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Unani perspective of Khatmi (Althaea officinalis)

Authors:
  • University of Colombo (Instiute of Indigenous Medicine)

Abstract

Khatmi (Althaea officinalis), commonly known as Marsh Mallow is one of the important medicinal plant used in Unani medicine. Khatmi is a perennial plant with light brown coloured, long and thick root, ovate-cordate, slightly toothed leaves and pale pink or pale purple coloured flowers. Root, leaves, flowers and seeds are mainly used in medicine. All the parts contain mucilage. It is having emmollient, analgesic, astringent, haemostatic, expectorant, luxative, cleansing, demulcent, concoctive, diuretic, emmenagogue, anti-inflammatory and exhilarant properties. In Unani medicine, Khatmi has been used for several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders like metritis, enteritis, mastitis, arthritis, colitis, bronchitis, gastritis, etc. It also has been used for other ailments like catarrh, renal calculai, pityriasis, tremor, dysuria, dysentery, haemoptysis, whooping cough and many more. Though, this plant is used for many varieties of disease, very few actions of this plant have been proven scientifically. Hence, this review will help to conduct scientific studies in unexploited potencial of this plant.
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Journal of Pha rmacognosy and Ph ytochemistr y 2016; 5(6): 357 -360
E-ISSN: 2278-4136
P-ISSN: 2349-8234
JPP 2016; 5(6): 357-360
Received: 16-09-2016
Accepted: 17-10-2016
Nazeem Fahamiya
Institute of Indigenous Medicine,
University of Colombo,
Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka
Mohamed Shiffa
Institute of Indigenous Medicine,
University of Colombo,
Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka
Mohd. Aslam
Faculty of Medicine (Unani),
Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi,
India
Farzana MUZN
Institute of Indigenous Medicine,
University of Colombo,
Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka
Correspondence
Nazeem Fahamiya
Institute of Indigenous Medicine,
University of Colombo,
Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka
Unani perspective of Khatmi (Althaea officinalis)
Nazeem Fahamiya, Mohamed Shiffa, Mohd Aslam and Farzana MUZN
Abstract
Khatmi (Althaea officinalis), commonly known as Marsh Mallow is one of the important medicinal plant
used in Unani medicine. Khatmi is a perennial plant with light brown coloured, long and thick root,
ovate-cordate, slightly toothed leaves and pale pink or pale purple coloured flowers. Root, leaves, flowers
and seeds are mainly used in medicine. All the parts contain mucilage. It is having emmollient, analgesic,
astringent, haemostatic, expectorant, luxative, cleansing, demulcent, concoctive, diuretic, emmenagogue,
anti-inflammatory and exhilarant properties. In Unani medicine, Khatmi has been used for several
centuries to treat inflammatory disorders like metritis, enteritis, mastitis, arthritis, colitis, bronchitis,
gastritis, etc. It also has been used for other ailments like catarrh, renal calculai, pityriasis, tremor,
dysuria, dysentery, haemoptysis, whooping cough and many more. Though, this plant is used for many
varieties of disease, very few actions of this plant have been proven scientifically. Hence, this review will
help to conduct scientific studies in unexploited potencial of this plant.
Keywords: Khatmi, Althaea officinalis, Marshmallow, mucilage, Unani
1. Introduction
Khatmi belongs to the family Malvaceae. It is native of most countries of Europe and is also
distribute in the temperate and subtropical region of Asia and Europe [1, 2]. Actual Khatmi is
Althea officinalis but due to inappropriate practice of vernacular name in certain regions of
India Althaea rosea, another species of genus Althaea is also known as Khatmi. In Unani
medicine, Khatmi has been used for several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders like
metritis (Warme reham), enteritis (Warme amaa), mastitis (Warme pistan), arthritis (Waja ul
mafasil), etc. [3-6]. It also has been used for other ailments like catarrh (Nazla), renal calculai
(Sang e gurda), pityriasis (Bahaq), tremor (Raasha), dysuria (Usr ul baul), dysentery (Zaheer),
haemoptysis (Nafs ud dam), whooping cough (Shaheeqa), etc. [4-7]. Recent studies carried out
in this plant have proven its anti-tussive, anti-inflammatory, antiestrogenic, antimicrobial,
immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antiurolithiatic, and cytotoxic activity [8]. The aim of this
review is to reveal information related to Khatmi available in Unani literatures to promote
further studies in this particular plant.
