Article

Creating customer loyalty in online brand communities

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Abstract

Online social networking sites (SNSs) has become one of the most popular activities for people accessing the Internet. In this regard, many Businesses create their online brand communities in order to build further relationship with their customers. The objective of this study is to examine the potential factors of customers' loyalty intentions in online brand communities. Current study proposed a research framework in which information quality, need for social capital, emotion, and perceived critical mass were expected to influence customer satisfaction and relationship commitment, which will in turn result in loyalty intention. Data was collected from customers in two Facebook fan pages (Xiaomi and MyBeautyDiary.taiwan) that represent wristband (search product) and facial mask (experience product). Results indicated that information completeness and need for bridging social capital were significant predictors of satisfaction and relationship commitment for both brand communities, while pleasure and perceived critical mass were influential factors of customer satisfaction across two brands. Further, believability and need for maintaining social capital were significant indicators only for facial mask community consumers, while arousal was important only for wristband fans. Findings from this study provided directions for online brand communities to develop customer loyalty strategies.

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... Latané (1981, cited in Nowak, Szamrej andLatané, 1990) defined social impact as the influences on individuals' behaviour of the real or imagined presence of actions of others, and stated that the social impact is moderated by the strength, immediacy and number of people. A high number, also called perceived critical mass, has been shown to signify social influences that predict the acceptance of technology adoption and buying behaviour (van Slyke, Ilie, Lou and Stafford, 2007;Cheng, Wu and Chen, 2018) and social network value (Shen, Cheung and Lee, 2013). However, in socially orientated communities, more targets of impact may have less impact on each individual (Karau and Williams, 1995), for example, feeling that community comments are more generically directed than personally, indicating the users' identification with other members to be a major factor in community participation (Dholakia et al., 2004). ...
... Brand identification has been linked to the perspective that community members possess a social identification with others who share their interest in a particular brand (Algesheimer et al., 2005;McAlexander et al., 2002). Several authors have argued that social impact predicts the acceptance of different factors such as information and online community behaviour (Cheng et al., 2018;Shen et al., 2013). However, the number and the types of community members within community participation can often lead consumers to leave a brand community if there is too much membership similarity as indicated by Participant 2, a 26-year-old female Administrator Assistant : ...
... This emphasises that emotion or valence plays a significant role in generating attachment to interactivity, which reflects on the brand, and it depends on how much the consumers are able to showcase the brands they are loyal to (Rietveld et al., 2020). Several authors found that emotions were important indicators of consumer loyalty (Smith and Bolton, 2002;Holbrook and Batra, 1987;Cheng et al., 2018). For example, Participant 8, a 30-year-old male Customer Service Operator, and Participant 19, a 26-year-old female Human Resource Assistant, indicated that the visual content posted in online communities can evoke the emotion the poster has linked with the brand, prompting them to continue observing the online participation: ...
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The popularity of online brand communities has maintained the close link between consumers and brands and it encourages consumers to actively participate in online platforms. From this emerges intentions to achieve social and functional goals, leading to the question: How is loyalty affected by online participation? Based on a constructivist perspective, empirical data were generated through in-depth interviews to explore millennial’s level of participation in online communities and the extent to which it affects their loyalty to the brand and the community in the fashion industry. The study provides a conceptual framework that links a set of online participation characteristics contingent to different participatory motives. The study proposed four main customer participatory behavioural traits (brand identification, interactivity, media valence and perceived community sentiment) linked to consumers’ perception towards a brand in the fashion sector. The main findings reveal how the four categories impact the level of customer loyalty. These key categories are explored to create a framework for future research in this area, and further contribute to the field of online brand engagement, particularly in the fashion industry.
... So far, most of the past researches in relation to SM in tourism perspective widely focused on customers' perspective on SM use (e.g., Leung, Law, van Hoof, & Buhalis, 2013;Leung, Sun, & Bai, 2017) managerial aspects of SM brand community from business perspective (Leung, Sun, & Bai, 2019;Whalen & Bowen, 2017); Zeng & Gerritsen, 2014) to understand the nature of the community and impact of SM on the community (e.g., Matikiti-manyevere, 2019; Whalen & Bowen, 2017), the elements of the community, the relationship among those elements, classifications and how do they interact within themselves, the impact of customers' engagement in SM communities (e.g. online brand communities) and its subsequent consequences on consumers' behaviour towards the brand (e.g., Cheng, Wu, & Chen, 2018 ;Martínez-lópez et al., 2017;Laroche, Habibi, & Richard, 2013). In such cases, the researches mainly focused on directly collecting data from SM sites (e.g.Tripadvisor) related to tourism (e.g. ...
