ThesisPDF Available

Unfolding Space – Haptische Wahrnehmung räumlicherBilder durch Sensorische Substitution

Thesis

Unfolding Space – Haptische Wahrnehmung räumlicherBilder durch Sensorische Substitution

Abstract and Figures

As this is my bachelor thesis the paper is only available in German - sorry for that. This project deals with the phenomenon of sensory substitution by which the function of one missing or faulty sensory modality is replaced (substituted) by stimulating another one. During the thesis a device has been developed, which aims to enable the blind to haptically experience the surroundings and spatial depth through vibration, so that they can detect obstacles and orient themselves within space in order to better cope with their daily activities. more information (German and English) on: https://unfoldingspace.jakobkilian.de
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... It was first drafted in previous work by Kilian in 2018 [58,59] with a focus on Interaction Design (only available in German). However, the first prototypes of the glove were still a bit cumbersome, heavy, had higher latencies and were prone to errors. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper documents the design, implementation and evaluation of the Unfolding Space Glove – an open source sensory substitution device. It transmits the relative position and distance of nearby objects as vibratory stimuli to the back of the hand and thus enables blind people to haptically explore the depth of their surrounding space, assisting with navigation tasks such as object recognition and wayfinding. The prototype requires no external hardware, is highly portable, operates in all lighting conditions, and provides continuous and immediate feedback – all while being visually unobtrusive. Both blind (n = 8) and blindfolded sighted participants (n = 6) completed structured training and obstacle courses with both the prototype and a white long cane to allow performance comparisons to be drawn between them. The subjects quickly learned how to use the glove and successfully completed all of the trials, though still being slower with it than with the cane. Qualitative interviews revealed a high level of usability and user experience. Overall, the results indicate the general processability of spatial information through sensory substitution using haptic, vibrotactile interfaces. Further research would be required to evaluate the prototype’s capabilities after extensive training and to derive a fully functional navigation aid from its features.
Thesis
Full-text available
This is the theoretical part of my bachelor thesis. The paper is only available in German. In this paper – so called "proposal" – the phenomenon of Sensory Plasticity is researched as a basis to develop a Sensory Substitution device in the later published final thesis.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present the indoor 3D pipeline of an assistive system for visually impaired people, whose goal is to scan the environment, extract information of interest and send it to the user through haptics and sounds. The particularities of indoor scenes, containing man-made objects, with many planar faces, led us to the idea of developing the 3D object recognition algorithms around a planar segmentation, based on normal vectors. The 3D pipeline starts with acquiring depth frames from a range camera and synchronized IMU data from an inertial sensor. The pre-processing stage computes normal vectors in the 3D points of the scanned environment and filters them to reduce the noise from the input data. The next stages are planar segmentation and object labeling, which divides the scene into ground, ceiling, walls and generic objects. The whole 3D pipeline works in real-time on a consumer laptop at approximately 15 fps. We describe each step of the pipeline, with the focus on the labeling stage, and present experimental results and ideas for further improvements.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reviews the most recent advances in sensory substitution and the neural correlates of navigation in congenital blindness. Studies have established the superior ability of congenitally blind (CB) participants with the aid of Sensory Substitution Devices (SSDs) to navigate new environments and detect the size and shape of obstacles in order to avoid them. These studies suggest that with training, CB can achieve a representation of space that is equivalent to that of the sighted. From a phenomenological point of view, sensation and perception provided by SSDs have been likened to real vision, but the question remains as to the subjective sensations (qualia) felt by users. We review recent theories on the phenomenological properties of sensory substitution and the recent literature on spatial abilities of participants using SSDs. From these different sources of research, we conclude that training-induced plastic changes enable task-specific brain activations. The recruitment of the primary visual cortex by nonvisual SSD stimulations and, the subsequent activations of associative visual cortices in the congenitally blind, suggest that the sensory information is treated in an amodal fashion; i.e.,: in terms of the task being performed rather than the sensory modality. These anatomical changes enable the embodiment of nonvisual information allowing SSD users to accomplish a multitude of “visual” tasks. We will emphasize here the abilities of CB individuals to navigate in real and virtual environments in spite of a large volumetric reduction in the posterior segment of the hippocampus, a key area involved in navigation. In addition, the superior behavioral performance of CB in a variety of sensory and cognitive tasks, combined with anatomical and functional MRI, underlines the susceptibility of the brain to training-induced plasticity.