°
rotation, extrusion
5mm Vrib:
400mm/min, Vcyl:
800 mm/min
Figure 3
18 ribs with 120°
rotation, extrusion
5mm Vrib:
400mm/min, Vcyl:
800 mm/min
Figure 4
18 ribs with 180°
rotation, extrusion
5mm Vrib:
400mm/min, Vcyl:
800 mm/min
296 |eCAADe 36 - MATERIAL STUDIES - Volume 2
along the printing path, thus accumulating or shed-
ding mass and achieving surface texturization. In
many of experiments retraction is disabled or manip-
ulated, so that stringing and looping, normally erro-
neous effects, could happen. It was observed that
these effects are systematic and therefore control-
lable. Research uses these undesirable formations to
generate variation at the local surface scale. Focus-
ing design intervention in the space of G-code allows
to construct the process of fabrication through con-
tinuous iteration as well as ensure at least partial re-
peatability of the experiments. Fabrication has to be
monitored carefully in order to respond promptly if
texturization is undermining the structural integrity
of an object or if it exceeds the local scale. Certain
parameters can be adjusted during the process by a
designer who sees potential problems of a print be-
fore they are realized.
Accumulating mass through ribbing (ribs, ex-
truded ribs, intersecting extruded ribs), shedding
mass through ribbing, shedding and accumulating
mass through tessellation were three main tech-
niques used on both plastic and ceramic, which re-
sulted in formation of mainly webbing and string-
ing effects on plastic models and weaving and knot-
ting effects on ceramic models. After each model had
been printed, it was examined and evaluated to de-
termine whether it satisfied following criteria of con-
trolled variation (replicability of type and variation of
1. Can the overall textural pattern be repro-
2. Is there variation within the pattern from in-
stance to instance?
3. Does variation fall within the effective range
of texture?
Then, correlating models in both materials were com-
pared and studied to understand the difference and
its possible causes. In a system with two materials
and two types of printers, complexity increases ex-
ponentially, such fabrication parameters as retrac-
tion and layer height become essential in addition
to initial 1-material system’s defining parameters of
speed of deposition and tool path. Material prop-
erties of ductility, solidification rate, viscosity and
weight differ for plastic and ceramic. Distinct prop-
erty makeup of each material instigates qualitative
difference of behavior under the influence of deliber-
ately designed apparatus of formation and indepen-
dent structuring forces.
The basis of method consists of programming speed
of deposition in G-code in a range of patterns. In
G-code lower and upper cylinder bases are subdi-
vided into segments, end points of corresponding
segments are connected and then the top base is
rotated around z-axis (Mohite, Kochneva and Kotnik
2017) . That produces ribbed pattern if speed is set
to be slower at end points of segments (Figure 1).
When speed is higher at those points than at the
rest of cylinder, tesselation pattern is observable (Fig-
ure 5). If printer is set to move outwards at the end
points and then return, while retraction is off for plas-
tic printer and in self-made ceramic extruder retrac-
tion parameter is not available as modifiable setting
and therefore it is always off, extruded ribs with web-
bing or looping in-between appear (Figure 2, 3, 4). Fi-
nally, if the speed of surface printing is much higher
than that of ribs, so there is an abrupt change, in plas-
tic a prorous arrangement emerges whereas in ce-
ramic it produces a simulation of retraction, resulting
in a complex knitting motif (Figure 6, 7).
