ArticleLiterature Review

Mental health and wellbeing during the transition to fatherhood: a systematic review of first time fathers’ experiences

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Abstract

Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on first time fathers' experiences and needs in relation to their mental health and wellbeing during their transition to fatherhood. Introduction: Men's mental health and wellbeing during their transition to fatherhood is an important public health issue that is currently under-researched from a qualitative perspective and poorly understood. Inclusion criteria: Resident first time fathers (biological and non-biological) of healthy babies born with no identified terminal or long-term conditions were included. The phenomena of interest were their experiences and needs in relation to mental health and wellbeing during their transition to fatherhood, from commencement of pregnancy until one year after birth. Studies based on qualitative data, including, but not limited to, designs within phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography and action research were included. Methods: A three-step search strategy was used. The search strategy explored published and unpublished qualitative studies from 1960 to September 2017. All included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers and any disagreements were resolved by consensus or with a third reviewer. The recommended Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) approach to critical appraisal, study selection, data extraction and data synthesis was used. Results: Twenty-two studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review, which were then assessed to be of moderate to high quality (scores 5-10) based on the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Research. The studies were published between 1990 and 2017, and all used qualitative methodologies to accomplish the overall aim of investigating the experiences of expectant or new fathers. Nine studies were from the UK, three from Sweden, three from Australia, two from Canada, two from the USA, one from Japan, one from Taiwan and one from Singapore. The total number of first-time fathers included in the studies was 351.One hundred and forty-four findings were extracted from the included studies. Of these, 141 supported findings were aggregated into 23 categories and seven synthesized findings: 1) New fatherhood identity, 2) Competing challenges of new fatherhood, 3) Negative feelings and fears, 4) Stress and coping, 5) Lack of support, 6) What new fathers want, and 7) Positive aspects of fatherhood. Conclusions: Based on the synthesized findings, three main factors that affect first-time fathers' mental health and wellbeing during their transition to fatherhood were identified: the formation of the fatherhood identity, competing challenges of the new fatherhood role and negative feelings and fears relating to it. The role restrictions and changes in lifestyle often resulted in feelings of stress, for which fathers used denial or escape activities, such as smoking, working longer hours or listening to music, as coping techniques. Fathers wanted more guidance and support around the preparation for fatherhood, and partner relationship changes. Barriers to accessing support included lack of tailored information resources and acknowledgment from health professionals. Better preparation for fatherhood, and support for couple relationships during the transition to parenthood could facilitate better experiences for new fathers, and contribute to better adjustments and mental wellbeing in new fathers.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0. Full article can be accessed from: https://journals.lww.com/jbisrir/Fulltext/2018/11000/Mental_health_and_wellbeing_during_the_transition.10.aspx

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... The literature reports that adequate parent bonding provides benefits such as feeling more self-secure and better adaption to the new required role (Baldwin et al., 2018). Hence, we believe that mothers and fathers feel more satisfied with their marital relationship when they have a positive bond with the new family member. ...
... An example of this is that almost 75% of the sample had at least a secondary level of education, with the latter being positively related to QoL(Yoshitake et al., 2016).The literature also refers to poor recognition of the role of fathers, both by the health system and socially(Rowe et al., 2013), making them feel excluded, defenceless and poorly prepared. The perception of difficulty in establishing an infant bond from the time of birth onwards has also been described for fathers(Baldwin et al., 2018). In addition,Schaber et al. (2021) support the idea that parental leave positively predicts father-infant bonding. ...
