ArticlePDF Available


This study aimed to extend previous investigation regarding its beneficial effects on changes of blood glucose. This experimental research was conducted from 06:00-12:00. Twenty-four young men (age 19-20 y.o.) were divided into three groups, Fasting-Exercise-Only (FEO), Fasting-Exercise-Water (FEW), and Fasting-Exercise with Fruit-Infused Water (FEF). Subjects underwent fasting for 12 h before the experimental day. The data of body weight (Kg) and macroscopic urine color were collected before and after exercise. Body weight in all experimental groups were decreased by 1% during endurance exercise. There were no differences in decrease of body weight between FEF and FEW groups compared to FEO group (p>.05). The change in urine color was significantly different between pre-exercise and post-exercise data (p<.05). The darkest urine color was observed in FEO group (4.75), followed by FEW group (4.25), while FEF group (3.63) did not reach dehydration level. In conclusion, fruit-infused water is suggested to be drink as a choice for fluid intake during exercise.
KEMAS 13 (3) (2018) 417-422
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat
Mohammad Arif Ali, Setya Rahayu, Nanang Indardi, Gustiana Mega Anggita, Fatona
Suraya, Tri Rustiadi, Anggit Wicaksono, Yu-Shiuan Chen, Yun-Zhen Chang
Department of Sports Sciences, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia
Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia
Department of Sports Coaching Education, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang,
New Taipei City Hospital Burn Rehabilitation & Post-Acute Care Center, Taiwan (R.O.C)
Yu Da University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (R.O.C)
Article Info
Article History:
Submitted January 2018
Accepted February 2018
Published March 2018
Exercise, Fluid Replace-
ment, Fruit-Infused Water
is study aimed to extend previous investigation regarding its benecial eects on
changes of blood glucose. is experimental research was conducted from 06:00-12:00.
Twenty-four young men (age 19-20 y.o.) were divided into three groups, Fasting-Ex-
ercise-Only (FEO), Fasting-Exercise-Water (FEW), and Fasting-Exercise with Fruit-In-
fused Water (FEF). Subjects underwent fasting for 12 h before the experimental day. e
data of body weight (Kg) and macroscopic urine color were collected before and aer ex-
ercise. Body weight in all experimental groups were decreased by 1% during endurance
exercise. ere were no dierences in decrease of body weight between FEF and FEW
groups compared to FEO group (p>.05). e change in urine color was signicantly dif-
ferent between pre-exercise and post-exercise data (p<.05). e darkest urine color was
observed in FEO group (4.75), followed by FEW group (4.25), while FEF group (3.63)
did not reach dehydration level. In conclusion, fruit-infused water is suggested to be
drink as a choice for uid intake during exercise.
Correspondence Address:
Department of Sports Sciences, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang.
Email :
pISSN 1858-1196
eISSN 2355-3596
duration exercise (typically aerobic exercise)
such as jogging, cycling, swimming, hiking,
etc. Indicators of dehydration are thirstiness,
dizziness, exhaustion, muscle spasm, loss
of body weight, change of urine color, and
vomiting (Sawka, M.N., 2007; Simpson, M.R.
and Howard, T., 2011).
Dehydration causes loss of mineral
and electrolytes (potassium, sodium, chloride
etc.), increase of body temperature, change in
cardiovascular system, disturbance in nerve
system, and eventually it will impair exercise
Exercise has many benecial eects
on the body for all ages as long as it is done
correctly, properly, systematically, and regularly
(exercise should be adjusted to physiological
function). Exercise is able to improve the overall
health status of an individual (Hagen, K.B. et al,
2012; Locks, R.R. et al, 2012). Yet, exercise is
also known as physical stress which is able to
aect physiological processes inside the body.
One of consequences of exercise is dehydration
(loss of water) which is caused by long-
Mohammad Arif Ali / Usage of Fruit-Infused Water for Prevention of Dehydration
45 minutes since its intake (Ali, M.A. et al,
2016). erefore, the purpose of this study was
to investigate the eects of fruit-infused water
(combination of apple, banana and lemon) on
body weight and urine color as the markers of
dehydration caused by exercise.
is was an experimental research
study. e independent variable in this study
was fruit-infused water while the dependent
variables were body weight and urine color as
dehydration markers. It was conducted from
06:00 a.m. until 12:00 p.m.
Twenty-four young men (aged 19-
20 years) were divided into three groups,
1) fasting-exercise-only (FEO), 2) fasting-
exercise-water (FEW), and 3) fasting-exercise-
fruit-infused water (FEF). e following
procedure was implemented: 1) Subjects were
examined a week before the experiment. 2)
Informed consent was obtained from each
subject. 3) One day before the experiment,
all subjects received instructions regarding
the study protocol (12 h fasting from food).
