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Palm Sap Sources, Characteristics, and Utilization in Indonesia

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2018, Vol. 6, No. 9, 590-596
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Palm Sap Sources, Characteristics,
and Utilization in Indonesia
Teguh Kurniawan1,*, Jayanudin1,*, Indar Kustiningsih1, Mochamad Adha Firdaus2
1Chemical Engineering Department, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon, Indonesia
2Chemical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding author:;
Received August 15, 2018; Revised September 19, 2018; Accepted September 28, 2018
Abstract Sap from various species palm trees in which known as neera generally produced by traditional
technology in Indonesia. There are 5 well known palm species that produce Neera in Indonesia such as arenga palm,
coconut tree, doub palm, nipa palm and palm oil. Neera can be utilized as raw material for various derivatives such
as palm sugar, sweet palm toddy, and alcoholic toddy. Tapping of neera is a crucial step because neera prone to
immediately degrade and causing poor quality of palm sugar. Traditional sugar processing has some drawbacks for
example: low energy efficiency processing and off-specification products. On the other side, sugar palm neera has
important antioxidant component which benefits for human that unavailable in normal white sugar from sugarcane.
In this current review, characterization of neera from various palms in Indonesia and available technology on sugar
palm processing such as spray dryer and membrane ultrafiltration will be discussed.
Keywords: neera, palm sugar, antioxidant, spray dryer, membrane
Cite This Article: Teguh Kurniawan, Jayanudin, Indar Kustiningsih, and Mochamad Adha Firdaus, Palm
Sap Sources, Characteristics, and Utilization in Indonesia.‖ Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, vol. 6, no. 9
(2018): 590-596. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-6-9-8.
1. Introduction
Sugar consumption in Indonesia approximately reaches
5.7 million metric in 2016/2017 which mainly supplied
from sugarcane [1]. White sugar for non-industry consumption
is produced from local sugarcane plantation. To protect
local sugarcane from imported sugar, raw sugar for industrial
purpose is imported and refined further in local factory.
Typical Indonesia‘s sugarcane contains at least 9% sucrose
which is lower than sucrose content of sugarcane crop in
Brazil, i.e., 14% [2]. Sugarcane is a seasonal plant and
could be harvested once a year in summer season during
April to October in which reaches maximum sucrose content
and easier to transports from field to the factory.
Indonesia as a tropical country has many species palm
trees like coconut, arenga, doub palm, nipa and palm oil.
Most of the palm trees has multipurpose function that are
important for local people [3]. They gain benefits from its
root to the top of the tree. Sugar also could be made from
palm sap named ‗neera‘. Yet, sugarcane production still
dominating sugar production and consumption in Indonesia.
From the ecological perspective, palm trees are important
because they are able to grow on marginal and on also
landslide area.
In this writing, a review of various palm sugar in
Indonesia will be covered including: sap tapping technique,
traditional palm sugar production, and promising advanced
technology to improve palm sugar quality.
2. Sugar Crops in Indonesia
According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
there are two main sugar crops in the world: (1) sugarcane
and (2) sugar beet. In Indonesia, sugar is produced
primarily from sugarcane. In fact, Java, one of big island
in Archipelago of Indonesia, is the second largest
producer-exporter of cane sugar after Cuba in the early
twentieth century under occupation of the Netherland [4].
Beside Sugarcane, Indonesia has traditionally produced
sugar palm and other neera derivatives products from
various palm sugar tress as presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Sugar palm in Indonesia
Sugar palm species
Products of palm sap
Area of plantation (ha)
Arenga palm (Arenga pinnata)
Jaggery, granulated palm sugar, sweet toddy, palm toddy
[5, 6]
Coconut tree (Cocos nucifera)
Jaggery, granulated palm sugar
[6, 7]
Doub palm (Borassus flabellifer)
Jaggery, granulated palm sugar, sweet toddy, palm toddy
[6, 8]
Nipa palm (Nypa fruticans)
Jaggery, granulated palm sugar, sweet toddy
[9, 10]
Palm oil (Elaeis guineensis)
[6, 11]
591 Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
Figure 1. (a) Jaggery, a traditional product of palm sugar, is produced by open pan evaporation technique (b) granulated palm sugar (c) syrup
Jaggery is a traditional sugar brown in color made by
open evaporation without centrifugation of neera derive
from arenga palm, coconut tree, doub palm and nipa palm.
Recently, Palm oil is also exploited for its sap from the
old trunk palm oil. Some local farmer use arenga leaf to
wrap the jaggery and tie several pieces of jaggery with
bamboo rope (Figure 1a). Jaggery is the main product of
neera. Another product of palm sugar involving granulated
sugar and syrup depicted in Figure 1b and 1c, respectively.
The granulated sugar and syrup were recently produced by
local farmer in order to diversify the sugar palm products.
The palm sugar is not only producing sugar but also
other products such as sweet palm toddy (Figure 2a and
2b) and palm toddy (Figure 2c). Sweet toddy is a fresh
neera extract whilst Palm toddy is a fermented Neera that
usually contains alcohol. Neera from Arenga pinnata
called as lahang in West Java and it is quite popular in the
past (Figure 2a). Nowadays, lahang is rarely found in big
city because of limited number of Arenga tree in urban
area. The fresh sap from Borassus flabellifer called as legen
in East Java (Figure 2b). Fresh neera gives a pleasant
flavor which comes from chemical compound such as ethyl
lactate, 3-hyroxy-2-pentanone, and ethylhexanoate [12].
