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Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is the most common form of violence suffered by women and constitutes a serious public health problem of global proportions. Public attitudes towards IPVAW are key to understanding the social context in which this type of violence occurs. Victim-blaming attitudes are among those that reflect public tolerance and acceptability of IPVAW and are often used to explain or justify IPVAW. In this study we develop and validate a new instrument to assess victim-blaming attitudes in cases of IPVAW. A sample of 1,800 participants was recruited through social media and a second sample of 50 IPVAW offenders was used for validation purposes. Through a cross-validation approach and by fitting an item response theory model to the data, we found that the latent structure of the instrument was one-dimensional and particularly informative for medium and high levels of victim-blaming attitudes. Differential item functioning analysis showed that item parameters did not differ by gender. We found, in addition, that (a) our measure was strongly related to acceptability and perceived severity of IPVAW, and also to ambivalent sexism, (b) men presented higher levels of victim-blaming attitudes than women, and (c) IPVAW offenders showed higher levels of victim blaming-attitudes than men from the general population. A five-item short version of the scale is also presented for use in studies with limited application time or space. Our findings confirm that this new scale is a reliable and valid measure to assess victim-blaming attitudes in cases of IPVAW.
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Psychosocial Intervention
Psychosocial Intervention (2018) 27(3) 133-143
Cite this article as: Martín-Fernández, M., Gracia, E., & Lila, M. (2018). Assessing victim-blaming attitudes in cases of intimate partner violence against women: Development and
validation of the VB-IPVAW scale.
Psychosocial Intervention, 27,
133-143. https://doi.org/10.5093/pi2018a18
ISSN:1132-0559/© 2018 Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Assessing Victim-Blaming Attitudes in Cases of Intimate Partner Violence
against Women: Development and Validation of the VB-IPVAW Scale
Manuel Martín-Fernández, Enrique Gracia, and Marisol Lila
University of Valencia, Spain
http://journals.copmadrid.org/pi
Funding: This research was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry, and Competitiveness (PSI2017-84764-P). Manuel Martín-Fernández was supported by a re-
search scholarship from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (BES-2015-075576). Correspondence: manuel.martin@uv.es (M. Martín-Fernández).
Psychosocial Intervention
Editor
Enrique Gracia
Associate Editors
Fernando Chacón
Manuel García-Ramírez
Marisol Lila
Gonzalo Musitu
Douglas D. Perkins
Vol. 27. No. 1, April 2018
ISSN: 1132-0559
Consejo General
de la Psicología
ESPAÑA
ARTICLE INFO
Article history:
Received 14 December 2017
Accepted 18 May 2018
Keywords:
Victim blaming
Attitudes
Intimate partner violence
Item response theory
Measurement
Violence against women
ABSTRACT
Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is the most common form of violence suffered by women and constitutes
a serious public health problem of global proportions. Public attitudes towards IPVAW are key to understanding the social
context in which this type of violence occurs. Victim-blaming attitudes are among those that reflect public tolerance
and acceptability of IPVAW and are often used to explain or justify IPVAW. In this study we develop and validate a new
instrument to assess victim-blaming attitudes in cases of IPVAW. A sample of 1,800 participants was recruited through
social media and a second sample of 50 IPVAW offenders was used for validation purposes. Through a cross-validation
approach and by fitting an item response theory model to the data, we found that the latent structure of the instrument
was one-dimensional and particularly informative for medium and high levels of victim-blaming attitudes. Differential
item functioning analysis showed that item parameters did not differ by gender. We found, in addition, that (a) our
measure was strongly related to acceptability and perceived severity of IPVAW, and also to ambivalent sexism, (b) men
presented higher levels of victim-blaming attitudes than women, and (c) IPVAW offenders showed higher levels of victim-
blaming attitudes than men from the general population. A five-item short version of the scale is also presented for use in
studies with limited application time or space. Our findings confirm that this new scale is a reliable and valid measure to
assess victim-blaming attitudes in cases of IPVAW.
Evaluación de las actitudes de culpabilización de la víctima en casos de violen-
cia de pareja contra la mujer: desarrollo y validación de la escala VB-IPVAW
RESUMEN
La violencia de género es la forma más común de violencia que sufren las mujeres y constituye un grave problema de salud
pública de proporciones globales. Las actitudes públicas hacia la IPVAW son clave para entender el contexto social en el que
se produce este tipo de violencia. Las actitudes que culpabilizan a las víctimas son aquéllas que reflejan la tolerancia pública
y la aceptabilidad de la IPVAW y que con frecuencia se emplean para explicar o justificar ésta. En este estudio desarrollamos
y validamos un nuevo instrumento para evaluar las actitudes de culpabilización de la víctima en casos de violencia de género.
Se reclutó una muestra de 1,800 participantes a través de las redes sociales y se utilizó una segunda muestra de 50 hombres
condenados por violencia de género con fines de validación. Mediante un enfoque de validación cruzada y ajustando un
modelo de teoría de respuesta al ítem a los datos, encontramos que la estructura latente del instrumento era unidimensional
y particularmente informativa para niveles medios y altos de culpabilización de las víctimas. El análisis del funcionamiento
diferencial del ítem mostró que los parámetros del ítem no difirieron por género. Además, encontramos que (a) nuestra
medida estaba fuertemente relacionada con la aceptabilidad y percepción de gravedad de la violencia de género, y también
con el sexismo ambivalente, (b) los hombres presentaban niveles más altos de culpabilización de la víctima que las mujeres,
y (c) los hombres condenados por violencia de género mostraron niveles más altos de culpabilización de la víctima que los
hombres de la población general. También se presenta una versión corta de cinco ítems de la escala para su uso en estudios
con tiempo de aplicación o espacio limitado. Nuestros resultados confirman que esta nueva escala es una medida fiable y
válida para evaluar las actitudes de culpabilización de la víctima en casos de violencia de género.
Palabras clave:
Culpabilización de la víctima
Actitudes
Violencia de pareja
Teoría de respuesta al ítem
Medición
Violencia contra las mujeres
134
M. Martín-Fernández et al. / Psychosocial Intervention (2018) 27(3) 133-143
Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is the most
common form of violence suffered by women (Devries et al., 2013;
Garcia-Moreno, Jansen, Ellsberg, Heise, & Watts, 2006; Stockl et
al., 2013) and constitutes a serious public health problem of global
proportions (Ali & Naylor, 2013; World Health Organization - WHO,
2013 ) with important consequences for women’s physical and
psychological well-being (Campbell, 2002; Craparo, Gori, Petruccelli,
Cannella, & Simonelli, 2014; Ellsberg, Jansen, Heise, Watts, & Garcia-
Moreno, 2008). The estimated prevalence of IPVAW in high-income
countries is 23.2% (WHO, 2013). According to the European Union
Agency for Fundamental Rights’ (2014) survey, in the European
Union, lifetime prevalence of IPVAW is 22%, ranging from 13% to 32%
across countries (Gracia & Merlo, 2016).
Public attitudes towards IPVAW are key to understanding the social
context in which this type of violence occurs (Carlson & Worden,
2005; Copp, Giordano, Longmore, & Manning, 2016; Flood & Pease,
2009; Gracia & Lila, 2015; Waltermaurer, 2012). According to Gracia
and Lila (2015), IPVAW “is a complex phenomenon that needs to be
understood within the wider social context and within the social
and cultural norms that permeate it. Public attitudes and responses
regarding violence against women reflect these norms and play an
important role in shaping the social climate in which the violence
occurs” (p. 13). Researchers increasingly acknowledge the importance
of paying attention to attitudes towards IPVAW, as they are linked,
for example, to IPVAW incidence, victims’ help-seeking behavior, or
public and law enforcement responses (Browning, 2002; Faramarzi,
Esmailzadeh, & Mosavi, 2005; Fernández-González, Calvete, & Orue,
2017; Gracia, Garcia, & Lila, 2011, 2014; Gracia, Herrero, Lila, & Fuente,
2009; López-Ossorio, González-Álvarez, & Andrés-Pueyo, 2016;
López-Ossorio, González-Álvarez, Pascual, García, & Buela-Casal,
2017; Rizo & Macy, 2011; West & Wandrei, 2002).
Victim-blaming attitudes are among those that reflect public
tolerance and acceptability of IPVAW and are often used to explain
or justify IPVAW (Gracia, 2014; Gracia & Tomás, 2014; WHO, 2002).
Victim-blaming attitudes influence not only public responses
and willingness to intervene in known cases of IPVAW, but also
perpetrators and victims’ responses. Victim-blaming attitudes held
by people surrounding the victims may not only foster and facilitate
perpetrators’ behaviors, but also make it more difficult for victims
to disclose the violence, and to seek and receive help from both
informal and formal sources (Ansara & Hindin, 2010; Garrido-Macías,
Valor-Segura, & Expósito, 2017; Gracia et al., 2018; Liang, Goodman,
Tummala-Narra, & Weintraub, 2005; Valor-Segura, Exposito, & Moya,
2011; Voith, 2017; West & Wandrei, 2002).
