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Comparitive morphological study of genus Fascellina (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Ennominae) in Tamil Nadu

Authors:
;
,.,.~
..
.,
...
~,
I. \"!.
. Research Article
. Ann.
Pl.
Protec. Sci.
26
(2):
305-311 (September, 2018)
doi: 10.595810974-0163.2018.00069.1
Comparitive morphological study
of
Genus Fascellina
(Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Ennominae) in Tamil Nadu
*P.
Kiruthika,
C.
Chinniah
and
N.
Chitra
Department
of
Agril. Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore -64 1003 (Tamil Nadu), India
<p.kiru.agri@gmail.com>
Date
of
Receipt: 26.04.2018; Accepted: 24.05.2018
ABSTRACT
Comparative morphological study
of
two species Fascellina plagiata and Fascellina chromataria was studied based
on morphological and genital characters. Antenna
of
male is filiform with cilia and bristles in each flagellomere. Labial
palpi clothed below with close set
of
smooth yellow scales, fore wing ground colour tawny and in male genitalia
uncus bifid at distal end and aedeaus with patch
of
cornuti in
F.
plagiata. Labial palpi clothed below with close set
of
smooth brown scales, fore wing ground colour dark reddish brown, uncus bifid at apical end and cornuti absent
in
aedeagus in
F.
chromataria
Key
words:
Fascellina spp., Morphological study.
Geometridae Leach, 1815, one
of
the largest
families
of
Lepidoptera with about 2002 genera,
23002 species (Nieukerken et al., 2011), distributed
in all the main biogeographical regions. Most
of
the
Geometrids are identified with wing patterns, but
study
of
genitalia has strongly influenced species
taxonomy
in
Geometridae.
Geometridae
are
macrolepidopetrans characterized by the presence
of
structurally unique tympanal organs at the base
of
the abdomen. Ennominae are delicate, slender
bodied moths with medium to large wingspan, with
over 9, 700 name species, include about 45 %
of
all Geometridae. Genus Fascellina was erected by
Walker in 1860 with chromataria
as
a type species
from Sri Lanka and four species under Fascellina
were further described. In India, it is represented
by
13
species (Saxena, 2014).
The
two species,
F.
plagiata
and
F.
chromataria
were
earlier
reported
from
Western
Ghats
of
Kerala
and
Karnataka (Ghoyal, 2010) and Uttarakhand (Sanyal
et al., 2017). Geomeridae taxonomy in Tamil Nadu
305
remains
to
be
studied.
Hence,
this
study
was
undertaken.
Materials
and
Methods
Adults were collected from Thadiyankudisai in
light trap (mercury lamp -400 Watts) with white cloth
(1.5
x5.5
m)
from 6.00 p.m. to 6.00
a.m.
Adults were
collected individually using small plastic vial and
transferred
to
killing jar charged with ethyl acetate.
Dead adults were transferred to butter paper cover
marked with locality, date
of
collection and name of
collector, brought to the laboratory, curated, identified
and studied for diagnostic taxonomic characters,
including male genitalia. Standard techniques were
followed for microscopic slides
of
wings. Genitalia
dissection
was
performed
as
per
the
standard
protocol. Photography
of
male genitalia was taken
under stereo zoom microscope (Leica: MZ16). Line
diagrams of the wing venation, antennae, labial palpi,
legs and dissected genitalia were drawn using a mirror
type camera lucida attached
to
the microscope (Model:
Leica M80).
......
_._;;
Results
FASCELLINA
Walker,
1860
Diagnosis: Antenna of male filiform with short cilia
and bristles
in
each flagellomere. Labial palpi
upright, three segmented, extending up to vertex,
second segment laterally compressed and third
segment minute. Compound eyes globular, vertex
clothed with dense scales. Proboscis not scaled.
Thorax robust with lamellar scales, abdomen short,
not extending tornal region
of
hindwing (Plate
2.
C;
Plate 4. C).
Fascellina plagiata
(Walker,
1866)
Geometra plagiata, List Specimens lepid. Insects
Colln
Br.
Mus., 35: 1601.
Fascellina viridis Moore, 1867, Proc. zool. Soc.
Land., 1867: 79.
Fascellina
plagiata
icteria Wehrli, 1936, Ent.
Rundschau, 54: 126.
Fascellina plagiata subvirens Wehrli, 1936, Ent.
Rundschau, 54: 126.
Fascellina plagiata : Holloway, 1976, Moths
of
Borneo with special reference to
Mt.
Kinabalu:
77;
[MOBll]:
46,
f.
57, pl. 2
Distribution:
Himalaya,
W.