We attribute the difference in surface articula-
tions, produced by two materials, to layer height,
which is much larger in ceramic, so all ceramic tex-
tures attain weaving and knitting appearance and
higher viscosity of plastic, which is responsible for
webbing and stringing, effective traces of the ma-
chine path. Slower solidification rate of ceramic also
contributes to weaving effects; together with greater
weight of ceramic it also causes an overall pattern of
densification of the deformation towards the base of
all models. In ceramic models, where mass is shed
through ribbing (Figure 6, 7), radical change of speed
MATERIAL STUDIES - Volume 2 - eCAADe 36 |297
Figure 5
6 indent with 30
rotation, Vindent:
1600 mm/min, Vcyl:
800 mm/min Layer
height 0.2mm Start
retraction = 0.6 end
retraction= - 0.6
Offset = 0.6mm
Figure 6
12 ribs with 60°
rotation Vrib:
400mm/min, Vcyl:
Figure 7
18 ribs with 120°
rotation Vrib:
400mm/min, Vcyl:
radical change of
speed creates
retraction, a gap
into which next
layer falls
Figure 8
12 ribs with 90
rotation extrusion
10mm Vrib:
400mm/min, Vcyl:
800 mm/min 12 ribs
with 60 rotation
and -60 rotation,
extrusion 5mm,
Vrib: 400mm/min,
Vcyl: 800 mm/min
Tool path
298 |eCAADe 36 - MATERIAL STUDIES - Volume 2
causes the same gap as in plastic version, however,
slow solidification rate and weight under compres-
sion cause each consecutive layer to fall down and
fill the gap, so in areas that correspond to openings
in plastic, in ceramic a continuous threading occurs.
Tesselation models differ, because tensile stress is
created due to significant change of speed; under
tension, high ductility of plastic filament causes hair-
like formation, lower ductility of ceramic creates a
pattern of breaks (Figure 5).
During experimentation it became evident that
certain formations are possible with one material and
not the other. For example, extreme looping effect
in ceramic, where printer offsets 10 mm, can not be
recreated in plastic because of plastic’s ductility and
light weight (Figure 8). On the other hand, plastic is
capable of producing crisscross pattern of intersect-
ing ribs, while in ceramic, mainly due to layer height
the same setup results in structural collapse (Figure
The aim of the research is to understand and
methodize affordances and constraints of a dynamic,
open system defined by internal qualities and exter-
nal forces. Through persistent experimentation with
patterns of semi-controlled material distribution, we
hope to enrich the technique of 3D printing with
the instrumentality to craft surface ornamentation as
trace of making informed by a specific material.
Presented experiments contribute to the work on
treating material agency as an integral part of digi-
tal fabrication. Research is accumulating data on the
interdependencies between specific material param-
eters, their manipulation and resulting textural defor-
mations. Translated to the scale of architecture, de-
scribed techniques could be used in production of
mass-customized panels in a range of materials. They
could serve as a support system for green wall struc-
tures. Modifiable directionality, density and depth of
effect could be used to facilitate drainage, assist in
ventilation and insulation. This method could also in-
tegrate into currently developing processof 3D print-
ing concrete walls. Making surfaces characterized by
controlled overall distribution of textural formation
and local, undetermined diversity ensures cheap and
easy to make variation, so that no two surfaces are
At this stage, research is concerned with surface
scale and variation emerging at that level without
critically affecting structure or form. Focusing on one
level of resolution as a space of discovery allows to
limit the number of active variables and therefore
control the process more effectively. A reinforcement
of this seemingly reductive strategy is a firm stance
of David Pye, a fervent proponent of the value of
exercising disciplined command over unpredictable
aspects of craft, on that creation and manipulation
of texture is “chief reason for continuing the work-
manship of risk as a productive undertaking” (Pye
1968).He saw texture as a manifestation of diversity, a
system of progressive reveal of the object to observer
on approach. M aking texture has not been an impor-
tant objective for architecture, often an afterthought,
it used to lie on the margins of design process. How-
ever, it can be argued that short-range formal expres-
sions are located in the space of convergence of ma-
terial and digital logics, which makes texture into a
suitable problem for digital craft. Nevertheless, it is
not the strategy of this research to indefinitely en-
gage with texture in isolation. Difference in overall
distribution and arrangement of patterns begins to
reveal ways in which texture acts structurally, indicat-
ing a path to broach the form/structure/material ag-
gregate as a continuous whole.