The availability of reliable and valid measures of victim-blaming
attitudes in cases of IPVAW is essential for research and intervention
purposes (Gracia & Lila, 2015; Muehlenhard & Kimes, 1999; Powell &
Webster, 2018; Santirso, Martín-Fernández, Lila, Gracia, & Terreros,
2018). Previous research has addressed the measurement of victim-
blaming attitudes in cases of IPVAW, although some of these measures
have drawbacks and/or limitations. In some cases, these instruments
only consider violence as physical assault among married couples
and ignore other significant forms such as psychological or emotional
violence (Jackson et al., 1994; Petretic-Jackson, Sandberg, & Jackson,
1994). Other measures were validated only in samples of college
students and are not easily generalized to large populations (Fox &
Cox, 2011; Scott & Strauss, 2007). Some instruments are based only
on vignettes describing a single case (Koepke, Eyssel, & Bohner,
2014; Vidal-Fernández & Megías, 2014; Yamawaki, Ostenson, &
Brown, 2009) or are exploratory studies that require further research
to establish their psychometric properties in larger and more
representative samples (Fox & Cox, 2011; Yun & Vonk, 2011). Some
instruments included subscales assessing victim-blaming attitudes
in cases of IPVAW, but were designed to be used with male IPVAW
offenders (Henning & Holdfold, 2006; Henning, Jones, & Holdfold,
2005; Lila, Gracia, & Herrero, 2012; Lila, Oliver, Catalá-Miñana,
Galiana, & Gracia, 2014). Finally, large population survey data on
victim-blaming attitudes in cases of IPVAW are not usually based
on measurement instruments with adequate evidence of reliability
and validity (Gracia & Lila, 2015). Psychometrically sound measures
are clearly still needed to assess victim-blaming attitudes in cases of
IPVAW, both in research settings and for large population surveys.
The Present Study
The present study aims to fill this gap in the literature by
providing a reliable, valid self-reported measure of victim-
blaming attitudes in cases of IPVAW: the VB-IPVAW. To this end,
we developed a scale to measure victim-blaming attitudes based
on the pool of items identified in Gracia and Lila’s (2015) review.
We sought to adapt and validate this measure following a cross-
validation approach, and subsequently fitting an item response
theory (IRT) model. IRT models have been increasingly used for
personality and attitudinal measures, since they allow researchers
to improve their psychological instruments by studying the quality
and suitability of individual items (Glockner-Rist & Hoijtink, 2003).
In this regard, IRT models allow researchers to test whether item
responses are affected by the respondent’s belonging to a certain
group (e.g., gender). In addition, a short version of the VB-IPVAW
is also prepared for cases in which time and/or space are limited
(e.g., large demographical surveys). We will assess the validity
of this new measure of victim-blaming attitudes by exploring its
relationships with other related constructs that are also linked
to IPVAW, such as acceptability of IPVAW, perceived severity of
IPVAW, sexist attitudes, and socio-demographical characteristics—
i.e., gender and age differences—(Bryant & Spencer, 2003; Capezza
& Arriaga, 2008; Gracia & Tomás, 2014; Koepke et al., 2014; Scott
& Straus, 2007; Taylor & Sorenson, 2005; Yun & Vonk, 2011). In
addition, for validity purposes we will compare the scale scores
of male respondents from the general Spanish population and a
sample of offenders court-mandated to an intervention program
for IPVAW batterers. Male offenders are expected to show higher
levels of victim-blaming attitudes, which they tend to use to justify
their behavior (Lila, Gracia, & Murgui, 2013).
Method
Sample
Data was collected from a sample of participants recruited
through social media and e-mail snowballing. Previous studies have
shown that these sampling methods are effective and cost-efficient
(for systematic reviews see Thornton et al., 2016; Topolovec-Vranic
& Natarajan, 2016). We recruited a total pool of 2,698 respondents
(67.6% of the respondents were women). To balance the sample by
gender, a random sample from the total pool of respondents that
maintained a similar ratio of male and female participants was used.
The final sample was composed of 1,800 participants (92.7% with
Spanish nationality), aged from 18 to 75 years old (
M
age = 34.24,
SD
age
= 14.41) of whom 52.8% were women. We divided the sample into
two subsamples of 900 participants with similar ratios of gender, age,
nationality, and educational level categories. The socio-demographic
information of the sample is displayed in Table 1.
We also recruited a second sample of 50 male IPVAW offenders
who had been court-mandated to attend an intervention program.
The mean age of the sample was 39.84, and their ages ranged from
21 to 69 years old. Most of the offenders had completed compulsory
secondary education (86%).
135
Assessing Victim-Blaming Attitudes
Table 1. Socio-demographics of the General Sample (
N
= 1,800)
N
%
Sex
Women 950 52.8
Men 850 47.2
Age
18-24 724 40.2
25-54 877 48.7
55+ 199 11.1
Nationality
Spanish 1,665 92.7
Immigrant 135 7.3
Educational level
Compulsory 276 15.3
Upper Secondary 502 27.9
University: Undergraduate 394 21.9
University: Postgraduate 628 34.9
Instruments
Victim-Blaming Attitudes in cases of IPVAW (VB-IPVAW). A pool
of 60 items referring to victim-blaming attitudes was selected from a
review of European surveys on violence against women (Gracia & Lila,
2015). These items were translated into English from their original
language by European experts in the field of IPVAW who provided
the survey data for the review. A panel of six IPVAW experts was
asked to assess the relevance of each item in the pool (Lynn, 1986;
Polit & Beck, 2006). The experts rated the relevance of the items on
a 5-point Likert-type scale (i.e., “Is this item relevant to measure
victim-blaming attitudes in cases of IPVAW?”; 1 =
strongly disagree
,
5 = s
trongly agree
). We selected those items with an average rating of
4 (i.e., the
agree
category) or above to construct a 13-item measure.
The items were translated into Spanish by the authors of the review.
Respondents were asked to indicate their level of agreement with the
item statements on a 4-point Likert-type scale (1 =
strongly disagree
,
4 =
strongly agree
). The complete VB-IPVAW is shown in Appendix 1.
Acceptability of IPVAW (A-IPVAW; Martín-Fernández et al., 2018).
The A-IPVAW scale is composed of 20 items in which respondents
rate the acceptability of a set of men’s behaviors towards their
female partners (e.g., “It is acceptable for a man to hit his partner
if she has been unfaithful”). Responses were gathered on a 3-point
Likert-type scale (0 =
not acceptable,
1 =
somewhat acceptable
, 2
=
acceptable
). This instrument was cross-validated in the general
Spanish population and showed an adequate internal structure,
as well as validity evidence based on its relationship with other
variables, such as perceived severity of IPVAW or ambivalent sexism
(Martín-Fernández et al., 2018). The A-IPVAW showed a good internal
consistency in the general sample (Cronbach’s α = .89).
Perceived Severity of IPVAW (PS-IPVAW; Gracia, García, & Lila,
2009). The PS-IPVAW scale posits eight IPVAW scenarios (e.g., “A
couple is having a quarrel; he insults her and threatens to beat her
up”). Respondents were asked to rate the severity of each scenario
(ranging from 1 =
not at all severe
, to 10 =
extremely severe
). This scale
presents adequate psychometric properties and has been validated
in the general Spanish population and also with police officers and
IPVAW offenders (Gracia et al., 2011, 2014). The scale has been related
not only to attitudes toward IPVAW, such as victim-blaming attitudes
and acceptability of IPVAW (Gracia & Tomás, 2014; Martín-Fernández
et al., 2018), but also to sexism, personal responsibility, and empathy
(Lila, Gracia, & García, 2013; Vargas, Lila, & Catalá-Miñana, 2015). This
instrument showed a good internal consistency in the general sample
of this study (Cronbach’s α = .89).
Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996). We used
the Spanish version of the ASI (Expósito, Moya, & Glick, 1998). This
instrument includes two subscales, hostile and benevolent sexism,
each composed of 11 items. Hostile sexism is conceptualized as
attitudes of discrimination and prejudice against women based on
the assumption of women’s inferiority (e.g., “Women are too easily
offended”). Benevolent sexism reflects men’s views of women as
week and needing protection (e.g., “Women should be cherished
and protected by men”). The ASI has been adapted and validated in
more than twenty countries (Glick et al., 2000; Glick, Sakall, Urgurlu,
Ferreira, & Aguilar de Souza, 2002) and has also shown to be strongly
related to IPVAW responsibility attribution, with attitudes towards
intervention in IPVAW cases among police officers, and with
acceptability of IPVAW (Gracia, et al., 2014; Lila et al., 2013; Martín-
Fernández et al., 2018). The internal consistency of both subscales
was good in the general sample (Cronbach’s α = .88 and .89 for
hostile and benevolent sexism, respectively).
Procedure
The online survey included the VB-IPVAW scale, the PS-IPVAW
scale, and the ASI. The survey remained open for a recruitment
period of four weeks in November and December 2016. A message
providing information about the study and calling for participation
was posted on various social media groups. Informed consent
information was provided and was implicit in the agreement to
participate in the on-line survey. Participation was anonymous.