4) On the day of the experiment, the subjects
were asked to sit and rest for 15 minutes. 5)
Two hours before exercise, the treatment drink
were administrated: 500 mL of either water or
fruit-infused water. 6) Urine collection and
body weight measurement (pre-exercise data)
were then taken less than 5 minutes before
exercise begun. 7) e exercise was then given.
performance (Murray, B., 2007). Previous
studies reported that 2% loss of body weight
could impair performance for about 7% - 29%
(Goulet, E.D.B., 2012). Dehydration during
exercise occurred in heat condition (Hackney,
K.J. et al, 2012).
Techniques or substances which can be
used in order to maintain exercise performance
called as ergogenic aids. It is classied into
nutrition (carbohydrate loading, drugs such
as usage of anabolic-androgenic steroid),
physiological condition, psychological
condition, and technique. As part of ergogenic
aids, the right nutrition is the essence of what
the body needs to maintain or improve exercise
performance, recovery from fatigue and injury
prevention. Several nutrition which had been
investigated and their eects were: 1) Caeine
could eectively improve body strength. It
also could be used for recreational sport or
sports which were related with resistance, 2)
Supplements which contain protein, vitamin,
mineral were recommended to be consumed
for injury prevention and good performance,
3) Beverages which contain carbohydrate and
electrolyte were able to increase or prevent the
decline of performance when they were taken
as uid substitute (Hackney, K.J. et al, 2012;
Higgins, J.P. et al, 2010; Jenkinson, D. M. and
Harbet, A.J., 2008).
In previous study, fruit-infused water
was able to elevate blood glucose approximately
Figure 1. Study Design
KEMAS 13 (3) (2018) 417-422
8) e administration of treatment drink:
150 mL of either water or fruit-infused water
during exercise every 15 minutes until 1 h had
elapsed. 9) e second collection of urine and
measurement of body weight (post-exercise
data) were performed immediately aer
exercised had nished. e study procedures
were approved by the Institutional Human
Study Committee of Faculty of Sports Sciences,
Semarang State University (Universitas Negeri
Fruit-infused water, which contained 212
Kcal/L of energy, was obtained from 138 g of
apple, 118 g of banana and 108 g of lemon. is
recipe also contained 61 g/L of carbohydrates
which is equal to 6% of a carbohydrate beverage
(recommended for sport drink). Mineral
water was used in this recipe. e following
procedure was followed for the fruit-infused
water: 1) e apple and lemon were washed.
e banana was peeled and thinly sliced. 2)
e fruits were mixed, (the juice and avor
ere extracted from the fruits by pressing and
twisting them with a mixer in batches before
and aer adding the liquid). Mixed fruit adds
avor quickly. 3) e fruits were then crushed
and the herbs were pressed with a avor wand
to release their avors. e fruits were crushed
gently because over-crushing could cause bitter
taste. 4) Instant infusion was then performed.
is process involves combining liquid with
mixed fruits and crushed herbs and pumping
the beverage with a avor wand. e wand was
held vertically while pumping it up and down.
e bottle/container was then closed and
placed in the refrigerator for a minimum of 30
min until the temperature reached 15-22 °C. At
this point it was ready to be drink (Ali, M.A. et
al, 2016).
e exercise was designed based on FITT
formula with some modications. It consisted
of running for 60 minutes with intensity of
70% - 80% of Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) on
treadmill with 30 incline. Target intensity was
monitored using indicators of: 1) awareness
that breathing is harder, and 2) ability to talk but
dicult to hold the conversation. In addition,
the subjects were asked to wear sauna jacket
during exercise in order to increase their body
temperature and sweating (Murray, B., 2007).
Body-Weight Scale Type ZT-120 was
used in this study. e subject step on it barefoot
and wearing underwear. e specications
of Body-Weight Scale Type ZT-120 were: 1)
Maximum weight which can be measured: 120
kg. 2) Height range: 70-190 cm. 3) Method of
measurement: Automatic. 4) Accuracy: 0.1 mg.
e steps of urine collection were: 1)
Collection of urine for about 2/3 of glass tube.
2) e color was then observed and matched
with color in the urine chart, converted into
number to determine the dehydration level
(Simpson, M.R. and Howard, T., 2011).
e data were expressed as the means ±
standard errors of the mean (SEMs). e t-test
was used to determine whether there were any
eects of fruit-infused water on body weight
and urine color. A level of P 0.05 was considered
statistically signicant.