2. Plant taxonomy
Kingdom - Plantae plants; Division - Magnoliophyta; Class - Magnoliopsida; Order -
Malvales; Family - Malvaceae (mallow family); Genus - Althaea L; Species - Althaea
officinalis Linn; Synonyms – Malva officinalis.
3. Vernacular names
Arabic Bazrul Khatmi, Kasirul Munfiyat; Chinese Ke Zhi Gen; Danish–Altae; Dutch–
Heemst; English Marsh Mallow, Sweet Weed; French - Guimauve; German Eibisch,
Ibisch; Greek – Altaia, Hibiscos; Hindi– Khatmi, Khaira; Italian Bismalva; Persian
Tukhme Khatmi, Reshai e Khatmi; Portugese– Malvaisco; Roumanian – Nalba mare; Russian
Altei, Dikaya roja; Spanish - Malvavisco; Swedish– Altea; Tamil – Simaithuthi; Turkish–
Hatmi, Herba malvae; Urdu– Khatmi, Khitmi [1, 2, 9-12]
4. Habitat
Khatmi is originated in countries adjoining the Capsian sea, Black sea and in the Eastern
Mediterranean. This palnt is native to Europe and Western Asia. Khatmi is found in North
America along the eastern seaboard. It is also found in Delhi, Khasmir, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh,
Rajasthan and also in Pakistan and Iran [1, 9, 10]. In India it is grown not only as ornamenral
plant but also for the medicinal prupose. It is a perennial plant grown in salt marshes, damp
medows and on the banks of tidal rivers and seas. In sandy soils, the mucilage in the root is
reported to be higher than in clayey soils. The mucilage is maximum in autumn and winter,
and minimum in spring and summer; increse in moisture reduces the mucilage [2, 11].
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
5. Cultivation, propagation and collection
Khatmi has always been used to be cultivated in gardens on
account of its medicinal qualities. This can be grown from
seed sown in spring or by stem cuttings. Marshmallow can
thrive in any soil or situation but grows larger in moist than in
dry land and could be cultivated in damp localities near
ditches or streams. The leaves and flowers are picked when
the flowers are blooming during summer. The root are
harvested in the autumn but the plant must be two years old.
The root shoud be made free from fibres and cork covering
then dried immediately [10, 11, 13, 14].
6. Plant description
Khatmi is a perennial hardy and velvety plant with stems up
to 3 to 4 feet high. Roots are 0.2 to 3 cm in diameter, long
thick, tapering light brown in colour, strongly longitudinally
furrowed, often spirally twisted; fracture, short, texture rough,
internally yellowish white; odour, pleasant; taste, sweet and
mucilaginous. The leaves are shortly petioled, roundish,
ovate-cordate, 2 to 3 inches long, and about 1 1/4 inch broad,
entire or three to five lobed, irregularly toothed at the margin,
and thick. They are soft and velvety on both sides, due to a
dense covering of stellate hairs. The pale pink, reddish pink,
and rarely, white flowers bloom in August or September. The
flowers are either axillary or in panicles with five sepals, five
heart shaped petals and numerous stamens united into a tube
with kidney-shaped and one-celled anthers. Flat, round 5-8
mm fruit breaks up into the mericarps, which are downy on
the outside and have fine, branched and radiating ribs. Small
to moderate size seeds are approximately 6 mm, usually
brownish-black, kidney shaped with rugose, hairy at margins
and somewhat compressed. It becomes mucilaginous when
soaked in water [1, 2, 9, 14-17].
7. Adultration
It can be adultrated with the root of hollylock, Althaea rosea.
The root of Althaea officinalis are also found to be adulterated
with roots of Lavatera thuringiaca Linn. The unpeeled roots
of Althaea officinalis are sometimes used to adulterate
belladonna [1, 14, 16].
8. Parts used and its chemical constituents
8.1 Root
Marsh mallow root contains galacturonic acid, galactose,
glucose, xylose rhamnose, polysaccharide althaea mucilage-
O, asparaginene, betaine, lecithin and phytosterol. This also
contains flavonoid glycosides kaempferol and quercetin;
caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and syringic phenolic acids;
tannins and calcium oxlates [1, 2, 11, 17].