Data Analyses
The following analyses were conducted to evaluate the
psychometric properties of the VB-IPVAW. Descriptive statistics of
the items, corrected item-test correlations, and internal consistency
were computed for the whole sample. The latent structure of the
scale was assessed following a cross-validation approach by splitting
the general sample in two subsamples, each of 900 participants. An
exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out to identify a latent
variable model for the scale items in the first subsample. This model
was then replicated in the second subsample using confirmatory
factor analysis (CFA).
Before conducting the EFA, we tested the suitability of the dataset
with the Bartlett’s sphericity test and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO)
statistic. Then a parallel analysis based on minimum rank factor
analysis using polychoric correlations was computed (Timmerman
& Lorenzo-Seva, 2011). This method has performed well in testing
the number of factors to extract for a categorical EFA (Garrido, Abad,
& Ponsoda, 2013, 2016). The parallel analysis uses Monte Carlo
simulation to generate randomized datasets similar to the empirical
dataset. Ranked factor analysis is used to compute the percentage
of variance explained by a series of different factorial models (i.e.,
one-factor model, two-factor model, three-factor model, etc.) in the
random datasets; the mean and the 95th percentile are obtained.
When the percentage of variance explained by a given factor model
in the empirical data is below the percentage expected for that model
in the simulated datasets, the model is adding more factors than
needed. We therefore looked for the minimum number of factors
needed to explain more variance in the empirical data than in the
random datasets.
We conducted an EFA using weighted least squares with adjusted
means and variances (WLSMV) as the estimation method, since it is
more robust for ordinal and categorical data (Asparouhov & Muthén,
2010). Model fit was assessed using a combination of fit indices: the
comparative fit index (CFI), the Tucker Lewis index (TLI), the root
mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), and the standardized
root mean square residual (SRMR). CFI and TLI values greater than
.95 are indicative of good model fit (Hu & Bentler, 1999), whereas
SRMR values lower than .08, and RMSEA values lower than .06 are
136
M. Martín-Fernández et al. / Psychosocial Intervention (2018) 27(3) 133-143
considered good fitting models (MacCallum, Browne, & Sugawara,
1996).
We replicated the results yielded by the EFA by conducting a CFA.
The WLSMV was again used to estimate the CFA model, and model fit
was evaluated using the same fit indices and their cut-off values (CFI
& TLI ≥ .95, RMSEA ≤ .06).
After evaluating the latent structure of the scale, we fitted an
item response theory (IRT) model for the whole sample. IRT provides
improved factor score estimates and does not assume constant
measurement precision. These two aspects of IRT allow researchers
to identify which levels of the latent trait are better assessed by
an instrument (Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, & Williams,
2001). Given the ordinal nature of the data, the graded response
model was selected (Samejima, 1969). The model was estimated
using the MHRM algorithm (Cai, 2010) and model fit was assessed
with the same combination of fit indices and their aforementioned
cut-off values (CFI & TLI ≥ .95, RMSEA ≤ .06). Maydeu’s M2 statistic
for ordinal variables was used to compute these indices instead of
other chi-square approximations for ordinal variables, as this statistic
was developed specifically to assess the overall fit for IRT models
(Maydeu-Olivares & Garcia-Forero, 2010; Maydeu-Olivares & Joe,
2006). The test information function was obtained and the IRT scores
(i.e., the person parameters of the model) were used for the validity
analyses.
To establish whether the VB-IPVAW is invariant across gender,
we conducted a differential item functioning (DIF) analysis for
polytomous data using the logistic regression method (Choi, Gibbons,
& Crane, 2011; French & Miller 1996). DIF occurs when the probability
of endorsement of an item category is not the same for male and
female respondents with an equivalent IRT score, meaning that men
and women respond differently to the item. If DIF is detected for
an item, then the item parameters should be recalibrated for each
subgroup in order to obtain a comparable IRT score.
We assessed the VB-IPVAW scale validity for the whole sample. To
this end, we first correlated the IRT scores (i.e., estimates of victim-
blaming attitudes) with the A-IPVAW scores, the PS-IPVAW scores,
and the hostile and benevolent sexism scores from the ASI. We then
compared the VB-IPVAW scores between age groups and gender for
the general sample, and between men from the general sample and
from the male offenders sample.
Finally, we used the automated test assembly (Diao & van der
Linden, 2011) procedure to create a shortened version of the scale
with the most informative items measuring higher levels of the latent
trait. Through this procedure, a minimum number of items that meet
criteria established by the researchers are selected for inclusion in
the shortened version. We selected the items that most accurately
measure higher levels of victim-blaming attitudes.
Descriptive statistics, classical internal consistency, and IRT
analyses were computed with the statistical package R (R Core
Team, 2017). Specifically, we used the psych (Revelle, 2016), the
mirt
(Chalmers, 2012), the
lordif
(Choi et al., 2011), and the
lpSolveApi
libraries (Konis, 2016). The parallel analysis was conducted with
the
factor
package (Lorenzo-Seva & Ferrando, 2006), whereas the
EFA and CFA analyses were carried out with Mplus 7.1 (Muthén &
Muthén, 2010).
Results
Descriptive Analyses and Reliability
The mean, standard deviation, range, skew and kurtosis statistics,
and item-total corrected correlations are displayed in Table 2. All
items present a mean centered in the lower category (i.e.,
strongly
disagree
), with standard deviations around 0.50, positively skewed
and with high values of kurtosis. This implies that most of the
respondents disagree with the statements. Regarding item-total
corrected correlations, all items were strongly related with the
scale raw scores, except the last item, which was removed from the
scale for this reason. The scale showed good internal consistency
(Cronbach’s
α
= .89).
Table 2. VB-IPVAW Items Descriptive Statistics
MSD
Min Max Skew Kurtosis
r
item-total
vb-ipvaw1 1.38 0.64 1 4 1.61 (.02) 1.94 (.02) .60
vb-ipvaw2 1.23 0.49 1 4 2.23 (.01) 5.56 (.01) .74
vb-ipvaw3 1.22 0.55 1 4 2.80 (.01) 8.32 (.01) .59
vb-ipvaw4 1.21 0.47 1 4 2.58 (.01) 8.07 (.01) .71
vb-ipvaw5 1.19 0.45 1 4 2.72 (.01) 8.94 (.01) .73
vb-ipvaw6 1.21 0.49 1 4 2.63 (.01) 7.97 (.01) .64
vb-ipvaw7 1.15 0.41 1 4 3.14 (.01) 12.09 (.01) .69
vb-ipvaw8 1.73 0.77 1 4 0.83 (.02) 0.10 (.02) .37
vb-ipvaw9 1.25 0.55 1 4 2.45 (.01) 6.41 (.01) .63
vb-ipvaw10 1.20 0.50 1 4 2.80 (.01) 8.87 (.01) .68
vb-ipvaw11 1.29 0.55 1 4 2.11 (.01) 5.04 (.01) .58
vb-ipvaw12 1.12 0.38 1 4 3.64 (.01) 16.10 (.01) .61
vb-ipvaw13 2.19 1.09 1 4 0.30 (.01) -1.34 (.01) .08
Note. M
= Mean;
SD
= standard deviation; Min = minimum; Max = maximum;
r
item-total = item-total corrected correlation. The standard error for the skew and
kurtosis statistics are presented in parenthesis. vb-ipvaw = VB-IPVAW item.
Exploratory Factor Analysis
We carried out an EFA with the first subsample. Bartlett’s
sphericity test was significant (
p
< .001) and the KMO index was
acceptable (KMO = .939), indicating that the matrix was suitable to
perform a factor analysis. The parallel analysis based on minimum
rank factor analysis showed that a one-factor solution accounted for
74.2% of the variance, above the expected 20.8% for the simulated
datasets. However, a two-factor solution accounted for only 6.9% of
the variance, below the expected 14.5% for the simulated datasets.
A one-factor solution was therefore considered for the EFA. We then
extracted one factor using the polychoric correlation matrix and
the WLSMV estimation method. The model converged normally
and the model fitted the data well (CFI = .99, TLI = .98, RMSEA =
.051, SRMS = .038).
Confirmatory Factor Analysis
We conducted a CFA with the second subsample. To this end
we specified a one-factor model and estimated it using the WLS-
MV method. As shown in Figure 1, all standardized loadings were
greater than .70, with standard estimation errors around .02. The
comparative fit indices of the model were good (CFI = .99, TLI =
.99), with well-fitted residuals (RMSEA = .051), replicating the EFA
results in a different subsample and yielding an overall good fit to
the data. We kept the one-factor solution as the latent structure of
the VB-IPVAW.
Item Response Theory
Once the dimensionality of the VB-IPVAW had been determined,
we used the full sample to fit the IRT graded response model
(Samejima, 1969).