Figure 2. Beverages made of palm sap (a) sweet toddy of Borassus
flabellifer (b) sweet toddy of Arenga pinnata (c) Toddy of Arenga
Palm toddy are mostly found in non-muslim population
area such as in North Sumatera and North Sulawesi. Tuak
is a local name for palm toddy in North Sumatera whereas
in North Sulawesi, people called it as saguer. The ethanol
concentration of traditional palm toddy is within the range
of 5-10% v/v [13]. The palm toddy gives a unique flavor
that come from 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (earthy), acetoin
(buttery), ethylhexanoate and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline [12].
Sap of palm trees contains different total sugar
concentration depend on the species. Each palm tree has its
own characteristic of sap production way as presented in Table 2.
2.1. Arenga Pinnata
Arenga pinnata has many local name from east to west
of Indonesian Archipelago such as sageru (Maluku), seho
(Manado), nau (Timur), maoke (Flores), kalotu (Sumba),
Nao (Bima), Pola (Sumbawa), hano (Bali), aren (Jawa,
Madura), kawung (Sunda), hanau (Kerinci), poula
(Mentawai), peto (Nias), bargot (Mandailing), ijuk (Gayo),
pola atau paula (Karo), bagot atau agaton (Toba), dan bak
juk (Aceh) [21]. The various local name of Arenga pinnata
in Indonesia indicates that this tree is a multipurpose plant.
The root extract usually made as a tea to cure bladder
stones; insect repellent and erosion control. The core trunk
is rich with starch. Black fibers of arenga is well-known
for its strength rope. The leaves are used for house roof
whereas the unversed leaves utilize as cigarette additive.
Meanwhile, the fruit served as a dessert [3].
Arenga‘s sap containing sucrose between 10 and 20%
that is ideal to produce sugar. The sap also can be directly
feed for pig which practiced traditionally in two
Indonesian small islands, Roti and Savu for centuries [22].
Neera is easy to be spoiled and deteriorated by
contamination of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The pH of
neera will be below of seven because of acid produced by
microorganism activity. Preservation of neera could be
performed traditionally by adding lime and stem bark of
Jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus) [23]. Before
tapping the palm sap, farmers usually beat the stalk by
wooden mallet to improve the yield of palm sap [24].
Table 2. Palm sap characteristics of various palm trees in Indonesia
Palm species
Age of tree ready for
tapping [years]
Sap production life
span [years]
Sugar content in
palm sap (%)
Arenga pinnata
Several years
Cocos nucifera
20 years
Borassus flabellifer
30 to 100
Nypa fruticans
Elaeis guineensis
10 to 15
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 592
2.2. Cocos Nucifera
Coconut tree is also traditionally exploited for its neera
which contains mainly sucrose. One example of coconut
sap from Malang, East Java, contained 70.85% sucrose,
3.00% glucose and 2.92% fructose [25]. Coconut sap is
the raw materials for various products i.e. palm syrup,
palm jaggery, palm honey, palm candy, chocolate toffees
and confectionery items, molasses, coconut vinegar, neera
soft drink, neera cookies, neera chocolate, and neera sweet
[26]. The coconut palm sugar product should have a
proper packaging. Sutthachaidee suggested that the
packaging of coconut sugar coffee spoon should meet 5
criteria [7]. First, the designs should accommodate the
sense of local natural resources and cultural wisdom,
second the design should be simple for production; third,
the designs should have low prices; fourth, the designs
should be attractive, pleasing and unique, and lastly, the
designs should be moveable for travelers, appropriate as a
souvenir, and the packages should be designed for ease of
distribution and transportation.
The technique of tapping palm sap is similar for arenga,
coconut, doub palm and nipa palm except for the palm oil
which extracted sap from its trunk (Figure 3). The coconut
sap obtained by cutting the inflorescence stalk of a
coconut tree which is usually done in the afternoon;
cleaning and beating the stalk for producing high quality
coconut sap; attaching a bamboo tube to store the sap and
afterward, collecting it for the next morning.
Figure 3. Tapping palm sap of (a) Arenga pinnata (b). Cocos nucifera (c)
Borassus flabellifer (d) Nypa fruticans and (e) Elaeis guineensis
2.3. Borassus Flabellifer
Palm sap quality of Borassus flabellifer are vary depend
on genetic and metabolite characteristics of the tree,
environment factors, the collecting time, microbial load,
personal hygiene and sanitary equipment. The microorganisms
possibly become significant factor on quality of palm sap
because they use sugar as substrate to produce organic
acids and ethanol. These organic acids cause the inversion
reaction whilst ethanol has unpleasant flavor of palm sap
Reshma et. al. [8] has successfully extract
2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-methylacetophenone, nicotinamide, and
uracil of palmyra palm syrup by using chloroform and
butanol. The 2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-methylacetophenone is
exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity that used as
antibacterial against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus
aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Staphylococcus
2.4. Nypa Fructicans
Nipah is one of Arecaceae species which growths in
swamp area and estuary. The fruit have bunch similar like
fruits of palm oil with hard skin and brown color. Nipa is
spread out in Indonesian along with mangrove. Nipa also
has many local name such nipah (Java), buyuk (Bali),
bhunyok (Madura), bobo (Menado, Ternate, Tidore),
boboro (Halmahera), and palean (Moluccas).