China,
Taiwan,
Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo
Materials
examined:
India: Tamil Nadu: HRS
Thadiyankudisai,
3a"
&, 29.viii. 2016, at light,
Kiruthika, P; Mayiladumpara, 2a"
&,
4.xii. 2013, at
light, Thanigairaj,
R.
Diagnosis: Labial palpi clothed below with close
set
of
smooth yellow scales, second segment being
longer (seven times longer than third segment)
(Plate
1.
C; Plate
2.
D).
Upf
(Upper side forewing):
ground colour tawny, triangular, excavated at anal
margin, a long brown patch along the post discal
area from anal margin and extends up to Rs and
thickly speckled with white scales, a small brown
band below the median vein and brown spot at the
mid
of
the discal cell, costa suffused with brown
scales (Plate
1.
A), Unf (Underside forewing): basal
half and apical angle yellow and distal half/ outer
brown with prominent white band at post medial line
306
P Kiruthik
a,
C.
Chinniah and
N.
Chitra
(Platel. B), Uph (Upper side hindwing): oval, two
long brown transverse band immediately next to post
discal area and irrorated with white scales in the
middle, a thin crescent brown line along the basal
and distal end
of
transverse brown band (Platel.
A).
Wing
span:
16
mm
-
19
mm
Wing
venation:
On forewing, Sc extend towards
the apex. R1 and R2 stalked and joined by bars to
Sc and R3, R4. R3 and R4, R3 and
Rs
stalked, arise
from
just
before the upper angle
of
the discal cell.
Areole present. Discal cell closed. M1 free, from
upper angle
of
the cell, M7 free, from centre
of
the
discal cell, M3 free, from -lower angle
of
the cell.
Cu1 free, arise immediately below the lower angle
of
the cell, Cu2 free, arise below the lower angle
of
the cell, A1+2 fused, incrassate at the base, arising
from
base
of
the
discal
cell
(Plate
2.
A).
On
hindwing,
Sc
+R1 dilated at the base extend towards
the
apex
and
anastomose
with
Rs.
Rs
arise
immediately above the upper angle
of
the cell, M 1
free, arise from upper angle
of
the cell, M2 absent,
M3 free, from lower angle
of
the cell, Cu 1 arising
just below the lower angle
of
the cell, Cu2 free, arise
below the lower angle
of
the cell, A1+2 fused, arise
from base
of
the discal cell (Plate
2.
B).
Legs: Foreleg with tibial epiphysis, originate at the
mid
of
the tibia, with comb -like spines at the base
of
the epiphysis (Plate
2.
E). Hair pencils on fore
tibia. Middle leg with a pair
of
spur at the distal end
of
tibia (Plate 2. F). Hind leg with a pair spur at
the distal end and a pair of spur (comparatively larger
than spurs at discal end) just above the distal end
(Plate
2.
G). Tibial spur formula 0 - 2 - 4. Tarsus
five segmented with basitarsus the longest.
Male
genitalia: Uncus slightly long, broad at base,
obtuse and bifid at distal end, socii sclerotized with
pit at centre, gnathous tapering towards the tip,
tegumen broad, inverted V shaped, thickly pilose,
vinculum W shaped, longer than tegumen, valve long,
costa and cuculus thickly pilose, sacculus weakly
sclerotized, a pair
of
furca with left long, weakly
sclerotized, brush -like at the tip and right short,
heavily sclerotized, curved at the tip, saccus short,
bifid, brush like juxtal process invaginated from
saccus (Plate
1.
D, E), aedeagus shorter than valva,
Comparitive morphological study
of
Genus Fascellina in Tamil Nadu
Fascellina plagiata (Walker, 1866)
A.
Adult
-
Dorasal
view (cf') B.
Adult
-Ventral view (cf') C.
Labial
palpi
-positioned
upright
D.
Male
genitalia -
lateral
view
E.
Male
genitalia -
ventral
view
F.Aedeagus
Plate
1.
Adult-A.
Dorasal
view, B.
Ventral
view, C.
Labial
palpi-
positioned upright;
Male
genitalia; D.
Lateral
view, E. Ventral
view;
F.
Aedeagus; G. Tympanum
G. 'fympanum
stout at the apex with patch
of
comuti and narrower
to
the
distal
end
with
ductus
ejaculatorius
(Plate
1.
F). Ramu and Rao (2007) also described
new record
of
leaf
hopper with special reference
to male gemtal structure.
Tympanum:
The
tympanal
organs
are
well
separated, small and rounded. Cavi tympani paired,
arise
from
ventro-lateral
invagination
of
first
abdominal
segment.