Item parameters are displayed in Table 3. The threshold parameters
(
b
1,
b
2, and
b
3) are in the same metric as the IRT scores (i.e., estimates
of victim-blaming attitudes), indicating the point on the latent trait
continuum where the probability of endorsement between two
137
Assessing Victim-Blaming Attitudes
adjacent categories is .50 for any respondent with an IRT score equal
to the threshold parameter value. Respondents with IRT scores lower
than the
b
1 parameter would be more likely to endorse the lowest
category (i.e.,
strongly disagree
), whereas those respondents with
IRT scores higher than the
b
3 parameter would tend to endorse the
upper category (i.e.,
strongly agree
). Respondents with IRT scores
between the
b
1 and
b
2 parameters would be more likely to endorse
the second category (i.e.,
somewhat disagree
), whereas respondents
with IRT scores between the
b
2 and
b
3 parameters would more likely
endorse the third category (i.e.,
somewhat agree
). The
b
1 threshold
parameters were in general moderate (i.e., around 1), whereas the
b
2
and
b
3 parameters presented high (i.e., above 2) and very high values
(i.e., above 3), indicating that the instrument is sampling moderate
to high levels of victim-blaming attitudes.
bv-ipvaw1
Victim
Blaming
Attitudes
bv-ipvaw2
bv-ipvaw3
bv-ipvaw4
bv-ipvaw5
bv-ipvaw6
bv-ipvaw7
bv-ipvaw8
bv-ipvaw9
bv-ipvaw10
bv-ipvaw11
bv-ipvaw12
.83 (.02)
.88 (.01)
.90 (.01)
.85 (.02)
.92 (.01)
.51 (.03)
.84 (.02)
.86 (.02)
.74 (.02)
.87 (.02)
.76 (.02)
.89 (.01)
Figure 1. VB-IPVAW One-factor Model.
Table 3. VB-IPVAW Scale IRT Item Parameters
a b
1
b
2
b
3
vb-ipvaw1 2.05 0.82 2.07 3.47
vb-ipvaw2 3.68 1.03 2.31 3.00
vb-ipvaw3 2.39 1.3 4 2.33 2.98
vb-ipvaw4 3.43 1.15 2.46 2.90
vb-ipvaw5 3.72 1.28 2.56 3.03
vb-ipvaw6 2.49 1.2 4 2.55 3.20
vb-ipvaw7 3.36 1.40 2.64 3.12
vb-ipvaw8 0.95 -0.18 2.22 4.31
vb-ipvaw9 2.49 1.17 2.30 3.04
vb-ipvaw10 3.16 1.25 2.30 2.85
vb-ipvaw11 1.93 1.03 2.67 3.45
vb-ipvaw12 3.05 1.59 2.75 3.29
Note. a
= discrimination parameter;
b
k = threshold parameters.
vb-ipvaw = VB-IPVAW item.
The discrimination parameters (
a
), in turn, provide information
about the accuracy of each item. In particular, the greater this
parameter, the less likely a given respondent will endorse a
category above or below their IRT score. The discrimination
parameters of the VB-IPVAW were high, with values above 2 for
almost all the items, with the exception of item 8, which presented
a moderate
a
value.
To assess differential item functioning (DIF), we conducted a series
of logistic regression models (e.g., Choi et al., 2011). These models tested
for any effect of belonging to each group (i.e., men or women) on the
latent trait continuum (i.e., estimates of victim-blaming attitudes),
and whether this effect is constant (uniform) or varies across the
continuum (non-uniform). These models were compared using a χ2 test.
Nagelkerke’s pseudo-
R
2 was also computed to assess the size of the DIF
effect. This pseudo-
R
2 indicates the improvement from the base model
(i.e., non-DIF model) to the fitted model (i.e., uniform or non-uniform
DIF model). We found uniform DIF for items 1, 2, and 8 (
p
< .001, R2Nagelkerke
= .010, .007, and .018, respectively), and non-uniform DIF for item 3 (
p
=
.002,
R
2Nagelkerke = .010), all with small Nagelkerke’s pseudo-
R
2 values. This
implies that adding the DIF effect to the model improved the fit of the
model by less than 2%, which could be considered a negligible effect
size for this statistic (Choi et al., 2011; Cohen, 1988).
Figure 2 shows the test information function and the standard
error of estimation (
SE
) for men and women when the flagged
items are taken into account. The VB-IPVAW scale was especially
informative for moderate, high, and very high levels of the latent trait
continuum (i.e., estimates of victim-blaming attitudes), especially
among men. In the same line, the
SE
showed the precision of the
scale for the latent trait levels; the lower the
SE
result, the higher
the accuracy of the scale for a given latent trait level. In particular,
SE
values below 0.3 are equivalent to a Cronbach’s α of .91 or higher, and
SE
values between 0.5 and 0.3 are equivalent to an α around .75 and
.90 for their respective IRT score. The test information function was
very similar for men and women.
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-4 -2 0 2 4
1.2
0.9
0.6
0.3
0.0
Information
S.E.
Theta
Victim Blaming Attitudes
Figure 2. Test Information Function.
Note.
Theta = IRT scores of the scale (i.e., victim-blaming attitudes estimates);
information = accuracy of the measure across the latent trait continuum (i.e., theta);
SE
= standard error of estimation. The red and blue solid and broken lines represent
the test information function and
SE
for women and men, respectively.
The overall fit of the model was tested using the ordinal version
of the M2 statistic. This statistic can be used to compute an approxi-
mation of the most common fit indices from the factor analysis
(CFI, TLI, and RMSEA). The model showed a good fit to the data
when the DIF was taken into account, M2(92) = 373.50,
p
< .001, CFI
= .98, TLI = .98, RMSEA = .04.
Validity Analyses
We used the IRT scores (i.e., estimates of victim-blaming attitudes)
for validity analyses, since the items of the scale are not tau-equivalent
(i.e., equally discriminative). IRT scores were on logistic metric, with an
expected mean value of 0 and a standard deviation of 1 (Chalmers, 2012).
The correlations between the VB-IPVAW and the variables
measuring related constructs were in the expected direction (see
138
M. Martín-Fernández et al. / Psychosocial Intervention (2018) 27(3) 133-143
Table 4). Estimates of victim-blaming attitudes were positively
related to the A-IPVAW scores, and to both subscales of the ASI,
particularly the hostile sexism subscale, and negatively related to
PS-IPVAW scores. Therefore, those participants scoring higher on the
VB-IPVAW tended to score higher on acceptability of IPVAW, hostile
and benevolent sexism, and were more likely to perceive the cases
described in the PS-IPVAW as less severe.
Table 4. VB-IPVAW Scale Correlation with Other Relevant IPVAW Variables
A-IPVAW Hostile
sexism
Benevolent
sexism PS-IPVAW
VB-IPVAW .41** .45*** .38*** -.36***
A-IPVAW .44*** .34*** -.47***
Hostile sexism .81*** -.39***
Benevolent sexism -.30***
Note.
VB-IPVAW = victim-blaming attitudes in cases of intimate partner
violence against women; A-IPVAW = acceptability of intimate partner violence
against women scale; PS-IPVAW = perceived severity of intimate partner
violence against women scale.
**
p
< .001.
We then compared the VB-IPVAW scores by gender and age.
We found significant differences between men (
M
= 0.23,
SD
=
0.94) and women (
M
= -0.09,
SD
= 0.83),
t
(1711.9) = 7.63,
p
< .001,
d
= 0.36, with a moderate effect size. We also found significant
differences between male respondents from the general sample
and those from the offenders sample (
M
= 0.70,
SD
= 1.35),
t
(52.48)
= -3.31,
p
= .002,
d
= 0.44, with a moderate effect size. There were
significant differences between age groups,
F
(2) = 5.48,
p
= .004, η2
= .006; however, the effect of age on the VB-IPVAW scores could be
considered negligible, since the size effect was below the low cut-
off value of .01 for the partial eta-squared (Miles & Shevlin, 2001).
Short Version
To build the short version of the scale we computed an
automatic test assembly algorithm. Two criteria were used: finding
which items were more informative to assess moderate and high
levels of the IRT scores for men and women (i.e., ≥ 0), and using
the minimum number of items to ensure that those levels were
measured accurately (i.e.,
SE
≤ 0.5). The items 1, 2, 6, 9, and 11 were
selected (see Appendix 1).
The internal consistency of the resulting short version was good
(Cronbach’s α = .77), and the correlation between the full and the
short version was strong (
r
= .95). The correlations between the
short version and the validity measures were in the same direction
as the full VB-IPVAW (
r
= .46 with acceptability of IPVAW,
r
= -.36
with perceived severity of IPVAW,
r
= .36 with hostile sexism, and
r
= .33 with benevolent sexism).
Discussion
In this paper we set out to develop and validate a new tool to
assess victim-blaming attitudes towards IPVAW. Taken together, our
findings provide strong evidence for the reliability and validity of the
VB-IPVAW and its short version. In accordance with standards for
psychological testing, our measure showed validity evidence based
on test content, internal structure, and relations to other variables
(American Psychological Association, American Educational Research
Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education, 2014).
Content validity of the VB-IPVAW was evaluated through the careful
selection of items from European surveys (Gracia & Lila, 2015) and by
a panel of experts who assessed the relevance of the items to capture
the key aspects of the construct. The internal structure of the scale is
supported by the study’s findings that a single dimension is sufficient
to account for the variability of respondents’ victim-blaming attitudes
in cases of IPVAW, presenting a good fit to the data and high internal
consistency in two different samples.