The nipa sap production is within the range of 0.4 to 1.0
L/(day.palm) with sugar contents vary from 15% to 21%
(w/w). Timing for tapping is very important. Palms
typically are tapped for 38 to 63 days per tapping season
which equals to 2 or 3 cycles and makes tapping could
only be done from 80 to 180 days per year [9]. Päivöke
reported that nipa could be tapped until 100 days per year
for a life span of more than 50 years, yielding a maximum
of 1.3 L/day per palm of sap [28]. The result confirmed by
Tamunaidu investigation that the 100 years nipa yield 0.3
to 1.4 L/day [9].
In South Kalimantan, traditionally palm stalk was
shaked for 15-20 days before sap tapping. The palm stalk
was cut with angles 30 45o facing down to avoid
exposure direct sunlight. Each container sap was wrapped
by lime with concentration of 1.5 g/liter sap. The nipa sap
tapping was carried out in the morning and the afternoon
[29]. The nipa sap then crystallized into granulated brown
2.5. Elaeis Guineensis
Sugar extracted from palm oil of Nigeria contains 9.6 to
10% sucrose [11,22]. The tapping of palm oil sap in
Nigeria is quite similar with any palm sugar tree that is by
cutting the inflorescence flower [20]. Typically, oil is the
only product of palm oil. Zahari reported that pressed oil
palm frond (OPF) juice contain sugar of glucose (71%),
sucrose (27%), and fructose (2%). By using a simple
sugarcane press, 50% (wt/wt) of OPF juice was obtained
from fresh OPF [30].
Figure 4. Extracting sugar from oil palm frond and fermenting into
The sucrose content of OPF juice is quite low, while
glucose content is very high. Instead of making sugar from
OPF juice, it is much easier to convert sucrose and
glucose into ethanol via fermentation process [31].
Extracting sugar from oil palm frond and fermenting into
alcohols as presented in Figure 4 is ideal solution to utilize
the OPF juice. Development of sap compression system is
critical to obtain high yield of OPF juice [32].
593 Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
Recently, palm sap also had produced from palm oil.
However, the source of sap is not from male inflorescence
but from the felled palm oil trunk [33]. Local farmer
tapping the sap from its fell trunk in replanting period.
Usually after 20 years, palm oil needs to replant by cutting
down the old palm oil tree and replant with the new
one which taking time within the range of 30-40 days.
The produced sap then processed to produce jaggery.
This new method potentially applied to increase sugar
production from palm oil plantation which is the largest in
the world.
3. Traditional Sugar Production
The typical processing of sugarcane to produce white
sugar utilized by modern methods like sulphitation and
carbonation followed by evaporation, crystallization and
centrifugation. However, these process removes almost all
antioxidant containing in the juice along with other
impurities. On the other hand, simple handling of palm
sugar processing done by heating in a large pan for several
hours until crystallized sugar occur could preserve the
antioxidant components in traditionally produced sugar.
Generally, the process of sugar making for all palm sap or
neera is similar [7,24]. The collected neera then filtered by
sheet cloth and pouring into large pan. Afterward, neera
cooked for 3-4 hours to high concentration of brown sugar
that indicated by very viscous appearance. Afterward, the
hot sticky brown sugar pouring down into mold made of
bamboo, wood, or coconut shell. The sugar will be
cooling down and hardened after 1 hour and ready for
Traditional sugar processing produce sugar with brown
color because of browning and Maillard reaction (Figure
6). High temperature and long heat treatment on the open
pan evaporator favored the browning and Maillard
reaction [34,35]. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds
and antioxidant properties of date syrup become decreased
after high temperature treatment [36]. The disadvantage of
using an open pan evaporator lead to a higher sucrose
inversion and hydroxymethylfurfural formation with less
glucose and fructose. On the contrary, a vacuum
evaporator runs under lower temperature than open
evaporator could reduce the sucrose inversion [18].
Figure 5. Traditional palm sugar processing
4. Spray Dryer for Sugar Production
The method of palm sugar processing can affect its
characteristics and quality. Conventional method that has
been used to produce palm sugar causes palm sugar to be
dark brown and taste slightly bitter. The darkening
phenomenon is occurred because of high temperatures
operation which leads to caramelization. Another negative
effect is the loss of active components due to palm sap
degradation. Selection of the right technology is required
to improve the quality of palm sugar. One of that has been
promising method is spray drying.
Spray drying is a process to convert liquid into solid
granules (Figure 7a) that has the advantage of maintaining
good product quality in just a little time. Derivatives palm
sugar from spray drying also has low water content and easier
to be stored [37]. Spray drying widely used in the food
industry to make food powder because of its effectiveness
in optimal conditions. The operating conditions that
mainly affect the process are the drying air temperature,
feed rate that highly depend on product characterization,
such as particle size, color, bulk density, moisture content,
and nutrient content [38]. Temperature become the most
important parameter of spray drying in which causes a
higher level of evaporation of moisture, higher porosity
and lower bulk density of dried powder [37].
Figure 6. High temperature and a long cooking time leads to sugar browning
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 594
Figure 7. Applying technology on sugar processing (a) spray dryer (b) membrane ultrafiltration.
The weakness of producing sugar using spray drying is
stickiness on the drying wall or changes to unwanted
agglomeration in the drying chamber, and low product
yield [39]. Sticky powder occurs due to cohesion-adhesion
that can be explained in terms of adhesion between
particles (cohesion) and particle-surface walls (adhesion).
The forces which make powder particles stick to each
other are called internal or cohesive properties that further
form a powder lump. On the other hand, adhesion is an
interfacial property that makes particle powder stick to the
spray dryer wall surface. Both cohesion and adhesion
force is a major parameter in designing a spray dryer that
is responsible for the stickiness problem [39]. Factors that
cause the stickiness of palm sugar production using a
spray dryer are high hygroscopicity, thermoplasticity and
low glass transition temperature (Tg) of low molecular
weight substances [39].
