Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation 15: 97–100, 2018 ISSN 1823-3902
Received 21 October 2017
Reviewed 24 August 2018
Accepted 12 September 2018
Published 15 October 2018
Codonoboea kjellbergii (Gesneriaceae) in Buru Island,
Maluku: A New Genus Record for the Island
Wendy Achmmad Mustaqim
Plant Biology Graduate Program, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics
and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, West Java, 16680
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Codonoboea kjellbergii (B.L.Burtt) Karton., recently discovered in Buru Island,
Maluku, is a new genus record for the island. The species was observed from only a
single location. It grows on rocky, more or less nutrient poor soil. A description,
figure and illustration are provided.
Keywords: Codonoboea kjellbergii, Gesneriaceae, new record, Maluku, Buru Island
Codonoboea Ridl. is a genus distributed from Southern Thailand and throughout
Malaysia with about 120 species named (Middleton et al., 2013). Its centre of
distribution is Peninsular Malaysia in West Malaysia (Kartonagoro & Potter
Codonoboea kjellbergii (B.L.Burtt) Karton. is distributed in Sulawesi, Maluku
(Ambon & Seram) and New Guinea (Kartonagoro, 2012; Kartonagoro & Potter,
2014). It was originally described as Henckelia kjellbergii B.L. Burtt based on a
specimen from southeast Sulawesi (Burtt, 1998). On a recent visit in 2014 to
Buru Island, Maluku, this species was discovered and is the first record of this
species and also the genus in Buru Island, and the third locality within the
Material and Methods
The plant was collected in May 2014 from the road to Lake Rana, Fena Leisela
District, Buru Regency, Maluku Province (Figure 1). It was preserved as a dried
herbarium specimen and deposited in the Bogoriense Herbarium (BO).
Identification is based on Burtt (1998), Kartonagoro (2012) and Kartonagoro &
Results and Discussion
Codonoboea Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 2: 533 (1923); Middleton, Weber, Yao,
Sontag & Moller, Edinburgh J. Bot. 70, 3: 387 (2013). − Type: Codonoboea
leucocodon (Ridl.) Ridl.
Perennial herbs, caulescent or rosette forming, sometimes creeping, somewhat
woody. Leaves opposite or alternate, or are crowded at the top, petioled or
sessile, blades lanceolate, margin dentate to entire; petiole channeled.
Inflorescence axillary, one- to few-flowered, pedunculate, flowers 5-merous.
Calyx deeply 5-lobed, reaching the base. Corolla tubular, campanulate, lobes
short, 2-lipped, lower lip 3-lobed, longer, upper lip 2-lobed, shorter than lower
lip. Stamens 2. Nectary a flat-topped or lobed ring, sometimes not a complete
ring or lacking. Style with stigma peltate or clavate. Capsule slender, cylindric.
A genus of about 120 species, from Southern Thailand and throughout Malaysia
(Middleton et al., 2013).
Codonoboea kjellbergii (B.L.Burtt) Karton., Edinburgh J. Bot. 69, 2: 360.
2012; Kartonagoro & Potter, Reinwardtia 14, 1: 4. 2014; Middleton, Weber, Yao,
Sontag & Muller, Edinburgh J. Bot. 70, 3: 399. 2013. − Basionym: Henckelia
kjellbergii B.L.Burtt, Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 70: 378. 1998. − Type: Indonesia,
Celebes (=Sulawesi), Boeloe Watoewila, 1500 m, 24 iii 1929, Kjellberg 1092
(holo S n.v.; iso BO n.v.).
Figure 1. Locality of Codonoboea kjellbergii in Buru Island, Maluku (marke d by star-
Codonoboea kjellbergii in Buru Island 99
Figure 2. Codonoboea kjellbergii. A) habit; B) flower. Scale bar: A= 2 cm, B= 5 mm. (All
from Taofik Hidayat 37 (BO). Prepared by W.A. Mustaqim).