Using item response theory (IRT) to study the psychometric
properties of the VB-IPVAW is one of the main strengths of this paper,
since to the best of our knowledge this is the first time this approach
has been used to assess victim-blaming attitudes in cases of IPVAW.
One of the main advantages of IRT is that it provides improved factor
scores that can be used to evaluate which levels on the latent trait
continuum (i.e., victim-blaming estimates) are better measured
through the test information function. Unlike Cronbach’s α, which
assumes that the internal consistency of an instrument is constant for
the entire latent trait, the information function provides a dynamic
approach that can be used to evaluate the precision of the scale across
the levels of the latent trait continuum. Our measure is particularly
informative for moderately high and very high levels of victim-
blaming attitudes. The VB-IPVAW can detect respondents with high
levels of victim-blaming attitudes and discriminate among them with
high accuracy. On the other hand, the precision of the scale is lower for
respondents with low and very low levels of victim-blaming attitudes.
Differential item functioning (DIF) was also assessed to establish
whether any of the items of the VB-IPVAW was a potential indicator
of item bias (Sireci & Ríos, 2013). We found four items that showed
DIF between male and female respondents, although the effect size of
these discrepancies could be considered negligible and these results
should be interpreted with caution. Given the low improvement of
the models considering the DIF compared with the non-DIF model,
we recommend computing the IRT scores of the VB-IPVAW using the
same set of parameters for both male and female respondents. To this
end, in Appendix 2 we provide an R code to compute the IRT scores,
in both the full and short versions of the scale.
Regarding the validity evidence based on the relation of the VB-
IPVAW to other variables, we found that victim-blaming attitudes in
cases of IPVAW are strongly related to the acceptability of IPVAW, and
strongly and negatively related to the perceived severity of IPVAW.
These relationships are consistent with previous research (Taylor
& Sorenson, 2005; Witte, Schroeder, & Lohr, 2006). We also found
a strong relationship between victim-blaming attitudes and both
hostile and benevolent sexism. In this line, previous studies have
also found that individuals showing sexist attitudes are more likely
to blame victims for IPVAW (Capezza & Arriaga, 2008; De Judicibus &
McCabe, 2001; Gracia et al., 2014; Scott & Strauss 2007; Valor-Segura
et al., 2011; Vidal-Fernández & Megías, 2014).
With regard to gender differences, our findings show that
female respondents tend to present lower victim-blaming attitudes
towards IPVAW than males, which is in line with previous research
(Bryant & Spencer, 2003; Flood & Pease, 2009; Gracia et al., 2015;
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Shlien-Dellinger, Huss, & Kramer, 2004;
Scott & Strauss, 2007; Vidal-Fernández & Megías, 2014). In addition,
we also found that male IPVAW offenders tend to show higher levels
of victim-blaming attitudes than men from the general sample
(Gracia, Rodriguez, & Lila, 2015; Lila et al., 2013). This result suggests
that the VB-IPVAW is especially informative for those respondents
with higher levels of victim-blaming attitudes in cases of IPVAW. Our
measure can thus be used to evaluate attitudinal changes during and
after interventions with IPVAW offenders, as well as a screening tool
to detect and discriminate among individuals that are more prone
to blame victims for IPVAW (Carbajosa, Catalá-Miñana, Lila, & Gracia,
2017; Ferrer-Perez, Ferreiro-Basurto, Navarro-Guzmán, & Bosch-Fiol,
2016; Lila, Gracia, & Catalá-Miñana, 2018).
In this study we also developed a short 5-item version of the
VB-IPVAW that can be useful when space and/or time limitations
are an issue (e.g., large demographical surveys). Large scale
surveys tend to use single items or a limited set of items evaluating
IPVAW attitudes with unknown reliability or validity (Gracia &
139
Assessing Victim-Blaming Attitudes
Lila, 2015). Short versions, on the other hand, may have limited
reliability and validity, which makes it particularly important to
ensure that short versions of questionnaires maintain adequate
psychometric properties (Smith, McCarthy, & Anderson, 2000;
Stanton, Sinar, Balzer, & Smith, 2002). Our results showed that
the short version of the VB-IPVAW has high internal consistency
and adequate validity (i.e., it is strongly related to acceptability,
perceived severity of IPVAW, and ambivalent sexism in the same
direction as in the full version). Although further research should
be undertaken with different samples to ensure its validity (Goetz
et al., 2013), initial analyses with the short version of VB-IPVAW
are promising and suggest that it is as an adequate tool to assess
victim-blaming attitudes with a limited set of informative items.
We recommend, however, using the long version of the scale
whenever possible.
This study is not without limitations. The VB-IPVAW was
developed in the Spanish cultural setting, and further studies are
needed to adapt and generalize our findings to other cultures (Boira,
Carbajosa, & Mendez, 2016; Gracia & Lila, 2015; Ivert, Merlo, & Gracia,
2018). The sampling method is another limitation, since online
sampling has some tradeoffs that may limit the generalizability
of this study (Thornton et al., 2016; Topolovec-Vranic & Natarajan,
2016). Although this method is effective and cost-efficient,
allowing researchers to obtain large sample sizes, self-selection
bias could be an issue, as more motivated participants may be
more willing to participate in the study. In addition, the socio-
demographic information provided by the respondents cannot
easily be verified. The socio-demographic variables of the sample,
nonetheless, are consistent with other internet-based demographic
studies conducted in Spain (Acebes Arribas, 2016). In addition,
further research is needed to address the gender invariance of the
VB-IPVAW through both IRT and factorial invariance methods, as
DIF is only an initial step to assess item bias (Gómez-Benito, Sireci,
Padilla, Hidalgo, & Benítez, 2018).
The development of the VB-IPVAW is a step forward in the
study of attitudes towards IPVAW, allowing researchers to
extend knowledge about their conceptualization, measurement,
prevalence, and the social factors that may influence these attitudes
in order to improve prevention and intervention strategies (Powell
& Webster, 2018). Addressing attitudes towards IPVAW is becoming
a central issue in research and population surveys and, in this
regard, both versions of the VB-IPVAW provide psychometrically
sound instruments to fill this need.
Conflict of Interest
The authors of this article declare no conflict of interest.
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Appendix 1. Victim-blaming Attitudes in Cases of Intimate Partner Violence against Women Scale
vb-ipvaw1*Men are violent towards their partners because they make them jealous
vb-ipvaw2*Men are violent towards their partners because women provoke them
vb-ipvaw3 Men are violent towards their partners because women need to be controlled
vb-ipvaw4 Men are violent towards their partners because women are difcult to understand
vb-ipvaw5 Men are violent towards their partners because women are not patient enough with them
vb-ipvaw6*Men are violent towards their partners because it makes them attractive to women
vb-ipvaw7 Men are violent towards their partners because women like it
vb-ipvaw8 Women le false complaints to obtain economic benets and hurt their partners
vb-ipvaw9*Men would change their violent behavior towards their partners if they were more obedient
vb-ipvaw10 Women could avoid violence from their male partners if they knew when to stop talking
vb-ipvaw11*If a woman is mistreated by her partner and does not leave him, that means she is not
unhappy with the situation.
vb-ipvaw12 A man is justied in beating his partner if she decides to leave him
*VB-IPVAW short form.
VB-IPVAW Scale Scores: Computing Victim-Blaming Attitude Estimates
Instead of using the raw sum of the items to compute the VB-IPVAW scale scores, we recommend generating the victim-blaming attitude esti-
mates by following one of these two methods:
(1) Factor Scores: for small sample sizes (
N
< 100), calculate the weighted sum of the items using the factor loadings presented in Figure 1. In this
way, the factor loading of each item is multiplied by the score for each item before it is summed. Alternatively, for larger sample sizes, conduct a
new factor analysis replicating the one-factor model and compute the factor scores for the whole sample.
(2) IRT Scores: to obtain the person parameter estimates (i.e., θ) for each respondent, estimate an IRT model by either fixing the item parameters
to the values presented in Table 3 (for small sample sizes), or re-estimating the item parameters for the new sample (for larger sample sizes). To
this end, we provide an R script with the code to compute the VB-IPVAW scale IRT scores using the
mirt
library.
