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STEAM Education in Korea: Current Policies and Future Directions

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Policy Trajectories and Initiatives in STEM Education / Korea
Science and Technology Trends
Policy Trajectories and Initiatives in STEM Education
STEAM Education in Korea:
Current Policies and Future Directions
Oksu Hong1
1. Introduction
In the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution,
in which artificial intelligence is continuously in
development and jobs evolve at a rapid pace, creative
human resources are needed in order to create new
jobs and solve future problems. With changes
emerging in the economy, society, culture, and the
ecological environment, education for future
generations must advance, as well. The World
Economic Forum (2016) presented the key skills
required for the Fourth Industrial Revolution by
2020, such as complex problem solving, critical
thinking, and creativity. While identifying the skills
required for students to succeed in work, life, and
as citizens of the world, Partnership for 21st Century
Skills (P21) focused on the 4Cs: Critical thinking,
Communication, Collaboration, and Creativity
(http://www.p21.org).
The Korean government has continually driven
STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts,
and Mathematics) education policy since
announcing “The second basic plan to foster and
support human resources in science and technology
(2011-2015),” which includes STEAM education
(The Korean Ministry of Education, Science and
Technology, 2011). As the most representative
national institution for STEAM education, as well
as science, mathematics, and software education,
the Korea Foundation for the Advancement of
Science and Creativity (KOFAC) has managed
systematic STEAM education programs at the
national level. To help STEAM education become
more well established, KOFAC cultivates and
supports leading groups, reinforces teachers’
capabilities, develops and distributes content,
promotes interactive and exploratory activities for
students, and institutionalizes and builds
infrastructure (see Figure 1).
Korea Foundation for the Advancement of Science & Creativity, 602 Seolleungno, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-847, Korea
E-mail:oksu@kofac.re.kr
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Figure 1.
The structure of STEAM education programs managed by KOFAC
Source: Korea Foundation for the Advancement of Science and Creativity, 2016 (p.45)
The Learning Standards Framework of STEAM
Classes has been developed so that it can be utilized
to design classes that meet the goals of STEAM
education. The framework consists of the following
three steps: Context presentation, Creative design,
and Emotional touch. A description for each step
is given in Figure 2. It is recommended that STEAM
classes be conducted based on this framework.
Korea’s new national curriculum, ‘2015 Revised
Curriculum,’ aims to cultivate creative talents with
integrative thinking and problem solving. STEAM
education will thus continue to be emphasized as
an educational strategy for future generations. It is,
therefore, meaningful to look into STEAM education
policy put forward thus far and to propose the next
step based on what has already been established.
In this report, an outline is presented on the current
policy of STEAM education in Korea based on the
three elements of education: the teacher who teaches,
the student who learns, and the educational content
that mediates the teaching and learning (Shin, 2005),
future directions for STEAM education are then
suggested.
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Policy Trajectories and Initiatives in STEM Education / Korea
Figure 2.
Learning standards framework of STEAM classes
Source: Korea Foundation for the Advancement of Science and Creativity, 2016 (p.25)
2. STEAM Professional Development for
Teachers
Teachers’ capabilities in practicing STEAM
education are of great importance. According to
research conducted to investigate the current status
of STEAM education by analyzing online survey
responses collected from 56.8% (N = 6,473) of
elementary, middle, and high schools in Korea, it
was found that 48.3% (N = 3,127) of the responding
schools conducted STEAM education (Park et al.,
2016). Assuming that schools not participating in
the survey do not implement STEAM education,
it can be understood that approximately 27.1% of
all schools in the country have conducted STEAM
education classes (see Table 1). This research
discovered that the most important factor in
implementing STEAM education was the ‘voluntary
efforts of teachers,’ and the main reason for not
implementing STEAM education was difficulties in
drawing a consensus from teachers regarding
STEAM education. This result indicates that the role
of teachers is very important in the implementation
of STEAM education.
Table 1.
The number of schools that implement STEAM education
no.(%)
School
Level
Total
schools
Responding
schools
Not Implementing
STEAM
Implementing
STEAM/Total
Elementary
5,978
3,362 (100.0)
1,524 (45.3)
1,838/5,978 (30.8)
Middle
3,204
1,831 (100.0)
952 (52.0)
879/3,204 (27.4)
High
2,344
1,280 (100.0)
870 (68.0)
410/2,344 (17.5)
Total
11,526
6,473 (100.0)
3,346 (51.7)
3,127/11,526 (27.1)
Source: Park et al., 2016
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To support STEAM professional development for
teachers, three steps of teacher training programs are
currently being operated. ‘Introductory training’
focuses on helping teachers understand the concepts,
policies, and representative content of STEAM
education. ‘Basic Traininginvolves a 15-hour online
program centered on sharing best practices, such as
how to organize STEAM education suitable for the
school curriculum or how to implement STEAM
education for after-school programs. ‘Intensive
Training,’ a mixture of online and offline programs,
has the purpose of improving teachers’ capabilities
to develop and implement their own educational
materials for STEAM classes. The 60-hour training
program includes fieldwork, as participants attend the
Teacher Training Center for Cutting-edge Science and
STEAM fairs, as well as group activities in developing
classroom-applicable STEAM educational materials.
In spite of these great efforts made to train STEAM
teachers, many teachers have difficulty in selecting
appropriate topics, integrating two or more subjects,
developing educational materials, and evaluating classes
(Noh & Paik, 2014; Lee & Shin, 2014). Jho, Hong,
and Song (2016) categorized in-service training programs
for STEAM education in Korea, including three steps
of teacher training programs, by adopting Ryn and
Cowan’s (1996) framework with two dimensions of
knowledge and learning (see Figure 3). Knowledge
construction is separated into the individual level and
the community level, while learning construction is
categorized as content-oriented and activity-oriented.
