Conference PaperPDF Available

Abstract

The World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 2.0) have become widely accepted as the standard for web accessibility evaluation. This poster investigates how the mobile version of these guidelines caters for people with aphasia (PWA) by comparing the results from user testing against that of an audit using the guidelines. We outline the efficacy of the guidelines in the broader context of how they cater for various impairments and offer some recommendations for designing for people with aphasia.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Many digital technologies are challenging for people with aphasia [27,37] due to their language demands. Even commonplace tools such as social media platforms can present significant barriers [19,36]. The Snapchat social media platform has been explored as a tool to support expression and engagement between users with aphasia [3]. ...
... These tools were not designed for people with language impairments and include many features that do not conform to accessibility guidance for aphasia [19] and which have been shown to make digital technologies challenging for people with aphasia, such as complex language, lengthy user journeys, distracting/complex interfaces and ambiguous, unlabelled icons. Only Explosm RCG shows promise in terms of these criteria. ...
... Captions for comic images are short and mostly simple. All icons are accompanied by a simple text label, as indicated in [19]. ...
Article
Comics, with their highly visual format, offer a promising opportunity for people who experience challenges with language to express humour and emotion. However, comic creation tools are not designed to be accessible to people with language impairments such as aphasia. We report the design and exploration of Comic Spin , an app for people with aphasia that supports the creation of comic strips by constraining the creative space. We explored the use of Comic Spin in two studies involving creative workshops. Findings showed that people were able to use Comic Spin successfully to create a range of narrative, humorous and subversive comic strips, and that these enabled people to self-express in ways that went beyond the content of the comic strips themselves.
... For example, a common form of online humorous content is the internet meme, which can create powerful shared understanding among groups of people [24]. However, people with aphasia face challenges when creating and engaging with online content, including humorous content [18]. They therefore lack this means of expression that many take for granted, creating an imbalance in our online communities. ...
... Many digital technologies are challenging for people with aphasia [17,26,34] due to their language demands. Even commonplace tools such as social media platforms can present signifcant barriers [18,33]. ...
... Reviewing these apps against accessibility guidance for aphasia [18] shows that they would present a signifcant challenge -they include many features which have been shown to make content creation tools challenging for people with aphasia. These features include complex language, lengthy user journeys, distracting/complex interfaces and ambiguous, unlabelled icons. ...
... Such creative digital technologies (video editing tools, social media apps, etc.) might appear to have the potential to support people with language impairments to engage in creative acts. However, these technologies are often not accessible [6,13,25] due to their highly-textual, multi-step nature [25]. Therefore, while creativity might offer people with speech and language impairments an alternative means to expression, current digital creation tools do not adequately support this. ...
... Such creative digital technologies (video editing tools, social media apps, etc.) might appear to have the potential to support people with language impairments to engage in creative acts. However, these technologies are often not accessible [6,13,25] due to their highly-textual, multi-step nature [25]. Therefore, while creativity might offer people with speech and language impairments an alternative means to expression, current digital creation tools do not adequately support this. ...
... Aphasia literature indicates that implicit language demands inherent to modern technology sometimes present impassable barriers for some [12,24,42,50] to engage with 'mainstream' technologies. Many widely adopted social media tools, for example, present a number of barriers [25]. However, people with aphasia show a desire to produce online content [29]. ...
... This type of evaluation is sometimes complemented by a disability simulation software [8], albeit disability simulations do not lead to accurate results [38]. The second approach is usercentered evaluation where end users test the software [15]. Another new approach that can inform us about the accessibility status of apps is examining user reviews. ...
... They are always created using a hierarchical vocabulary, equipped with corresponding images and human voices. This structure, however, is quite likely to increase the cognitive load of vocabulary exploration and provide interactive hurdles to word discovery (Grellmann et al., 2018). Thus, a large number of studies have contributed to making AAC tools catering better to patients' desire to communicate naturally with others and improve their language function. ...