... Thus, healthcare providers should implement specific actions to help prepare fathers for birth by including them in the transition to parenthood. This would facilitate their better adaptation and promote their individual emotional well-being and, consequently, the well-being of the whole family(Baldwin et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The transition to parenthood represents a moment of change and adaptation in which the dyadic marital relationship becomes a triadic relationship. Facilitating a positive transition requires a thorough understanding of the explanatory model of the relationship between parental–infant bonding, dyadic adjustment and quality of life (QoL) from an integrative perspective of the family unit. The aim of this work was to analyse the relationships between parent–infant bonding, dyadic adjustment and QoL from an intra-partner perspective, 6–12 months after the birth of a child. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in a convenience sample of 222 couples 6–12 months postpartum, enrolled from October 2013 to March 2016. The mean age of the mothers was 34.07 years (SD = 3.67), and for the fathers, it was 35.75 years (SD = 4.02). Mothers perceived better QoL and greater mother–infant bonding compared to fathers. The perception of an adequate dyadic adjustment, together with positive parent–infant bonding, had positively influenced the individual QoL of both members of the couple 6–12 months after birth. From an intra-partner perspective, the positive transition was influenced by the relationship between parent–infant bonding, dyadic adjustment and QoL. Positive parent–infant bonding in mothers and fathers, as well as promotion of the quality of the relationships between couples, can help promote a better QoL. Positive health results can be achieved in terms of individual and family well-being by designing healthcare interventions that encourage the presence and participation of the family unit
... The lack of research on fathers is not surprising given a dominant focus on developmental pathways to parenthood in women, for whom parental caregiving roles are typically socialised in deeply embedded, gender-based interactions (Wood and Eagly, 2012;Eagly and Wood, 2016). In general, there is considerably less developmental preparation of males for fatherhood (Baldwin et al., 2018). Men without children often report being uncertain about what future fatherhood is likely to entail in terms of both pragmatic functions and emotional adjustment (Kings et al., 2017). ...
... Men without children often report being uncertain about what future fatherhood is likely to entail in terms of both pragmatic functions and emotional adjustment (Kings et al., 2017). Men with children often report having entered fatherhood lacking critical insights into their partner's and children's needs and into the extent of psychological upheaval that the new role would entail (Darwin et al., 2017;Baldwin et al., 2018). They also report limited acknowledgement and a lack of support from clinical and community support services (Baldwin et al., 2018(Baldwin et al., , 2019 often being told that, in the postpartum period, their needs are comparatively unimportant (Baldwin et al., 2018;Pfitzner et al., 2018). ...
... Men with children often report having entered fatherhood lacking critical insights into their partner's and children's needs and into the extent of psychological upheaval that the new role would entail (Darwin et al., 2017;Baldwin et al., 2018). They also report limited acknowledgement and a lack of support from clinical and community support services (Baldwin et al., 2018(Baldwin et al., , 2019 often being told that, in the postpartum period, their needs are comparatively unimportant (Baldwin et al., 2018;Pfitzner et al., 2018). This results in men's minimisation of symptoms and diversion of attention away from their own psychological vulnerability (Darwin et al., 2017;Burgess and Goldman, 2018). ...
Article
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Background: When adolescent boys experience close, secure relationships with their parents and peers, the implications are potentially far reaching, including lower levels of mental health problems in adolescence and young adulthood. Here we use rare prospective intergenerational data to extend our understanding of the impact of adolescent attachments on subsequent postpartum mental health problems in early fatherhood. Methods: At age 17–18 years, we used an abbreviated Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment to assess trust, communication, and alienation reported by 270 male participants in their relationships with mothers, fathers, and peers. More than a decade later, we assessed the adult males, now fathers, at 12 months postpartum ( N = 409 infant offspring) for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Logistic regression was used to examine the extent to which attachment dimensions predicted paternal postpartum mental health, adjusting for potential confounding, and with assessment for interactions between parent and peer attachments. Results: Trust in mothers and peers, and good communication with fathers during adolescence, were associated with 5 to 7 percentage point reductions in postpartum mental health symptoms in early fatherhood. Weak evidence of parent-peer interactions suggested secure attachments with either parent or peer may compensate for an insecure attachment with the other. Conclusions: Our results suggest that fostering trust and communication in relationships that adolescent boys have with parents and peers may have substantial effects on rates of paternal postpartum mental health problems. The protective benefits may be preventative in intergenerational cycles of risk for mental health problems.