143
Assessing Victim-Blaming Attitudes
Appendix 2
##################################
#### AIPVAW IRT Scores Script ####
##################################
library(mirt)
VBIPVAW_data <- read.table(“data path and format”)
# insert path and extension of the data (e.g., “C:/Users/Documents/R/VB-IPVAW/my_data.dat”)
# my_data must be a matrix or data.frame with respondents on the rows and items on the columns
# IRT model with fixed items parameters (small sample sizes):
a_VBIPVAW <- c(2.05, 3.68, 2.39, 3.43, 3.72, 2.49,
3.36, 0.95, 2.49, 3.16, 1.93, 3.05)
d1_VBIPVAW <- c(-1.69, -3.81, -3.21, -3.94, -4.77, -3.09,
-4.71, 0.17, -2.90, -3.93, -2.00, -4.86)
d2_VBIPVAW <-c(-4.26, -8.50, -5.57, -8.45, -9.54, -6.36,
-8.85, -2.10, -5.72, -7.26, -5.17, -8.38)
d3_VBIPVAW <-c(-7.12, -11.06, -7.12, -9.97, -11.25, -7.97,
-10.47, -4.18, -7.55, -8.98, -6.68, -10.03)
VBIPVAW_param <- mirt(VBIPVAW_data, 1, itemtype = “graded”, pars = “values”)
VBIPVAW_param$est <- FALSE
VBIPVAW_param$value[VBIPVAW_param$name==”a1”] <- a_VBIPVAW
VBIPVAW_param$value[VBIPVAW_param$name==”d1”] <- d1_VBIPVAW
VBIPVAW_param$value[VBIPVAW_param$name==”d2”] <- d2_VBIPVAW
VBIPVAW_param$value[VBIPVAW_param$name==”d3”] <- d3_VBIPVAW
VBIPVAW_IRT <- mirt(VBIPVAW_data, 1, itemtype = “graded”, method = “MHRM”, pars = VBIPVAW_param)
IRTScores <- fscores(VBIPVAW_IRT, method = “EAP”, full.scores = T)
write.table(IRTScores, “IRTScores.dat”, col.names = FALSE, row.names = FALSE)
# return a .dat file with the IRT Scores for each respondent
# IRT graded model with free parameters (large sample sizes):
VBIPVAW_IRT <- mirt(VBIPVAW_data, 1, itemtype = “graded”, method = “MHRM”)
IRTScores <- fscores(VBIPVAW_IRT, method = “EAP”, full.scores = T)
write.table(IRTScores, “IRTScores.dat”, col.names = FALSE, row.names = FALSE)
... 17 Men's endorsement of sexist, heteropatriarchal, or sexually hostile attitudes is an important predictor of committing IPV. 15 Research on cognitive distortions in offenders has also highlighted themes such as victim-blaming and male entitlement to use violence. 336 Women and girls might be expected to tolerate violence to preserve the family unit or be held responsible for men's sexual urges. Although such norms might be more prominent in some cultures than others, such patterns are never a justification for othering or racism: sexist or misogynistic views about virginity, female sexuality, and motherhood are present in every culture and social class. ...
... Por tanto, el sexismo social y la negación de la violencia contra la mujer son fenómenos interconectados (Carlson y Worden, 2005;Expósito, Moya, y Glick, 1998;Fincham et al., 2008;Flood y Pease, 2009;Gracia y Herrero, 2006;Martín-Fernández et al., 2018;Swim y Hyers, 2009). De esta forma, la concepción de la mujer como objeto es la que genera pautas sexistas no solo hostiles (directamente) sino sutiles (indirectamente), explicándose el proteccionismo o el tratamiento como incapaz, que deriva en no informarla, dejarla decidir o ni siquiera preguntarle por su consentimiento en base al sexismo benevolente volente (Glick y Fiske, 1996). ...
... Concretamente, las víctimas de VG suelen tardar una media de 8 años y 8 meses en verbalizar su situación mediante servicios y recursos y/o interponiendo una denuncia (Ministerio de Igualdad, 2019) debido principalmente a la normalización de la situación y falta de percepción de gravedad de la misma (Fanslow y Robinson, 2010). Asimismo, la voluntad de intervención ante situaciones de VG, se ha relacionado con mayor percepción de gravedad de la VG, menores actitudes sexistas y menor aceptación de la violencia (Martín-Fernández et al., 2018). Por ello, adoptar una aproximación holística de la percepción social de la gravedad de la VG mediante la revisión y análisis de la literatura disponible al respecto por parte de diferentes actores, constituye un punto de partida fundamental para el abordaje de dicha problemática. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
La percepción del mundo ha sido un constructo de interés para la psicología social, su estudio se ha enfocado en grupos poblacionales en los cuales las condiciones de vulnerabilidad, la función social o su actividad laboral, generan la necesidad de comprensión sobre la forma en que ven el contexto que les rodea. De acuerdo con Vargas (1994, citado en Fajardo, Alonso, Serna, Angarita y Aguilera, 2017) la percepción puede definirse en aspectos vinculados con actitudes, valores o creencias, que dependen del punto de referencia del observador, quien de manera subjetiva emite un juicio. La percepción del mundo se puede estudiar desde el enfoque de la percepción social, la cual de acuerdo con Arias (2006), estudia la percepción que tienen los individuos sobre otras personas, conocimientos de los otros, la formación de impresiones y los procesos de atribución. Dember y Warm (1990, citado en Arias, 2006) proponen que: "un aspecto importante del estudio de la percepción es comprender que estamos tratando con experiencias privadas de las personas” (p.18).
... Concretamente, las víctimas de VG suelen tardar una media de 8 años y 8 meses en verbalizar su situación mediante servicios y recursos y/o interponiendo una denuncia (Ministerio de Igualdad, 2019) debido principalmente a la normalización de la situación y falta de percepción de gravedad de la misma (Fanslow y Robinson, 2010). Asimismo, la voluntad de intervención ante situaciones de VG, se ha relacionado con mayor percepción de gravedad de la VG, menores actitudes sexistas y menor aceptación de la violencia (Martín-Fernández et al., 2018). Por ello, adoptar una aproximación holística de la percepción social de la gravedad de la VG mediante la revisión y análisis de la literatura disponible al respecto por parte de diferentes actores, constituye un punto de partida fundamental para el abordaje de dicha problemática. ...
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En Colombia bajo la perspectiva de Derechos Humanos y Derechos Ciudadanos se evidencia desde hace varias décadas una situación de conflicto y violencia que afecta de manera importante las relaciones sociales de todos los individuos a lo ancho y largo del territorio nacional, creando en general condiciones de violencia e inseguridad de manera permanente, y generando una visión negativa sin precedentes para otros países del mundo. Por lo tanto, el actuar de la policía se ha considerado un eje importante en el trabajo por la seguridad ciudadana y en la lucha frente al comportamiento contrario a la convivencia, promoviendo la lucha contra la corrupción y los comportamientos violentos. En el servicio policial la impulsividad entre otras variables relacionadas con la personalidad del individuo puede afectar la respuesta en pro del cuidado y protección de los otros. De acuerdo con ello esta investigación se enfocó en indagar cómo el constructo psicológico de la impulsividad está relacionado con la práctica laboral de los cadetes de policía; constructo que es evaluado como un atributo negativo en el ejercicio de ciudadanía, el cual a su vez se relaciona con dificultades comportamentales y cognitivas, al igual que con los comportamientos agresivos y riesgo suicida (Riaño-Hernández, Guillen y Buela-Casal, 2015). Tomando aportes del Modelo Holístico de Liderazgo Policial de la Escuela de Postgrados de la Policía nacional de Colombia (ECSAN, 2019), el liderazgo bajo el cual los miembros de la policía deben actuar, debe contener cualidades y habilidades que evidencien un tipo de conducta a la hora de responder a las necesidades complejas de los ciudadanos; conducta que debe orientarse siempre propiciando el bienestar y satisfacción de tales necesidades, pues este comportamiento expresado en esas cualidades, conllevará a que de manera global y cultural se haga una representación de la institución y de cada uno de los miembros, afectando positiva o negativamente la relación policía y ciudadanos.
... Concretamente, las víctimas de VG suelen tardar una media de 8 años y 8 meses en verbalizar su situación mediante servicios y recursos y/o interponiendo una denuncia (Ministerio de Igualdad, 2019) debido principalmente a la normalización de la situación y falta de percepción de gravedad de la misma (Fanslow y Robinson, 2010). Asimismo, la voluntad de intervención ante situaciones de VG, se ha relacionado con mayor percepción de gravedad de la VG, menores actitudes sexistas y menor aceptación de la violencia (Martín-Fernández et al., 2018). Por ello, adoptar una aproximación holística de la percepción social de la gravedad de la VG mediante la revisión y análisis de la literatura disponible al respecto por parte de diferentes actores, constituye un punto de partida fundamental para el abordaje de dicha problemática. ...
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La agresividad se constituye en un rasgo de personalidad, caracterizado por la manifestación de comportamientos de tipo agresivo, con tendencia a externalizar los problemas con terceros (Farnicka, 2016). De allí que distintos enfoques de las ciencias sociales entre los que se encuentran la perspectiva sociobiológica, psicoanalítica, del aprendizaje social, han teorizado sobre este constructo, intentando explicar su génesis y manifestaciones, encontrándose diferentes tipologías de la agresividad, las cuales se encuadran en la emisión en interacciones de carácter agresivo. En el contexto policial, este constructo ha tenido especial relevancia para su estudio y, como antecedente se encuentra el estudio realizado por Juárez, Dueñas y Méndez (2006), quienes estudiaron los patrones violentos en 120 participantes de la escuela de Policía nacional General Santander. De allí que resulta muy importante realizar estudios sobre la agresividad policial, que permitan obtener una perspectiva bastante amplia desde el ámbito científico, sobre los factores que llevan a los sujetos policiales a desplegar determinadas conductas en la actividad policial, para garantizar la seguridad y convivencia ciudadana, en la que se despliegan una serie de comportamientos agresivos dirigidos al control de comportamientos contrarios a la ley por parte de la ciudadanía. El objetivo de esta investigación es medir la agresividad en los cadetes de la policía, la cual es una variable que afecta tanto en la vida laboral como en la personal.