Article
Full-text available
Stroke is a cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease that affects the aged population at a high rate. Patients' functional disabilities can be reduced with effective rehabilitation training. However, due to a lack of hospital resources and a social yearning for family contact, patients frequently discontinue rehabilitation training sessions and return home to their local community. Such a shift emphasizes the value of home and community-based rehabilitation, where patients can perform daily training with remote support from therapists. In this survey, the technologies that assist stroke rehabilitation will be discussed in following aspects: (1) technologies for home-based stroke rehabilitation; (2) technologies for community-based stroke rehabilitation; (3) technologies for therapist's engagement in remote rehabilitation. A comprehensive overview of technologies that support home and community-based stroke rehabilitation was presented, as well as insights into future research themes.
... It is believed that although some of this transfer of caseload over to telehealth sessions could have been based on PWA's preference, this sudden switch to an unexpected option using a variety of platforms could have also posed unnecessary stress and worries to PWA (and their caregivers) in many ways. Some examples include PWA being anxious about this new and strange remote setting of therapy delivery, their difficulties to pay attention to and stay on tasks virtually due to screen fatigue [29, 30, 31•], technical difficulties they could encounter as navigating a novel platform of presentation of therapy items, and barriers to accessibility to internet and technology [32]. Although the cost-effectiveness [33,34] and usefulness and efficiency of telepractice in chronic PWA have been reported (for example in terms of PWA's improvements in overall impairment levels and functional communication [34,35], enhanced naming performance [36], positive changes in PWA's conversation through training communication partners [37], and PWA's increased engagement in communicative activities and communication-related quality of life [38]), one should not neglect the factors that determine the suitability and candidacy of PWA to receive online intervention. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review Aphasia is an acquired neurological language disorder after brain damages. Persons with aphasia (PWA) are more susceptible to behavioral and emotional implications due to inherent communication and/or cognitive difficulties. Currently, little is known regarding the impact of COVID-19 on PWA. Recent Findings There are now growing reports with evidence of neurological and dysexecutive syndromes subsequent to interference of brain functions in acute patients with COVID-19, leading to variable aphasia-like symptoms. COVID-19 affected chronic PWA more in terms of disrupted communication and daily routines, worsened psychosocial well-being, and difficulties getting aphasia services that adequately addressed their needs. Summary Acute versus chronic PWA were disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Recognizing, examining, and managing COVID-19-related neurological and behavioral problems in PWA is not straightforward. As we passed the 1-year mark and approaching the 2-year mark of the onset of COVID-19, more research is necessary to prioritize strategies for improving current evidence-based care and rehabilitation of aphasia.
... For example, [53] designed an aphasia-accessible questionnaire to evaluate general technology use among a group of severe aphasia patients. The suitability of prevalent usability testing for PwA and accessible extensions to popular methods and prevalent guidelines have also been explored [25,52]. As of now, HCI research is not largely focused on designing for long-term aphasia recovery, such as interventions intended for rehabilitation and continued progress in linguistic recovery. ...
Article
Over 2 million people across the United States are living with aphasia, the loss of language due to acquired brain injury. Aphasia is an invisible disability that may come with negative consequences for communication, community participation, and quality of life. Game-based rehabilitation is a promising solution to address unmet long-term recovery and psychosocial needs for people with aphasia. In this paper, we describe a participatory game design process that engages people with aphasia (PwA) in the creation of three hybrid digital-analog games. We detail methods for facilitating collaboration across language barriers and divergent professional expertise based on interviews and participant observations throughout our iterative design process. We also contribute a set of design principles synthesized from aphasia rehabilitation research, interviews and community data. We conclude with recommendations for pursuing community-empowered aphasia game design for this underserved population based on reflection from our co-design experience.
... Recent innovative collaborations with SLTs have explored how usability can be optimized for people with aphasia. For example, Grellman et al. [19] explored the usability of mobile applications. They conducted an audit with four people with aphasia who were asked to perform a number of tasks using four widely-used social media apps. ...