Results and Discussion
Each of the experimental groups
consisted of 8 subjects. e average ages of all
subjects were 19 years old. e maximum heart
rate of all subjects was 200 bpm, and 70 percent
of the target heart rate (THR) was 140 bpm,
while 80 percent of THR was 160 bpm.
e Body Weight (Kg), in all experimental
groups were decreased by 1% during endurance
exercise (FEO: -880 g; FEW: -560 g; FEF: -790
g), (Table 2). e treatment drinks, either water
(FEW) or fruit-infused water (FEF), could not
prevent the 1% loss of body weight compared
with control group (FEO) (P> .05).
One percent decrease in body weight
during endurance exercise might lead to reduced
performance. However it was not enough to
impair the performance because loss of 2% in
body weight caused performance impairment
for about 7% - 29% (Goulet, E.D.B., 2012). Loss
of body weight which occurred in this study was
classied as modest/mild dehydration, which
was commonly found in team-sport (Osterberg,
K.L. et al, 2009). Moreover, previous studies
conrmed that loss of 1% to 2% of body weight
caused adverse eects on physiological function
and muscular endurance which was correlated
with change in cardiac output, and negatively
aect performance, but the muscle strength
was relatively unaected (Goulet, E.D.B., 2012;
Cengiz, A. and Demirhan, B., 2013).
1% to 2% loss of body weight could
impair cognitive function, led to reduction
Mohammad Arif Ali / Usage of Fruit-Infused Water for Prevention of Dehydration
in subjective perception of alertness and
ability to concentrate and increase in self-
reported tiredness and headache. In addition,
it also caused negative psychological eects on
performance such as increased fatigue, anger,
anxiety, decrease in mood and motivation, and
increased confusion (Cengiz, A. and Demirhan,
B., 2013).
Besides body weight, urine color also
could be used to investigate whether individual
was dehydrated or not (Simpson, M.R. and
Howard, T., 2011). e change in urine color
was clearly dierent between pre-exercise
with post-exercise data (P<0.05). Before
exercise treatment were given, subjects from
all experimental groups were in good hydrated
status as the urine score in each group were
2.63 in FEO group, 3.00 in FEW group, and
2.25 in FEF group. Aer exercise treatment, the
darkest urine color was observed in FEO group
(4.75), followed by FEW group (4.25) which
were classied into dehydration. Interestingly,
the change of urine color in FEF group (3.63)
did not reached dehydration level (Figure 2).
Exercise-induced dehydration was
observed. e loss of body weight led to
decrease in total body water, extracellular
water, blood volume and plasma volume (Relic,
D. et al, 2013). Dehydration during exercise is
primarily caused by the process of evaporation
(one mechanism of heat dissipation). Once the
temperature is increased, the sweat gland helps
the body to stabilize the core temperature.
Sweating caused loss of valuable uids from
Table 1. Characteristics of Subjects
Table 2. Change in Body Weight (Kg) aer Exercise
KEMAS 13 (3) (2018) 417-422
the body. e rate is dependent to individual
dierences, intensity of exercise, conditions of
environment, clothing, acclimatization state, and
hydration status. Individual with excess sweat
who undertakes intense exercise can become
dehydrated. Modest dehydration carries few
risks and can usually be treated by replacement
of lost salts and uids. Basically, drinking water
as an eort to prevent dehydration is better than
nothing. But drinking formulated liquid which
content substances which are appropriate for
physiological function is expected to be better.
Investigation about the usage of juice and
juice-like water (fruit infused water) on health
or athletes performance had been conducted
(Ali, M.A. et al, 2016; Januardi R. I., 2017). In the
study which was conducted by Januardi about
the eectiveness of fruit juice consumption as
pain reliever for bruise trauma in pencak silat
athletes, he discovered that the fruit juice was
eective to reduce muscle pain. Furthermore,
jamu cekok (Javanese herbal) also had been
studied regarding its stimulatory eect on
increasing the appetite and weight of toddler,
especially the usage of Curcuma aeroginosa,
Curcuma xanthorriza robx, Kaempferla
galanga L, Meniran phyllanthus niruri, Zingiber
americans, Carica papaya l, Curcuma domestica
val, bitter and rotten tempeh (Marni & Retno
Ambarwati, 2015).
Endurance exercise in this study
successfully caused dehydration by decrease of
1% of body weight. Unfortunately, the intake
uid either water or fruit-infused water could not
prevent the loss of body weight. Furthermore,
the change of urine color was suppressed only
by drinking fruit-infused water. Fruit-infused
water is suggested to be drink as a choice for
uid intake during endurance exercise.
Body weight in all experimental groups
were decreased by 1% during endurance
exercise. is loss could not be prevented either
using fruit-infused water or water compared
with FEO group (p>.05). e change in urine
color was clearly dierent between pre-exercise
and post-exercise data (p<.05). e darkest
urine color was observed in FEO group (4.75),
followed by FEW group (4.25), while FEF
group (3.63) did not reached dehydration level.