This research asserted that teacher training programs
for STEAM education should focus on designing a
learning community that is activity-oriented at the
community level (top right plane of Figure 3) to foster
sustainable professional development.
Considering this assertion, STEAM research
groups of teachers, made up of experienced teachers
and experts in relevant fields, work together to
develop and apply STEAM educational materials,
serving as a good model for sustaining STEAM
professional development. Furthermore, according
to the report surveying teachersneeds for STEAM
education, what STEAM teachers reported most often
was the need for support for teacher communities
in terms of learning and research (KOFAC, 2013).
Figure 3.
Mapping in-service training programs of STEAM education in Korea
Source: Jho, Hong, & Song, 2016
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Policy Trajectories and Initiatives in STEM Education / Korea
3. Improving Students’ Science Preferences,
Self-directed Learning, and Creative and
Integrative Thinking Abilities
STEAM education began with the expectation that
it could solve some of the problems associated with
students’ studies in science and mathematics.
According to international evaluation programs, such
as TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and
Science Study) and PISA (Program for International
Student Assessment), Korean students demonstrated
high performance but very low interest in the subjects
of science and mathematics. In addition, the lessons
and evaluations, which focused on concepts and
knowledge relating to science and mathematics, led
to decreased interest for learners.
According to a study on the effects of STEAM
education, conducted by KOFAC (2013), students
who participated in STEAM classes showed higher
‘science preference’ than students who did not
participate. This trend has been revealed in all detailed
areas: Curiosity in science, Interest in science
learning, Embracing the values of science, Belief
in learning science, Will to perform science-related
tasks, and Wish to pursue a career in science. The
students who experienced STEAM classes also
showed higher levels in terms of ‘Ability to perform
self-directed learning,’ composed of Ability to lead
learning, Cognitive strategy, Learning motivation,
Will to solve problems, Use of tools, and Ability
to cooperate. Students learning through STEAM
classes also showed a higher level of creative and
integrative thinking ability.
What are the characteristics of STEAM education
that have brought about positive changes for
students? According to the results of a survey of
19,147 elementary, middle, and high school
students participating in STEAM education, the
most crucial characteristic of a STEAM class that
differentiates it from existing classes was “a lot
of group activities to work with friends” (Kang
et al., 2016). Many students also identified “to
learn by connecting various subjects, such as
mathematics, science, and technology” as another
important feature of STEAM education. In addition,
there were opinions presented on STEAM education’s
features that encourage students to think and learn
on their own, lead learners’ active learning through
student-centered activities, and link learning content
with real life.
Figure 4.
Effects of STEAM classes
Source: KOFAC, 2014
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Figure 5.
Students’ thoughts on the characteristics of STEAM education
Source: Kang et al., 2016
In order to continue these positive changes for
learners through STEAM education, policies to
promote interactive and exploratory activities for
students are being implemented, such as STEAM
Research and Education (R&E) and STEAM
outreach programs.
STEAM R&E aims to enhance students’ research
capabilities and encourage an atmosphere of
autonomous inquiry by supporting student-led
research activities on integration-based themes.
Students who organize a team to participate in
STEAM R&E come up with their own problems
in daily life, define research problems, design
research methods, and then submit their research
proposals. Research projects are selected for funding
through expert reviews, and the results are published
at R&E festivals. According to research exploring
the effects of STEAM R&E, conducted by Mun
et al. (2017), students’ creative leader competencies,
consisting of cognitive, affective, and societal
domains, improved after participating in STEAM
R&E. In addition, R&E has a positive impact on
studentscreative thinking by providing students with
experiences related to research field careers and
collaborative research activities carried out with
friends (Choi & Park, 2015).
STEAM outreach programs aim to help students
plan science-related careers by giving opportunities
to experience the latest in science and technology
available at actual industrial and research sites. Since
2013, about ten universities, government-funded
research institutes, and companies have been selected
as STEAM outreach operating organizations on an
annual basis. They have developed and implemented
STEAM education programs that meet the
characteristics of the organization by utilizing their
infrastructures for students across the country.
Overall, STEAM outreach programs have shown
a high level of student interest and satisfaction, and
they have also displayed a positive impact on
students’ desires to pursue careers related to science
(Kang et al., 2016).
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Policy Trajectories and Initiatives in STEM Education / Korea
4. STEAM Education Content that
Brings Positive Change
According to the analysis of 821 STEM/STEAM
related research papers published in Korea over the
last ten years (Kim & Kim, 2017), the most frequently
researched topic was ‘program/instructional materials,’
which accounted for 72% of the total. Furthermore,
‘program’ and ‘development’ were the keywords that
emerged most often. This shows that studies in the
field of STEAM education have been focused on the
development of diverse educational materials and
programs that promote the practice of STEAM
education.
The Korean Ministry of Education and KOFAC
are continuing to develop four types of STEAM
programs to be used in schools: Integration-based
programs for each theme of STEAM (e.g.,
biotechnology, global environment, and appropriate
technology), Programs to utilize up-to-date products
(e.g., up-to-date ICT, up-to-date medical appliances,
and up-to-date vehicles), Integration-based programs
in science and art (e.g., topographical maps in science
and art, creative activities in manufacturing, and
world-changing designs), and Design-based programs
connected to promising future jobs (e.g., cognitive
engineers, robot engineers, and information systems
professionals). In addition, STEAM research groups
of teachers, in which teachers and experts work
together, have continuously developed a variety of
high-quality teaching materials. STEAM educational
materials and programs developed through these
processes are uploaded to the STEAM homepage
(http://steam.kofac.re.kr) and can be freely accessed
by anyone.