8.2 Leaves
Mucilage, including a low molecular weihgt D-glucon
flavanoids such as kaempferol and quercetin and diosmetin
glucosides scopoletin, a coumarin polyphenolic acids
including caffeic, syringic, vanilic, p-coumaric, etc. are
available in leaves. Presence of hydroxycinnamic acid is also
reported. Stigmasterol, sitosterol, a saturated aliphatic ester
also reported to be present. Marshmallow also contains
calcium, phosphorous, riboflavine, niacin, vitamin C,
carotene, zinc, iron, iodine and vitamin B complex [11, 12].
8.3 Seeds
Glucose, sucrose, galactose & mannose; oleic, linolenic,
linoleic, palmatic and stearic acid; isobutylalcohol, limonene,
phellandrene, γ-toluerldehyde, citral, terpeneol, β-sitosterol
[17].
8.4 Flowers
Flowers contain mucilage and essensial oil [11].
9. Propertis of Khatmi in Unani
9.1 Temperament (Mizaj)
Cold1 and Wet1 [1, 3, 4, 18-20]
Hot1 and Wet1 [5, 6, 21-23]
9.2 Adverse Effects (Muzir Asrat)
Khatmi may cause adverse effects on stomach [6, 19, 20, 23] and
lungs [4, 24]
9.3 Corrective (Musleh)
Following drugs have been recommended to be used along
with Khatmi to prevent side effects. They are Honey (Shahad)
[3, 4, 6, 19, 23, 24], Saunf (Foeniculum vulgare) [3, 4, 6, 19, 23, 24 ],
Zarishk (Berries of Berberis vulgaris) [3, 4]
9.4 Substitute (Badal)
The following drugs are mentioned in the Unani text as
substitutes for Khatmi. They are Behman Surkh (Roots of
Centaurea behen Linn.) [25], Khubbazi (Fruits of Malva
sylvestris Linn.) [3, 4, 6, 24], Neelofar (Flower of Nymphaea
lotus) [4], Samagh-e-Arabi (Gum of Acacia arabica Wild) [4]
and Tabasheer (Manna of Bambusa arundinaceae) [4].
9.5 Formulations (Murakkabat)
Arq Ambar [27], Arq Ma-ul-Laham Makoh Kasni Wala [27],
Dayaqooza [6, 22], Habb-e-Shahiqa [6 ], Qurs-e-Zat-ul-Janb [26],
Dawa-ul-Misk Motadil Jawahar Wali [27], Itrifal Muqawwi
Dimagh [27], Majun Muqawwi-wa-Mumsik [27], Laboob-e-
Sageer [6], Laooq-e-Nazli [6, 22], Laooq-e-Khayarshamber [6],
Laooq-e-Sapistan [6, 23], Lauq Sapistan Khayar Shambari [27],
Khamira Abresham Sada [27] , Khamira Gawzaban Ambari [27],
Khamira Gawzaban Ambari Jadwar Ood Saleeb Wala [27],
Khamira Gawzaban Sada [27], Khamira Murakkab [27],
Khamira Nazli Jawahir wala [27], Matbookh Nazla [23],
Sharbat-e-Aijas [22], Sharbat-e-Khashkhash [6], Triyaq-e-Nazla
[6], Marham-e-Dakhilyun [6], Qairooti-e-Arad-e-Baqla [26],
Qairooti-e-Babuna Wali [26], Qairooti-e-Karnab [26], Qairooti-
e-Mamool [26], Zimad-e-Waram Kulya Qawi [26]
9.6 Therapeutic Dose (Miqdar-e-Khurak)
The therapeutic doses mentioned by various authors are as 4 –
7 g [4], 6 – 9 g [3], 5 – 7 g [6], 5 – 7 g [24] and 10 g [23].
9.7 Unani actions and uses
9.7.1 Actions
Root: Lubricant (muzliq), resolvent (muhallil), analgesic
(musakkin), astringent (habis), Haemostatic (habis-ud-dam),
desiccant (mujaffif) [4-7, 20, 21]
Seed: Expectorant (munaffis-e-bulgham), anti-catarrh (man-e-
nazla), laxative (mulayin), divergent (radi mawad), cleanser
(jali), demulcent (mulattif), concoctive of phlegm (munjiz-e-
bulgham), emollient for stomach and organs (murrakhi meda
wa azalat), diuretic (mudir-e-baul), emmenagogue (mudir-e-
haiz) [4-7, 19-21, 25]
Leaves: Anti-inflammatory (muhallil-e-warm) [4-7, 19-21]
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Flowers: Exhilarant and tonic to heart (mufarreh wa
muqawwi- e-qalb), Constipative (qabis) [28]
9.7.2 Therapeutic uses
Joint conditions
Irrigation (nutool) with decoction of seeds or leaves of
Khatmi and its leaves paste are useful as resolvent in gout
(niqras), arthritis (wajaul mafasil) and other types of hot
inflammation [3-7, 21].
