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Korean consumers’ acceptability of commercial food products and usage of the 9-point hedonic scale

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Abstract

In this study, 32 food samples evaluated previously with the 9‐point hedonic scale were examined to determine: (a) Korean consumers’ acceptability of commercial food products; (b) differences in liking score and its distribution among the samples; and (c) the use of the 9‐point hedonic scale by Korean consumers. The results show the existence of hedonic asymmetry and central tendency, but not much evidence of avoiding extreme categories. Cluster analysis was utilized to group food products based on consumers’ 9‐point hedonic scale distribution and four clusters were found to show positive asymmetry, negative asymmetry, central tendency, or consumers’ opinion showing no trend. Practical applications Many consumer testing methods are used to evaluate consumer acceptability of food products and the 9‐point hedonic scale is the most frequently used scale. Many studies refer to the limitations of 9‐point hedonic scale and this problem can appear to be more severe in the case of Asian consumers. Because of the lack of consumer studies about scale usage, it is important to study how consumers use the 9‐point hedonic scale. This research is beneficial because we analyzed how Korean consumers use the 9‐point hedonic scale. Through this study, some previously reported tendencies, such as hedonic asymmetry and central tendency, were confirmed but the limitations regarding avoidance of extreme categories and negative responses by Asian consumers were not found for urban Korean consumers using the 9‐point hedonic scale. In the future, comparison with other groups in Korea and a cross‐cultural consumer study about scale usage to compare Korean consumers and those from other Asian countries would be helpful.

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In this study, 100 consumers (men, 50; women, 50; age group, 20-50 years) rated their overall preferences for 24 Korean raspberry wines by using a 9-point hedonic scale. The analysis of variance was constructed to evaluate the effect of gender, age, and samples on the preference scores of the wine products. Significant differences were observed in overall preferences for the 24 samples; however, no interactions based on preferences by age and gender groups were noted. Cluster analysis was performed to determine sample clustering based on the frequencies from the preference data. Three clusters were obtained; these three clusters were well separated based on the mean overall preference scores for the samples. Discriminant analysis based on the three clusters also confirmed the same grouping of samples with 100% accuracy.
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This study aims to examine the current attitudes of North American consumers toward food attributes, focusing on the effect of gender and age. A total of 337 participants were asked to list the first three words that come to mind when each image/name of 32 different foods was presented. The responses were grouped into seven main categories: “food attribute,” “menu uses,” “type,” “personal preference,” “health and nutrition,” “regional origin” and “others” and subsequent subcategories. The frequencies of answers for each category were compared by gender and age group. Texture- and flavor-related responses became less common as age increased. Conversely, “health and nutrition” responses became more common with increasing age. In addition, male participants were more likely to give color, flavor and food brand-related responses, while female participants were more likely to list texture, form/temperature and personal preference-related words. Furthermore, this study shows the changes in consumer attitudes toward foods for the last several decades.Practical ApplicationsLittle is known on how food attitudes change with age. The changes in food perception that accompany aging are well documented. However, the extent these changes lead to altered attitudes toward food has not been examined. In addition, for approximately 50 years, the food industry has been operating on the same information regarding the importance of texture and other food attributes to consumers. During this period, many changes in demographics and cuisine have occurred, yet we do not know how these have affected consumer attitude toward foods. This study gives insight into changes in consumer attitudes toward foods since the 1960s and 1970s, as well as changes associated with aging for food scientists, food processors and business marketers.
Article
This study was conducted to understand the sensory and non-sensory factors that were related to consumer acceptability of 10 commercial beverages. In the descriptive analysis, eight trained panelists developed and evaluated 18 sensory attributes. In the consumer test, 360 consumers were recruited for testing based on age and gender. Preference maps were obtained to observe relationships between descriptive data and consumer acceptability. Sensory attributes and consumer acceptability differed significantly among the beverages. Sweet, sour, and fruit flavors seemed to be drivers of liking, bitter, red ginseng, and reishi mushroom flavors, the drivers of disliking. Consumers tended to give higher overall acceptability scores to beverages when presented with product information than without information. There were marked differences in overall acceptability according to age and gender.