... Use of different mental health assessment scales could provide a more comprehensive picture of first-time fathers' mental health and wellbeing. Our previous studies explored how becoming a father could negatively impact on men's mental health and wellbeing [54,55]. Our systematic review reported on studies where fathers experienced increased levels of tiredness due to lack of sleep, often resulting in increased stress, frustration and anger in the postnatal period [54,[56][57][58][59][60]. ...
... Our previous studies explored how becoming a father could negatively impact on men's mental health and wellbeing [54,55]. Our systematic review reported on studies where fathers experienced increased levels of tiredness due to lack of sleep, often resulting in increased stress, frustration and anger in the postnatal period [54,[56][57][58][59][60]. These factors could explain the deterioration in general health, low levels of mental wellbeing, and the increased rate of depression and anxiety reported in the postnatal period by men in the current study. ...
... The CSI results suggested a decline in couple relationships in the postnatal period, which could have been triggered by depression or conversely trigger symptoms of depression in parents [61], these findings also reflecting our systematic review [54]. Some men perceived that the social support they received from their 'significant other' was lower in the postnatal period, compared to the antenatal period which could reflect the deterioration in couple relationship following the birth. ...
Article
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Background Many health visiting services in England use the Promotional Guide system with mothers and fathers, an intervention to support their transition to parenthood, but there is little known about its use and effectiveness, especially with fathers. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of the Promotional Guide system with first-time fathers and pilot potential outcome measures to assess their mental health and wellbeing. Methods A mixed methods prospective observational cohort study. Expectant first-time fathers were recruited from four London (UK) local authority boroughs. Data were collected through online pre and post intervention questionnaires, and semi-structured telephone interviews. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analysed using framework analysis. Results Eighty-six fathers were interested in participating; 7 did not meet inclusion criteria and 79 were invited to complete the baseline questionnaire. Questionnaires completed by 45 men at both timepoints were included in the final analysis. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all outcomes, showing a slight deterioration in the scores across all measures in the postnatal period compared to the antenatal. Ten of these men were also interviewed. Six major categories were identified: 1) Experience of health visitor contact, 2) Experience of Promotional Guides, 3) Experience of perinatal health services, 4) Experience of fatherhood, 5) Fathers’ mental health and wellbeing, and 6) Experience of the research process. While antenatal and postnatal outcomes were collected from 45 first-time fathers, none had received the intervention in its entirety. This study identified major gaps in the implementation of the Promotional Guide system with fathers. Conclusion This study assessed recruitment of first-time fathers, time to complete recruitment, and retention rates and identified outcome measures that could be used in a future definitive study. While it wasn’t possible to examine the potential changes following the use of the Promotional Guide system, the study reported on the changes in the fathers’ ‘states’ in the antenatal and postnatal period. It provided a narrative on whether first-time fathers found it acceptable to be asked about their mental health and wellbeing, highlighted their specific needs during their transition to fatherhood, and how they wanted to be supported. It also identified barriers to implementation of the Promotional Guide system by health visitors, which need to be addressed prior to any future research into this intervention. These findings have a number of implications for researchers, health professionals, health service managers, commissioners, policy makers and parents.
... During pregnancy and postpartum, women experience physiological changes in terms of hormones, body weight and fat disposition and cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal functions [5][6][7]. This period is likewise challenging in several psychological (e.g., increased stress, emotional disturbance, worries and feelings of uncertainties) and behavioral ways, including changes in sleep, physical activity and eating behavior [1,[8][9][10][11]. Even though mothers are more vulnerable to experience these changes, for expecting and first-time fathers this too has been described as a stressful transition period in which they experience some levels of mental, physical and lifestyle changes [2,[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. ...