... Coleman (1988) introduced social capital value which refers to the resources like human capital or financial such as social relationships, networks and connection that occurs between the members in a SM based community networks to bring mutual benefits or value. Several previous researches found that social capital affect consumers' behavioral intention of loyalty to the virtual networking platforms such as SM (e.g., Cheng, Wu, & Chen, 2018 ;Kaye, Kowert, & Quinn, 2017). According to (Bowden, 2009) and , when customers engage with various brands or company on SM platform, it plays an important role on enhancing consumer perceived value proposition towards the brand and the company, that consequently influences consumers' behavioral intention of loyalty. ...
... From the behavioural perspective, loyalty is conceptualized emphasizing only on the purchase behavioral pattern of the consumer or how frequent a product is purchased or a service is experienced by certain consumers (Alcaniz, García, & Blas, 2005). From the attitudinal perspective, loyalty is conceptualized as emphasizing customers' psychological state of mind and expression of emotional commitment to purchase a brand in repeated manner or endorse it to other potential consumers (Cheng, Wu, & Chen, 2018;Scaglione, & Mendola, 2017). On the other hand, composite loyalty is the combination of both behavioral and attitudinal approach of loyalty (Dick & Basu, 1994).The multi-dimensional composite approach of loyalty measurement is often operationalised as the most accepted approach to provide reliable and a wide-ranging understanding of the consumer loyalty construct (Zhang, Fu, Cai, & Lu, 2014;Chen & Chen, 2010). ...
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In today's tourism industry, consumers are strongly influenced by electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) generated by the social media. Consumer communities on the social media are believed to have tremendous effect on consumers' brand preferences and loyalty intentions. Presence of tourism providers on social media is strongly evident to engage with the current and prospective customers. The objectives of this paper are to examine the influence of social media-based community in consumers' decision making process and consequently how it affects consumers' perceived value and behavioural intention of loyalty towards tourism providers. Based on an extensive literature review on social media and virtual consumer communities, the study proposed a conceptual model of consumer perceived value and loyalty formation in a consumer community on tourism social media. The model combined consumers, company, products, brands and social media as an integrated part of the social media community. On the basis of relationship among these entities, the model further explains the decision making process and its influential factors which are mainly contents, content transmitter and interaction aims. Important findings from the literature are synthesized and a number of critical avenues for future research are postulated. Practical implications of this research are discussed.
... Online brand communities provide a social platform where individuals interact with each other and exchange their experiences about services, products, and even organizations (Li et al., 2019a). Moreover, online brand communities facilitate valuable relationship marketing tools through which customer engagement and customer loyalty can be fostered (Brodie et al., 2013;Cheng et al., 2020;Islam & Rahman, 2017;Kaur et al., 2020). ...
... Thakur (2016) Online brand communities Online groups of students or faculty interacted through social media and exchanged information regarding university activities. Cheng et al. (2020) University reputation A strong predictor of performance is in return for higher customer engagement and loyalty. ...
... Hypotheses 4, 5, and 6 (H4, H5, and H6) are accepted, which indicates that online brand communities have a significant impact on SCRM Capabilities, customer engagement, and customer loyalty, with substantial effects (H4:β, 0.633), medium effects (H5:β, 0.384 and H6:β, 0.412). These findings support prior research (Cheng et al., 2020;Gong, 2018;Islam et al., 2018;Kaur et al., 2020). Furthermore, results suggest that various online brand communities, such as Facebook and Whatsapp groups, are associated with SCRM Capabilities (information generation, dissemination, and responsiveness), engagement, and consumer loyalty. ...
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Social media technologies (SMTs), online brand communities, and social customer relationship management (SCRM) Capabilities play an indispensable role in the engagement and loyalty-building of university students to achieve a sustainable university reputation. This study provides pioneering input for higher education institutions (HEIs) by developing a new integrated SCRM model through self-congruity or self-congruence theory, which examines SMTs Use, online brand communities, SCRM Capabilities, customer engagement, customer loyalty, and university reputation. Using cross-sectional data from 400 students from Pakistani public universities, structure equation modeling applies to Smart PLS 3.2.7. Results indicate that all hypotheses have significant positive relationships, except SMTs use found insignificant with university reputation. Also, SCRM Capabilities mediate between SMTs use and university reputation, while customer engagement mediates between online brand communities and customer loyalty. This study indirectly supports public HEIs sustainability. Further, these findings contribute new knowledge to literature and theory.