Several methods can be used to minimize stickiness
problem, one of the way is to increase the glass transition
temperature by adding materials that have high molecular
weight and using cold air at the bottom of vessel [39].
Ingredients that have high molecular weight including
maltodextrin, whey, casein, and soy protein. The function
of proteins is to modify the surface of droplets and
particles because proteins tend to migrate to water
molecule interface within air from droplets which are
atomized further and form protein films on drying that
overcome the stickiness of sugar proteins. The film will
convert a thick glass-like layer during the drying process.
The study reported by Adhikari et al [40] found that
addition of 0.5-1% sodium caseinate and whey protein to
sucrose would minimize stickiness. Operating conditions
of the spray dryer was 160oC for inlet temperature and
70oC outlet. The added protein composition could convert
crystalline sucrose into an amorphous form. The presence
of protein can improve powder recovery from 0% (pure
sucrose) to 80% (protein addition). This happens because
proteins are able to migrate to the air-droplet interface
which driven by surface activity. Such thin layer occurs as
protein-rich films quickly after contact with drying air.
Thus, a film then changes to a glass condition and
overcome the stickiness between each particles and
particles with a wall that increased by temperature
transition from the surface layer [40].
Spray drying is able to protect the sap component from
unfavorable ambient conditions, minimize the loss of
antioxidant content, total phenolic, amino acid content,
and sugar content of palm sap [41]. Antioxidant content
and the total phenolic content of palm juice using a
spray dryer were 26.81-28.74% and 5.82-5.83mg/100g
5. Membrane Technology
The sugar industry is one of the food industries that
have the most energy-intensive processes. Therefore,
membrane technology has been extensively investigated
by scientists in the past decade to increase the process
efficiency in sugar processing (Figure 7b). Membrane
filtration technology has been maintained in the sugar
industry because of the improved quality and
pre-treatment efficiency to produce value-added products.
The sugar industry research organization, commercial
manufacturing and membrane supplier company also
sugar milling company have been actively involved in
developing pilot plant utilization of membrane filtration in
the sugar industry [42, 43].
Several process areas in the sugar industry use
membrane systems, such as treatments of juice after
liming with ultrafiltration (UF), treatment of liquid
thickness after evaporation with UF, treatment of molasses
using Electrodialysis (ED) or UF, and utilization of raw
materials with UF [42]. The raw material for juice
contains impurities such as salt, acid, protein and pectin.
Colloidal impurities and some organic acids and ferri- and
magnesium hydroxide can be deposited by CaO.
Ultrafiltration membranes can be used before liming to
remove compounds with high molecular weight content.
Another function is that it can reduce the use of CaO [44].
Membrane technology that is widely used in the food
industry is the ultrafiltration membrane. This type of
membrane can be used to concentrate solution while also
providing separation process such wise to retain natural
juice constituents like sugar, vitamins, volatile aroma
profiles, and improve microbiological quality of permeate
[45]. The concern of using membranes is fouling. Fouling
can affect the effectiveness of microfiltration and filtration.
595 Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
Several studies reported no fouling problems during
classification of raw juice with a tangential rate of 4 m/s
and no pre-treatment needed to achieve the same level
achieved by conventional processes [46]. The use of
ultrafiltration membranes can also affect raw materials to
products in order to reduce sugar levels in sap and saps
permeate syrups. The content of sucrose decreases and
also causes loss of the pectin content of permeate. From
the energy analysis the use of ultrafiltration membranes
significantly decreases the heating and cooling area [45].
Heating process is one of the key comparisons between
ultrafiltration and conventional method. Research conducted
by Makhlouf-Gafsi, et al [47] regarding the comparison
between thermal processes with ultrafiltration were
analyzed on several parameters, including: for sugar
and protein content, both thermal and ultrafiltration
processes decreased. The total phenolic content for the
thermal process was higher than that of ultrafiltration
(354.3 vs. 328.36 mg GAE / mL of total polyphenols)
whereas the antioxidant activity of thermal process
was lower compared to ultrafiltration (3.76 ± 0.07 vs
4.93 ± 0.08 (IC50 (mg/mL))). The antimicrobial ratio
between thermal processes with ultrafiltration depends on
total phenolic content which means that antimicrobials
with a thermal process are higher than the ultrafiltration
One type of ultrafiltration membrane that widely used
in the food industry is ceramic membranes. Ceramic
membrane is one of the most important inorganic
membranes. The main types of ceramics used for the
manufacture of filtration membranes are refractory oxides
including: alumina, zirconia and titania. Nonetheless, a
number of other ceramic materials such as cordierite,
mullite, silicon nitride, silica and borosilicate glasses are
suitable for the production of ceramic membranes. One of
the advantages of using ceramic membranes is their
endurance in order able to withstand hard operating
conditions in terms of pH, temperature, pressure and
chemical stability. Ceramic membranes can be produced
with different geometries such example: flat, tubular,
multichannel or monolithic geometries. Ceramic membranes
have been used successfully for the food industry [48].
The membrane material used for the sugar industry is
material that is resistant to temperatures between 70-90°C.
Polymer membrane was not possible to reach high
temperature levels. Therefore, the right material for this
process is the ceramic membrane that has good resistance
to high temperatures as well as flow rates and high
pressure [49].