Table 2 shows a checklist that can be used in
designing a STEAM class. It consists of the following
four categories: Purpose of STEAM education,
Concept of STEAM education, Learning standards
framework for STEAM classes (i.e., Context
presentation, Creative design, and Emotional touch),
and Evaluation of STEAM education. In order to
apply STEAM classes that satisfy the checklist,
despite the already organized schedules based on
each subject, three types of curriculum activity can
be applied: Subject curriculum activity connecting
the factors of S, T, E, A, and M with a main subject;
Creative curriculum activity connecting multiple
subjects for a main theme; and Extra-curriculum
activity reconstructing the curriculum or developing
a separate program for a main theme. Among these,
an example of ‘Subject curriculum activitycan be
found in Table 3.
Some studies analyzing STEAM programs and
educational materials have pointed out that the degree
of integration was limited. According to the results
of analyzing STEAM educational materials
developed by STEAM leading groups, such as leader
schools and research groups of teachers, based on
the linking frequency of each of S, T, E, A, and
M in elementary educational materials, linkages
between science (S) and arts (A) have been frequent,
while technology (T) and engineering (E) are not
frequently connected with other fields (Ahn & Kwon,
2013). For secondary educational materials, the
frequency of linkages between technology and
engineering was higher than for elementary materials.
According to the research analyzing 821 theses
and articles on STEAM education published in
Korea, research on science (S) accounted for the
highest percentage (27%) when the core subject
covered by the research included a single subject,
and research dealing with science (S) and arts (A)
together accounted for the highest percentage (2.6%)
when the core subject covered by the research was
an integrative type. Although STEAM education
emphasizes Creative Design as an element of the
learning standards framework for STEAM classes,
technology (T) and engineering (E) were not
emphasized in both academic research and
educational program development.
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Table 2.
STEAM class checklist
Category
Element
Details
Purpose of
STEAM Education
Nurturing Talents for
Integration
Is the class appropriate for the purpose of nurturing talents for
integration?
Concept of
STEAM Education
Increasing Students’
Interest
Is the class designed to increase the students’ interest in scientific
technology?
Connection to the
Real World
In the theme related to scientific technology in the real world?
Cultivation of
Integrated Thinking
Abilities
Is the program designed to cultivate the integrated thinking
abilities of students?
Learning
Standards
Framework
of STEAM
Classes
Context
Presentation
Connections to the
Real World
Does the class present problematic situations for student to solve
in the real world?
Interest and
Immersion
Is it a specific situation that can arouse the interest of students
and appropriate for their level?
Creative
Design
Creativity
Is the process of creative design clearly revealed for the students
to think about how they will solve the problem?
Focusing on
Students
Is the class made up of activities focusing on play and experiences,
and is there a process for the students to personally devise and
think about the issues at hand?
Results
(Ideas)
Is the class designed for various results (or ideas) to be presented
by each students (or group) as a result of creative design?
Use of Tools
Is the class designed for students to solve problems using devices
from the real world?
Emotional
Touch
Solving Problems
Are the contents presented in the context presentation step for
students to feel the joys of success in solving a problem?
Learning through
Cooperation
Is the class designed for students to solve problems through
cooperation in coming up with their results?
Sprit of Challenge
Is the class guided for students to challenge new tasks through
the process of solving problems?
Evaluation of STEAM
Education
Detailed Perspective
Is it made to evaluate the experience of success for students
having solved the problem?
Are various results (ideas) analyzed in the evaluation of students?
Is the aim to conduct not a results-focused evaluation but rather
an evaluation focusing on the process and its steps?
Source: Korea Foundation for the Advancement of Science and Creativity, 2016 (pp.33-34)
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Policy Trajectories and Initiatives in STEM Education / Korea
Table 3.
Example of Subject Curriculum Activity of STEAM Education from Teacher’s Guide
Source: Ministry of Education (2014), Korea Foundation for the Advancement of Science and Creativity, 2016 (pp.33-34)
5. Suggestions for Future Directions of
STEAM Education
In the previous chapters, I presented the current policy
of STEAM education in Korea based on the three
elements of education: the teacher, the student, and
the educational content. Based on this, I would like
to briefly suggest potential future directions for STEAM
education.
Firstly, for teachers, systematic educational
opportunities should be provided so that teachers can
bridge the gap between education and our changing
world. For this, it is suggested to develop a model
for (and implement) a ‘STEAM bridge center’ (Cho
et al., 2017) in which academic and industry experts
and experienced teachers can work together to develop
educational materials, teach students, and collect and
analyze data on students. The National Science
Foundation (NSF) supported Research + Practice
Collaboratory’ programs that develop curriculum,
technology, and after-school programs through the
cooperation of researchers and teachers, from the point
of view that STEM education research should be
promoted through the active participation of teachers
(http://collaboratory.mspnet.org). In order to strengthen
the capabilities of STEAM teachers, it is necessary
to construct research and learning communities beyond
individual-level training programs (Jho, Hong, & Song,
2016). The ‘STEAM bridge center’ model for
collaborative research between researchers and teachers
will contribute to the improvement of teacher capabilities
and can also be used as an effective method for the
development of qualified STEAM educational content.