... The results of Hsu and Lin's research [54] proposed that social identification leads to stickiness to mobile application use. Furthermore, previous studies firmly believed that identification is positively related to trust [77] or commitment [78]. Trust and commitment are positively associated with stickiness [66,79]. ...
... Data were collected through a web-based survey conducted in May 2018. To recruit additional voluntary respondents, we posted our questionnaire invitation letter and its hyperlink on the makeup Bulletin Board System (BBS) of Post Text Table (PTT), which is the largest Bulletin Board System (BBS) platform in Taiwan [78]. Doing so allowed voluntary respondents to easily link to the DoSurvey survey portal (https://www.dosurvey.com.tw/) and complete the survey. ...
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... Rowli (2004) [8] stated that the increase in interactions and consumer perceptions are based on the experience of others, both positive and negative. For companies, communities created through online relationships are a vehicle to improve relationships with their potential customers [9]. The study of comments and posts left by users in online conversations can help companies to better understand the needs of a group of consumers [10]. ...
... The frequency of comments from habitual followers (belonging to different categories of consumers, but mostly experts in the field) in turn generate conversations capable of creating social ties and increase the utility of messages communicated [9]; this aspect is mainly manifested using an emoticon of pleasure (smiling face). These highly active and socially bonded members become the glue of fora, helping to shape and guide the discussion topics, start new threads and act as moderators to the content [5]. ...
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Wine Influencers (WIs) represent a new type of independent third party endorsers that are progressively establishing themselves within social networks. This study analyzes the characteristics of the activity of WIs and the communication model used via Instagram. Netnographic Analysis, Factor Analysis and AGIL methods were applied. The results show five Key-findings within specific relationships established during discussions: advice from Wine Influencers and generalized reciprocity in relationships; structural and social bonds established based on the frequency of messages from regular followers; peer-to-peer relationship development through recommendation; development of trust established through online relationships; wine influencer’s influence on followers regarding everything about the wine. The study derives a model that explains the communication dimensions used by WIs that are: advertising (information about product/brand) (35.71%); persuasion—added value to brand and product (42.62%); brand democratization (10.07%); and identity (8.03%). This study provides a novel contribution to the open innovation process of small and medium-sized wine industries for their marketing strategies.
... A strategic strategy to assess the strength of brand quality and the meanings consumers associate with the brand is to analyze customer perceptions of these brand qualities and advantages (F. F. Cheng et al., 2020;S. (Sam) . ...
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Open Access The importance of this study is discussed to determine the intensity of purchases resulting from cafe-relevant value, as well as the impact of brand awareness through e-wom. Two hundred forty-six respondents were used as coffee lovers in cafes, most used questionnaires and interviews as data collection methodologies. This study analyzed data from e-WOM-mediated path analysis on purchase intention using SEM-PLS multiple path analysis. The research findings have a positive relationship between cafe relevant value and brand awareness in influencing e-wom and a direct positive contribution between café-relevant value and brand awareness on purchase intention. So, it is proven that e-wom has the potential to increase the intensity of coffee purchases in cafes.
... Liu and Foreman (2019) posited that in UGC brand attitude was significantly impacted by physical attractiveness, emotions, product experience, and social influence. Cheng, Wu, and Chen (2020) postulated that customer brand engagement on social networking sites has a direct influence on brand attitude and it was found that customer brand engagement had a strong and positive impact on brand attitude. Langaro, Rita, and de Fátima Salgueiro (2015) evaluated the direct impact of a brand engagement or active brand page participation on brand attitude but the result was not significant whereas the indirect impact was significant with brand awareness as a mediator. ...
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User-Generated Content (UGC) has overshadowed other marketing trends and is a version of social proof. Current customer showcases their real-life experience and motivates potential customers to try these products and services. Building trust, creating community, customer engagement, loyalty, and social amplification are the denouements of UGC. This research investigates the impact of Brand Engagement (BE), Perceived Credibility (PC), Perceived Benefit (PB), and Information Quality (IQ) on attitude towards User-Generated Content (UGC). Also, how a consumer’s purchase intention is impacted by a consumer’s attitude towards UGC. The mediating effect of consumer’s attitudes towards UGC was also examined by this study. A sample of 260 consumers was collected in a structured survey for the analysis of data. To examine the hypothesized linkages between the mentioned variables, structural equation modeling was used. It was found that BE, PC, PB, and IQ have a positive effect on consumers’ attitudes towards UGC. Also, it was found that the consumer’s attitude towards UGC positively affected online purchase intentions. The Bootstrapping procedure shows that consumers’ attitude towards UGC possesses significant influence as a mediator between BE, PC, PB, IQ, and PI. The findings of this study can be useful for managers and marketers to enhance their understanding of the new marketing communication strategies.