6. Future Directions
Palm sugar has huge potency to supply sugar demand
of Indonesia while also reducing dependency of imported
sugar. Arenga palm, coconut, and doub palm have already
been exploiting for its sap and many other products.
Indonesia is the largest palm oil producer in the world
with 12.3 million hectares palm oil plantation with
production 17 ton of fresh fruit bunches per hectares [50].
Palm oil sap that familiarly as neera is potential to exploit
as one of raw materials for sugar production which have
not exploited yet up to now.
Introduction advanced technology for sap tapping is
critical to preserve sucrose from spoilage and deterioration.
Like using sterilization technique, put some ice to provide
low temperature during tap sapping, are simple technique
yet could improve the quality of palm sap [14]. Membrane
has offered an attractive technique to reduce water content
with lower energy supply than the evaporator technique.
The membrane technology could improve the energy
efficiency in sugar industry.
7. Conclusions
Various sugar palm in Indonesia are potential for
alternative sugar resource instead of the sugarcane. For
particular ecology perspective, many benefits could be
taken by planting sugar palm. The sugar made of palm sap
through traditional method contain more antioxidant
which is healthier than the commercial white sugar made
of sugarcane in factory. Palm sap tapping method is
critical aspect for determining the quality of sugar because
the sap is very sensitive and easy to deteriorate into other
substances. Introducing advanced technology on sugar
processing to improve sugar quality could be achieved by
using spray dryer and membrane technology. New
products could also be developed by these advanced
technologies such as white healthy sugar and liquid
colorless sugar in which could make farmer in village
improve their prosperity.
The authors acknowledge the funding provided by
IDB-UNTIRTA under project no.593/UN43.9/PL/2018.
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... This is poured into a coconut, wood or bamboo mold. The sugar cools and hardens within 1 hour [20]. ...
... Also, hydroxyl methyl furfural is formed. The taste of the sugar formed is a little bitter [20,24]. ...
... It also comes in contact with heated air. Operating parameters that strongly affect palm sugar formation process are feed rate, inlet and outlet temperature, drying air temperature, colour of particles, size of particles, bulk density, nutrient and moisture content [20,24]. Figure 3 illustrates an overview of palm sugar preparation via spray drying technology. ...
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Palm sap sugar is a sweetener which is made from the sap or nectar collected from different varieties/species of palm trees. It has huge scope as an alternative sweetener in Indian market. It is a natural alternative to unhealthy cane sugar and is more beneficial for farmers as well. Some of its characteristic features are low GI value and its macro (Glucose: 0.49–86.90 g/100 ml, Fructose: 0.26–1.61, Sucrose: 5.30–27.00 g/100 ml) and micro (K: 65.28–1326.0, Na: 2.85–117.5, Mg: 0.54–31.00, Ca: 0.24–79.00 mg/100 ml) nutritional content. Palm sugar also has impact on colour, aroma and taste profile of the final product. The taste, sensory profile and nutritional attributes of palm sugar vary on the basis of its species, region of growth and climatic conditions. At present, traditional processing of palm sap leads to lower yield and higher expenses. There is huge potential in the field of development in processing techniques (Traditional processing, spray drying, membrane technology, and vacuum drying) to optimize the production of palm sugar. Palm sugar and other products from different parts of palm can be used to make a variety of other value-added products like toffees, chocolates, cola, toddy wine, candy, and palm vinegar etc. The purpose of this review paper is to summarise the composition of palm sap, distinctive qualities of the extracted sap, various production procedures, nutritional and physico-chemical properties of palm sugar, and the development of functional foods using palm sugar.
... The number of extractable nipa peduncle or stalks per hectare varies depending on the type and location of nipa stands, as reflected in the study conducted by Hidayat [13]. Likewise, the bioethanol production and sap yield range from 20.45 to 136.65 liters of bioethanol per hectare per day based on 0.5 to 2.0-liter of sap that can be extracted from nipa palm [17]. The ethanol yield is 8.95-15% [13]. ...
... It appeared from field interviews of the sap collectors, also known as "kappatero" or "mag tatata," that sap collection from one peduncle ranges from 1 liter to 2.5 liters using bamboo vessels, also known as "tokil." The sap yield, when reconciled to the reported sap yield of 0.2-2 liters [17] in the study conducted by Kurniawan et al. (2018) and to the study conducted by Garba et al. (2019) for a maximum sap yield of 1.0, 1.7, and 2.5 liters per day per palm for the low, medium, and high yield scenarios, respectively [18] in Nigeria appeared to have similarities based on the villager's interviews in Barangay Cabaggan. The initial report of the study paved the way for the first hydrous bioethanol production in Pamplona from 2018 to 2019. ...
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The bioethanol demand in the Philippines does not correspond with the available supply for the E10 and E20 requirements of the Philippine Biofuels Act. This paper aims to introduce Nypa fruitican as an additional bioethanol feedstock for the country. In Pamplona alone, more than 1000 ha of nipa stands can produce an additional 720,000–1,008,000 liters of bioethanol if 30% of these naturally grown nipa stands are tapped for bioethanol production based on 5–7% alcohol yield. In the Philippines, there are 8000 ha of reported nipa stands. In the Pamplona experience, more than 100,000 liters of sap were collected and processed as hydrous nipa bioethanol by four community partners in three different barangays using the Mariano Marcos State University village-scale reflux distillation facility and technologies. The hydrous ethanol produced in Pamplona was dehydrated in the distillation facility of Far East Alcohol Corporation on August 22, 2019, and marks the first nipa bioethanol distillation in the Philippines, suggesting that nipa is a technically viable feedstock despite the challenges encountered during this experience.KeywordsNipa SapHydrous bioethanol productionPamplona experience
... Other Indonesians also use the sap to ferment it into a sweet alcoholic beverage. The drink is known as tuak in North Sumatra Province, Indonesia, and has the local name saguer in North Sulawesi Province (Kurniawan et al. 2018). Fermentation of nipa to be used as an alcoholic beverage is generally found in areas with a non-Muslim majority population. ...