Secondly, for students, more experience in
participating in social problem-solving projects should
be provided so that they can highlight social problems
and solve them through STEAM education. These
experiences help students to grow as democratic citizens
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who participate and practice, and to grow as leaders
who solve diverse problems caused by rapid changes
in industry. Furthermore, until now, STEAM
education has been mainly implemented in primary
and secondary education, but it should be extended
to university education. Recently, the Japanese
government announced the ‘Articulation Reforms
of High Schools and Universities (ARHSUS)’ in
order to transform high school and university
education into something more adequate for future
inhabitants of our society (Anzai, 2017). Since 2011,
STEAM education aiming to transform the
curriculum to prepare students for the future society
has brought positive changes to primary and
secondary school classes. If STEAM education is
implemented in universities, realistic projects
dealing with problems in real industries and
communities will be pursued based on the ideas
of university students, and student-led Research and
Solution Development (R & SD) for solving social
problems will be realized. Furthermore, STEAM
education in universities will help students develop
the problem-solving, collaborative, and creative
talents required for future jobs and careers.
Thirdly, for educational content, the degree of
integration should be expanded so that STEAM
classes can reveal students’ creativity by naturally
linking various subjects or disciplines
as was the
original purpose. More attention should be given
to technology (T) and engineering (E), which have
not been emphasized in current STEAM educational
materials, despite their importance in the Creative
Design process. Furthermore, it is necessary to place
additional emphasis on computational thinking, an
approach to solve problems efficiently by integrating
human ability and computing power, in STEAM
education, as many problems emerging with our
future society will be difficult to solve without the
help of computing devices. The NSF has supported
‘STEM+Computing Partnerships (STEM+C)’
programs that integrate computing with one or more
STEM disciplines, or integrate STEM into
computing education (NSF, 2017). In 2017, in a
similar vein, KOFAC published a series of
educational books titled ‘Problem-Solving Activities
for Computational Thinkers’ to provide various
STEAM activities based on computational thinking
with topics related to cutting-edge technologies (e.g.,
Artificial Intelligence, Autonomous Cars, Virtual
Reality, Space Launch Vehicles, Natural Disasters,
and Sports Statistics). It is believed that computational
thinking is a very important keyword in presenting
the future directions of STEAM education.
Finally, teachers, students, and educational
content are all important elements in understanding
STEAM education, but an integrated approach
rather than an individual approach
must be taken
in order to understand and properly analyze STEAM
classes. According to Kim & Kim (2017), ‘creativity’
was the most frequently presented keyword as a
dependent variable in the study of the effectiveness
of STEAM education. Creativity is highlighted time
and again as a key skill required for future
generations. Recently, in Korea, there has been much
discussion regarding collective creativity at the
group level, along with an attempt to conceptualize
and analyze ‘classroom creativity’ that integrally
considers students, teachers, environment,
engagement, and creative behavior (Hong, 2016). As
a representative future education policy in Korea,
STEAM education make students actively participate
and communicate with others in order for creativity
to be naturally revealed in the process. Therefore,
in order to design the next step of STEAM education
policy, it is necessary to holistically understand and
analyze STEAM classes that enhance the active
interaction between teachers, students, and
educational content.
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Policy Trajectories and Initiatives in STEM Education / Korea
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... Muatan pembelajaran STEAM memiliki dampak terhadap anak usia dini salah satunya yaitu meningkatkan minat anak dan pemahaman dalam teknologi dan kemampuan untuk memecahkan masalah di dunia nyata (Thuneberg et al., 2018). Seperti yang dijelaskan oleh (Hong, 2018) bahwa STEAM merupakan kebijakan pendidkan sebagai rencana dasar untuk membina dan mendukung sumber daya manusia dibidang ilmu dan teknolog. Karena, generasi penerus bangsa yang berkualitas dapat terbentuk jika sumber daya yang menjalankan penddkan menguasai teknologi sesuai perkembangan zaman (Sutarto et al., 2021). ...
... Muatan STEAM memiliki dampak terhadap anak usia dini salah satunya yaitu meningkatkan minat anak dan pemahaman dalam teknologi dan kemampuan untuk memecahkan masalah di dunia nyata (Thuneberg et al., 2018) . Seperti yang dijelaskan oleh (Hong, 2018) bahwa STEAM memuat pembelajaran berbasis teknologi ilmiah dan kemampuan dalam memecahkan masalah di dunia nyata. Selain itu dengan model pembelajaran STEAM mendorong anak untuk mengembangkan rasa ingin tahu, keterbukaan pengalaman (Perignat & Katz-Buonincontro, 2019) dan mengajukkan pertanyaan sehingga anak membangun pengetahuan disekitarnya dengan mengeksplorasi, mengamati, menemukan, dan menyelidiki sesuatu yang ada disekitarnya (Limbong et al., 2019). ...