Article
The 9-point hedonic scale has been used routinely in Food Science, the same way for sixty years. Now with advances in technology, data from the scale are being used for more and more complex programs for statistical analysis and modelling. Accordingly, it is worth reconsidering the presentation protocols and the analyses associated with the scale, as well as some alternatives. How the brain generates numbers and the types of numbers it generates has relevance for the choice of measurement protocols. There are alternatives to the generally used serial monadic protocol, which can be more suitable. Traditionally, the 'words' on the 9-point hedonic scale are reassigned as 'numbers', while other '9-point hedonic scales' are purely numerical; the two are not interchangeable. Parametric statistical analysis of scaling data is examined critically and alternatives discussed. The potential of a promising alternative to scaling itself, simple ranking with a hedonic R-Index signal detection analysis, is explored in comparison with the 9-point hedonic scale.
Book
Sensory scientists are often faced with making business decisions based on the results of complex sensory tests involving a multitude of variables. Multivariate and Probabilistic Analyses of Sensory Science Problems explains the multivariate and probabilistic methods available to sensory scientists involved in product development or maintenance. The techniques discussed address sensory problems such as panel performance, product profiling, and exploration of consumer data, including segmentation and identifying drivers of liking. Applied in approach and written for non-statisticians, the text is aimed at sensory scientists who deal mostly with descriptive analysis and consumer studies. Multivariate and Probabilistic Analyses of Sensory Science Problems offers simple, easy-to-understand explanations of difficult statistical concepts and provides an extensive list of case studies with step-by-step instructions for performing analyses and interpreting the results. Coverage includes a refresher on basic multivariate statistical concepts; use of common data sets throughout the text; summary tables presenting the pros and cons of specific methods and the conclusions that may be drawn from using various methods; and sample program codes to perform the analyses and sample outputs. As the latest member of the IFT Press series, Multivariate and Probabilistic Analyses of Sensory Science Problems will be welcomed by sensory scientists in the food industry and other industries using similar testing methodologies, as well as by faculty teaching advanced sensory courses, and professionals conducting and participating in workshops addressing multivariate analysis of sensory and consumer data.
Article
The aim of this work was to obtain information about how perceptible differences among commercial spreadable cheeses with different fat content affect consumer liking/disliking. Sensory profiles of six commercial samples, three with regular fat content and three with low-fat content were determined using a trained panel (n = 10), and hedonic responses were obtained from a group of consumers (n = 106). Sensory variability among samples was mainly due to texture and flavor attributes. Three subgroups of consumers with different preference criteria were identified using cluster analyses: a small group of consumers (11%) for whom the variability in sensory attribute intensity among samples did not affect sample acceptability and two subgroups of consumers (39% and 50%) for whom certain sensory attribute intensity influenced hedonic scores. Partial least squares regression was used to determine the sensory factors driving liking/disliking for the latter two consumer subgroups. Low-fat variants of spreadable cheeses are now on the market with different sensory properties and different success. The elimination or reduction of fat modifies the composition and structure of cheeses and alters the original balance among fat, protein, carbohydrates and moisture, often giving rise to perceptible changes in color, flavor and texture. Although, fat reduction may provide consumers with added-value products, the different sensory characteristics of low-fat cheese, compared to its full-fat counterpart, may influence the consumer's response. Identifying the sensory attributes that drive liking/disliking of low-fat cream cheeses, is a key issue guiding new-product development, product improvement and optimization.