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Nugroho GD, Wiraatmaja MF, Pramadaningtyas PS, Febriyanti S, Liza N, Naim DM, Ulumuddin YI, Setyawan AD. 2020. Review: Phytochemical composition, medicinal uses and other utilization of Nypa fruticans. Bonorowo Wetlands 10: 51-65. Nypa fruticans Wurmb or “nipa/nipah” is a palm plant in mangrove ecosystems along tropical and subtropical river estuaries affected by tides. Nipa has a high abundance in the mangrove forest ecosystem. Therefore, knowledge and utilization of this nipa plant need to be sought and examined more deeply to optimize its utilization. This review aims to find out the phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, and other utilization of nipa plants. The main phytochemical composition of nipa is polyphenols, phenolics, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins. However, other chemical compounds such as ethyl acetate, chloroform, hexane, triterpenoids, phenol hydroquinone, diterpenes, and steroids are still available. The many chemical compounds in nipa can be used as raw materials in a product, especially in modern medicines. Based on people's beliefs in several tropical countries that nipa has the potential of herbal medicine to treat fever, gout, kidney stones, energy booster, aid digestion, as a cure for certain chronic diseases and metabolic syndromes such as diabetes and hypertension, treat asthma, leprosy, tuberculosis, sick throat, liver disease, snakebite, as a pain reliever, and also be used as a sedative and able to expel excess wind in the body. Then in the pharmacological aspect, nipa has antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial (antifungal and antibacterial), anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antihyperglycemic and analgesic activities. In addition to other benefits outside of drugs, nipa is used as a roof for houses, cattle pens, huts in the garden, broomsticks, handicrafts, fishing gear, food and drink sources, and sources of renewable fuel.
... Warna dalam hasil penelitian ini memiliki warna khas sirup nira aren yang sering dijumpai dalam keseharian di lingkungan pengolahan sirup nira aren. Lebih lanjut, pencoklatan pada sirup nira disebabkan karena adanya karamelisasi semakin lama waktu pemanasan maka akan didapatkan warna sirup yang lebih gelap (Kurniawan et al., 2018) Reaksi maillard adalah reaksi yang terjadi antara asam amino dengan gula pereduksi apabila dipanaskan bersama-sama menghasilkan senyawa melanoidin (Karseno et al., 2017). Warna cokelat yang dihasilkan dari reaksi karamelisasi dan maillard memiliki jenis yang berbeda berdasarkan jenis gula, jenis asam amino, suhu dan lama pemanasan (Patel et al., 2013;Agustini et al., 2017;Troise, 2019). ...
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One of the industrial-based uses of palm trees is the manufacture of palm sap syrup. This study aims to determine the effect of pandan leaves on the quality of palm sap syrup in terms of color, taste and smell. The research was carried out at the Minaesa Institute of Technology campus laboratory in Tomohon City. In this study, the population was 5 bottles of palm sap syrup using pandan leaf treatment consisting of 0 g control variables and independent variables (30 g, 40 g, 50 g, and 60 g). The generated data is processed by using statistical analysis of Completely Randomized Design. The results showed that the treatment of pandan leaves addition to palm sap syrup with an average sugar content of 60% which was stored for 45 days obtained the value from the organoleptic test (sensory analysis} of 2.85 to 3.4 (from ‘moderately like’ category to ‘like’ category). This study concluded that the addition of 30 g of pandan leaves is preferred by the panelists with a value of 3.0 to 3.7 for color, taste and smell (from ‘moderately like’ category to ‘like’ category).
... (Indahyani, 2011;Limantara, Suyono, & Subiyanto, 2020;Maulana, 2018;Mahfud, & Purabaya, 2021). Even though Indonesia is the largest coconut producer in the world, the utilization of coco coir is still very low so that the added value of the product is low (Kurniawan, Kustiningsih, & Firdaus, 2020;Stolle, et al., 2003).This is evident from the high production of coconut, which is around 15 billion grains per year, but Indonesia is only able to supply 10% of the world's need for coconut coir with a production of 50 tons per year, while nationally the use of coconut coir is only 3.2% of the total production. Many efforts have been made by both the government and non-government institutions, such as the collaboration between the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs with the Indonesian Coconut Industry Association (AISKI) in facilitating the marketing of processed coconut coir products for cooperatives, micro, small and medium enterprises (KUMKM). ...
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This community service program aims to increase community creativity in utilizing the natural resources available in the surrounding environment into useful and beneficial things, especially for the people in Tanah Tengah Village, Palakka District. The strategy used to achieve this goal is through a series of activities starting with field observations, conducting interviews and approaches to housewives who love ornamental plants (flowers), directing them to collect coconut husks around them so that later they can processed into useful things and reduce spending on buying flower pots that are displayed in various places, especially in the market. In addition, increasing creativity in processing coconut coir into flower pots can make local communities have space to open businesses in increasing economic income for the welfare of families and communities so that later they need continuous assistance to produce products that are of interest to various groups of people (taking into account the feasibility of being used as a business). ). Marketing activities are carried out by advertising products on various social media that are needed at all home scales with various product displays (mats and coconut fiber ropes, etc.) that are friendly to the environment and good for the growth of various ornamental plants, especially orchids and open-pore plants.