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Pandemi covid-19 berdampak pada bidang pendidikan. Pendidikan yang semula dengan metode tatap muka, kini diubah menjadi pembelajaran jarak jauh. Pembelajaran yang sesuai saat pembelajaran jarak jauh yaitu pembelajaran bermuatan STEAM. Karena muatan STEAM merupakan isu penting dalam pendidikan saat ini, sehingga karakter kreatif dan kemandirian anak dapat diintegrasikan melalui pembelajaran bermuatan STEAM. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh pembelajaran jarak jauh bermuatan STEAM terhadap karakter kreatif dan kemandirian anak dibeberapa PAUD di Jawa Tengah. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif dengan pendekatan survei. Hasil penelitian ini yaitu pembelajaran jarak jauh bermuatan STEAM yang merupakan keterbaruan dari hasil integrasi STEM dengan tambahan Art dapat berpengaruh terhadap karakter kreatif dan kemandirian. Berdasarkan pernyataan permasalahan penelitian, dirumuskan pertanyaan bagaimana pengaruh pembelajaran jarak jauh bermuatan STEAM terhadap karakter kreatif dan kemandirian anak. Dampak dari penelitian pembelajaran jarak jauh bermuatan STEAM berupa pengembangan sikap kreatif dan kemandirian yang dapat diaplikasikan dalam kegiatan sehari-hari
... Some researchers state that the importance of cross-disciplinary learning (Quinnell, 2019) as well as the STEAM approach which is able to improve 21 st century skills such as: critical thinking, problem solving, creative thinking, collaborative and communicative and has a positive effect on students' career choices and job perceptions in science and technology (Hong, 2017). This certainly requires further study to what extent STEAM is able to improve these skills, how STEAM is applied both in terms of the use of content, methods and teacher motivation in its application. ...
... From the whole research in Figure 2, most of the authors discuss the implementation of STEAM in classroom learning which is divided into several learning subjects, namely mathematics 75.6%, interdisciplinary 18.9% and other subjects 10.8%. In addition to the implementation of STEAM in the classroom, several studies have also found that STEAM has a significant influence on future students, especially the ability to think critically (Zharylgassova et al., 2021) creativity, social empowerment (Allina, 2017), digital literacy (Wilks, 2019) and collaborative abilities which are quite influential on students' future careers (Hong, 2017). ...
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The development of a Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics (STEAM)-based learning approach that is implemented with interdisciplinary knowledge has now been widely used in learning and research in mathematics education. However, the use of learning methods and their influence on 21st century skills has not been fully described. To answer these problems, research is to investigate and interpret data on the development and use of appropriate methods in the implementation of STEAM, in particular its impact on mathematics learning and 21st century skills. The author conducted a systematic literature review of published articles to produce a bibliometric review that combines quantitative descriptions of literature content and qualitative analysis of processes, outcomes, and conditions of mathematics learning using the STEAM approach from selected databases between 2012 and 2021. The results of the study used 35 articles from literature relevant to the research objectives. After conducting the analysis, it can be concluded that research related to STEAM, especially in the study of mathematics, has increased significantly in the last 5 years since 2016. From the aspect of 21st century skills, STEAM has a dominant influence in improving problem solving skills and creativity. However, the impact of collaborative and communication skills is still low. In terms of the use of learning methods, STEAM has a significant relationship with the project-based learning (PjBL) method. The results of this study can be used as confirmation material showing that STEAM and PjBL methods are an ideal combination in learning and can also be used as alternative approaches and learning methods to improve problem solving and creative abilities.
... South Korea has been recognized worldwide for its successful education and proved itself in international achievement tests. Although South Korean teachers have been mainly utilizing teacher-centered education due to the country's cultural characteristics, South Korea has been recently endeavoring to use active, student-centered learning strategies such as collaborative and cooperative learning through STEAM education policies due to the fact that teacher-centered learning does not respond to the needs of today's education which prepares pupils for the future jobs and economy (Hong, 2017). In this study, a survey has been employed to interpret the attitudes and experiences with cooperative learning settings in the context of South Korean university students known as one of the most collectivist cultures in the world. ...
... Besides, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) proposed learning and innovation skills as 4C, including critical thinking, communication, collaboration and creativity, for the student's success in the new global economy (Partnership for 21st Century Learning, 2019). Therefore, despite the fact that South Korean students are traditionally accustomed to teacher-centered education, South Korea is recently placing a great importance on utilizing student-centric, active learning strategies country-wide especially through STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics) education policies that promote and encourage utilization of collaborative, cooperative, creative and problem solving-based learning strategies (Hong, 2017). ...
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Purpose This study concentrates on South Korean university students' attitude towards cooperative learning by utilizing the “Student Attitudes toward Group Environments” survey ( n = 427–181 female and 246 male) originally developed by Kouros and Abrami (2006). Design/methodology/approach The purpose of this study is to unfold what factors affect the cooperative learning environment in the Higher Education context of South Korea, which is known as a collectivist society, and conduct comparative analysis on gender, department type, GPA level and school year as variables in the perception of cooperative learning. The factor analysis findings demonstrated that there are four factors influencing students' attitude about cooperative learning environments in South Korean higher education; “frustrations with group members”, “peer support”, “fairness” and “quality of product and process”. Moreover, the gender, type of department, school year and GPA variables were yielded statistically differentiating results. Findings The overall results showed that effective cooperative learning strategies depend on the type of culture and other demographic variables including learner's gender, department type and school year. In South Korea, known to have a collectivist culture, fairness has appeared as a new criteria needing to be considered when designing a cooperative learning environment, which is a different case than in individualistic cultures. Thus, when employing cooperative learning strategies in South Korea, educators should take learners' culture into consideration. For this, educators might utilize the final instrument of this study as a guideline or criteria to establish an effective cooperative learning environment. Originality/value This article provides an example from South Korea which is known as both a collectivist and high-tech country.