Respiratory ailments
Joshanda (decoction) of seeds is beneficial in bronchitis
(warm-e-shoib), catarrh and coryza (nazla wa zukam), cough
(sual), haemoptysis (nafs-ud-dam) and asthma (dama) [3-7, 19-
21, 23, 25]. Its seeds are mixed in Qairuti (paste applied on chest)
and massaged in conditions like pleurisy (zat-ur-riya) and
pneumonia (zatul janab). [4, 6, 20, 21, 25].
Gastrointestinal tract
Joshanda or mucilage of seed is beneficial in intestinal
obstruction (sudah-e-amaa), diarrhoea (ishal), dysentery
(zaheer), wound (zaham), enteritis (warm-e-amaa), gastritis
(warm-e-meda), constipation (Qabs), thirst (utash), dysphagia
(usr-ul-bala), intestinal colic (qoolanj), peptic ulceration
(qurooh-e-meda wa amaa), flatulence (nafakh) and proctitis
(warm-e-miqad) [3-7, 21, 23]. Khatmi with suitable Mubarridat
(refrigerant dugs) such as Luabe Behi-dana (mucilage of
Cydonia oblonga), Luabe Ispagol (mucilage of Plantago
ovata), Sheera Unnab (juice of Zizyphus vulgaris), Sheere
Badiyan (juice of Foenicu-lum vulgare) are used to neutralize
the side effects of purgatives (Mushilat) in intestines [29].
Urinary disorders
Joshanda or its mucilage of seed is useful in renal calculi
(sang-e-gurda), burning micturition (sozish-e-baul), dysuria
(usr-ul-baul) and cystitis (warm-e-masana) [4, 6, 7, 25], Aabzan
(Sitz Bath) with decoction of Khatmi with suitable other
Musakkin wa Murakhkhi (sedative and emollient) drugs
should be given to patient for a few period to relive pain due
to renal origin. In obstructive uropathy Huqna (Enema) with
Luaab Tukhm-e-Khatmi and other Muzliq Luaab (lubricants
mucilage) such as Luaab Katan (Linum usitatissimum), Luaab
Hulbah (Trigonella foenum-graeceu), etc. is given to the
patient.
Gynecological disorders
Khatmi is beneficial for metritis (warm-e-rahem) and mastitis
(warm-e-pistan) [3-7, 21]. Application of lukewarm paste on
pubic region made up of equal parts of Amaltas pulp (Cassia
fistula L.), Khatmi flowers (Althaea Officinalis L.) and Rasaut
(Bark extract of Barberis asiatica Roxb.) and Gul-e-Babuna
(Matricaria chamomilla L) by adding little water will relieves
inflammation of the uterus (warm-e-reham) [30]. Zimad (paste)
made with Aarid-e-Jau, Tukhm-e-Khatmi, Sandal Surkh,
Maghaz-e-Faloos and Khyaar Shambar grind them in Aab-e-
Makoh, Sabz and Aab-e-Kasni used in initial stage of Iltehab-
e-unq-ur-rehm (Cervicitis) or it may also be used as pessary
(farjaza) [31]. Hot water extract of the plant is taken orally as
an abortifacient and emmenagogue.
Brain and nerves
If Laqwa (facial paralysis) is due to yaboosat (dryness),
massage the cervical vertebrae with Roghan-e-Khatmi [32]. In
Melancholia predominance of sauda from the whole body is
eliminated by enema with Chukhandar (beet root), Khatmi
(Althea officinalis), wheat husk, laxative with Roghan
Banafsha (oil of Viola odorata) [33]. When there is dominance
of akhlat-e-harrah (hot humour) in Shaqiqa (Migraine) do
Nutool (irrigation) with Khatmi and other advia-e-baaridah
like, Neelofer (Nymphaea nucifera), Banafsha (Violo
odorata), Barg -e-Kahu (Lactuca sativa), Gul-e-Surkh (Rosa
Damascus) boiled in water [34]. Khatmi is good for tremors
(Raasha) and sciatica (irq-un-Nisa) [4, 5, 7].