Fruit-infused water is suggested to be drink as a
choice for uid intake during exercise.
e authors would like to express
gratitude to the Faculty of Sports Sciences,
Universitas Negeri Semarang for the grant,
therefore this study could be successfully
conducted. e authors also would like to say
Figure 2. A. Urine Chart (Adopted from Simpson, M.R. and Howard, T., 2011), and B. Change in
Urine Color aer Exercise
Mohammad Arif Ali / Usage of Fruit-Infused Water for Prevention of Dehydration
thank you to all volunteers that gave much
supports to this study.
Ali, M.A., Mukarromah, S.B., Anggita, G.M., Suraya,
F., Anam, K. 2016. e Eect of Fruit-Infused
Water (Combination of Apple, Banana and
Lemon) on Blood Glucose in Young Men.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 15(7): 693-695.
Cengiz, A. & Demirhan, B. 2013. Physiology of
Wrestlers’ Dehydration. Turkish Journal of
Sport and Exercise, 15(2): 1-10.
Goulet, E.D.B. 2012. Eect of Exercise-induced
Dehydration on Endurance Performance:
Evaluating e Impact of Exercise Protocols
on Outcomes Using A Meta-analytic
Procedure. British Journal of Sports Medicine,
47(11): 679-686.
Hackney, K.J., Cook, C.B., Fairchild, T.J., Ploutz-
Snyder, L.L. 2012. Skeletal Muscle Volume
Following Dehydration Induced by Exercise
in Heat. Extreme Physiology & Medicine, 1(3).
Hagen, K.B., Dagnrud, H., Moe, R.H., Osteras,
N., Kjeken, I., Grotle, M., Smedslud, G.
2012. Exercise erapy for Bone and Muscle
Health: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.
BMC Medicine, 10(167): 1741-7015.
Higgins, J.P., Tuttle, T.D., Higgins, C.L. 2010. Energy
Beverages: Content and Safety. Mayo Clinic
Proceedings, 85(11): 1033-1041.
Januardi Roy Irawan. 2017. e Eectiveness of
Passion Fruit Juice Consumption as Pain
Reliever for Bruise Trauma in Pencak Silat
Athletes. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat,
12(2): 96-101.
Jenkinson, D. M., Harbert, A. J. 2008. Supplements
and Sports. e American Family Physican,
Locks, R.R., Costa, T.C., Koppe, S., Yamaguti, A.M.,
Garcia, M.C., Gomes, A.R.S. 2012. Eects
of Strength and Flexibility Training on
Functional Performance of Healthy Older
People. Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia,
16(3): 184-190.
Marni & Retno Ambarwati. 2015. Khasiat Jamu
Cekok Terhadap Peningkatan Berat Badan
pada Anak. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat,
11(1): 102-111.
Murray, B. 2007. Hydration and Physical
Performance. Journal of the American College
of Nutrition, 26(5): 542S-548S.
Osterberg, K.L., Horswill, C.A., Baker, L.B. (2009).
Pregame Urine Specic Gravity and Fluid
Intake by National Basketball Association
Players During Competition. Journal of
Athletic Training, 44(1): 53-57.
Relic, D., Hassler, E., Jost, J., Friedmann-Bette,
B. 2013. Rapid Weight Loss and the Body
Fluid Balance and Hemoglobin Mass of Elite
Amateur Boxers. Journal of Athletic Training,
48(1): 109-117.
Sawka, M. N., Burke, L. M., Eichner, E. R., Maughan,
R. J., Montain, S. J., Stachenfeld, N. S. 2007.
Exercise and Fluid Replacement. Journal
of the American College of Sports Medicine,
20(10): 377-390.
Simpson, M. R. and Howard, T. 2011. Selecting
and Eectively Using Hydration for Fitness.
American College of Sports Medicine
Consumer Information Committee.
... This shows that there is an influence between hydration level and athlete's training volume [5]. The research results showed that dehydration is also marked by a change in urine color [6]. ...