... The term "STEM" originated in 2001 from Judith Ramaley, the director of the U.S. National Science Foundation's Education and Human Resources division and subsequently STEM education initiatives have been established across the world based on the argument related to STEM workforce needs. STEM policy documents across the globe (e.g., Australian Curriculum, Assessment, and Reporting Authority, 2016;European Commission, 2015;Hong, 2017;National Research Council (NRC), 2012) promote interdisciplinary or integrated instruction, commonly referred to as "integrated STEM education", rather than separate disciplinary approaches to the teaching of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. These STEM education policies created a significant need for new approaches to curriculum and pedagogy, as well the need for providing professional learning opportunities for both preservice and inservice teachers now expected to use integrated STEM approaches in their classrooms. ...
Article
The term “STEM” originated in 2001 from Judith Ramaley, the director of the U.S. National Science Foundation’s Education and Human Resources division and subsequently STEM education initiatives have been established across the world based on the argument related to STEM workforce needs. STEM policy documents across the globe (e.g., Australian Curriculum, Assessment, and Reporting Authority, 2016; European Commission, 2015; Hong, 2017; National Research Council (NRC), 2012) promote interdisciplinary or integrated instruction, commonly referred to as “integrated STEM education”, rather than separate disciplinary approaches to the teaching of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. These STEM education policies created a significant need for new approaches to curriculum and pedagogy, as well the need for providing professional learning opportunities for both preservice and inservice teachers now expected to use integrated STEM approaches in their classrooms. Thus, over the past decade there has been a growing body of research on integrated STEM education. However, disagreement on models and effective approaches for integrated STEM instruction persists (Moore et al., 2020; Roehrig et al., 2021). Thus, this special issue addresses the ongoing need to conceptualize integrated STEM and provide additional empirical support for integrated STEM approaches to teaching and learning. These new STEM education policies require significant changes in teachers’ classroom practices (e.g., Dare et al, 2018; Pleasants et al, 2021). Across the world, STEM teacher educators have responded through changes to preservice teacher programs and myriad professional development opportunities for inservice teachers (e.g., Dare et al., 2019; Du et al., 2019; Estapa & Tank, 2017; Guzey et al., 2014). Wang and Knoblach present a rubric for use in a methods course for agriculture teachers designed to help teacher educators to understand preservice teachers’ understanding of integrated STEM, as well as a tool to help preservice educators to reflect on the level of integrated STEM present in their lesson plans and classroom activities. Two papers in this special issue explored the expectations that teachers have for integrated STEM professional development. Oztay and colleagues focused on the needs of chemistry teachers, while Mumcu and colleagues focused on the different needs of middle school science, mathematics, and computer science teachers. Knowledge about assessment in integrated STEM learning environments, presents a specific aspect of teachers’ practice where little research has been conducted to date. Karakaya and Yılmaz present information on the different process- and outcome-oriented methods used by teachers to evaluate STEM education. They also share information about challenges related to assessment faced by teachers to guide teacher educators work to support the development of teachers’ knowledge for integrated STEM. Another approach for supporting teachers’ implementation of integrated STEM is the development of STEM schools. Waters and Orange explore the ways in which administrators can support the successful development of a STEM school through the perception of elementary teachers at the STEM school about what is necessary to create a successful STEM school. Given that STEM policy arguments are driven by STEM workforce needs (Takeuchi et al., 2020) and pressing concerns about the need to attract more students to STEM careers, 2020), there is a need within the field to better understand how to promote positive attitudes and interest in STEM for K-12 students, particularly for students traditional under-represented in the STEM fields (e.g., Wieslemann, Dare et al., 2020; Wieselmann, Kim et al., 2020). Tekbiyik and colleagues shared details about a summer robotics camp designed for 7th grade students and how this experience improved students’ interest in STEM careers, particularly engineering. Timur and colleagues explored secondary students’ goals toward STEM and report on gender differences, with girls expressing less interest in STEM careers compared to their male peers. Less common in the research are studies that explore the impact of integrated STEM on cognitive student outcomes. Slavit and colleagues present an analytic framework for understanding Students’ Ways of Thinking in STEM learning environments, specifically related to the way in which students generate claims connected to related evidence and reasoning as they engage in addressing STEM problems. Stohlmann explores the connections between integrated STEM and the development of mindset within students through a review of the literature. In a rare study focused on mathematical student outcomes, Gündoğdu and Tunç explored the impact of STEM activities on the development of proportional reasoning skills of middle school students. Finally, addressing another less common space within the literature, Kuroda explored the perceptions of undergraduate STEM students about the importance of specific STEM competencies, and how these perceptions varied by gender and STEM major. As a special issue, these papers add to the extant literature on integrated STEM particularly in under-researched areas within the literature such as the impact of integrated STEM on cognitive student outcomes, as well as less researched contexts such as mathematics classrooms and undergraduate programs. The papers also provide strong implications for teacher educators providing professional integrated STEM learning opportunities.
... More specifically, teachers lack a proper understanding of the concept of curriculum integration (Radloff and Guzey, 2016), as well as the knowledge and abilities required by the different subjects of the acronyms that constituent STEAM (Shin and Han, 2011;Toma and Greca, 2018). Teachers also have difficulties in selecting suitable topics, developing educational materials, and/or assessing students' learning results (Hong, 2016). Coupled with the previous development policy of STEM education, which has led to the declining quality of art education in most parts of the world, this lack of teacher ability has an impact on students' learning, as it fails to give them humanity literacy or a complete worldview. ...