Adilenidou, Y 2015, ’The Geometry of the Error’, in Block,
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G and Meredith, M (eds) 2012, Matter: material pro-
cesses in architectural production, Routledge
Brugnaro, G and Hanna, S 2017 ’Adaptive Robotic Train-
ing Methods for Subtractive Manufacturing’, Pro-
ceedings of ACADIA 2017, Cambridge , pp. 164-169
Frampton, K 2010, ’Intention, Craft, and Rationality’, in
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architecture, Routledge, pp. 119-128
Kudless, A 2012, ’Bodies in formation: The material evo-
lution of flexible formwork’, in Borden, G and Mered-
ith, M (eds) 2012, Matter: material processes in archi-
tectural production, Routledge, pp. 475-488
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fection in architecture’, in Borden, GP and Mered-
ith, M (eds) 2017, Lineament Material, Representa-
tion, and the Physical Figure in Architectural Produc-
tion, Routledge, New York, pp. 156-174
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should want to give up control and predictability’, in
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chitectural Production, Routledge, New York, pp. 52-
300 |eCAADe 36 - MATERIAL STUDIES - Volume 2
... 27 This work was continued in studies that explored intentional errors in 3D printing, generated by deliberately tweaking a 3D printer's G-code and hardware setup. 28,29 Owing to these studies, knowledge on the aesthetics of imprecision in the context of 3D printing is now quite broad. At the same time, however, the aesthetic of imprecision for other fabrication techniques remains unexplored. ...
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Precision of materialized designs is the conventional goal of digital fabrication in architecture. Recently, however, an alternative concept has emerged which refashions the imprecisions of digital processes into creative opportunities. While the computational design community has embraced this idea, its novelty results in a yet incomplete understanding. Prompted by the challenge of the still missing knowledge, this study explored imprecision in four digital fabrication approaches to establish how it influences the aesthetic attributes of materialized designs. Imprecision occurrences for four different digitally aided materialization processes were characterized. The aesthetic features emerging from these imprecisions were also identified and the possibilities of tampering with them for design exploration purposes were discussed. By considering the aesthetic potentials of deliberate imprecision, the study has sought to challenge the canon of high fidelity in contemporary computational design and to argue for imprecision in computation that shapes a new generation of designs featuring the new aesthetic of computational imperfection.
... Another example of increased interest of the CAAD community in erroneous processes is a strand of research on architectural three-dimensional (3D) printing that pushes the boundaries of computation in a way expressed at the ACADIA conference. Here, a number of studies emerged that developed methods of 3D printer code manipulation and physical 3D printer setup customization that turn the typical errors accompanying 3D printing into unique esthetic features [14][15][16]. ...
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Until recently, digital fabrication research in architecture has aimed to eliminate manufacturing errors. However, a novel notion has just been established—intentional computational infidelity. Inspired by this notion, we set out to develop means than can transform the errors in fabrication from an undesired complication to a creative opportunity. We carried out design experiment-based investigations, which culminated in the construction of a framework enabling fundamental artistic explorations of erroneous geometric features of robotically formed molds. The framework consists of digital processes, assisting in the explorations of mold errors, and physical processes, enabling the inclusion of physical feedback in digital explorations. Other complementary elements embrace an implementation workflow, an enabling digital toolset and a visual script demonstrating how imprecise artistic explorations can be included within the computational environment. Our framework application suggests that the exploration of geometrical errors aids the emergence of unprecedented design features that would not have arisen if error elimination were the ultimate design goal. Our conclusion is that welcoming error into the design process can reinstate the role of art, craft, and material agency therein. This can guide the practice and research of architectural computing onto a new territory of esthetic and material innovation.
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A growing practice of robotic architecture considers materiality as an active generator of design ideas. They argue that certain material behaviors, including eventual imprecisions or flaws, can lead to unique material expressions that cannot be digitally modeled a priori. However, most of their technological advancements still require an iterative process of manual experimentation that is then replicated via a custom robotic implementations, limiting the design opportunities to material-specific application domains that simulate rather than capture material agency via feedback loops. We thus present a grammar framework that formalizes the relations between discrete fabrication operations and their material outcomes in a more generalizable and controllable manner. Inspired by the rule-based concept of making grammars, we deconstruct the orchestration of fabrication operations on three levels: a) a basic vocabulary of operational transformations; b) the sensed material conditions under which these transformations should take place; and c) the composition of these transformation and sensing rules to generatively create a semi-controlled physical outcome. We demonstrate how this grammatical approach allows the fabrication of unmodellable material expressions in the context of subtractive corrugated cardboard cutting and formative clay molding, and discuss its still largely untapped potential towards sharing or combining semantically meaningful fabrication operations instead of their geometrical outcomes, which also opens the opportunity to produce fully unique material-sensitive customized products.
