The study emphasizes the idea that the modern chess sport has evolved into an important element of governmental policies in at least Russia, Norway, China, the Netherlands, Armenia, Georgia, Ukraine, India, Uzbekistan and Bulgaria. The study data and analyses demonstrate that the national socio-economic stability on the whole and the persistent progress of the social dimension of the national chess sport in particular are critical both for the chess sport management and progress of the national intellectual and human resource. The article offers a content analysis of the modern chess sport policies and practices and summarizes elite/ children/ youth/ mass/ adaptive chess sport statistics; plus analyzes the practical experience and benefits of the chess players’ and trainer’s training systems applied at Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism; Russian State Social University; and Higher Trainers’ School. A special attention is given to a few negative trends in the Russian chess sports, including the limitations on the research projects in chess related fields; closures of chess sport departments in the leading national universities; outflow of staff instructors/ trainers from the national children/ youth/ adaptive chess sport systems due to emigration from the country; and still deficient/inaccessible chess sport service infrastructure for people with health limitations and disabilities. The study offers the following potential drivers for the national chess sport progress: unification of the sport/ research/ educational resources of the Ministry of Sports and Ministry of Education and Science; National School Chess Project implementation; new federal standards for disabled chess players; and prudent policies to reinstate the instruction/ research specialist training system for the national chess sport. © 2018, Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kul'tury i sporta. All rights reserved.