... Various types of palm sugar in Indonesia have the potential as an alternative source of sugar besides sugar cane (Kurniawan et al., 2018) and many areas in Indonesia that have great potential in the development of the palm sugar industry, one of which is Banyumas Regency. Palm sugar production in Banyumas Regency continues to increase. ...
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Palm sugar is one of the potential commodities in Indonesia, especially in the Banyumas Regency. This commodity has been marketed domestically and also exported to various countries. Its success cannot be separated from the marketing strategy carried out by the palm sugar industries. The purpose of this study was to determine the strategy of segmentation, targeting, and marketing mix of the palm sugar industries in Banyumas Regency. The method used is a qualitative research which is analyzed with an interactive model. The results of this study indicate that there are similarities in marketing strategies in segmentation strategies, targeting between industries and slight differences in marketing mix strategies.
... Over the years, various kinds of processing fruit and its by-product has been studied to increase farmer's income, value development of agro-waste, minimize production losses, or introduce new products to the market (Kurniawan et al., 2018;Nurfaillah, et al., 2018;Guirlanda et al., 2021;Rahardjo, et al., 2022;Tlais et al., 2020). ...
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The pulp of the cocoa fruit still has not economically viable yet. Its potency to be processed into fruit syrup is expected to increase its value added. Local sugar from palm and canes is still traditionally utilized to produce brown sugar. This study aimed to make fruit syrup by utilizing cocoa pulp and local sugar sources in West Sumatra with several variants (palm sugar, sugarcane, and market white sugar). The effects of sugar concentration on the quality of the syrup were also studied. Sensory evaluation by the hedonic method was performed and statistical analysis data were carried out using SPSS. Microbiological analysis and shelf-life testing also have been done. The results of this study showed that respondents preferred syrup with palm sugar to sugarcane because of its light brown color and distinctive sweetness. The microbiological test reported that the syrup could only be consumed for less than the 5th day in a sealed glass bottle if it was placed at room temperature. Meanwhile, the syrup placed in the refrigerator (5 0C) could keep until the 5th day
Preface The 2022 8th International Conference on Advances in Environment Research (ICAER 2022) was held successfully during April 22–24, 2022. The conference fosters communication among researchers and practitioners working in various scientific areas with a common interest in improving advances in environmental research. Many researchers, engineers, academicians, and industry professionals worldwide presented their research results and development activities. This conference was initially to be hosted offline in Singapore. However, due to the spread of COVID-19, the complexities of the pandemic among the many countries involved, and the strict entry-exit management of the local government, the conference committee decided to hold ICAER 2022 as a virtual conference. In the context of the normalization of the epidemic, ICAER 2022 online mode can effectively guarantee safety, arouse the enthusiasm of participants, and increase attendance due to the restrictions of the pandemic. The ICAER 2022 proceedings are a collection of outstanding submissions from universities, research institutes, and industries. The papers were peer-reviewed by conference committee members and international reviewers. The manuscripts selected depended on their quality and their relevancy to the conference. This volume intends to present advances in environmental research and related areas, such as environmental science and technology, environmental dynamics, global environmental change and ecosystems, soil decontamination, environmental sustainability, health and the environment, and environmental dynamics. We express our deepest gratitude to all authors for their effort in preparing papers. We thank the organizing committee, reviewers, speakers, chairpersons, and sponsors for their valuable advice in the organization and helpful peer review of the papers. Georgetown, SC, USA James T. Anderson
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Waste is a by-product resulting from a process. Waste if disposed of freely without prior processing can harm the surrounding environment. Proper waste management makes waste more friendly to the environment. There are even several categories of waste that can be reused. A sugar factory is a company that processes sugar cane into crystal sugar that can be used for cooking. At the sugar factory, there are problems that occur, namely the absence of waste processing that is produced as a by-product of the production process. Therefore, in this research, the design of by-products of the sugar production process is carried out. after the waste treatment design was made in the sugar factory, parameters such as pH, BOD, COD, TSS, Oil and Fat, Sulfide, which was previously harmful to the environment, has met quality standards after processing.
The worldwide food sweetener market is projected to be valued at more than 100 billion dollars by the end of this decade, with the Asia-south Pacific region witnessing the highest market share growth. However, with increased awareness about the health hazards associated with the regular consumption of artificial sweeteners and ultra-processed cane sugar, the demand for natural, minimally processed, organic alternatives has also witnessed a surge. Palm jaggery is one such product. Made from the sap of the Palmyrah palm tree, this jaggery is believed to be a suitable alternative to sugar in all forms of food. This review provides a comprehensive look at all the advances made in the production and characterization of palm jaggery and its allied products. The review highlights the research carried out to understand the health benefits associated with consuming palm jaggery and palm candy.