... Fei Cheng, Shan Wu and Chieh Chen [14]. In papers written by Christian, Rotinsulu, and Jacky, they cite the opinion of Kotler (2008) which defines that loyal consumers are not measured by how much they buy, but from how often they make repeat purchases, including recommending other people to buy [15]. ...
... This study has measured facts of customer loyalty and online brand communities; the research has concluded the facts which have shown consumers' loyalty in online brand communities through Facebook. OBC can establish visions to build customer loyalty for various products, hence the study accepts the benefit of OBC for brand loyalties (Cheng et al., 2018). In another research that has been conducted about the role of generation in social media and brand loyalty to explore the influence of social media on brand loyalty; besides various factors, they measure the influence of OBC as one of social media aspects overlay on brand loyalty. ...
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Purpose – The aim of this research is to examine the impact of Social Media marketing on consumers’ brand loyalty in fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) markets. Design/methodology/approach – In this study, quantitative research techniques were used. Primary data of the study was collected through a self-administered Likert type online survey. 201 usable responses were collected from volunteer participants familiar with fast-moving consumer goods. The research model of study was analyzed with the help of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation model (SEM) techniques. Findings – The research has shown that two independent variables (Electronic Word of Mouth and Community Commitment) influence brand loyalty in fast-moving consumer goods markets. But no relationship has been found between the other two independent variables (Social Media Advertisement and Online Brand Community) and brand loyalty. Discussion – In order to sustain brand loyalty, brand owners are using various kinds of marketing techniques. In addition to these existing efforts, brand owners have started to give more importance to social media marketing. Social media marketing is a more effective and less expensive way of reaching customers. The relationship between social media marketing and brand loyalty has drawn attention of both academia and practitioners. To contribute to the existing literature, this study assessed the role of social media in building brand loyalty in Fast-Moving Consumer Good (FMCG) markets. This study assessed the influence of four different social media marketing factors (Online Brand Community, Community Commitment, Social Media Advertisement, and Electronic Word of Mouth) on brand loyalty.
... Vartotojų lojalumą lemia kainos ir kokybės santykis. Tai reiškia, kad kaina -vienas iš svarbių lojalumo veiksnių (Cheng et al., 2020;Kataria ir Saini 2019 Kasparavičiūtės (2018) kalbinta fotogrametrinės programinės įrangos gamintojų įmonės "Pixpro" rinkodaros vadovė Sabaitė pastebi, kad šiuolaikiniai vartotojai yra linkę apsvarstyti savo sprendimą pirkti vieną ar kitą prekę / paslaugą, taip pat tokie vartotojai mėgsta lyginti teikiamų produktų kainas bei technines ypatybes. Pucėtaitė (2019) pabrėžia, kad šiandieninis vartotojas renkasi konkretaus prekės ženklo prekes ar paslaugas, nes daugiau domisi savo pasirinkimu, tai yra ar produktas pasižymi jam tinkamomis savybėmis, ar kaina yra priimtina. ...
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To examine the opportunity of measuring bulk solids consumption the experimental setup was developed. The main problem was the presence of a non-harmonic signal at the output. Almost always there are some difficulties to build measuring circuits using non-harmonic signals. It is necessary to use one of the approximation methods to receive a wanted signal without noise. For this purpose, the local approximation method was chosen. The developed technique confirmed its positive aspects and allowed to solve the questions that were posed before the experimental setup.
... It is through consumer involvement that brands can create emotions and relationships with their customers (Barger, Peltier, & Schultz, 2016). Therefore, it is vital for companies to understand how they can better interact with their online community and what factors influence online consumer engagement (Cheng, Wu, & Chen, 2020). For a brand to be successful, it has to build relationships with customers. ...
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... The level of customer satisfaction is, thus, an accumulated result of all those experiences and interactions that a customer has during a buying process. There are many tools mentioned in the literature that elaborate the EL, but satisfaction is significant among all (Cheng, Wu, & Chen, 2018). Although, satisfaction is a vital element for a customer to be loyal but it does not ensure the loyalty among customers. ...