Article
The meat from 60 commercial suckling males of five Spanish goat breeds (n = 10 each) (Moncaína [MO], Pirenaica [PI], Negra Serrana [NS], Blanca Celtibérica [BC] [all meat or double purpose] and Murciano-Granadina [MG] [dairy purpose]) and one dairy sheep breed (Churra [CH]) was compared in laboratory-based (n = 119) and home-based (n = 70) consumer tests. In the laboratory, flavor (P ≤ 0.01), tenderness (P ≤ 0.001) and overall acceptability (P ≤ 0.001) differed significantly among the breeds, and MO, NS, MG and CH had the highest overall acceptability. In the home-based test, tenderness (P ≤ 0.01) and overall acceptability (P ≤ 0.05), but not flavor, differed significantly among the breeds, and MO, BC, MG and CH had the highest overall acceptability. In conclusion, the two consumer test evaluated were adequate for evaluating meat acceptability from suckling small ruminants, having comparable results, although consumer preferences were slightly higher and signification levels slightly lower under home conditions than under laboratory conditions.Practical ApplicationsConsumer acceptance is a big aim of any food sector. Meat is a complex product to be evaluated because of its intrinsic variability and because it needs to be cooked previously to be assessed. Comparisons with the same animals, in different circumstances: cut, type of cooking and temperature, condiments, ambiance, as it occurs in home tests or laboratory tests hardly exist. In this paper, the same results have been obtained in both tests with meat from small ruminants. This will undoubtedly favor the development of meat consumer tests in the future.
Article
This study was conducted to understand the relationship between familiarity and cross-cultural acceptance for an ethnic sweet treat (Yackwa; Korean traditional cookie) by Korean, Japanese and French consumers. Descriptive analysis and consumer testing were performed on six Yackwa samples. Overall, the samples received favorable responses from the foreign consumers. Korean consumers liked samples with a soft and cohesive texture, whereas Japanese and French consumers liked flaky and crispy texture. French consumers rated stronger sweetness to be more appropriate for Yackwa compared to Korean and Japanese consumers. Texture liking was strongly correlated with familiarity rating in all three countries, indicating that the consumers' previous experience with similar products might affect their preference for certain textural attributes. Familiarity was correlated with all hedonic ratings by Korean consumers, who are most familiar with Yackwa, but with overall and texture liking by Japanese consumers and flavor and texture liking by French consumers. These results suggest that familiarity partly contributes to a foreign consumers' hedonic rating. Practical ApplicationsGlobalization and cultural diversity have increased interest in ethnic foods. This trend is motivating food industries to expand into the ethnic food market sector. In this study, the sensory attributes and the cross-cultural acceptability of Yackwa (Korean traditional cookie) were evaluated and the potential role of familiarity in determining consumer acceptance was measured. The outcome of this study will help food exporters, R&D scientists and food marketers in ethnic food market to optimize an ethnic food for other cultural communities by educating them to consider familiarity as an important factor for product development and promotion.
Article
This study was conducted to understand the factors that affect the acceptance of various perilla porridges and compare the sensory characteristics that drive consumer acceptance of perilla porridges across Korean and Chinese cultures. A descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples, which were made with 2 types of perilla oils, 3 types of perilla powders, 1 type of roasted perilla seeds, and 2 types of ground perilla porridges, by 10 Korean and 9 Chinese panelists. The Korean panelists generated more descriptors than the Chinese panel, and the Korean panelists used descriptors that were related to their individual experiences or cultural backgrounds. According to the results of consumer test, attributes such as glossy surface, salty flavor, and savory flavor determined positive preferences in the Korean panel, and attributes such as glossy surface, sesame oil odor, sesame oil flavor, porridge with milk, whiteness, light flavor, salty odor, and mouthfeel of porridge determined preference in the Chinese panel.
Article
In this study, psychological distances of various hedonic phrases used in Korean hedonic scales were measured. Two hundred and twenty consumers measured the psychological distances of 42 hedonic phrases used in Korean hedonic scales utilizing a magnitude estimation method. In addition, usage frequency of each hedonic phrase was surveyed. The hedonic phrases were categorized into positive, negative, and neutral phrases, and the psychological magnitudes of 42 hedonic phrases were estimated. Results show that attention must be given in selecting hedonic phrases when conducting cross-cultural studies. For instance, a couple of translated phrases were rarely used in daily life and a Korean label of “” corresponding to “like moderately” was perceived closer to neutral than “like” without any adverb. English hedonic phrases translated to the target country language without any validation can be misleading.