Lateral
margin
of
cavus
307
strongly sclerotized. Another sclerotized brace ifeste
Trommelfelleinfassung,
Trommelfellrahmen)
provides rigid frame to the tympanum. Tympanum
thin, base broad and apex narrow. Ansa extends
from the inner wall
of
cavus. Basal ansa narrow
and then widens as broad flat structure, narrowing
again at the tip. Scoloparium (tympanal receptor)
absent. Tympanic lacinea semicircular and weakly
sclerotized (Plate
1.
G).
Fascellina plagiata
(Walker,
1866)
A.
Fore wing
\ \
\
C.Antenna
A }
E. Fore leg
B.Hind
wing
D.
Labial palpi
1
I
J
F.
Middle leg G. Hind leg
Plate 2. Wing venation A. Forewing, B. Hindwing;
C.
Antenna;
D.
Labial
palpi;
E.
Foreleg;
F.
Middleleg;
G.
Hindleg
Remarks:
Host
plants
are
Alseodaphne,
Beilschmiedia
and
Cinnamomum
of
family
Lauraceae
Fascellina chromataria (Walker, 1860)
Fascellina chromataria Walker. Cat. xx, p.215;
Hampson. Ill. Het. ix, pl. 168, fig. 2; C. & S. no.
2821.
Fascellina celata, Walker.
Cat.
xxxv, p. 1554.
Fascellina olivataria, Walker, Cat. xxxv, p. 1555.
Fascellina clausaria, Walker. Cat. xxxv, p. 1556.
Geometra usta, Walker, Cat. xxxv, p. 1602; C &
S.no.
3212
308
P Kiruthika,
C.
Chinniah and
N.
Chitra
Fascellina castanea, Moore,
P.
Z.
S.
1877, p. 612;
C &
S.
no. 2820
Fascellina ceylonica, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii, p. 394,
pl.
18
7
Distribution:
Sri Lanka
Materials
examined:
India: Tamil Nadu: HRS
Thadiyankudisai,
3B'
&, 10.ix.
2016,
at
light,
Kiruthika, P;
2B'
&,
25. vi. 2008, at light, Suresh,
S.; Mayiladumpara, 2
B&,
4.xii. 2013, at light,
Thanigairaj,
R.
Diagnosis: Labial palpi clothed below with close
set
of
smooth brown scales, second segment being
longer
(five
times
longer
than
third
segment)
(Plate 3. C; Plate 4. D). Upf: subtriangular and
excavated
at
anal
margin,
ground
colour
dark
reddish brown, costal margin irrorated with grey and
yellow scales, discal area suffused with yellow
scales with hyaline centre (Plate 3. A), Unf: basal
half yellow and distal brown, speckled with white
scales, bright reddish brown band at post medial
region (Plate
3.
B); Uph: oval, excavated at apical
and anal region, suffused with yellow and brown
scales, transverse light brown antemedial band and
dark brown post medial band (Plate 3. A); Unh:
yellow, suffused with brown scales at centre, brown
band at post medial region, thin undulating line at
submarginal area (Plate 3. B).
Wing
span:
17
mm-
19
mm
Wing
venation:
On
forewing, Sc extend towards
the apex. R1 and R2 stalked and joined by bars to
Sc and R3, R4. R3 and R4, R3 and R5 stalked, arise
from
just
before the upper angle
of
the discal cell.
Areole present. Discal cell closed. M 1 free, from
upper angle
of
the cell, M2 free, from centre
of
the
discal cell, M3 free, from lower angle
of
the cell.
Cu1 free, arising immediately below the lower angle
of
the cell, Cu2 free, arising below the lower angle
of
the cell, A1+2 fused, incrassate at the base, arising
from
base
of
the
discal
cell
(Plate
4. A). On
hindwing,
Sc
+R1 dilated at the base extend towards
the
apex
and
anastomose
with
Rs. Rs
arising
immediately above the upper angle
of
the cell, M1
free, arise from upper angle
of
the cell, M2 absent,
M3 free, from lower angle
of
the cell, Cu1 arise just
Comparitive morphological study
of
Genus Fascellina in Tamil Nadu
Fascellina chromataria (Walker, 1860)
A.
Adult
-Dorasal view
(a")
B.
Adult
-Ventral view (a") C. Labial palpi -positioned
upright
D.
Male
genitalia -
ventral
view E.
Male
genitalia -
lateral
view F.Aedeagus
Plate
3. Adult-A.
Dorasal
view, B.
Ventral
view, C.
Labial
palpi-
positioned
upright;
Male
genitalia;
D.