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... A major concern for marketers is strengthening the consumer-brand relationship (Cheng et al. 2020;Hajli et al. 2017). To achieve this, they increasingly launch and promote brand communities (Akrout and Nagy 2018;McAlexander et al. 2002). ...
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... Customer loyalty plays an important role in the long-term success of small and mediumsized enterprises in a globalized and fierce competitive environment. In this regard, Cheng, Wu and Chen emphasize that creating loyal customers is vital for business [1]. Moreover, some authors conclude that the acceleration of global economic integration and fierce business competition have challenged the ways in which customer loyalty is established and maintained [2]. ...
Article
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Research background: In the context of globalization and the increasingly competitive environment, customer loyalty plays an important role in the long-term success of small and medium-sized enterprises. Research by various authors has shown that loyalty is an important customer-oriented marketing tool and is directly dependent on customer satisfaction. Customer loyalty is highly influenced by the quality of the products, the applied price strategy and the good communication between enterprises and customers. Loyalty is the main aim of strategic enterprises marketing planning and is the key to retaining customers. The adoption and application of the loyalty approach in enterprises activity is a prerequisite for increase the trend of customers towards more frequent products consumption and enlarge their desire for more purchases. In connection with solving the problem of customer loyalty, researchers focus on its influencing factors and highlight as most important the following: satisfaction, trust, commitment, customer value and service quality. Purpose of the article: This report clarifies the peculiarities of customer loyalty and based on an analysis of the factors influencing it brings out the main problems of small and medium-sized enterprises in the field of trade in Bulgaria. Methods: The sources that were used include a questionnaire survey of 64 enterprises. The analysis and evaluation are based on statistical methods. Findings & Value added: The findings include identification of problems, related to the customer loyalty in small and medium-sized enterprises in the field of trade in Bulgaria. The study can be used as a model for analysis of customer loyalty in the trade sector.
... Barnard and Knapp (2011) proposed that "likes" on Facebook pages help escalate brand awareness and engagement levels, contributing to sales and investment. Engaged users will search for products related to the brand itself and are more likely to maintain their satisfaction and continue using brand-related products (Cheng et al. 2020). ...
... Emotional loyalty is the attitude of the consumer toward products, and the relationship between products is determined. If consumers have a good attitude toward the product, they will be emotionally loyal to it [37]. Intentional loyalty is the behavioral intention stage, while the final behavioral loyalty is the conversion of intention to action. ...
Healing perception is considered to increase visitors’ place attachment and loyalty. This research employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the structural relationship between healing perception, place attachment, environmental design, and visitors’ loyalty to a place. The study investigated a metropolitan park in Gaoxiong, Taiwan, and collected 431 valid questionnaires on the site. The results showed that the environmental design affected the human perception of healing and place attachment, which substantially affected the visitors’ loyalty toward the place. The healing perception powerfully impacted loyalty (0.76), which contained an indirect effect through place attachment and enhanced the direct impact of healing perception. Moreover, the environmental design had a capable direct effect (0.62) on visitors’ loyalty through two full mediation paths: healing perception and place attachment. The study sheds light on designing a healing park that could enhance visitors’ place attachment and strongly affect their loyalty to the park.
... This search for information has a significant role in determining their attitude regarding the advertisements on the web. But it is important that customers get the desired value otherwise they will not prefer to buy online (Cheng, Wu, & Chen, 2018) Social media advertising is naturally based on the text. And moreover it would be more acceptable for advertisers to involve the consumers in the advertisements advertised on social networking sites by including branded material (Hunt, 2018). ...
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The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of rational advertisement appeal on online branding within the context of Pakistan. Customer attitude is the moderator. The relationship between attitude of customers and online branding is also taken into consideration. Personal items and gadgets are two types of products considered in order to determine differences in purchases while being online. A quantitative survey based research design is used in this study. Nonprobability sampling technique of convenience sampling is used. Data were collected through an online questionnaire. 244 usable responses were obtained. Data was analyzed using SPSS 22. Factor analysis was performed followed by regression analysis and T-test. Results of data analysis revealed that a rational advertisement appeal is a significant predictor of online branding. Customer attitude did not moderate the relationship between rational advertisement appeal and online branding. However, customer attitude had a positive influence on online branding. There were some differences between the product types when consumers purchased online for personal items and gadgets. This study made an important contribution in the literature by investigation the effect of rational advertisement appeal on online branding.