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Global and regional prevalence estimates for blindness and vision impairment are important for the development of public health policies. We aimed to provide global estimates, trends, and projections of global blindness and vision impairment. Methods: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based datasets relevant to global vision impairment and blindness that were published between 1980 and 2015. We fitted hierarchical models to estimate the prevalence (by age, country, and sex), in 2015, of mild visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/12 to 6/18 inclusive), moderate to severe visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 to 3/60 inclusive), blindness (presenting visual acuity worse than 3/60), and functional presbyopia (defined as presenting near vision worse than N6 or N8 at 40 cm when best-corrected distance visual acuity was better than 6/12). Findings: Globally, of the 7·33 billion people alive in 2015, an estimated 36·0 million (80% uncertainty interval [UI] 12·9-65·4) were blind (crude prevalence 0·48%; 80% UI 0·17-0·87; 56% female), 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5-359·1) people had moderate to severe visual impairment (2·95%, 80% UI 1·34-4·89; 55% female), and 188·5 million (80% UI 64·5-350·2) had mild visual impairment (2·57%, 80% UI 0·88-4·77; 54% female). Functional presbyopia affected an estimated 1094·7 million (80% UI 581·1-1686·5) people aged 35 years and older, with 666·7 million (80% UI 364·9-997·6) being aged 50 years or older. The estimated number of blind people increased by 17·6%, from 30·6 million (80% UI 9·9-57·3) in 1990 to 36·0 million (80% UI 12·9-65·4) in 2015. This change was attributable to three factors, namely an increase because of population growth (38·4%), population ageing after accounting for population growth (34·6%), and reduction in age-specific prevalence (-36·7%). The number of people with moderate and severe visual impairment also increased, from 159·9 million (80% UI 68·3-270·0) in 1990 to 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5-359·1) in 2015. Interpretation: There is an ongoing reduction in the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and visual impairment, yet the growth and ageing of the world's population is causing a substantial increase in number of people affected. These observations, plus a very large contribution from uncorrected presbyopia, highlight the need to scale up vision impairment alleviation efforts at all levels. Funding: Brien Holden Vision Institute.
Article
Ein Rechtsstreit, der für Aufsehen sorgt: Das Familiengericht in Goslar verhandelt die Klage des Klinikums Braunschweig gegen die Eltern eines gehörlosen Kindes. Diese wehren sich gegen die empfohlene OP.
Conference Paper
Humans can perceive tactile sensation through multimodal stimuli. To demonstrate realistic pseudo tactile sensation for the users, a tactile display is needed that can provide multiple tactile stimuli. In this paper, we have explicated a novel printed tactile display that can provide both the electrical stimulus and the electrostatic force. The circuit patterns for each stimulus were fabricated by employing the technique of double-sided conductive ink printing. Requirements for the fabrication process were analyzed and the durability of the tactile display was evaluated. Users' perceptions of a single tactile stimulus and multiple tactile stimuli were also investigated. The obtained experimental results indicate that the proposed tactile display is capable of exhibiting realistic tactile sensation and can be incorporated by various applications such as tactile sensation printing of pictorial illustrations and paintings. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid tactile display can contribute to accelerated prototyping and development of new tactile devices.
Chapter
There are 285 million visually impaired people (VIP) worldwide, among whom 39 million are blind (WHO 2014).
Chapter
The chapter provides an overview of the factors to be considered in the design of travel aids which meet the needs of blind, visually impaired and deafblind people. The chapter consists of two main parts. The first part comprises an introduction, brief discussions of the long cane as a successful travel aid (with limitations) and how blind people travel; a categorisation of travel aids and an overview of the three main phases of travel aid development. The second part considers the specifics of good design practice. The topics covered include specific principles of good design practice, app design, end-user involvement and particular features, including functionality, the interface, sensors, privacy and context awareness.
Chapter
Up until now there has been no available treatment for diseases causing the permanent impairment of retinal photoreceptors.