Antidote
Khatmi seed with Roghan-e-Zaitoon (olive oil) and Sirka
(vinegar) is used to treat animal poisoning [6]
Miscellaneous
Powder of Beekh Khatmi (Althaea officinalis), Beekh
Jaosheer (Ferula galbaniflua) in equal part in the dose of 4.5
g daily is used in obesity [35]. Khatmi is also beneficial for
toothache (waja-ul-asnaan) and pityriasis (bahaq) [5, 7].
10. Ethnobotanical action and uses
Althaea officinalis is beneficial for skin inflammation, ulcers,
boils, abscesses, skin cuts and burns [1 0, 11, 36]. Infusion of the
plant leaf, root and flower are taken orally as an expectorant,
emollient for bronchial catarrh and as a gastric protective and
externally as an antiseptic. The root, boiled with black pepper,
is taken orally for asthma and hot water extract as an
expectorant and externally as a demulcent. Decoction of the
dried root, flower and leaf are taken orally for constipation,
cough, asthma and sore throat. Hot water extracts of the dried
flower, root and the dried leaf are used externally as an
emollient. The dried leaf is used as a cicatrizant and infusion
is taken orally to treat cystitis [37]. Althaea officinalis has also
been used as antacid, antispasmodic, antitussive, aphrodisiac,
anti-inflammatory, demulcent, diuretic, emollient,
expectorant, immune tonic, laxative, nutritive, rejuvenative
and soothing. Marsh mallow’s demulcent qualities bring relief
from bronchial asthma, sore throat, bronchial catarrh,
pleurisy, dry cough, colitis, diverticulitis, irritable bowel
syndrome, irritation of mucous membranes, as a gargle for
mouth and throat ulcers, and gastric ulcers [8-11].
11. Conclusion
Khatmi is a versatile plant used widely in Unani medicine for
the treatment of various diseases. It is having properties like
emmollient, resolvent, analgesic, astringent, haemostatic,
desiccant, expectorant, luxative, cleansing, demulcent,
concoctive, diuretic, emmenagogue, anti-inflammatory,
exhilarant, etc. though, very few studies has been carried out
to validate its effects scientificlay. Hence, this review will
help to conduct scientific studies in unexploited potencial of
this plant to get the maximum benefits.
12. Conflict of interests
There is no conflict of interests
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... There are official formulations of Loboob in the traditional medicine market, specifically in India and Iran. Although we found no articles published in English about the ingredients of Loboob, several studies on traditional medicine in Asia contain references to Laboob-e-kabeer and Laboob-e-Sagheer (Akhtar et al., 2010;Bano et al., 2018;Bashir & Afrin, 2019;Fahamiya et al., 2016;Rahman et al., 2014;Talib et al., 2017). The formulation of Laboob-e-kabeer includes 60 ingredients, while Laboob-e-Sagheer is made from 20 ingredients. ...
... There are official formulations of Loboob in the traditional medicine market. Laboob-e-kabeer and Laboob-e-Sagheer have been mentioned in traditional books and several reports on traditional medicine in Asia (Akhtar et al., 2010;Bano et al., 2018;Bashir & Afrin, 2019;Fahamiya et al., 2016;Rahman et al., 2014;Talib et al., 2017) and listed under compound formulations or Murakkabat (Laboob-e-kabeer, Laboob-e-Sagheer) (Bashir & Afrin, 2019). ...
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Objective: Male infertility secondary to exposure to gonadotoxic agents during reproductive age is a concerning issue. The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effect of Loboob on sperm parameters. Methods: 55 healthy rats were selected, weighted and divided into five groups consisting of 11 rats each. The control group received no medication. Rats in Treatment Group 1 received 10mg/kg Busulfan and rats in Treatment Groups 2, 3, and 4 received 35,70 and 140 mg/kg Loboob respectively in addition to 10mg/kg Busulfan. Finally, the sperm parameters and weights of the rats were compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn-Bonferroni tests. Results: All sperm parameters and weights were significantly decreased among rats receiving Busulfan. All dosages of Loboob were effective to enhance the motility of slow spermatozoa, while only in the rats given 70 and 140 mg/kg of Loboob saw improvements in progressively motile sperm percentages (0.024 and 0.01, respectively). Loboob at a dosage of 140mg/kg improved sperm viability. It did not improve normal morphology sperm or decrease immotile sperm counts. Loboob did not affect mean rat weight. Conclusions: Loboob offered a dose-dependent protective effect on several sperm parameters in rats with busulfan-induced subfertility.