... Due to the popularity of the network, resulting in a wide range of information dissemination and influence, the more people use the network, software, games, etc., the higher their value and the more users they can attract, and when the users of the site reach a critical majority, the effectiveness generated by each additional person is even greater. Cheng et al. [15] pointed out that critical mass is an important predictor of continued intention to use because users may perceive higher value as the number of web service users continues to grow. Lynne Markus [16] found that the critical mass of interactive Internet media is quite difficult to define, and proposed the concept of perceived critical mass, which suggests that when the number of participants in a system reaches the maximum number of perceived users, the users will be willing to use it. ...
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The purpose of this research is to determine whether users’ social interaction tie and trust have a mediating effect on the willingness to use the online healthcare community (OHC) platform on an ongoing basis to respond to food safety crises and monitor food safety practices. During the three-month survey, we conducted an online investigation of users who had experience sharing on the OHC platform and were concerned about food safety. Thereby, three hundred and fifty-two valid questionnaires were received and partial least squares was adopted in this study to test the proposed hypotheses. The empirical results show that perceived critical mass, image, and para-social interaction strengthen the social interaction tie between users and the food safety platform. In addition, this study found that social interaction tie and trust of OHC platform users increased users’ willingness to continue using the OHC platform. This research provides OHC platform managers with an in-depth understanding of online social interactions on food safety pages. Moreover, the results of this study can help food business owners, government regulators, hospitals, and physicians to improve the way they use the Web for opinion-led food safety crises and provide insight into the intent of promoting the ongoing use of OHC platforms.
... If virtual communities could provide high-quality information to users, they would be more likely to be recognized by users and attract new users. 43 Therefore, the following hypotheses are proposed: ...
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Background: Ubiquitous social media usage makes virtual communities important platforms for people to exchange knowledge and information. The long-term sustainable operation of the virtual community depends on the scale and activity of users in the virtual community. However, in existing virtual communities, the number of easily lost users far exceeds the number of loyal users with the high frequency of knowledge sharing, thus there is a community management need to improve the frequency of knowledge sharing and user loyalty. Methods: Based on the social capital theory and social exchange theory, this paper constructs a model of the influence of knowledge sharing on the loyalty and satisfaction of users in a virtual community and undertakes an empirical analysis based on survey data from 533 members of virtual communities. Results: The results showed that trust, reciprocity, and reputation positively affected the quantity and quality of knowledge sharing, while social connectedness only positively affected the quantity of knowledge sharing; the quantity and quality of knowledge sharing positively affected community loyalty and community satisfaction. Conclusion: This study takes the knowledge sharing of virtual community users as a new starting point to cultivate loyal consumers. It has important theoretical and practical value to improve the satisfaction of community users, cultivate loyal community users, and promote the knowledge sharing of members.
... The obtained results also reported the significant, positive impact of perceived critical mass on intention to use (H 4 ), which supported the findings of prior studies on communication technology (24) and Internet services (78). In previous studies, perceived critical mass was typically discussed as a pre-factor of trust (79) or satisfaction (80). The current study clearly enriched the practical and research significance on the influence of perceived critical mass. ...
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Technology plays an increasingly important role in our daily lives. The use of technology-based healthcare apps facilitates and empowers users to use such apps and saves the burden on the public healthcare system during COVID-19. Through technology-based healthcare apps, patients can be virtually connected to doctors for medical services. This study explored users' intention and adoption of eDoctor apps in relation to their health behaviors and healthcare technology attributes among Chinese adults. Cross-sectional data were collected through social media, resulting in a total of 961 valid responses for analysis. The hybrid analysis technique of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis was applied. The obtained results revealed the significant influence of eDoctor apps in terms of usefulness, compatibility, accuracy, and privacy on users' intention to use eDoctor apps. Intention and product value were also found to suggestively promote the adoption of eDoctor apps. This study offered practical recommendations for the suppliers and developers of eHealth apps to make every attempt of informing and building awareness to nurture users' intention and usage of healthcare technology. Users' weak health consciousness and motivation are notable barriers that restrict their intention and adoption of the apps. Mass adoption of eDoctor apps can also be achieved through the integration of the right technology features that build the product value and adoption of eDoctor apps. The limitations of the current study and recommendations for future research are presented at the end of this paper.
... Nearly everyone believes that customer loyalty is achieved with great quality. [25] investigate and recognize the favorable impact on customer loyalty of the process of creating quality of service. The impact on customer loyalty of service quality is confirmed by [26]. ...