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Lack of drinking causes dehydration. Dehydration conditions affect the muscle performance, muscle endurance, and muscle strength of athletes. AIM: The aim of the study was to study the organoleptic assessment of rehydration milk drink for athletes after exercise. METHODS: This was an experimental research design using completely randomized design. The beverage formulation consists of an avocado rehydration milk drink (ARMD), a guava rehydration milk drink (GRMD), and a guava and ARMD (GARMD). The organoleptic evaluation was carried out by athletes with a preference scale (hedonic) from 1 (very dislike) to 10 (very like) for color, odor, taste, texture, and overall. RESULTS: The organoleptic assessment of all parameters showed no differences between the variants of each treatment (p > 0.05). The highest mean values for all organoleptic parameters for each treatment were ARMD1 (mean value 7.16), GRMD1 (mean value 8.03), and GARMD1 (mean value 6.86). The overall mean value is determined to be the best product of each treatment. Of the three treatments, GRMD1 had a better overall organoleptic mean score compared to ARMD1 and GARMD1. The nutritional content of GRMD1/100 g contains energy of 67.69 kcal, 8.04% carbohydrates, 2.65% protein, 2.77% fat, 15.45 mg of omega-3 fatty acids, 7.99 mg Vitamin C, and 13.85% sugar. CONCLUSION: The overall organoleptic assessment of parameters showed no differences between the variants of each treatment. GRMD1 with the highest overall organoleptic score (8.03) contains energy of 67.69 kcal, 8.04% carbohydrates, 2.65% protein, 2.77% fat, 15.45 mg omega-3 fatty acids, 7.99 mg of Vitamin C, and 13.85% sugar per 100 g.
Full-text available
ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Olahraga lari jarak jauh 10 km memerlukan daya tahan tubuh dan dapat mempengaruhi sistem kardiovaskular antara lain denyut nadi dan tekanan darah, serta membutuhkan asupan cairan.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh jus nanas madu terhadap denyut nadi dan tekanan darah pasca lari jarak jauh 10 km.Metode: Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah quasi eksperimental design. Pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berupa data pre-test dan post-test pasca melakukan lari jarak jauh 10 km pada 30 siswa Sekolah Sepak Bola (SSB) dan dibagi menjadi 2 yaitu kelompok perlakuan dan kelompok kontrol di Belik Pemalang. Teknik analisis data menggunakan uji independent t test dan diolah menggunakan aplikasi spss versi 23.Hasil: Rata-rata denyut nadi pret-test pada kelompok kontrol adalah 79,93 ± 11,88 bpm dan pada kelompok nanas 81,67 ± 10,21 bpm. Rata-rata tekanan darah sistolik pre-test kelompok kontrol 129,47 ± 09,98 mm/Hg dan kelompok nanas 129,20 ± 11,36 mm/Hg. Rata-rata tekanan darah diastolik pre-test pada kelompok kontrol 79,13 ± 09,24 mm/Hg dan kelompok nanas 76,87 ± 08,94 mm/Hg. Tidak terdapat perbedaan rerata denyut nadi dan tekanan darah (diastolik dan sistolik) pretest antara kelompok kontrol dan kelompok nanas. Kemudian rata-rata denyut nadi post-test pada kelompok kontrol adalah 110,67 ± 12,69 bpm dan pada kelompok nanas 106,13 ± 10,96 bpm. Rata-rata tekanan darah sistolik post-test pada kelompok kontrol 118,80 ± 08,55 mm/Hg dan kelompok nanas 115,93 ± 07,53 mm/Hg. Rata-rata tekanan darah diastolik post-test pada kelompok kontrol 70,40 ± 06,57 mm/Hg dan kelompok nanas 69,87 ± 06,96 mm/Hg. Tidak ada perbedaan rerata denyut nadi dan tekanan darah (diastolik dan sistolik) post-test antara kelompok kontrol dan kelompok nanas Simpulan: Jus nanas madu tidak berpengaruh terhadap denyut nadi dan tekanan darah pada siswa Sekolah Sepak Bola pasca lari jarak jauh 10 Km.
Full-text available
Pencak Silat is a martial art that has a risk of causing micro-trauma due to physical impact. This trauma will stimulate the secretion of prostaglandin, a compound in the body which is a mediator of pain and inflammatory response that promote pain in bruised trauma. Passion fruit contains high level of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant substances. The objective of this study was to understand the effectiveness of passion fruit juice consumption in reducing bruised trauma pain in Pencak Silat athletes of PSHT Belotan Magetan. The research design is a quantitative descriptive with quasi-experimental. The pretest and posttest group of 20 people PSHT Belotan Magetan Pencak Silat athletes with an average age of 13.4 0.94 years were divided into treatment group (K1) and control group (K0) with 10 subjects respectively. Each treatment group (K1) subject was given the juice twice a day for 10 consecutive days. We used paired sample T-test to assess the mean variance of the group. The result showed that there was a decrease of pain intensity in both the treatment group and the control group. The pain intensity difference assessed by a Bourbonnais Rating Scale in the treatment group showed a significant difference with the t value of 7,216 and a probability value of 0,000, while the control group showed t value of 3,000 and probability value of 0,015. There was a decrease in the athletes muscle soreness who were given passion fruit juice twice a day for 10 days. The athletes pain intensity was in middle category.