... This period is likewise challenging in several psychological (e.g., increased stress, emotional disturbance, worries and feelings of uncertainties) and behavioral ways, including changes in sleep, physical activity and eating behavior [1,[8][9][10][11]. Even though mothers are more vulnerable to experience these changes, for expecting and first-time fathers this too has been described as a stressful transition period in which they experience some levels of mental, physical and lifestyle changes [2,[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. For women, these challenges may result in excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy and a postpartum body weight often not returning to pre-pregnancy levels [13,14]. ...
... Quotes from people who participated in the first set of focus groups were identified as 'pregnant women x' or 'expecting father x', even though some already delivered at the moment of the focus group discussion. Quotes from people who participated in the second set of focus groups were identified as 'first-time mother x' or 'first-time father x' [1,5,8,9]. Already during the preconception phase, women experience challenges such as stress and anxiety concerning the upcoming pregnancy impacting their health related attitudes [48]. The present study shows that these aspects seem to sustain during pregnancy. ...
Article
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Background During the pregnancy and postpartum period, both women and men experience physiological and psychological changes, which may negatively impact their eating behavior. A clear understanding of determinants of changes in eating behavior during this period is needed to facilitate the development of targeted family-based interventions countering unfavorable dietary changes during this critical life period. Methods Thirteen focus group discussions targeting determinants of changes in eating behavior during pregnancy and postpartum were conducted, involving a total of 74 expecting and first-time parents. A semi-structured question guide was used to facilitate the discussions. An inductive thematic approach was used to derive main and sub-categories of determinants from the data. The Determinants of Nutrition and Eating (DONE)-framework was employed to systematically organize and label the categories and determinants. Results Two frameworks were developed; one for the pregnancy and one for the postpartum period, comprising determinants of changes in eating behavior in both women and men. Three main levels of determinants were identified: (1) the individual level, including psychological (e.g., ‘health consciousness’), situational (e.g., ‘effort and convenience’) and biological (e.g., ‘discomfort’); (2) the interpersonal level (e.g., ‘social influence’) and (3) the environmental level, including micro- and meso/macro (e.g., ‘home/environment food availability’). Determinants acting as barriers (e.g., ‘time constraints’) or facilitators (e.g., ‘being a role model’) were identified. Many determinants were mentioned during both (e.g., ‘food knowledge’) or just one investigated period (e.g., ‘physiological changes’ during pregnancy, ‘influence of the baby’ postpartum). Finally, some were described by both parents (e.g., ‘self-regulation’), whereas others were mentioned by women (e.g., ‘(perceived) food safety’) or men (e.g., ‘other priorities’) only. Conclusion The developed frameworks set the foundation for the development of future family-based interventions and may be used already by healthcare providers to provide dietary guidance and support for women and men transitioning into parenthood. A focus on the interplay of individual factors at the biological and psychological level together with situational difficulties during pregnancy is recommended. Postpartum, focus should go to support first-time parents to obtain balance of both maintaining one’s own health and taking care of the baby, on improving self-regulation skills, and on coping with related situational constraints.
... This requires a shift in training and practice for healthcare professionals, where historically the main focus for breastfeeding promotion and support may have only been on the mother rather than also including the father. This article discusses the benefits of breastfeeding and presents findings from the UK based New Dad Study (Baldwin et al., 2018; to highlight the crucial role that fathers play in promoting and supporting breastfeeding, and recommends ways in which health professionals can provide breastfeeding information and support to fathers/partners. ...
... Despite this, fathers continue to report inadequate levels of information and support from health professionals regarding breastfeeding. Fathers' needs relating to breastfeeding knowledge and support were identified in the recent New Dad Study (NEST) carried out in the UK (Baldwin et al., 2018;. This was a three-part study incorporating a systematic review, a qualitative study, and a mixed-method study, aimed at exploring the mental health needs of first-time fathers. ...