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This study proposed a children’s digital art ability training system with artificial intelligence-assisted learning (AI-assisted learning), which was designed to achieve the goal of improving children’s drawing ability. AI technology was introduced for outline recognition, hue color matching, and color ratio calculation to machine train students’ cognition of chromatics, and smart glasses were used to view actual augmented reality paintings to enhance the effectiveness of improving elementary school students’ imagination and painting performance through the diversified stimulation of colors. This study adopted the quasi-experimental research method and designs the pre-test and post-test for different groups. The research subjects are the Grade 4 students of an elementary school in Taitung City, Taiwan. The test tools included an imagination test and an evaluation of painting performance ability. The test results of a total of 30 students before and after the experiment included the experimental group that received the children’s digital art ability training system with AI-assisted learning and 30 students in the control group that had not received the teaching were analyzed by covariance. These results were supplemented by the description and interpretation of student feedback, teachers’ reflection notes, and other qualitative data to understand the performance of the students in the experimental group in terms of imagination and painting performance.
... Since the term "STEM" (Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics) was coined in 2001, there have been numerous efforts to improve K − 12 STEM teaching and learning around the world (Freeman et al., 2014). With the release of STEM policy documents across the globe (e.g., Australian Curriculum, Assessment, and Reporting Authority, 2016;European Commission, 2015;Hong, 2017;National Research Council (NRC), 2012), the implementation of STEM in K − 12 education has focused on interdisciplinary or integrated instruction, commonly referred to as "integrated STEM education", rather than separate disciplinary approaches to the teaching of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. While integrated STEM education is well established through national and international policy documents, disagreement on models and effective approaches for integrated STEM instruction continues to be pervasive and problematic . ...
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Given the large variation in conceptualizations and enactment of K − 12 integrated STEM, this paper puts forth a detailed conceptual framework for K − 12 integrated STEM education that can be used by researchers, educators, and curriculum developers as a common vision. Our framework builds upon the extant integrated STEM literature to describe seven central characteristics of integrated STEM: (a) centrality of engineering design, (b) driven by authentic problems, (c) context integration, (d) content integration, (e) STEM practices, (f) twenty-first century skills, and (g) informing students about STEM careers. Our integrated STEM framework is intended to provide more specific guidance to educators and support integrated STEM research, which has been impeded by the lack of a deep conceptualization of the characteristics of integrated STEM. The lack of a detailed integrated STEM framework thus far has prevented the field from systematically collecting data in classrooms to understand the nature and quality of integrated STEM instruction; this delays research related to the impact on student outcomes, including academic achievement and affect. With the framework presented here, we lay the groundwork for researchers to explore the impact of specific aspects of integrated STEM or the overall quality of integrated STEM instruction on student outcomes.
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This introduction chapter provides an overview of STEM education policies and curriculum initiatives in the Asian context. The three parts of this book are briefly introduced. There is then a summary and synthesis of relevant findings for each of the 14 chapters as well as a discussion linking the content of this book with the current development of STEM education research. Finally, implications, challenges and future directions for STEM education development and related research are proposed.KeywordsConceptualising STEM educationImplementing STEM educationTeacher preparationTeacher professional development
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Müzik Eğitimi, Stem Eğitim Modeli, Steam Eğitim Modeli
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Although the integration of subjects in the curriculum has been advocated in recent years, there exist limited opportunities for teachers of different subjects to implement integrated curricula in schools collaboratively. In this paper, we consider history as a humanities subject that could be integrated with STEM and explore the diverse history-related learning goals found in teacher-developed STEAM curriculum materials. Using integrated STEAM curricula developed by 13 cross-subject teacher teams in Korea, we analyze the presentation of history-related learning goals in the curricula and report several patterns identified across the curricula. First, the majority of the curricula aimed for the learners to identify themselves in their regional and national histories, but other levels of identification were also aimed for. Second, all the curricula included goals related to historical analysis skills, which were sometimes integrated with scientific inquiry skills. Third, we found several goals related to eliciting students’ moral response to history, particularly when the curriculum topic concerned issues at the national level. Fourth, the integration of subjects allowed for exhibiting learners’ historical understanding through various activities and in explanatory, persuasive, and imaginative manners. Overall, the analysis pointed to several ways in which the goals of history learning can interact with those of STEM learning, which can be useful for future research and practice in integrated curriculum. We discuss some potential challenges of integrating history with STEM, such as issues that can arise from the use of the “nation” as a context for STEAM learning.
