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Biotransformation of Fruti-Horticultural Agro-Industrial Residues Using Efficient Microorganisms (EM) in Riobamba (Ecuador)

Authors:
  • Universidad Estatal de Bolívar, Ecuador, Guaranda

Abstract

The search for biotechnological alternatives for the use of organic waste in the horticultural process is a current problem. In this investigation, the biotransformation of tomato peels (Solanum lycopersicum L.), naranjilla (Solanum quitoense), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) was evaluated. Residues, subjected to aerobic fermentation with effective microorganisms (EM): photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas spp), lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus spp) (EM-1) and yeast (Saccharomyces spp). Two percentages of EM-A and three doses of agro-industrial wastes were used to produce biofertilizer; in this the pH (3.9) and the carbon / nitrogen ratio were determined, they were placed within the regulations. The biofertilizer yield was 2.94 Kg / m2. A physical-chemical analysis was carried out on the bio-fertilizer, evaluating the sensory indicators: color, smell and texture; the most outstanding physicochemical characteristics were presented in the T6 treatment (A3B2) which corresponds to 40% fruit waste plus 40% of vegetables plus 20% of substrate to 10% of EM-A. The chemical analysis of the best treatment was T2 (80% of fruit waste plus 20% of substrate to 10% of EM-A) with concentrations of macro and micro elements of N: 24600; K: 15800; Ca: 12800; Mg: 4300; P: 3900; Faith: 3300; Mn: 92.39; Zn: 69.05; Cu: 27.99; B: 15.55; Mo: 0.96 mg / kg, acceptable ranges according to current regulations including the microbial population. Finally, the cost / benefit analysis of 0.454 Kg of biofertilizer at 1.25 was established with a profit of 0.30 cents.
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3,61
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3,07
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Article
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