... The systematic review included 22 studies from eight countries (Australia = 3, Canada = 2, Japan = 1, Singapore = 1, Sweden = 3, Taiwan = 1, UK = 9, USA = 2), published between 1990 and 2017 found wide disparities between men's expectations and the reality of their partner's breastfeeding experiences (Baldwin et al., 2018). New fathers found breastfeeding a more difficult experience than anticipated, it was associated with increased anxiety and they felt totally unprepared to be able to support their partner to breastfeed successfully, as reflected in the following quotes from study participants: ...
Article
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Breastfeeding has numerous health benefits for the mother and child. For breastfeeding to be successful and continue for longer, women need adequate support. Fathers/partners play an important role in providing this support to women, but research suggests that fathers/partners often feel inadequately informed and supported by health professionals. Midwives and health visitors are in ideal positions to offer women and their partner’s timely and relevant breastfeeding information and support throughout the perinatal period. This article discusses the benefits of breastfeeding, presents research evidence of the crucial role fathers/partners play in promoting and supporting breastfeeding, and recommends ways in which health professionals can provide breastfeeding information and support to fathers/partners.
... Our previous studies explored how becoming a father could negatively impact on men's mental health and wellbeing. 44,45 Our systematic review reported on studies where fathers experienced increased levels of tiredness due to lack of sleep, often resulting in increased stress, frustration and anger in the postnatal period. 44,47,48,49,50 These factors could explain the deterioration in general health, low levels of mental wellbeing, and the increased rate of depression and anxiety reported in the postnatal period by men in the current study. ...
... 44,45 Our systematic review reported on studies where fathers experienced increased levels of tiredness due to lack of sleep, often resulting in increased stress, frustration and anger in the postnatal period. 44,47,48,49,50 These factors could explain the deterioration in general health, low levels of mental wellbeing, and the increased rate of depression and anxiety reported in the postnatal period by men in the current study. ...
... The CSI results suggested a decline in couple relationships in the postnatal period, which could have been triggered by depression or conversely trigger symptoms of depression in parents, 51 these ndings also re ect our systematic review. 44 Some men perceived that the social support they received from their 'signi cant other' was lower in the postnatal period, compared to the antenatal period which could re ect the deterioration in couple relationship following the birth. At the same time, some men perceived the support they received from friends increased postnatally, which could be due to support received from other new fathers or simply due to increased interaction with friends following the birth of the baby. ...
Preprint
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Background: Many health visiting services in England use the Promotional Guide system with mothers and fathers, an intervention to support their transition to parenthood, but there is little known about its use and effectiveness, especially with fathers. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of the Promotional Guide system with first-time fathers and pilot potential outcome measures to assess their mental health and wellbeing. Methods: A mixed methods prospective observational cohort study. Expectant first-time fathers were recruited from four London (UK) local authority boroughs. Data were collected through online pre and post intervention questionnaires, and semi-structured telephone interviews. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analysed using framework analysis. Results: Eighty-six fathers were interested in participating; 7 men did not meet inclusion criteria and 79 were invited to complete the baseline questionnaire. Questionnaires completed by 45 men at both timepoints were included in the final analysis. Ten of these men were also interviewed. Six major categories were identified: 1) Experience of health visitor contact, 2) Experience of Promotional Guides, 3) Experience of perinatal health services, 4) Experience of fatherhood, 5) Fathers’ mental health and wellbeing, and 6) Experience of the research process. While antenatal and postnatal outcomes were collected from 45 first-time fathers, none had received the intervention in its entirety. This study identified major gaps in the implementation of the Promotional Guide system with fathers. Conclusion: This study highlighted first-time fathers’ mental health and wellbeing needs during their transition to fatherhood, and how they wanted to be supported. It also identified barriers to implementation of the Promotional Guide system by health visitors, which need to be addressed prior to any future research into this intervention. These findings have a number of implications for researchers, health professionals, health service managers, commissioners, policy makers and parents.