Full-text available
Rapid weight loss via dehydration has profound adverse effects on the wrestler's physiology and muscular endurance even with %1 of body weight loss. Additionally, there is a decline after 4% of weight loss in strength or anaerobic power performance. However, these adverse effects do not seem to impair muscle strength during high-power exertions lasting less than 30 seconds. In fact, for athletes participating in brief-duration, high-power sports, rapid weight loss may give them an advantage by increasing power on a pound for pound basis. But, as strenuous exercise is extended, environmental temperatures rise, and degree of dehydration increases performance will ultimately suffer. The negative effects of dehydration on cardiovascular fitness parameters seem to repair faster compared to strength and power values. Several studies indicated while weight cycling has acute effects on performance, augmentation in body weight and muscular performance of the wrestlers occurs subsequent to the wrestling season. Several studies also indicated some negative psychological effects of dehydration on wrestlers' performance: increased fatigue, anger, and anxiety, decrements in mood and motivation, and increased confusion. Still, more studies are needed in these areas. Weight loss due to the dehydration can potentially affect wrestlers' health negatively. However, it was found that there are no considerable health effects of dehydration on wrestling. However, more studies are needed to strengthen these results since there are not many studies about the long-term effects of dehydration on hormonal, psychological and health status of wrestlers.
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fruit-infused water (FIVV) on blood glucose (BG) in young men. This study was conducted from 06:00 a.m. until 12:00 p.m. Twenty-four young men (19-20 year old) were divided into three groups: (1) fasting-only (FO), (2) fasting-water (FW) and (3) fasting-fruit-infused water (FF). All subjects fasted for 12 h before receiving treatment (water or fruit-infused water). Blood glucose was measured a total of 9 times before treatment and every 15 min after administration of treatment for 2 h. Fasting blood glucose indicated no significant differences among the 3 experimental groups: FO (100 mg/dL), FW (98 mg/dL) and FF (98 mg/dL). Interestingly, at the first 15 min, fruit-infused water appeared to elevate blood glucose [FF (107 mg/dL), FW (98 mg/dL) and FO (97 mg/dL)]. At the second 15 min, the elevation of BG in FF group was still elevated (115 mg/dL) compared with FW (96 mg/dL) and FO group (100 mg/dL). However, at the third 15 min, this elevation dropped slightly [FF (105 mg/dL), FW (94 mg/dL), FO (99 mg/dL)]. Beyond 60 min, following water/FIW intake there was no significant differences among the three groups. Fruit-infused water is able to elevate blood glucose. The elevation of BG from intake of FIW is maintained for approximately 45 min.
Full-text available
p>Anak usia di bawah lima tahun sering mengalami penurunan nafsu makan, yang mengakibatkan berkurangnya asupan nutrisi sehingga berat badan menurun. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui khasiat ramuan jamu cekok terhadap peningkatan berat badan pada anak. Metode penelitian : penelitian kualitatif, pengumpulan data dilakukan pada keluarga yang memberikan jamu cekok pada anak balitanya, dukun bayi/pembuat jamu, herbalis dan petugas kesehatan. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Maret-Juni 2014, di wilayah Puskesmas Selogiri dengan pendekatan kualitatif, Seluruh rangkaian dan cara kerja ataupun proses penelitian kualitatif ini berlangsung secara serentak dilakukan dengan pengumpulan, pengolahan, menginterpretasikan sejumlah data dan fakta yang ada selanjutnya disimpulkan dengan metode induktif. Hasil penelitian : ramuan jamu cekok berkhasiat meningkatkan berat badan adalah: temu ireng ( curcuma aeroginosa), temulawak (curcuma xanthorriza robx), kencur (kaempferla galanga L), Meniran (Phyllanthus niruri), lempuyang emprit (zingiber americans), daun pepaya (carica papaya l), kunyit (curcuma domestica val), sambiloto dan tempe busuk. Toodler get a decreasing of their appetite, that causes the reducing of nutrition so their weght reduce. This research purposes to know the function of cekok herbal and the benefits to weight gain in children. Research Method: qualitative research, Colleting data is got from the family that give the herbal medicine of cekok in toddler, herbal medicine maker, herbalist and paramedics. The study was conducted in March and June 2014 in the PHC Selogiri area by using qualitative approach. All of sequance or processing of qualitative research took place simultaneously. The result: The ingredients Cekok has function to promote the weight, there are : Curcuma aeroginosa, Curcuma xanthorriza robx, kaempferla galanga L, Meniran Phyllanthus niruri, Zingiber americans, Carica papaya l, (curcuma domestica val), bitter and rotten tempeh. </p
Full-text available