... Concretamente, las víctimas de VG suelen tardar una media de 8 años y 8 meses en verbalizar su situación mediante servicios y recursos y/o interponiendo una denuncia (Ministerio de Igualdad, 2019) debido principalmente a la normalización de la situación y falta de percepción de gravedad de la misma (Fanslow y Robinson, 2010). Asimismo, la voluntad de intervención ante situaciones de VG, se ha relacionado con mayor percepción de gravedad de la VG, menores actitudes sexistas y menor aceptación de la violencia (Martín-Fernández et al., 2018). Por ello, adoptar una aproximación holística de la percepción social de la gravedad de la VG mediante la revisión y análisis de la literatura disponible al respecto por parte de diferentes actores, constituye un punto de partida fundamental para el abordaje de dicha problemática. ...
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Esta investigación surgió como respuesta a la falta de información referente al síndrome de burnout en contextos de servidores de la justicia o relacionados con este (abogados, fiscales, peritos, policías etc.) y en segundo lugar desde un interés psicológico y humano, enfatizando en prestar servicios de intervención y prevención en el agotamiento emocional por trauma ajeno omSíndrome de Burnout, en población perteneciente a la Policía Metropolitana de Manizales, enfermedad que tiene evidencia en cuanto a la afectación en la salud física y mental de las personas que presenta signos y síntomas asociados al mismo, esto surge debido a que la psicología policial es la encargada de las dinámicas individuales y colectivas de los miembros de la Policía y Fuerzas Militares a nivel organizacional, clínico y social, en esta investigación nos interesa el ámbito social en donde está la interacción de las fuerzas con la ciudadanía (Norza y Merchán-Rojas, 2016). De acuerdo con lo anterior se planteó como objetivo identificar la presencia de signos y síntomas relacionados con el Síndrome de Burnout en una muestra de la policía metropolitana de Manizales (Caldas). En cuanto a los objetivos específicos se tiene la investigación son (1) Documentar a partir de la literatura y el estado del arte las características, variables y dimensiones del síndrome de burnout (2) Identificar la presencia del Síndrome de Burnout por medio de la aplicación del instrumento MBI GS en una muestra de policías en la ciudad de Manizales (3) Categorizar los resultados obtenidos de la aplicación del instrumento de MBI GS (4) Socializar conclusiones y recomendaciones a partir de los resultados para futuras investigadores.
... Concretamente, las víctimas de VG suelen tardar una media de 8 años y 8 meses en verbalizar su situación mediante servicios y recursos y/o interponiendo una denuncia (Ministerio de Igualdad, 2019) debido principalmente a la normalización de la situación y falta de percepción de gravedad de la misma (Fanslow y Robinson, 2010). Asimismo, la voluntad de intervención ante situaciones de VG, se ha relacionado con mayor percepción de gravedad de la VG, menores actitudes sexistas y menor aceptación de la violencia (Martín-Fernández et al., 2018). Por ello, adoptar una aproximación holística de la percepción social de la gravedad de la VG mediante la revisión y análisis de la literatura disponible al respecto por parte de diferentes actores, constituye un punto de partida fundamental para el abordaje de dicha problemática. ...
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icación de la psicología a procesos forenses, criminológicos, clínicos y organizacionales, de este último nace el mayor campo aplicativo desde procesos de selección, asistencia clínica y/o psicosocial y formación o especialización académica. Con el fin de realizar una evaluación exhaustiva de “los procesos comportamentales y cognitivos del aspirante y aptitudes policiales, mediante la valoración del grado de conocimiento de las funciones policiales; validación del puesto de trabajo en función del proceso de selección seguido” (Chandler, 1990; citado en Soria, 2005, p. 173). Existiendo una gran necesidad por abordar aspectos claves de la personalidad en los cadetes de policía, como las conductas externalizantes, las cuales son aquellas que evidencian la toma de decisiones éticas, el control del comportamiento en un ambiente social y la conformidad en cuanto a las mismas reglas que se imponen en la sociedad, demostrando así una estrecha relación entre las conductas externalizantes y los problemas de conducta. Por lo tanto, este al ser un subcampo de amplio interés académico ha generado un alto grado de exposición a nivel internacional en países como Estados Unidos y España, donde se vincula a la psicología con las fuerzas policiales, permitiendo a su vez generar diversos estudios que han contribuido no solo a comprender en términos de características estáticas de la personalidad en los seres humanos o de bienestar a nivel individual o grupal, sino aplicándolo a un campo específico donde se puede determinar diversos factores de la personalidad que contribuye a la promoción de pautas dentro de la institución para potencializar diversos procesos y al conocimiento del individuo centrándose en cómo percibe y actúa en su entorno, así bien, la personalidad permite conocer la manera en la que el individuo aprende o se adapta al ambiente. Teniendo en cuenta sus dos componentes principales como: el temperamento y el carácter donde juegan un papel fundamental a la hora de determinar la realidad de la personalidad en el individuo.
... Concretamente, las víctimas de VG suelen tardar una media de 8 años y 8 meses en verbalizar su situación mediante servicios y recursos y/o interponiendo una denuncia (Ministerio de Igualdad, 2019) debido principalmente a la normalización de la situación y falta de percepción de gravedad de la misma (Fanslow y Robinson, 2010). Asimismo, la voluntad de intervención ante situaciones de VG, se ha relacionado con mayor percepción de gravedad de la VG, menores actitudes sexistas y menor aceptación de la violencia (Martín-Fernández et al., 2018). Por ello, adoptar una aproximación holística de la percepción social de la gravedad de la VG mediante la revisión y análisis de la literatura disponible al respecto por parte de diferentes actores, constituye un punto de partida fundamental para el abordaje de dicha problemática. ...
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Esta investigación surge de la necesidad que se vive en Colombia frente a la intervención que realiza la policía, en cabeza del Poder Ejecutivo del país. Es un momento coyuntural en la relación del Estado con la Ciudadanía y por ende se hace trascendental crear escenarios académicos y científicos que permitan establecer diálogos y comprensiones sobre el particular y así minimizar la brecha que se ahonda por la violencia generalizada y la afectación a la salud mental de todos los habitantes del territorio. Es por ello que se hace necesario que mediante el aporte de la psicología y en especial la psicología policial, se construyan rutas de comprensión sobre los temas de la convivencia y la seguridad ciudadana, pues es la psicología policial, la llamada a tener un enfoque claro y contribuir a restablecer la relación entre la Ley y los sujetos que conviven en el mismo territorio. El abordaje de la Psicología Jurídica se considera un área básica y aplicada de la psicología, en tanto estudia e interviene el comportamiento humano con implicaciones jurídicas, buscando defender los Derechos Humanos, la salud mental y humanizar la justicia. Está orientada por el método científico, la ética, la justicia, la convivencia pacífica y la responsabilidad social (Hernández, 2011). Dentro de ella pueden reconocerse diversas subáreas de estudio, como son la Psicología criminal, victimal, del testimonio, forense, policial y militar, mediación y conciliación
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Background: Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural treatments have been proven to be effective for reducing symptoms in female survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), although they still present some difficulties (e.g., significant drop-out rates, low adherence). Based on existing evidence about the difficulty of accessing memories of positive experiences among these women, we considered integrating positive memory evocation in trauma-focused treatments. The present study aims to test the effect of adding a positive memory module to trauma-focused CBT for female survivors of IPV. Methods: The study is a single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing two trauma-focused CBT (with and without a positive memory module) for female survivors of IPV and a wait-list condition (superiority trial), including pretreatment and posttreatment measures, and follow-ups at 3, 6 and 12 months. Assessors of treatment outcome will be blinded to the trial arm. We aim to recruit 135 participants who will be randomized to one of the experimental conditions. The primary outcome is PTSD symptom severity. Secondary outcome measures include IPV, attitudes towards IPV, posttraumatic cognitions, centrality of trauma, self-concept, positive and negative affect, depression, anxiety, emotional dysregulation, or health-related quality of life, as well as satisfaction with treatment. Moreover, adherence to and satisfaction with treatment will be considered. Discussion: This study first analyses the effect of including positive memory evocation into a trauma- focused treatment for female survivors of IPV. This strategy aims to improve the effect of the treatments and enhance the healing of the trauma by developing a more integrated and emotionally modulated autobiographical narrative that contributes to the recovery and well-being of the victims. Trial registration: ISRCTN73702156. Registered on 10 March 2022.