Ventral
view,
E.
lateral view;
F.
Aedeagus; G. 'fYmpanum
G.'IYmPanum
below the lower angle
of
the cell, Cu2 free, arising
below the lower angle
of
the cell, A1+2 fused, arise
from base
of
the discal cell (Plate
4.
B).
Legs: Foreleg with tibial epiphysis, originated from
the mid
of
the tibia, with comb like spines at the
base
of
the epiphysis (Plate
4.
E). Hair pencils on
fore tibia. Middle leg with pair
of
spur at the distal
end
of
tibia (Plate
4.
F). Hind leg with a pair spur
309
at the distal end and a pair
of
spur (comparatively
larger than spurs at discal end)
just
above the distal
end (Plate
4.
G).
Tibial spur formula 0 - 2 - 4. Tarsus
five segmented with basitarsus the longest.
Male genitalia: Uncus bifid at apical end with
curved tip, pilose, socii V shaped, gnathos spindle
shaped, curved at the tip, sclerotized at apical end
with digitate process, tegument broed, thickly pilose,
Fascellina chromataria (Walker, 1860)
A.
Fore wing B. Hind wing
C.Antenna
D. Labial palpi
E. Fore leg
F.
Middle leg G.
Hind
leg
Plate
4.
Wing
venation -
A.
Forewing, B. Hindwing;
C.
Antenna;
D.
Labial
palpi;
E.
Foreleg;
F.
Middleleg; G. Hindleg
valve long, plate -like, thickly pilose, sacculus
weakly sclerotized, cucullus smooth, pilose, vinculum
as long as tegument, coremata at the base
of
the
valva, a pair
of
furca with left long and. thin, right
short and slightly broad, saccus weakly sclerotized,
W shaped (Plate
4.
D, E), aedeagus shorter than
valve, slender, dustus ejaculatorius entering apically
(Plate
4.
F). Similar results were also reported by
Remu et
al.
(2008) on leaf hopper.
Remarks:
Host
plants
are
Alseodaphne
semecarifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Litsea
monopetala,
Persia
gamblei
and
Phoebee
lanceolata
of
family Lauraceae.
310
P Kiruthika,
C.
Chinniah
and
N.
Chitra
Tympanum:
The
tympanal
organs
are
well
separated, small and rounded. Cavi tympani paired,
arise
from
ventro-lateral
invagination
of
first
abdominal
segment.
Lateral
margin
of
cavus
strongly sclerotized. Another sclerotized brace (feste
Trommelfelleinfassung,
Trommelfellrahmen)
provides rigid frame to the tympanum. Tympanum
thin, base broad and apex narrow. Ansa extends
from the inner wall
of
cavus. Basal ansa narrow
and then widens as broad flat structure, narrowing
again at the tip. Scoloparium (tympanal receptor)
absent. Tympanic lacinea semicircular and weakly
sclerotized (Plate 4. G).
Diagnostic
key
to
the
species
of
Genus
Fascellina
Walker
in
India
1.
Fore
wing
with
the
outer
margin
excised
towards outer angle, but not the inner margin.
Hind
wing
with
apex
slightly
truncate
..................................................
2
Fore wing with the outer and inner margins
excised towards outer angle; hind wing with
costa and apex more or less truncate and
excised
....
................
..
................
3
2.
Ground colour olive green, hind wing with highly
curved
submarginal
line;
underside
yellow
....
.
.....................
...
..
F subsignata
Warren, 1893
Ground colour being shade
of
rufous, orange and
green, hind wing with submarginal line obsolute;
underside more orange
..........................
.
F dacoda Swinhoe, 1893
3.
Fore wing with the outer and inner margins
excised towards outer angle; hind wing with
costa
and
apex
more or less
truncate
and
excised; cilia non-crenulate
.............
.4
Fore wing with the outer and inner margins
excised towards outer angle; hind wing with
costa
and
apex
more
or less
truncate
and
excised;
cilia
of
both
wings
highly
crenulated
............................
. F
vinos
a
(Warren, 1893)
4.
Fore
wing
with
ground
colour
deep
red
brown
.............................................
5
Fore wing with ground colour green/ yellow
green .
..........
.
....
...
.............
.
.......
6
Comparitive morphological study
of
Genus Fascellina
in
Tamil Nadu
5.
Fore wing with the costa greyish; a yellowish
spot
at
end
of
cell
often
with
a
hyaline
centre
.........................................
.
F.
chromataria Walker, 1860
Fore wing with the costa greyish; dorsum
of
fore
wing deeply exercised, discal spot hyaline with
yellow
spot
inside
.............................
.