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Production of granulated sugar from sap of nipa palms in South Kalimantan Province is a new innovation. The purpose of this study was to find out the chemical compounds contained in granulated sugar made from sap of nipa palms growing in 3 different places, which was expected to benefit wider community as a source of alternative sweetener. The chemical compound test of granulated nipa palm sugar was conducted at the Laboratory of Institute for Research and Standardization of Industry, Banjarbaru. Chemical parameters tested were water, sucrose, reducing sugar, fat, protein, phosphorus, and potassium content. The test results showed that the water content of granulated nipa palm sugar in treatment A<sub>1</sub>, A<sub>2</sub>, and A<sub>3</sub> was 3.69%, 4.04%, and 2.31%, respectively; the protein content 0.65%, 2.19%, and 1.10%; the fat content 0.27 %, 0.34 %, and 0.20 %; the reducing sugar content 2.39%, 0.51%, and 0.52%; the sucrose content 75.14%, 68.15%, and 88.46%; the phosphorus content 1.1342%, 1.1196%, and 1.138%; and the potassium content 1.60%, 1.40%, and 1.58%, respectively. The test parameters of granulated nipa palm sugar that met the Mandatory Indonesia National Standard (SNI) 01-3743-1995 were the water content of granulated sugar from sap of nipa palms growing in dry place (land), the reducing sugar content and sucrose content in all treatments. It can be concluded from the three required parameters that granulated nipa palm sugar is able to become the source of new sweetener in addition to block arenga palm sugar and crystal cane sugar for the community in South Kalimantan.
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Sugarcane juice was spray-dried under various conditions to determine the most suitable drying conditions for the manufacture of sugarcane juice powder. Initially, fresh, 30°Brix and 50°Brix sugarcane juice samples were dried in a laboratory-scale spray dryer at an air-drying temperature between 130°C and 170°C using maltodextrin, Arabic gum and dietary fiber as drying aids. It appeared that sugarcane juice should be concentrated under vacuum to 30°Brix and added with at least 15% maltodextrin before drying at 170°C in order to obtain dried powder product with a low drying cost. After conducting the experiments in the laboratory, sugarcane juice powders were produced in a factory using an industrial-scale spray dryer under five drying conditions. It was found that the energy cost of industrial-scale production of sugarcane juice powder ranged between 0.77 USD and 2.06 USD per kg of powder. According to the results of the industrial-scale experiments, the sugarcane juice powder should be produced using vacuum evaporation of the sugarcane juice to 30°Brix prior to adding maltodextrin at 30% by weight and then spray drying at 190°C.
The effect of ultrafiltration process and temperature concentration on MRPs content and antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of date palm sap syrups were investigated. MRPs were analyzed by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by reducing power and DPPH free radical and H2O2 scavenging activities. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method. In vitro cytotoxic activity was examined by cell proliferation assay. Date sap syrups displayed strong antioxidant activities which are correlated 5HMF and 2F contents. In addition, concentration at 100 °C, unlike ultrafiltration process, enhanced significantly the antioxidant activities sap syrups and total phenolic contents. The antimicrobial activities showed marked activity against S. enterica, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes with an inhibition zone of 21, 34, 27 and 34 mm respectively. Cytotoxicity assays showed that sap syrups can inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cell lines at high concentration.
The first report on isolation and characterization of 2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-methylacetophenone (1), nicotinamide (2), and uracil (3) from palmyra palm syrup is described. Total phenolic content (TPC) and Total flavonoid content (TFC) of palm syrup were 244.70 ± 5.77 (mg gallic acid/kg of syrup) and 658.45 ± 27.86 (mg quercetin/kg of syrup), respectively. Compound 1 exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 20.02 ± 0.14 μM which was better than ascorbic acid (IC50 = 22.59 ± 0.30 μM). Compound 1 also showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus simulans.
As we know, the sugar technologists are being under pressure to eliminate the industrial pollution, upgrading the quality of sugar with optimizing the energy consumption. This requires modification of the conventional production process using new techniques such as membrane technology. Membrane technology is currently a standard process in food and dairy industry, water purification, treatment of liquid effluent streams, and in the corn refining industry. In the few last years, researches have proven that the membrane technology could hold great promise in reducing energy usage, reduction, or elimination of chemical clarification and improved final product quality. This paper reviews the potential application of membrane filtration to the sugar technology. © 2015, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. All rights reserved.
This study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. All the studied syrups switched from pseudoplastic rheological behaviour (n = 0.783) to Newtonian behaviour (n ∼ 1) from 10 to 50 °C respectively and present similar thermal profiles. Results revealed that the ultrafiltration process significantly affects the rheological behaviour of the male and female syrups. These differences on rheological properties are attributed to the variation of chemical composition between sap and sap permeate syrups. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on viscosity of the syrups was investigated during heating and cooling processes at the same shear rate (50 s−1). This study provides idea of the stability of the syrup by evaluating the area between heating and cooling curves. Actually, the syrup prepared from male sap permeate is the most stable between the four studied syrups.
Palm trees have proved to be efficient converters of solar energy into biomass in most agro-ecological zones of the tropical world. Most tapped palm trees gives a sap very rich in sugar (10 to 20%). For several millennia, many species of palm trees (including coconut) have been used for sugar production. Highly sophisticated techniques of tapping were developed through the centuries in Asia, Africa and America. High yields of sugar were obtained from palms that could continue for up to a hundred years of production. One of the main constraints on production in recent times has been the increasing lack of fuel needed for processing palm sap into sugar and the price thereof. Nevertheless, since trials of feeding pigs with fresh sugar palm sap were successfully initiated in an FAO project in Cambodia, there has been renewed interest in tapping palm trees for sap to be used as feed. A thorough review of the literature has shown that intensive pig rearing based on palm sap has already been practised by the Indonesians for centuries and was found to be a very efficient system for intensifying agriculture in some highly populated islands. In today's economy, developing animal production using palm sap as the main source of energy in the diet looks very promising: the land could sustain higher population densities through the intensification of crop and animal production within sustainable integrated systems for small farmers.