Article
With the rapid proliferation of new products into the marketplace, understanding emotional responses may offer a differential advantage beyond traditional hedonic measures. The objectives of this study were: to determine if emotional data provide discrimination beyond that obtained from hedonic response; to compare the effectiveness of a published predefined lexicon with that generated by the consumer; and, to evaluate the effectiveness of CATA approach compared to intensity scaling as used in EsSense Profile. To this end, the hedonic and emotional response to commercial blackcurrant squash was investigated comparing two different approaches: EsSense Profile™, in which subjects rated a predefined emotion lexicon, and check-all-that-apply (CATA) of a consumer defined (CD) lexicon. Both approaches yielded emotional data that clearly discriminated across the products more effectively than the hedonic scores. Both EsSense and CD-CATA data produced similar emotional spaces and product configurations. In each method, a two dimensional structure (pleasantness vs. engagement/activation) was observed within the product space which corresponded to published circumplex models of emotional response. However, the latter observation was more evident in the CD-CATA approach. The consumer defined lexicon provided a rich and more balanced list of positive and negative emotions specific to the product category although it did lack some terms found to be differentiating on the EsSense lexicon. Also the qualitative nature of the data obtained from CD CATA, limited the extent of the statistical analysis, making it difficult to make the clear inferential conclusions obtained with EsSense Profile. For future emotional studies a hybrid approach, whereby the emotion lexicon is developed combining consumer input and published emotion lists, and is then used to evaluate products using a rate-all-that-apply (RATA) procedure, is proposed.
Article
Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.
Article
The time–intensity profile and acceptance of traditional and light vanilla ice creams were determined in this study. Six samples of commercial Brazilian vanilla ice cream of three different brands, in traditional and light versions, were evaluated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's means test were applied using SAS software and the Internal Preference Mapping was prepared using the XLStat software. The time–intensity analysis with 10 trained judges and three repetitions revealed a bitter taste in one traditional sample (TRA3) and a residual bitter taste in two light samples (LIG1 and LIG3), which were less accepted (p≤0.05) by the consumers (averages acceptance 5.2 and 5.3, respectivelly). A residual sweet taste was identified in one light sample (LIG2), however this does not affect the acceptance of LIG2 and was preferred by the consumers. In the acceptance test (9-centimeter linear hedonic scale) with 117 consumers, flavor and texture were the attributes that influenced consumer acceptance (overall liking), and only brand 2 (TRA2 and LIG2) obtained good acceptance (averages 6.0 and 6.4, respectivelly) for both samples. Sample LIG2 was the preferred sample according to the Internal Preference Mapping. Sucralose and sorbitol showed to be the most appropriate sweetener system, in relation to aspartame and sodium cyclamate to replace sucrose in ice cream. The development of the time–intensity sensory profile and data from the acceptance tests obtained in the assessment of the traditional and light ice creams on the market could help the ice cream industry to adopt procedures to improve the quality and delineate new advertising strategies.
Article
The level of potential deterioration in sensory qualities during distribution of processed commercial food products was measured. A method to set up a distribution sensory quality hurdle was suggested to determine the level of deterioration of sensory quality according to consumer responses. The sensory quality index (SQI), which is the ratio of the overall acceptability of a product at the end of its shelf life to that at the beginning of its shelf life, showed a strong positive correlation with consumer preference (%) across a broad range of products. The complexity caused by the “no preference” option in the preference test was decreased by using the SQI because it allows equal scores when comparing samples in acceptability tests. Also, a strong positive correlation between the SQI and the difference of acceptability scores from the beginning to the end of the shelf life support the reliability of the SQI, which is a ratio estimated by dividing the measured scores with an interval scale.