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The project consists of series of experiments directed towards devising methodology on utilizing 3D printer as generative constituent of design process. The thesis is that manipulation of manufacturing parameters could lead to various architectural facets being informed by the process of making. A method to manipulate G-code, an interface between digital parametric design and digital manufacturing, was developed in order to instigate emergence of controlled yet indeterminate textural patterning directly out of fabrication process. The objective of the project is derived from a concept of surface ornamentation as indirect material trace of the process of formation. This line of thought touches upon several themes. Among them is an idea of ornament being a behavior, immanent to an object, made manifest through the process of construction. (Moussavi, 2008). That behavior is referred to as internal structuring of object’s materiality when exposed to external forming forces. (Spuybroek, 2016). The process of formation is therefore informed by relationship between material logic and machine logic, whereas surface variation is an expression of that interaction. Methodological foundation of the research is formed by such principles of “digital craft” as continuity between design and production through translation of algorithmic logic from stage to stage, integral involvement of an architect in all aspects of actualization and an element of “risk”, for the ability to modify production parameters converts space of making into space of discovery that is resistant to totalizing control. (Kolarevic, 2008). The idea of heterogeneous surface ornamentation as a negotiation of internal and external forming forces was translated into a design of production process, in which surface was informed by printing parameters, such as speed of material deposition, tool path and disabled retraction and actualized in a material medium of plastic.
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This paper presents the initial developments of a method to train an adaptive robotic system for subtractive manufacturing with timber, based on sensor feedback, machine-learning procedures and material explorations. The methods were evaluated in a series of tests where the trained networks were successfully used to predict fabrication parameters for simple cutting operations with chisels and gouges. The results suggest potential benefits for non-standard fabrication methods and a more effective use of material affordances.
This paper focuses on the importance of error in the evolution of form and the logic of matter distribution describing its relationship to randomness and repetitive behaviour. Using the logic of cellular automata systems on the origin curves of body formations, it displays a methodology for the creation of errors. Extracted cloud points are used as meshing guides for geometries that display a fine game balance between organization and disorder. Through a series of experiments, a taxonomy of bodies’ deviations and morphological errors is created resulting in a tooling system that can be applied in various scales and conditions according to the parameters specified, providing alterations to body form, optimization, and varied possibilities for interaction with the context, environment and other bodies.
This is one of the classic books on craftsmanship and design. In it, David Pye explores the meaning of skill and its relationship to design and manufacture. Cutting through a century of fuzzy thinking, he proposes a new theory of making based on the concept of good workmanship and shows how it imparts all-important diversity to our visual environment.
Intention, Craft, and Rationality
  • Frampton
Frampton, K 2010, 'Intention, Craft, and Rationality', in MATERIAL STUDIES -Volume 2 -eCAADe 36 | 299
Bodies in formation: The material evolution of flexible formwork
  • Kudless
Kudless, A 2012, 'Bodies in formation: The material evolution of flexible formwork', in Borden, G and Meredith, M (eds) 2012, Matter: material processes in architectural production, Routledge, pp. 475-488
Lineament Material, Representation, and the Physical Figure in Architectural Production
  • Pérez
Pérez, SR 2017, 'Loss of control: error, glitch, and imperfection in architecture', in Borden, GP and Meredith, M (eds) 2017, Lineament Material, Representation, and the Physical Figure in Architectural Production, Routledge, New York, pp. 156-174
Why architects should want to give up control and predictability
  • Satterfield
  • Swackhamer
Satterfield, B and Swackhamer, M 2017, 'Why architects should want to give up control and predictability', in Borden, GP and Meredith, M (eds) 2017, Lineament Material, Representation, and the Physical Figure in Architectural Production, Routledge, New York, pp. 52-60