Herb to 20 cm tall. Stem unbranched, 2.5−2.75 mm diameter at the base,
densely pilose, less dense in very old parts. Leaves spirally arranged, distinctly
spaced, 7−16 mm apart, blades elliptic-oblong, slightly obovate, 7.5−11.25 ×
2.8−3.45 cm, base cuneate, margin finely serrate, apex acute or acuminate,
both sides pilose on lower side chiefly on veins, mixed with shorter hairs,
petiole short, pilose, to ca. 2.5 mm long. Peduncle axillary, pilose; flowers
solitary or usually paired, one well-developed ca. 5.25 cm long accompanied
by a shorter one, a pair of bracteoles inserted at ca. 3/4 of its length, 1.8−2.5
mm long, pilose as the peduncle. Calyx 5-partite, lobes ca. 2 mm long, acute,
hairy. Corolla tubular, total length ca. 23 mm, thinly pubescent, glandular hairs
also present, tube white, inside around and at the mouth with two yellow
bands, limbs rounded with apex rounded, light purple, darker at the margin,
upper 2 lobes partially connate. Fertile stamens 2, arising from the basal part
of corolla, filaments ca. 7 mm long, glabrous, anthers 2 mm at most. Nectary
short cylindric, ca. 0.6 mm long, not lobed. Ovary and style hairy, stigma ca.
1.4 mm wide. Fruit ca. 5.6 cm long, persistent and sparsely pubescent (figure
Specimen examined: INDONESIA. Maluku, Buru Island, near road from Wamlana
to Lake Rana, 950 m (S 3 8’ 53.8” E 126 35’ 2.8”) Taofik Hidayat 37 (BO!).
Distribution: Sulawesi, Maluku (Ambon, Buru, Seram) and New Guinea.
Habitat and ecology: Found once in sandstone-derived soils, at about 950 m
elevation. The soil was probably nutrient-poor as indicated by the presence of
Nepenthes maxima in the surrounding area.
Notes: The description above is based on a single plant preserved as a dried
herbarium specimen. Kartonagoro & Potter (2012) noted that this species is
easily recognized from its flower that has a white tube and purple lobes, its
oblong pubescent leaves and long narrow capsule. These characters are ease to
recognize even in the field. The discovery of this species on Buru Island fills a
gap in its geographical distribution, which was previously thought to be
Thanks are due to Major Agus Sutomo, chief commander of Ekspedisi NKRI
Koridor Maluku & Maluku Utara 2014, who supported the plant exploration to
remote areas of Buru Island, Maluku. Also to Capt. Dedy Dwi Cahyadi, chief
commander of subkorwil-03/Namlea, who provided facilities and gave
invaluable help during the field excursion. Also to Sergeant Taofik Hidayat for
the material used in this study, La Herman Buton, Ayu P.N. Muda, Khoirunnisa
M. Fatwa for the help in the field. The author is also indebted to
Abdulrokhman Kartonagoro (BO), who provided literature used in this study
and Inggit P. Astuti (Bogor Botanical Garden) for providing help in many ways.
Burtt BL. 1998. New species of phytogeographical interest in Beccarinda and
Henckelia (Gesneriaceae). Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen 70: 377-382.
Kartonagoro A, Potter D. 2014. The Gesneriaceae of Sulawesi VI: The species from
Mekongga Mts. with a new species of Cyrtandra described. Reinwardtia
Kartonagoro A. 2012. The Gesneriaceae of Sulawesi V: A new species of
Rhynchoglossum and a new combination in Codonoboea. Edinburgh
Journal of Botany 69(2): 357-361. doi: 10.1017/S0960428612000157
Middleton DJ, Weber A, Yao TL, Sontag S, Moller M. 2013. The current status of
the species hitherto assigned to Henckelia (Gesneriaceae). Edinburgh
Journal of Botany 70(3): 385-404. doi: 10.1017/S0960428613000127
Ridley HN. 1923. Flora of the Malay Peninsula 2. London: L. Reeve.