Article
Ten trained panelists rated the intensity of sensory descriptors from 17 commercial plain yogurts, and 153 consumer panelists who consumed plain yogurt at least once a month evaluated the same yogurts for acceptance. Consumer responses were correlated with attribute ratings, and consumer responses and trained panel ratings were correlated with analytical measurements. There was a wide range in consumer hedonic ratings for all sensory factors with significant differences found for appearance and sweetness liking. Consumers found the vast majority of samples too sour and not sweet enough. Hedonic ratings for sweetness, sourness, appearance, and texture liking were positively correlated with overall liking. Samples rated highest in overall liking had sourness ratings closest to just right on the “just right” scale. Consumers responses for hedonic and just right factors differed by sex of respondent.Ratings for all descriptors by the descriptive panel were significantly different. Sourness, with high intensity ratings, was most important in describing plain yogurt. Samples rated most favorably by consumers had lower intensity ratings for overall intensity, sourness, acetaldehyde, saltiness, and astringency and higher intensity ratings for sweetness, milkiness, and cooked milk. Titratable acidity and pH were correlated with many trained panel descriptors important to consumer acceptability. Better control of pH by yogurt processors would result in more favorable sourness levels, which should increase consumer acceptability.
Article
Consumer products can evoke a wide range of emotional responses. Nevertheless, these responses deviate from the emotions studied in the majority of the emotion literature. Whereas the general emotion literature tends to focus mainly on negative emotions, the emotions elicited by products tend to be mainly positive. Negative emotions concur with action tendencies. They tend to signal events that require immediate responses, because they are vital for survival. In contrast, people will only be persuaded to invest time, effort, and money in acquiring products, if they are likely to generate positive emotions. Apart from being experienced as pleasant, positive emotions also widen the array of thoughts and actions that come to mind and, thereby, contribute to people’s personal skills and resources. To investigate the subtleties of product emotions in more detail, we need additional theories and instruments that are specifically developed to describe, measure, and explain the concerns and appraisals that differentiate between positive emotions typically experienced in human–product relationships. In addition, we would like to determine the consequences for interacting with products: what kinds of behaviors are activated by the different emotions and how do they affect product experiences?
Article
The failure of taste tests to predict the market performance of new food products (cf. Burger King's new french fries, New Coke) illustrate the inability of marketing researchers to perform such tests effectively. Food scientists, with their expertise at testing the sensory effects of foods, can make an important contribution to the ability of food producers to predict consumer preference and choice. However, for their experiments to have the needed external validity to achieve such marketing objectives, food scientists must incorporate into their experiments certain elements of consumer purchase behavior and the marketing context in which food products are considered for purchase. In this paper, we discuss those aspects of consumer choice behavior and the marketplace that are pertinent to accurately predicting consumer food purchase behavior, and how they may be incorporated into experimental studies aimed at predicting food preference and choice.
Article
Fresh juices from mandarin varieties, from hybrids, and from blends of these raw materials were evaluated by 100 consumers to determine acceptability, and by 10 trained panelists to quantify sensory attributes. Trained panelists found the juice from Clemenules richer in both mandarin and fresh flavor (odor and taste) whereas Nova juice presented minimum scores for these attributes. These aspects obviously affected the evaluation of acceptability by consumers, who preferred the juice from Clemenules (a Clementine variety) either alone or blended in major proportions with less preferred varieties such as Marisol, Hernandina (Clementines), Ortanique or Nova (hybrids). Nova juice was rejected by most consumers, but accepted by a small group of them. These results are of great importance for the European citrus industry since Clemenules is the most abundant variety and will constitute the main source of raw material for processing plants.
Article
Acceptance of food is basically the result of the interaction between food and humans, and it depends not only on the product characteristics but also on those of each consumer. The main objective of this study is to analyze how the acceptability of milk and soymilk vanilla beverages is influenced by demographic characteristics, consumer habits and individual preferences, and the sensorial properties of both products. Six commercial samples, comprising three milk beverages and three soymilk beverages of different brands and characteristics, were sensorially evaluated. Overall acceptability was tested by 142 consumers using a 9-point hedonic scale, and 36 assessors ranked the samples from the least to the most intense according to their yellow color, brightness, vanilla flavor intensity, sweetness, and thickness. The milk samples were significantly (P
Article
Hedonic scale use, cross-culturally and particularly by Asian consumers, has received little attention but is of increasing concern with greater globalisation of food markets and opportunities for exporting to Asia. The study reported here sought to test whether there were cultural, scale and gender interactions between European-origin Australian (n=61) and Malaysian (n=54) consumers' hedonic responses to food and drink stimuli. A between-groups design, one group using a labelled nine-point category scale and the other an unstructured-anchored line scale, both using computerised responses, found no systematic cultural bias. However, there was some evidence of gender bias. In addition, a task in which semantic labels (from the labelled hedonic category scale) were assigned to a line scale found no statistically significant cultural differences in the scores attributed to the labels. These data indicated that, in the context of computerised responses, young Malaysians used both scales in a similar way to their Australian counterparts. However, further non-parametric analysis suggested that the unstructured line scale encouraged greater use of a range of possible responses and, therefore, line scales may be a preferred option for use in this population.