Article
In an age when digital technology is becoming central to communication, writing is increasingly important, with messaging and emailing often replacing telephone calls [1]. As written communication shifts to the digital modality, technology poses both challenges and opportunities to people with aphasia. The cognitive and linguistic demands of using technology present potential barriers [2], but recent research has also explored the potential of technology to facilitate writing. This mini review will describe the evidence base for using technology to support written production in aphasia therapy. It will describe a variety of applications, designed to remediate the impairment and facilitate functional writing skills, along with compensatory approaches which aim to bypass impaired writing skills. It will explore the role of the speech and language therapist in selecting the most suitable technology for an individual's needs and in training people with aphasia to use the technology. In addition, it will discuss methods of assessing the technology proficiency and functional writing skills of people with aphasia, and the inherent challenges. Résumé À une époque où la technologie numérique occupe une place centrale dans la communication, l'écrit devient de plus en plus important, la messagerie et l'envoi de courriels remplaç ant souvent les appels téléphoniques [1]. À mesure que la communication écrite passe à la modalité numérique, la technologie constitue tout à la fois une source de défis et d'opportunités pour les per-sonnes aphasiques. Les exigences cognitives et linguistiques inhérentes à l'utilisation de la technologie présentent des obstacles possibles [2], mais des recherches récentes ont aussi exploré le potentiel que représente la technologie pour faciliter l'écriture. Cette mini-revue décrira les données disponibles concernant l'utilisation de la technologie visant à renforcer la production écrite dans la rééducation de l'aphasie. Elle présentera également une variété d'applications conç ues pour remédier aux déficiences, faciliter les compéten-ces d'écriture fonctionnelle, ainsi que des approches compensatoires visant à contourner les habiletés d'écriture déficientes. Elle explorera le rôle de l'orthophoniste/logopédiste dans la sélection des outils technologiques les plus appropriés aux besoins de la personne aphasique, ainsi que dans l'entrainement à leur maîtrise. Enfin, elle proposera une discussion des méthodes d'évaluation de la maîtrise de ces outils et des compétences écrites fonctionnelles auxquelles peuvent prétendre les personnes aphasiques sans occulter les défis inhérents à celles-ci.
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes an empirical study of the problems encountered by 32 blind users on the Web. Task-based user evaluations were undertaken on 16 websites, yielding 1383 instances of user problems. The results showed that only 50.4% of the problems encountered by users were covered by Success Criteria in the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0). For user problems that were covered by WCAG 2.0, 16.7% of websites implemented techniques recommended in WCAG 2.0 but the techniques did not solve the problems. These results show that few developers are implementing the current version of WCAG, and even when the guidelines are implemented on websites there is little indication that people with disabilities will encounter fewer problems. The paper closes by discussing the implications of this study for future research and practice. In particular, it discusses the need to move away from a problem-based approach towards a design principle approach for web accessibility.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of the reported study has been to validate empirically the usefulness of using the WAI accessibility guidelines WCAG 1.0 as a heuristic for website accessibility. Through controlled usability tests of two websites with disabled users (N=7) and a control group (N=6) we found that only 27% of the identified website accessibility problems could have been identified through the use of WCAG. We conclude from this that in its current version, the application of WCAG alone is not sufficient to guarantee website accessibility. WCAG has a large potential for improvement, and our data point to some problem areas that we suggest should be included. We recommend that future versions of accessibility guidelines should be based on empirical data and validated empirically.
Mobile internet traffic as percentage of total web traffic in
  • Statista
Mobile internet traffic as percentage of total
https://doi.org/10.1145/1463160.1463238 3. Statista. Mobile internet traffic as percentage of total web traffic in August 2017, by region. Retrieved January 17, 2018 from https://www.statista.com/statistics/306528/share-ofmobile-internet-traffic-in-global-regions/