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21세기 미래를 준비할 수 있는 창의적 인재 양성을 목표로 하여, 21세기 학생들이 갖추어야 할 핵심능력인 '창의와 혁신'을 '창의적으 로 사고하기', '창의적인 협업', '혁신의 실행'으로 구분하였다. 영국 의 '창의 문화 교육 자문위원회(National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education, NACCCE)'는 학생들의 창의력을 높이기 위해 50년에 걸친 계획으로 미래 학교 만들기 프로젝트를 시 행하고 있다. 이처럼 한국을 포함한 여러 국가에서 창의적인 인재 양성을 위해 노력하고 있다. 한국의 교육부는 미래 과학기술 발전을 주도할 창의적이고 융합적 인 역량을 갖춘 인재의 융성을 강조하고자 융합인재교육(이하 STEAM 교육)의 목표와 특성을 정의하고 이를 중심으로 창의적인 인재 양성을 위한 교육을 실행하고 있다. STEAM 교육은 학생들의 과학기술에 대한 흥미와 이해를 높이고 창의적 문제해결 능력을 배양 하는 것을 목적으로 하고 있으며, 이러한 목표를 성취하기 위해 다양 한 교육 지원 사업이 한국과학창의재단을 중심으로 하여 수행되어 왔다. 이러한 교육 지원 사업 중 하나인 STEAM R&E 사업은 실생활 과 관련된 문제 상황에 대하여 학생들이 자기 주도적으로 문제를 찾 고, 연구 과정을 설계하여 적절한 해결방안을 모색하도록 하는 것이 다. STEAM R&E는 기존의 R&E(Research & Education, 이하 R&E 로 칭함) 프로그램과 같이 학생 주도의 프로젝트 교육방법이다. 일반 R&E 수업이 과학적 탐구 과제를 중심으로 진행되는 것인 반면에 STEAM R&E에서는 'STEAM'이라는 용어의 사용으로도 알 수 있듯 이 학생들이 일상생활에서 직면할 수 있는 다양한 융합과제를 발견하 여 그 문제를 명확히 하고, 융합적 사고력을 기반으로 문제를 해결한 다. STEAM R&E 참여 학생들은 팀을 이루어 일상생활의 문제를 스스로 찾아 자신들의 연구 문제 및 연구 방법을 설계한 후 연구계획 서를 제출한다. 제출된 연구계획서 중 전문가 평가에 의해 선정된 과제는 연구 지원금을 받아 연구를 진행할 수 있다. 2016년부터는 이전에 R&E 프로젝트를 경험할 기회가 없었던 일반고 학생들도 STEAM R&E에 참여할 수 있게 되었다. 이에 STEAM R&E 사업은 과학고등학교, 영재학교, 과학중점학교 뿐 아니라 일반계 고등학교 The Korean Ministry of Education has emphasized human resource development with creative and convergent ability for future science and technology development. Korean STEAM Education aims to enhance students' interest and their understanding of science and technology as well as to develop students' creative problem-solving skills. Through STEAM R&E project, students experience self-directed research in order to solve the problem in the context of everyday life. In this study, we aim to find out whether the creative leader competency of high school students changed after they experienced the STEAM R&E project. The creative leader competency consisted of three domains: cognitive, affective, and societal domain. We measured the creative leader competency using the questionnaire scales. The questionnaire was administered to 612 high school students who participated in the 2016 STEAM R&E project. Pre-and post-test scores were collected, and we analyzed it. We compared the mean difference between pre-and post-test scores as well as the mean differences among science high school, gifted school, science core school, and general high school. From the result, we found that all student' creative leader competency improved after participating in the STEAM R&E project in all three domains. The result also showed that students' test scores of science high school and gifted school showed no significant mean differences, while student's scores of both science core school and general high school improved significantly. From the results, we concluded that STEAM R&E activities could be an effective tool in cultivating creative leader competency, especially for general high school students and science core school students. We also suggested that further researches are needed to find how we could enhance students' creative leader competency.
Article
The purpose of this study is to provide basic data for improving the STEAM class by examining elementary school teachers` difficulties in the STEAM class and discussing solutions. For this research, 25 elementary school teachers in Seoul City and Gyeonggi-do were asked to write their difficulties in the STEAM class in the open-ended questionnaires. After classification of the collected data, an in-depth interview was conducted with one in-service elementary school teacher who is richly experienced in STEAM education to find solutions for each type of difficulties. The study result showed that most of elementary school teachers had difficulties in the STEAM class, due to selection of integrated subjects, production of teaching devices and materials, guidance of group activities, reorganization of the curriculum, assessment and uncooperative co-teachers. One teacher that participated in the interview to discuss solutions for teachers` difficulties was solving the problems in various ways. She said that many of her solutions came from her experience and also, knowledge obtained through a participation in the STEAM training or opportunities to share information with other teachers who belong to the STEAM research institution, was highly helpful.
Article
The new paradigm of the 21st Century science education explores a wide range of possibilities that can foster students' interest toward science and creative convergence thinking. In this study, through the analysis of programs that were developed in 'STEAM leader school' and 'STEAM teacher association for research' supported by the 'Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology,' we analyzed the linking frequency with each of STEAM education's fields and teachers' perception for the convergence strategy of technology and engineering. The results of this study show that linking frequency of technology and engineering is lower than the field of arts and mathematics in elementary school, but higher in middle and high school. 'Introduction technology contents in lives' in technology and 'crafts activity' in engineering are the most used teaching and learning strategy in STEAM education. But, although 'crafts activity' is engineering's major way of learning, many teachers understand and use it as a technological teaching learning strategy. It is important to understand that each of STEAM education's field has a unique nature and educational implications, for the effective settlement of STEAM education, we need to consider teaching and learning strategy in various way.
The students' perceptions of "Research & Education" programs administered in the science specialized gifted high schools in
  • H Choi
  • K Park
Choi, H. & Park, K. (2015). The students' perceptions of "Research & Education" programs administered in the science specialized gifted high schools in Korea. Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction, 15(2), 409-431.
A conceptualization and scale development of science classroom creativity. Doctoral dissertation
  • O Hong
Hong, O. (2016). A conceptualization and scale development of science classroom creativity. Doctoral dissertation, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
The effect of STEAM Projects: Year
  • N Lee
Lee, N. (2017). The effect of STEAM Projects: Year 2016 Analysis. Seoul: KOFAC.
Study of policies on creative integrative talents in science: an analytical study on the efficacy of STEAM
Korea Foundation for the Advancement of Science and Creativity. (2013). Study of policies on creative integrative talents in science: an analytical study on the efficacy of STEAM. Seoul: KOFAC.
Development of evaluation tool for outcome of STEAM
Korea Foundation for the Advancement of Science and Creativity. (2014). Development of evaluation tool for outcome of STEAM. Seoul: KOFAC.