Article
The individual preferences of 170 consumers in six categories of age (20s, 30s, 40s) and gender (men, women) for 24 domestic, imported or specialty lager beers, tasted first blind and then with knowledge of brand and price, were investigated by preference mapping techniques. Internal preference mapping revealed differences in the preferences of consumers, with some consumers preferring domestic or ice beers, and others preferring specialty or imported beers. Hedonic ratings changed significantly from the blind to the informed tasting condition, particularly for consumers in their twenties, thereby documenting the significant role of non-sensory variables in the formulation of a hedonic judgement by the consumer. In an external preference map relating the consumers' hedonic ratings to the first two principal components of a principal component analysis of descriptive ratings for the 24 beers, 75% of the consumers were fitted by the vectorial, circular, elliptical (with maximum or saddle point) or quadratic AUTOFIT models, at the required minimum level of significance (P ⩽ 0.25 for wrongly not simplifying the model, and P ⩽ 0.25 for wrongly selecting a consumer). This improvement over previous studies is credited to the high number of samples (24) in the design, and to the large differences in sensory properties among samples.
Article
The objective of this work was to study how ambiguous the meaning of the Spanish translation of the 9-point hedonic scale was for Argentine consumers. Three versions of the 9-point hedonic scale were tested: a literal translation of the original English ver-sion, a liberal translation of this same scale and the liberal translation of a scale phrased for children (e.g. where 'like extremely' was replaced by 'super good'). Children, adolescents and adults from two cities of Argentina, making up a total of 288 subjects, per-formed the tests. These consisted in ranking the phrases from each one of the three scales from 'like least' to 'like most'. In most cases the scale phrased for children performed best. Using this scale approximately 30% of the subjects ranked the translated phrases differently in relation to the English version, that is inverted the order of two or more phrases. The results from the present work show that the use of the 9-point hedonic scale translated to languages different to English should be done with caution.
Article
In the hedonic scale method the stimuli (actual samples or food names) are presented singly and are rated on a scale where the 9 categories range from "dislike extremely" to "like extremely." History, methods of use in laboratory and field, analysis of the data, reliability, essential characteristics, applications, special effects requiring control, and interpretation of results are discussed and evidence is cited for the method's validity for predicting food behavior. Major advantages of the method are: Ss can respond meaningfully without prior experience, it is suitable for use with a wide range of populations, the data can be handled by the statistics of variables, and results are meaningful for indicating general levels of preference. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Green tea consumption has been common in some countries for centuries, but in others, it is just finding popularity. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the liking of green tea by consumers in three countries: Korea, where green tea is commonly consumed; Thailand, an Asian country where green tea is generally consumed in a cold form; and the U.S.A., a country where green tea is not commonly consumed, and (2) identify the attributes which appear to influence consumers' liking. The liking of green tea varied depending on the country and the consumer segment. Korean consumers generally liked the green tea samples with various green flavors and moderate bitterness, although a few of the Korean consumer segments liked samples with other flavor profiles. Most of the U.S. consumers liked the tea samples that had brown, fruity or sweet aromatic flavors with little or no green flavors. Thai consumers preferred tea samples with fruity flavors and no green flavor. Regardless of the consumers' origin, the green tea samples with the highest bitterness were disliked.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSThe current research suggests that familiarity plays a role in tea acceptance. However, various flavor profiles may be acceptable to consumers who are from different countries and are familiar with other flavors of green tea. This suggests that although familiarity plays a role in consumers' acceptance, other factors also contribute to liking. This study has particular implications for the selection of mass-marketed green teas.