... However, in accordance with the focus on women and babies required for their role ( International Confederation of Midwives, 2017a ) and with studies among midwives ( Rominov et al., 2017 ) and child and family health professionals ( Piotrowska et al., 2017 ;Tully et al., 2018 ;Dadds et al., 2018 ), interview participants revealed a lack of training, knowledge and confidence about responding to fathers with specific mental health concerns and providing referral options. It is perhaps not surprising that fathers commonly report that they do not feel valued and included when they attend services with their partners and infants ( McKellar et al., 2006 ;Plantin et al., 2011 ;Fletcher et al., 2014 ;Jeffery et al., 2015 ;Baldwin et al., 2018 ). The WHO states that health professionals should be prepared to work with men as well as with women in pregnancy and early childhood ( World Health Organisation, 2010 ), but acknowledges that health professionals may need specific interpersonal skills to work with men. ...
... Thus, they have an opportunity to engage with fathers during this important life stage. Despite this, the perspectives of midwives on the engagement of fathers is under-reported ( Rominov et al., 2017 Baldwin et al., 2018 ) or other family and child health professionals ( Piotrowska et al., 2017 ;Tully et al., 2018 ;Dadds et al., 2018 ). The midwives in our study work in complex circumstances, providing care within socio-economically disadvantaged and culturally diverse communities, in a health service that does not currently offer group antenatal education. ...
Article
Objective Engagement of fathers to participate in pregnancy, birth and early postnatal care has significant advantages for women and infants as well as fathers. In Australia, guidelines for midwifery practice do not include specific recommendations about father-inclusive care, and models for publicly funded maternity care do not extend to the provision of care tailored specifically towards the needs of fathers. This study investigated the perceptions of midwives regarding their role in fathers’ wellbeing, the extent of fathers’ attendance at and participation in their services, advantages and disadvantages of father participation and barriers and enablers to father engagement. Design Convergent mixed methods, cross-sectional. Setting A large metropolitan public maternity hospital that provides care to some of the most socio-economically disadvantaged suburbs and multi-cultural communities in Melbourne, Australia. Participants All midwives employed at the hospital (n=196) were invited to participate. Methods Anonymous online survey and semi-structured interviews. Descriptive statistics were calculated for quantitative survey responses. Interview data and qualitative survey responses were analysed thematically. Findings Forty midwives working in all areas of maternity services across the hospital completed surveys, and six participated in interviews. The data illustrate the dilemma faced by midwives in their specific role of supporting women and babies. On the one hand, participants indicated that fathers’ wellbeing should be part of their role and named many advantages of father participation in maternity services, including support and advocacy for mothers and bonding with infants. Participants estimated that most fathers attend births and visit their partner and infant on the postnatal ward, 52% attend antenatal appointments and 76% are present at postnatal home visits. Participants reported several midwife strategies and health service factors which facilitate father attendance and active engagement. On the other hand, they reported several barriers to father engagement, including antenatal appointment schedules which were at odds with fathers’ work commitments and the lack of on-site group antenatal education. Some of the barriers they reported are specific to the vulnerable communities for which they provide maternity care. Extraordinary circumstances were reported, including fathers working overseas, fathers in prison, and new immigrant status that is often accompanied by a lack of family support to care for other children even during labour and birth, and poor socio-economic status. In addition, in many cultures, pregnancy and birth are seen as “women's work”; fathers would not traditionally be involved. Participants also reported that midwives lack training and confidence in engaging fathers, particularly in responding to fathers with mental health concerns. When providing care for families at risk of family violence, father attendance was perceived a significant disadvantage. Key conclusions Midwife-provided health services represent a significant opportunity to include and address fathers, and midwives recognise the significant advantages of engaging fathers, unless there is a risk of family violence. However, midwives currently report lack of training and confidence in addressing fathers’ needs, and several individual, social, cultural, and health service factors can present barriers to engaging fathers. Implications for Practice Given the substantial benefits of engaging fathers for women and infants, we argue that maternity services should promote father engagement, for example by offering after hours appointment schedules, free antenatal and parenting education, and workshops to upskill midwifery staff. Education regarding the importance of father participation and skills for working with fathers should be included in the undergraduate preparation of midwives and other key maternity care professionals. Addressing the challenges of providing care to a multicultural community requires sensitive discussion with families from each of those cultures.