... Customer satisfaction is explained as consumers' emotional responses regarding the comparison between product performance and customer expectations (Gamboa & Gonçalves, 2014: 713). According to the literature, customer satisfaction significantly affects brand loyalty (Nam et al., 2011;Song et al., 2019;Hew et al., 2016;Cheng, Wu & Chen, 2018;Han, Nguyen, Song, Chua, Lee & Kim, 2018;Pereira, Salgueiro & Rita, 2016;Gamboa & Gonçalves, 2014: 715), WOM (Verkijika & De Wet, 2019;Konuk, 2019;Ranaweera & Jayawardhena, 2014) and purchase intention (Bai, Law & Wen, 2008;Gamboa & Gonçalves, 2014: 713). Therefore, the following hypotheses have been established. ...
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This study to examine the effect of brand community integration and perceived benefits on community commitment as moderated by type of community. This study uses a quantitative approach with a hypothesis testing approach. The sample of this research is the automotive and sneaker communities. The data analysis used was SEM analysis using PLS software. Variable Brand Community Integration (x1) does not have the effect of significantly at variable community commitment (Y) and the perceived benefit (X2 ) effect is significant to the variable community commitment (Y). The study explains how importance of brand community integration and perceived benefits have a contribution to building brand community commitment. Companies can pay attention to community involvement in increasing their commitment to continue using the product. Besides, Members of communities will tend to pay attention to the benefits that they get to follow the community, It is can be used by companies to improve the provision of benefits to the members, and will give benefits for the company to increase the commitment of the customers.
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Using the theories of complexity and the spiral of silence, this paper aims to understand how combinations of perceived news, brand gender, and participation explain conditions leading to brand love and customers’ attitudinal loyalty within online contexts. Drawing from a two-stage, mixed-method approach, results indicate that passive participation and brand masculinity are necessary to increase love and attitudinal loyalty to a brand, while perceived news informativeness and entertainment, brand femininity, and active participation are sufficient but not necessary. The study offers theoretical and practical insights that may guide further research and strengthen marketing attempts to improve customer engagement with online fan pages.
Chapter
Online brand communities (OBCs) are gaining traction in the development of marketing strategy within the fashion industry, but it is unclear how the dominant group of users, the millennials, is responding to the prevailing and varying customer loyalty programmes. Traditionally, customers’ loyalty is measured by the volume of purchases. However, loyalty is not just based on the perceived materialistic and monetary gains a customer obtains. Loyalty also involves the strong feeling of support or allegiance that moves a customer to remain faithful with a brand despite the occurrence of a negative backlash on social media. However, customers do not have the same level of loyalty for a brand. Some even have more loyalty towards the OBC than to the brand itself. Based on the understanding that loyalty differs among groups of people within the same OBC, this chapter contributes to existing literature and provides a conceptual insight into how OBCs activate customers’ multidimensional loyalty intentions towards fashion brands. Based on customers’ experience within OBCs from the fashion industry, this chapter identifies different levels of loyalty towards fashion brands which can indicate millennial customers’ loyalty intentions. From this we can identify the diverse attitudes and actions that separate millennial customers into sub-groups based on their loyalty intentions.
Based on the environmental psychology theory, this research conceptualizes and investigates the dimensions of e-servicescapes, and examines how each dimension influences fitness application and wearable device users’ emotions, satisfaction, and behavioral intention to continuously work out via the technology. This study employed three waves of surveys within the United States to collect data (N = 343), and conducted a path analysis to rigorously assess the proposed paths between identified constructs. The empirical findings revealed the significant determinants of negative emotion (i.e., usability, security, customization, entertainment value, interactivity, originality of design, relevance of information, and social factors) and positive emotion (i.e., usability, customization, entertainment value, interactivity, and relevance of information). Also, satisfaction was significantly impacted by both positive emotion and negative emotion, and behavioral intention was significantly influenced by positive emotion and satisfaction. Based on these findings, this study suggests theoretical (i.e., classification of the e-servicescape dimensionality and integration of the environmental psychology theory with the two-factor theory of motivation, focusing on a digital environment) and practical implications (i.e., ways to increase levels of consumer satisfaction with the technology and intention to continuously exercise with the technology) for scholars and practitioners in the fitness and mobile application/wearable device industries.