F.
perchromataria sp.nov Saxena, 2014
6.
Fore
wing
with
ground
colour
yellow
green
.................
.
F.
plagiata (Walker, 1866)
Forewing
with
ground
colour
olive
green
......................
: .. ...
.....
..
...........
...........
7
7.
Forewing with antemedial grey line angled
below costa, and with a grey patch on the costa
beyond
it.
...
........
.......
...................
.. .
F.
glaucifulgurea Prout, 1916
Fore wing tinged with purplish grey; diffused
medial line highly angled below costa; an oblique
patch beyond it from costa
.....................
.
F.
inconspicua Warren, 1894
8.
Fore wing with neither inner nor outer margin
excised
.
Hind
wing
with
apex
truncate
....................
...
...............
....... 9
Fore wing with neither inner nor outer margin
excised.
Hind
wing
with
apex
truncate
...........
..
.............
..
...........
.................. .. 10
9.
Ground colour Red-brown, suffused with purple;
fore
wing
with
a
deep
red
fascia
below
subcostal nervure from base to end
of
cell ....
F.
porphyreofusa Hampson, 1895
Both wings suffused with pure white on outer
margin and the red fascia below subcostal
extending
beyond
end
of
cell
...........
.
F.
longipennis sp. nov Saxena, 2014
10.
Fore wing with silvery purple on middle
of
costa
and
on
outer
area;
Hind
wing
with
the
postmedial line not waved and angled outwards
on
vein
4
........................................
.
F.
rectimarginata Warren, 1894
Fore wing with white on outer area instead
of
purple;
Hind
wing
with
line
straight.
............................................
.
F.
inornata Warren, 1893
Discussion
Complex hearing organs were known from only
fifteen
of
the 119 (Common, 1990) families
of
311
Lepidoptera. There structures are
of
considerable
taxonomic importance.
The
tympanal organs
of
Geometridae have been less extensively studied than
those
of
Pyraliadae or Noctuidae. Ansa is an unique
structure in tympanum ·of Geometridae and this
represents a prominent autapomorphy of the family.
Ansa varies in shape across the family, variation has
some taxonomic value at the subfamily level (Cook
& Scoble, 1992). In the present study, tympanic
lacinia lies at right angles to the ansa and roughly
semicircular which is the character
of
subfamily
Ennominae .
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of
Australia. vi+535pp. +
32pls.
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J.
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Geometrid moths: a review
of
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T.
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Family
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Uttarakhand, India (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).
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A.
(2014).
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Family
Geometridae (Lepidoptera) from North-East India.
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D.,
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The Geometridae Stephens, 1829 are considered as an excellent model group to study insect diversity patterns across elevational gradients globally. This paper documents 168 species of Geometridae belonging to 99 genera and 5 subfamilies from different Protected Areas in a Western Himalayan state, Uttarakhand in India. The list includes 36 species reported for the first time from Uttarakhand, which hitherto was poorly explored and reveals significant altitudinal range expansion for at least 15 species. We sampled different vegetation zones across an elevation gradient stretching from 600 m up to 3600 m, in Dehradun-Rajaji landscape, Nanda Devi National Park, Valley of Flowers National Park, Govind Wildlife Sanctuary, Gangotri National Park and Askot Wildlife Sanctuary. The subfamily Ennominae represented the maximum number of species, and the species of subfamily Larentiinae were found to be more restricted to higher elevation areas. Western Mixed Coniferous forest held the greatest number of species, whereas the Subalpine forest was characterized by the highest number of indicator species identified through Indicator Species Analysis. While Indo-Malayan species dominated the assemblage composition, the maximum number of Himalayan endemics suggested that these species are long adapted to the Himalayan climatic gradient and ongoing climate-mediated perturbation may hamper their future survival. © 2017, Sociedad Hispano-Luso-Americana de Lepidopterología. All rights reserved.
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101 species of family Geometridae belonging to three subfamilies i.e., Ennominae, Geometrinae and Sterrhinae were collected from different localities of Western Ghats of India. The first reference, wing expanse, material examined and old distribution of collected species are presented here.
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The basic components of the tympanal organs of Geometridae are described against the background of the relevant literature. The work is prefaced by a summary of the occurrence of hearing organs within adult Lepidoptera as a whole, and the systematic value of these structures is assessed. A Latin-based nomenclature is proposed to standardize the terminology. An assessment of the morphological variation of these organs within the Geometridae was based on the study of over 230 species representing numerous examples from all the subfamilies. Morphological variation between and within the geometrid subfamilies is discussed.
Motlrs of Australia. vi+535pp. + 32pls
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