... La evidencia señala que los padres tienden a sentirse menos seguros y menos competentes en su rol de padres (Baldwin et al., 2018) e incluso se estima que uno de cada diez padres sufre depresión posparto (Goodman, 2004;Shorey et al., 2017). Ejemplo de ello son los resultados de una revisión de estudios cualitativos, la cual encontró que la salud mental de los nuevos padres se ve afectada por la formación de la identidad como padre, los desafíos de la nueva etapa como el balance trabajo-familia, temores y sentimientos negativos, y la carga que supone cumplir con los rígidos mandatos de la masculinidad hegemónica en relación a la provisión económica. ...
... Ejemplo de ello son los resultados de una revisión de estudios cualitativos, la cual encontró que la salud mental de los nuevos padres se ve afectada por la formación de la identidad como padre, los desafíos de la nueva etapa como el balance trabajo-familia, temores y sentimientos negativos, y la carga que supone cumplir con los rígidos mandatos de la masculinidad hegemónica en relación a la provisión económica. Asimismo, los padres suelen experimentar estrés y no sentirse apoyados por los prestadores de salud (Baldwin et al., 2018). Por ello, es relevante preparar a los padres para el parto de sus hijos e hijas, y sobre asuntos relacionados a la paternidad, que les permitan enfrentar de mejor modo los desafíos de esta etapa. ...
Technical Report
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Este documento es parte del Programa Regional Spotlight para América Latina. La investigación permitió identificar y sistematizar iniciativas en la región sobre paternidad activa y corresponsabilidad en el trabajo de cuidados. Equipo de redacción: Francisco Aguayo Douglas Mendoza Sebastián Bravo. Equipo UNFPA LACRO: Alejandra Alzérreca, Especialista en VBG Neus Bernabeu, Asesora en género y juventud. Revisión: Eduardo Kimelman Valentina Lastra José Roberto Luna Metzi Rosales Martel Allán Sánchez Osorio Diseño y diagramación: Pick-Nic Laboratorio Creativo SAC Lima, Perú Ilustración de portada:Pick-Nic Laboratorio Creativo SAC Lima, Perú Publicación de la Iniciativa Spotlight Copyright © Iniciativa Spotlight, 2021 https://serviciosesencialesviolencia.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/PaternidadActiva.pdf
... However, most previous studies have only focused on the period of childbirth to evaluate the information given to fathers, always linking information and support from professionals. Indeed, most of these studies have found that fathers reported a lack of information and support during childbirth, making them feel excluded from health services (for a systematic review, see Baldwin et al., 2018 ). Thus, our article establishes important results regarding the information available during this specific period and emphasises an important difference between information during the prenatal period and support from professionals during childbirth. ...
... One of the fathers' needs during childbirth is to be supported ( Poh et al., 2014 ). However, literature shows that fathers feel excluded and unsupported by the healthcare system ( Baldwin et al., 2018 ;Deave & Johnson, 2008 ;Poh et al., 2014 ;Vallin et al., 2019 ;Widarsson et al., 2012 ). These results are in congruence with our findings. ...