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Industry and academic circles continue to attempt to label brand community behaviours, borrowing analogies from subcultures such as religion (“evangelists”), slang (“geeks, mavens, haters”), science fiction (“fanboys”), and science (“alpha”). Although sometimes used as generic terms, upon examination, these and other such labels, can define the spectrum of brand attachment in a specific way—through narrative, metaphor, and cross-cultural labelling. Such labelling is happening already. This chapter parses the current meaning of one term from another into a folksonomy, or classification system developed by those steeped in the culture. This segmentation enables further research into specific fan types, along with industry recommendations for approaching each segment based on the behavioural characteristic inherent in both the historic and common usage of the word. It also moves toward the standardisation of these terms in industry and academic circles in order to further enable a lingua franca relating to this phenomenon.
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The previous chapter discussed customer participation and involvement in online brand communities (OBCs). In this chapter, we continue to explore contemporary viewpoints on OBCs and how customers’ participation and their level of involvement lead to different types of loyalty. The chapter offers a conceptual schema based on the work of Ozuem, Willis, Howell, Helal, et al. (2021a), which will enable us to discuss how different layers of customer participation will lead to different types of loyalty intentions.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the relationship quality on customer loyalty. The moderating role played by online service recovery in this study is further discussed. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative Web-based survey study was conducted to statistically test these relationships among relationship quality, service recovery and customer loyalty. Data collected from 183 respondents were taken for analysis through partial least squares. Findings The findings reveal that relationship quality has significant influence on customer loyalty, whereas service recovery has moderated effect on the relationship between relationship quality and customer loyalty. Research limitations/implications The respondents of this study were recruited from online panels; thus, a purposive sample could be a biased indication of the characteristics of the actual population. Therefore, it is suggested that future researchers enroll subjects from a statistical population that accurately represents the entire population and, in addition, that they collect more responses to increase the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications Because failures in service delivery are inevitable, recovery of such encounters thus represents a significant challenge for service firms. Hence, this study proposes concrete suggestions for firms to manage and operate e-commerce websites, as well as to enhance relationship quality and customer loyalty. Originality/value Service failures have been the bane of e-commerce, compelling customers to either abandon transactions entirely or switch to a physical competitor. Many firms have realized the importance of maintaining strong relationships with customers to enhance their loyalty. However, previous literature has a few studies conducted on the relationships among service recovery, relationship quality and customer loyalty in the e-commerce context. Therefore, it is meaningful to identify these relationships.
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Due to the recent development in online shopping, the e-commerce business has experienced significant growth. However, in developing nations such as Pakistan, the concept of e-commerce is yet in its early stages, and there are several roadblocks to users using this platform. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the nexus between service quality (SQ), customer satisfaction (CS), customer complaints, and loyalty in the online shopping environment by integrating the SQ model with the American Customer Service Index (ACSI) model. A conceptual framework was created and evaluated using data obtained through a structured questionnaire (n = 296) from e-commerce users. In Smart-PLS v3, the author used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the study hypotheses. As per the study findings, reliability, responsiveness, trust, WD, and personalization are significant determinants of SQ. Meanwhile, in an e-commerce context, SQ is positively associated with CS, which leads to a reduction in customer complaints and an increase in customer loyalty. The results provide a birds-eye view to the managers to direct their spending scientifically to the variables that have the most significant influence on SQ and CS. It will assist current and prospective e-commerce retailers in gaining a thorough grasp of CS, complaints, and loyalty in their industry. Furthermore, the theoretical and practical contributions were discussed in this study.
Chapter
Planning marketing activities in online communities depends on the chosen strategy for using virtual communities.
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The electronic commerce (E-commerce) is a field that involved online enterprises which able to accurately predict the future needs from customers and had influenced on important economic included the social implications. The e-commerce also needed to deal with customer loyalty while dealing with customers’ changing consumption habits in brought out for adapting to the new situation while needed to modify their online business activities which because of the changing shopping attitudes. Thus, the online shopping must provide trending and satisfied experienced in order to keep the customers be loyal with e-commerce services. Based on this situation, the customer loyalty is compulsory to be maintaining regarding the fast changing technological evolutions trends which become the reason of customer changing habits. As mostly found based on literature review searching techniques, literature sources still lack in this area where the specific focus are more on data privacy and less focus on the perceived usefulness based on customers changing habits in enhancing the customers loyalty. Then, the guidelines which can deal with customers’ changing habits in maintaining the customer loyalty of the e-commerce business are needed. This paper is aims to develop a model which contains the factors for dealing the customers’ changing habits on e-commerce while parallel with the electronic loyalty (e-loyalty) in maintaining the customers’ loyalty attitudes. Those factors were been figured out by the analysis of literature review method and later be significantly implemented for the enhancement of knowledge regarding a new contribution on customer loyalty field for e-commerce platforms.
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