Intracellular skeletal muscle water is redistributed into the extracellular compartment during periods of dehydration, suggesting an associated decline in muscle volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal muscle volume in active (knee extensors (KE)) and less active (biceps/triceps brachii, deltoid) musculature following dehydration induced by exercise in heat. Twelve participants (seven men, five women) cycled in the heat under two conditions: (1) dehydration (DHYD) resulting in 3% and 5% losses of estimated total body water (ETBW), which was assessed by changes in body mass, and (2) fluid replacement (FR) where 3% and 5% losses of ETBW were counteracted by intermittent (20 to 30 min) fluid ingestion via a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. During both conditions, serum osmolality and skeletal muscle volume (assessed by magnetic resonance imaging) were measured at baseline and at the 3% and 5% ETBW loss measurement points. In DHYD, serum osmolality increased at 3% (p = 0.005) and 5% (p < 0.001) ETBW losses, while FR decreased serum osmolality at the 5% loss of ETBW time point (p = 0.009). In DHYD, KE muscle volume declined from 1,464 ± 446 ml to 1,406 ± 425 ml (3.9%, p < 0.001) at 3% ETBW loss and to 1,378 ± 421 ml (5.9%, p < 0.001) at 5% ETBW loss. The largest decline in KE volume in DYHD occurred in the mid-belly (31 ml, p = 0.001) and proximal (24 ml, p = 0.001) regions of the grouped vasti muscles. There were no changes in volume for the biceps/triceps (p = 0.35) or deltoid (p = 0.92) during DHYD. FR prevented the loss of KE muscle volume at 3% (1,430 ± 435 ml, p = 0.074) and 5% (1,431 ± 439 ml, p = 0.156) ETBW loss time points compared to baseline (1,445 ± 436 ml). Following exercise in the heat, the actively contracting muscles lost volume, while replacing lost fluids intermittently during exercise in heat prevented this decline. These results support the use of muscle volume as a marker of water loss.
Full-text available
Context: Dehydration is assumed to be a major adverse effect associated with rapid loss of body mass for competing in a lower weight class in combat sports. However, the effects of such weight cutting on body fluid balance in a real-life setting are unknown. Objective: To examine the effects of 5% or greater loss of body mass within a few days before competition on body water, blood volume, and plasma volume in elite amateur boxers. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Sports medicine laboratory. Patients or other participants: Seventeen male boxers (age = 19.2 ± 2.9 years, height = 175.1 ± 7.0 cm, mass = 65.6 ± 9.2 kg) were assigned to the weight-loss group (WLG; n = 10) or the control group (CON; n = 7). Intervention(s): The WLG reduced body mass by restricting fluid and food and inducing excessive sweat loss by adhering to individual methods. The CON participated in their usual precompetition training. Main outcome measure(s): During an ordinary training period (t-1), 2 days before competition (t-2), and 1 week after competition (t-3), we performed bioelectrical impedance measurements; calculated total body water, intracellular water, and extracellular water; and estimated total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass), blood volume, and plasma volume by the CO-rebreathing method. Results: In the WLG, the loss of body mass (5.6% ± 1.7%) led to decreases in total body water (6.0% ± 0.9%), extracellular water (12.4% ± 7.6%), tHbmass (5.3% ± 3.8%), blood volume (7.6% ± 2.1%; P < .001), and plasma volume (8.6% ± 3.9%). The intracellular water did not change (P > .05). At t-3, total body water, extracellular water, and plasma volume had returned to near baseline values, but tHbmass and blood volume still were less than baseline values (P < .05). In CON, we found no changes (P > .05). Conclusions: In a real-life setting, the loss of approximately 6% body mass within 5 days induced hypohydration, which became evident by the decreases in body water and plasma volume. The reduction in tHbmass was a surprising observation that needs further investigation.
Full-text available
Background Musculoskeletal conditions (MSCs) are widely prevalent in present-day society, with resultant high healthcare costs and substantial negative effects on patient health and quality of life. The main aim of this overview was to synthesize evidence from systematic reviews on the effects of exercise therapy (ET) on pain and physical function for patients with MSCs. In addition, the evidence for the effect of ET on disease pathogenesis, and whether particular components of exercise programs are associated with the size of the treatment effects, was also explored. Methods We included four common conditions: fibromyalgia (FM), low back pain (LBP), neck pain (NP), and shoulder pain (SP), and four specific musculoskeletal diseases: osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and osteoporosis (OP). We first included Cochrane reviews with the most recent update being January 2007 or later, and then searched for non-Cochrane reviews published after this date. Pain and physical functioning were selected as primary outcomes. Results We identified 9 reviews, comprising a total of 224 trials and 24,059 patients. In addition, one review addressing the effect of exercise on pathogenesis was included. Overall, we found solid evidence supporting ET in the management of MSCs, but there were substantial differences in the level of research evidence between the included diagnostic groups. The standardized mean differences for knee OA, LBP, FM, and SP varied between 0.30 and 0.65 and were significantly in favor of exercise for both pain and function. For NP, hip OA, RA, and AS, the effect estimates were generally smaller and not always significant. There was little or no evidence that ET can influence disease pathogenesis. The only exception was for osteoporosis, where there was evidence that ET increases bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, but no significant effects were found for clinically relevant outcomes (fractures). For LBP and knee OA, there was evidence suggesting that the treatment effect increases with the number of exercise sessions. Conclusions There is empirical evidence that ET has beneficial clinical effects for most MSCs. Except for osteoporosis, there seems to be a gap in the understanding of the ways in which ET influences disease mechanisms.