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Public perceptions of the severity of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) incidents are an important factor that has been linked to key issues regarding this type of violence, such as acceptability or tolerance, personal sense of responsibility, attitudes toward intervention, and the public's, professionals, and victims' responses to IPVAW. The aim of the present study was to provide further validity evidence for the perceived severity of IPVAW scale (PS-IPVAW), by assessing its measurement invariance between gender and age groups, and between men from the general population and male IPVAW offenders. Item response theory was also used to assess the discrimination of the items and their position on the measured latent trait continuum (i.e., perceived severity of IPVAW). To this end, the psychometric properties of the scale were examined in four different samples from the general population (N = 2,627) and in one clinical sample of male IPVAW offenders (N = 200). Our findings showed that the PS-IPVAW scale has excellent internal consistency (α = .89-.90) and a clear one-factor latent structure (CFI = .91-.96, RMSEA = .055-.086), and that partial strict invariance holds across different gender and age groups. We also found that IPVAW offenders' perceptions of the severity of IPVAW may follow a different pattern to that of men from the general population. The PS-IPVAW scale is able to yield accurate assessments of the perceived severity of this type of violence among the general population and IPVAW offenders.
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Willingness to intervene when one becomes aware of a case of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) reflects the level of tolerance and acceptance of this type of violence in society. Increasing the likelihood of intervention to help victims of IPVAW is also a target for prevention strategies aiming to increase informal social control of IPVAW. In this study, we present the development and validation of the Willingness to Intervene in Cases of Intimate Partner Violence (WI-IPVAW) scale. We report data for both the long and short versions of the scale. We analyzed the latent structure, the reliability and validity of the WI-IPVAW across four samples (N = 1648). Factor analyses supported a bifactor model with a general non-specific factor expressing willingness to intervene in cases of IPVAW, and three specific factors reflecting different intervention preferences: a preference for setting the law enforcement process in motion ("calling the cops" factor), a preference for personal intervention ("personal involvement" factor), and a preference for non-intervention ("not my business" factor). Configural, metric, and partial scalar invariance across genders were supported. Two short versions of the scale, with nine and six items, respectively, were constructed on the base of quantitative and qualitative criteria. The long and short versions of the WI-IPVAW demonstrated both high reliability and construct validity, as they were strongly related to the acceptability of IPVAW, victim-blaming attitudes, perceived severity of IPVAW, and hostile sexism. These results confirm that both the long and short versions of the WI-IPVAW scale are psychometrically sound instruments to analyze willingness to intervene in cases of IPVAW in different settings and with different research needs (e.g., long versions for clinical and research settings, and short versions for large population surveys). The WI-IPVAW is also useful for assessing prevention policies and public education campaigns design to promote a more responsive social environment in cases of IPVAW, thus contributing to deter and reduce this major social and public health problem.
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The working alliance is a key element to increase intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders’ motivation, adherence to treatment, and active participation in batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The objective of the present study is to assess the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Working Alliance Inventory–Observer Short Version (WAI-O-S) with a sample of IPV offenders. The sample was 140 men convicted for IPV and court-mandated to a community-based BIP. Inter-rater agreement and reliability were evaluated by computing the intraclass correlation coefficient. To test the latent structure a Bayesian confirmatory factor analysis approach was used. To test criterion-related validity, the WAI-O-S factorial scores were correlated to protherapeutic behavior, stage of change and motivation to change. The WAI-O-S showed an adequate reliability. Results from Bayesian confirmatory factor analyses showed two first-order factors (Bond and Agreement), and a second-order factor (General working alliance) explaining the relationship between the first-order factors. Results also support the validity of this instrument. The availability of reliable and valid observational measure of the working alliance provides a useful tool to overcome self-report measurement limitations such as social desirability, deception, and denial among IPV offenders.
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Background: In the latest release of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is considered as validity evidence based on internal structure. However, there are no indications of how to design a DIF study as a validation study. In this paper, we propose relating DIF to all sources of validity evidence, and provide a general conceptual framework for transforming “typical” DIF studies into validation studies. Method: We perform a comprehensive review of the literature and make theoretical and practical proposals. Results: The article provides arguments in favour of addressing DIF detection and interpretation as validation studies, and suggestions for conducting DIF validation studies. Discussion: The combination of quantitative and qualitative data within a mixed methods research perspective, along with planning DIF studies as validation studies, can help improve the validity of test score interpretations.
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Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is a major social and public health problem of global proportions. Public attitudes toward IPVAW shape the social environment in which such violence takes place, and attitudes of acceptability of IPVAW are considered a risk factor to actual IPVAW. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale measuring acceptability of IPVAW (A-IPVAW). To this end, a sample of 1,800 respondents was recruited via social media. A second sample of 50 IPVAW offenders was used for concurrent validity analyses. Following a cross-validation approach and using item response theory analyses, we found that the latent structure of the scale was one-dimensional and very informative for high and very high levels of acceptability of IPVAW. Regarding criterion-related validity, we found that (a) our measure was related to perceived severity of IPVAW and ambivalent sexism, (b) men showed higher levels of acceptability than women, and (c) IPVAW offenders reported higher levels of acceptability than men from the general population. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the A-IPVAW is a reliable and valid instrument to assess acceptability of IPVAW.
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Stemming in part from the lack of theory, predictors of the relationship between neighborhoods and intimate partner violence (IPV) are underidentified. Furthermore, few mediation studies exist that inductively build and deductively confirm theoretical frameworks. This article provides an integrative review of the literature, aiming to enhance the field's understanding of predictors and potential mechanisms that drive this relationship, using a combined theoretical model to guide the analysis. The integrative review was conducted using Whittemore and Knafl's systematic method for integrative reviews with articles published between 1995 and 2015. Findings indicate that macro-, exo-, and mesolevel predictors and mediators in the proposed model have modest empirical support; however, a number of concepts at each ecological level have yet to be fully researched. Results of this review suggest that a well-defined and integrative theoretical framework will enhance the current understanding of ecological research into IPV. Additionally, a comprehensive ecological approach to IPV intervention is likely to be more effective than employing solely an individual-level approach. Intervention implications are discussed.
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Background Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is a global and preventable public health problem. Public attitudes, such as victim-blaming, are important for our understanding of differences in the occurrence of IPVAW, as they contribute to its justification. In this paper, we focus on victim-blaming attitudes regarding IPVAW within the EU and we apply multilevel analyses to identify contextual determinants of victim-blaming attitudes. We investigate both the general contextual effect of the country and the specific association between country level of gender equality and individual victim-blaming attitudes, as well as to what extend a possible general contextual effect was explained by county level gender equality. Methods We analyzed data from 26 800 respondents from 27 member states of the European Union who responded to a survey on public perceptions of domestic violence. We applied multilevel logistic regression analysis and measures of variance (intra-class correlation (ICC)) were calculated, as well as the discriminatory accuracy by calculating the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve. Results Over and above individual characteristics, about 15% of the individual variance in the propensity for having victim-blaming attitudes was found at the country level, and country level of gender equality did not affect the general contextual effect (i.e. ICC) of the country on individual victim-blaming attitudes. Conclusion The present study shows that there are important between-country differences in victim-blaming attitudes that cannot be explained by differences in individual-level demographics or in gender equality at the country level. More research on attitudes towards IPVAW is needed.
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The present study aimed to cross-validate Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart's typology in a Spanish sample of court-referred intimate partner violence batterers. The study also analyzed the typology's capability to predict treatment attendance, completion, and IPV recidivism two years after the treatment. The sample consisted of 210 batterers court referred to a batterer intervention program. Using cluster analysis, three batterer subtypes were identified in accordance with the original typology: family-only batter-ers, borderline/dysphoric, and generally violent-antisocial. The typology predicted program attendance, completion, and recidivism. Batterers from the generally violent-antisocial group attended a significantly lower number of sessions, presented the highest dropout levels, and had the highest recidivism rate followed by borderline/dysphoric and family-only batterers. These findings suggest that in order to increase the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs, batterers' different needs and risk profiles should be taken into account.
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Objective: Treatment compliance and motivation to change are among the main challenges to improving batterer intervention program (BIP) effectiveness. This study examined whether adding an individualized motivational plan (IMP) to a standard BIP (SBIP) increased intervention effectiveness relative to BIP alone. Method: One hundred sixty males convicted of intimate partner violence were randomly assigned to receive 70 hr of either SBIP or SBIP plus IMP. The IMP is based on motivational interviewing, stages of change, and strength-based theory principles. We collected the data at baseline, at the end of the 9-month program and at 6-month follow-up. Final outcome was recidivism (recidivism data obtained from official databases, self-reported recidivism, and therapists' assessment of recidivism risk), and proximal outcomes included treatment compliance (dropout and intervention dose), and stage of change. We analyzed the results using both intent-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) approaches. Results: Findings indicated that the SBIP plus IMP participants received significantly more intervention dose (R² = .08), finished the intervention in a more advanced stage of change (ITT, R² = .17; PP, R² = .22), reported less physical violence after treatment (ITT, odds ratio = .63; PP, odds ratio = .34), and had a higher reduction in recidivism risk (ITT, R² = .64; PP, R² = .56) than SBIP participants. Conclusions: These results highlight the relevance of alternative approaches, including strategies to increase treatment compliance and motivation for change, in BIPs. (PsycINFO Database Record