Article
Two experiments compared the performance of the 9-point hedonic scale with the labeled affective magnitude (LAM) scale for food acceptability ratings of a well-liked food (potato chips). Both scales performed well in discriminating products. Both scales uncovered a strong relationship between usage patterns and acceptance ratings. Both scales found a significant product by user group interaction effect that showed a consistent pattern of the type of chip consumed versus acceptance ratings. The 9-point scale showed somewhat higher reliability as measured by the correlation of scores for a duplicate product. “Categorical” usage of the LAM scale, defined as making ratings within ±1–2 mm of a word phrase (depending upon the line length, approximately 1% of scale range), was observed here as seen previously. Use of a physically longer line (200 mm versus 116 mm) decreased the frequency of such categorical ratings. These results showed no strong advantage to either scaling method. The categorical use of the LAM scale may depend in part upon the physical appearance of the scale.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSDifferent scales have been used for examining acceptability of foods. Using scales with high discriminative power, good reliability and some predictive value for correlating with food habits is a goal of sensory evaluation. Better scales may help show differences among new consumer products and avoid type II error (missing a difference, and/or not identifying a business risk or an opportunity).
Article
The range of scores elicited by a structured, an unstructured and a ‘labels-only’version of the 9-point hedonic scale were compared using consumers from USA, Japan and Korea. It was found that the unstructured scale elicited a wider range of scores for American and Japanese consumers. After correction for hedonic ranges, it was found that Japanese had smaller ranges of scores on all three scales, although the effect was less pronounced for the unstructured scale. The Korean consumers were the exception. Their ranges were less than Americans but their ranges on the unstructured scale did not increase. The results were discussed in terms of the effects of inhibition of use of categories by the scale labels, effects of translation from the English, psychophysical style and order effects.
Article
SUMMARY Nine experiments were conducted to compare magnitude (ratio) and hedonic 9-point (category) scales of food acceptance. Five experiments were conducted with foods varied along one or more quantitative dimensions, and the remaining four with foods representing different flavors of a single product type. Both evaluation procedures appeared to be equally sensitive to differences in food acceptability, but each procedure provided additional information as well. Magnitude scales quantified the ratios of food acceptability among different items, and the hedonic scale provided numerical and verbal categories of acceptance. Each scale may be used to complement the other in the measurement of food acceptance.
Article
Understanding cross-cultural sensory acceptance differences are essential for developing successful products for international markets. The most common scale for acceptance testing is the 9-point hedonic scale that was developed in the United States (US) by Peryam and Pilgrim (1957)Food Technology, 11, 9–14. The objectives of this research were to compare the usage of the 9-point hedonic scale between American, Korean, Chinese and Thai consumers, as well as to examine if there were significant differences in preference between consumers of the same culture residing in the US and their country of origin. A total of 575 respondents were recruited from eight respondent cells including two from the US and six from three Asian ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, and Thai) with two locations (residing in United States and their country of origin). All respondents evaluated sample pairs using 9-point hedonic scales translated directly from English into their respective languages. Each respondent evaluated various foods on the 9-point hedonic scale and chose the most preferred among sample pairs. Food samples were selected to cover the full range of hedonic ratings for each culture. Results indicate that Chinese, Korean, and Thai respondents use the 9-point hedonic scale differently from American respondents, irrespective of residency in the US or length of stay. These ethnic groups use a smaller range of the 9-point hedonic scale than Americans. Moreover, there were no significant differences in food preferences for Thai and Korea consumers residing in the US or their native countries. Observed differences in food preferences among Chinese residing in the US vs. Taiwan were possibly attributed to the diverse sampling of Chinese selected in the US that were not all representative of Chinese consumers from Taiwan. Additionally, length of stay in the US did not significantly affect food preference among these ethnic groups.