Full-text available
To evaluate the effects of stretching and/or resistive exercise, followed by detraining, on the functional status of older people. Forty-five subjects were divided into four groups: control (CG; n=13; 66±6 years), stretching (SG; n=10; 69±6 years), resistive exercise (RG; n=13; 69±5 years), and resistive exercise and stretching (RSG; n=9; 66±5 years). The CG did not perform any exercise. The SG, RG, and RSG had warm-up sessions prior to performing lower-body exercises twice a week. The SG performed 4 repetitions of stretching. Resistive exercise was performed at a load of 65% of 10 repetitions maximum (RM) for five weeks, 70% for the next four weeks, and 75% for the last three weeks of the program. The RSG performed both exercises. Cardiorespiratory capacity was evaluated using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) at baseline, at the six- and 12-week follow-ups, and after a six-week period of detraining. Lower limb muscle strength was assessed using the stand up from a chair and sit down test (SUCSD), and blood pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope. The results were analyzed using ANOVA (p<0.05). Six weeks of training increased walking distance (6MWT) in the RG and decreased SUCSD time in the SG. However, detraining increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the RG compared to the SG. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased after six weeks in the RSG and 12 weeks in the SG. Six weeks of stretching or resistive training can improve the functional status of older people. Nevertheless, DBP decreased after six weeks with the combination of resistive exercise and stretching. Detraining increased SBP when resistive exercise alone was used.
Full-text available
Objective: It is purported that exercise-induced dehydration (EID), especially if ≥ 2% bodyweight, impairs endurance performance (EP). Field research shows that athletes can achieve outstanding EP while dehydrated > 2% bodyweight. Using the meta-analytic procedure, this study compared the findings of laboratory-based studies that examined the impact of EID upon EP using either ecologically valid (EV) (time-trial exercise) or non-ecologically valid (NEV) (clamped-intensity exercise) exercise protocols. Methods: EP outcomes were put on the same scale and represent % changes in power output between euhydrated and dehydrated exercise tests. Random-effects model meta-regressions and weighted mean effect summaries, mixed-effects model analogue to the ANOVAs and magnitude-based effect statistics were used to delineate treatment effects. Main results: Fifteen research articles were included, producing 28 effect estimates, representing 122 subjects. Compared with euhydration, EID increased (0.09±2.60%, (p=0.9)) EP under time-trial exercise conditions, whereas it reduced it (1.91±1.53%, (p<0.05)) with NEV exercise protocols. Only with NEV exercise protocols did EID ≥ 2% body weight impair EP (p=0.03). Conclusions: Evidence indicates that (1) EID ≤ 4% bodyweight is very unlikely to impair EP under real-world exercise conditions (time-trial type exercise) and; (2) under situations of fixed-exercise intensity, which may have some relevance for military and occupational settings, EID ≥ 2% bodyweight is associated with a reduction in endurance capacity. The 2% bodyweight loss rule has been established from findings of studies using NEV exercise protocols and does not apply to out-of-doors exercise conditions. Athletes are therefore encouraged to drink according to thirst during exercise.
Exercise is making a resurgence in many countries, given its benefits for fitness as well as prevention of obesity. This trend has spawned many supplements that purport to aid performance, muscle growth, and recovery. Initially, sports drinks were developed to provide electrolyte and carbohydrate replacement. Subsequently, energy beverages (EBs) containing stimulants and additives have appeared in most gyms and grocery stores and are being used increasingly by "weekend warriors" and those seeking an edge in an endurance event. Long-term exposure to the various components of EBs may result in significant alterations in the cardiovascular system, and the safety of EBs has not been fully established. For this review, we searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 1976 through May 2010, using the following keywords: energy beverage, energy drink, power drink, exercise, caffeine, red bull, bitter orange, glucose, ginseng, guarana, and taurine. Evidence regarding the effects of EBs is summarized, and practical recommendations are made to help in answering the patient who asks, "Is it safe for me to drink an energy beverage when I exercise?"