... In Unani medicine, A. officinalis seeds as decoction are used in bronchitis, catarrh, coryza, cough, and asthma. Its seeds are prepared as paste and massaged on the chaste in conditions like pleurisy and pneumonia [7]. Bolivian people use A. officinalis infusion as an expectorant agent. ...
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Althaea officinalis has been traditionally used for management of cough and other respiratory problems. The aim of this review article was to evaluate its efficacy in modern research according to its traditional beliefs. All information was extracted from scientific resources of PubMed Central, ScienceDirect, Wiley, Springer, SID, accessible books, reports, and theses. The results of animal and clinical studies confirmed the efficacy of A. officinalis extracts alone in treatment of dry cough, while combination of A. officinalis with Zataria multiflora, Zingiber officinalis, or Helix hedera increased the efficacy of A. officinalis and improved all kinds of cough. Different mechanisms are involved in expectorant and antitussive effects of A. officinalis in treatment of cough. Therefore, A. officinalis in combination with other plant extracts in different forms of drug could be a good choice for cough, sore throat, and other respiratory ailments. © 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Introduction: Plant derived mucilage has been explored as a drug, pharmaceutical excipient, and in cosmetics. Several mucilage and mucilage‑containing drugs are being utilized in Unani medicine. These are to be standardized for authentications owing to immense utilization. A mucilage‑containing drug obtained from root of Althaea officinalis L. (AO) – family Malvaceae, an important Unani drug, has been subjected to physicochemical studies for standardization. Materials and Methods: Mucilage of roots of the drug was isolated by classical and reference method. The physicochemical method included determination of ash values, moisture content, viscosity, swelling index (SI), and pH value. Powder characterization study included bulk density, tapped density, Hausner’s ratio, and angle of repose. For preliminary phytochemical analysis, qualitative tests for organic constituents and test for mucilage were carried out. Analytical methods, namely Fourier transform infra‑red (FTIR) and high‑performance thin‑layer chromatography (HPTLC) were also applied. Results: The yield percentage taken by acetone method was 36.80 ± 1.25 whereas that of classical method was 42.93 ± 1.35. Values of pH, loss on drying, viscosity, and SI were 4.08 ± 0.032, 14.46 ± 0.13, 34.40 ± 0.61, and 334.36 ± 23.77, respectively. Data for ash value and powder characterization (Micromeritic Properties) were set in. Preliminary confirmative test confirmed that the isolated polysaccharide is mucilage. HPTLC fingerprinting of aqueous extract gave 6 and 4 peak at 254 nm, 4 and 5 peak at 366 nm and 5 and 6 peaks at 550 nm in mobile phase chloroform (90): methanol (10): acetic acid (2). FTIR data for the mucilage were also set in. Conclusion: Physicochemical standardization data/monograph for AO root mucilage were developed. Key words: Althaea officinalis, mucilage, physicochemica
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Malankholia (Melancholia) has been defined as a disorder in which the mental functions are deranged and the afflicted person is more prone towards constant grief, fear and dubious aggression and the ability to analyze and interpret things is grossly affected as enunciated by Jalinus (Galen) quoted by Zakaria Razi (850-923 A.D) in his world renowned treatise “Kitab Al-Havi.” The term melancholia literally means “black humour” which is the predominant causative factor. Mental ill-health is one of the most disturbing and disabling disorders of life. It affects not only the concerned person but also the family and the society as a whole with social stigma attached to it. The problem is steadily on the rise due to factors such as urbanization, industrialization and increase in lifespan, together with breakup of the joint family system, with implication of multiple genes has augmented the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric illness is almost same globally, about 8 to 10 per 1000 population. Unani an age old traditional system of medicine has described this disorder in its classical text not only the concept but also its management with various modes of treatment which if pursued will mitigate the suffering humanity to a great extent. The present review manuscript is an attempt to highlight the available literature from the Unani perspective.
Aljamaiul Mufradat-ul Advia Wal Aghzia
  • Ibn-E-Baitar
Ibn-e-Baitar. Aljamaiul Mufradat-ul Advia Wal Aghzia. V.II (Urdu Trans), CCRUM, New Delhi, 2003, 133-135.
Sheikh Mohammad Bashir & Sons
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Ethno-pharmacological review on Althaea officinalis
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Sharma Satish Kumar, Sharma Sudhakar, Sachan Kapil, Tiwari Snigdha. Ethno-pharmacological review on Althaea officinalis. WJPPS. 2016; 5(7):425-432.
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Nadkarni KM. Indian Materia Medica. Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1989, 1.