Article
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Objectives The purposes of this study are to report first-time fathers’ experiences of childbirth through three dimensions (professional support, worries and prenatal preparation) and to analyse the influence of sociodemographic, antenatal and obstetrical factors on the three dimensions. Setting Participants were recruited in France and Switzerland from two university hospitals that routinely manage high-risk pregnancies (level 3 – perinatal care level), with 4,000 to 5,000 annual births each. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study. The data initially were collected for the cross-cultural validation of the First-Time Father Questionnaire (FTFQ) into French. Descriptive statistics were used to report the participants’ characteristics and their questionnaire responses. Multivariate linear regression analysis was carried out to stress the positive or negative factors linked with fathers’ experiences of childbirth. Findings Among 350 first-time fathers, 160 completed the FTFQ (response rate of 45.7%). The average age of the participants was 33 years old. We observed 12 questionnaire items with more than 20% unfavourable responses, seven of which involved the measurement of the worry dimension. Antenatal education and the prenatal-preparation dimension were positive factors linked with fathers’ experiences. In addition, 57% of participants reported using one means of antenatal education, and 45% accessed information from family or friends. Conclusions and implications for practice The results suggest that first-time fathers need more professional support to foster positive experiences of childbirth. Their experiences of childbirth are associated with considerable worry. Antenatal classes specifically for fathers could reduce this worry and support the fatherhood process. Research should be carried out on these topics.
... High levels of fear are likely to have an impact on expectant fathers' own emotional health and their experience of childbirth. When expectant fathers experience FOB, it may also negatively influence their ability to be emotionally and physically supportive and 'available' to their partner 2,11,12 . Previous research suggests that the quality of fear-reducing support to expectant fathers may influence how they cope with their transition into fatherhood 13 . ...
... In the current study, fathers went through a transition where childbirth fear was prominent in their everyday life during pregnancy, but less so after the birth of their baby. As previously described, fear of danger in relation to childbirth are explained by fathers as the risk for childbirth complications, labor pain, if an emergency caesarean delivery is required, and death related to the baby and/or their partner 3,11,12 . If fathers are prepared in advance about childbirth risks, especially via receiving professional support, it may reduce their levels of fear and sense of helplessness 21 . ...
Article
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Introduction: Childbirth is a life-changing event where fathers desire being involved. As fathers take a more active role, fear of childbirth can arise. The aim of this study was to explore fathers’ experiences of childbirth fear during pregnancy and after the birth of their baby. Methods: This was a qualitative longitudinal prospective study that included 14 interviews with seven fathers, one during the prenatal period, and one follow-up interview after childbirth. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis according to Braun and Clark. Results: The main theme ‘Being vulnerable during the transition to fatherhood’ was based on the perception of childbirth as risky with threats toward the woman’s and baby’s health, not being able to give and receive enough support, unable to handle the unknown process of birth, and not being a good father. Helpfulstrategies for coping with fear were to talk about fear, to learn more about childbirth and techniques on how to handle fear, and to avoid dealing with fear. Fathers’ fear of childbirth changed after the birth of their baby. Their thoughts of another childbirth did not evoke the same strong feelings of fear. Issues important for the reduction of childbirth fear were: receiving professional support, actively taking part in the childbirth process, and the partner having an uncomplicated birth. Conclusions: Fathers with childbirth fear regarded childbirth as risky, but they expressed helpful coping strategies. After the birth of their baby, they became less fearful. Quality of fear-reducing support to expectant fathers may influence how they cope with their transition into fatherhood.
... On the other hand, men still frequently function as the breadwinner of the family. Therefore, one could also speculate whether fathers feel less familiar with childcare and family issues, are more overwhelmed by their dual role, and thus perceive a greater lack of support after childbirth than mothers (22). Taken together, it is both plausible to assume that fathers experience a smaller or larger decrease of perceived social support after childbirth than mothers. ...
... Compared to women, men still function more frequently as the breadwinner of the family. Therefore, they might on average feel less familiar with childcare and family issues and tend to be overwhelmed more by their dual role (22). Taken together, these potential reasons might explain why father experienced lower overall levels of perceived social support compared to mothers. ...
Article
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Objective The aim of this study was to examine changes in perceived social support from early pregnancy to 2 years postpartum and to test whether these changes (a) differ between mothers and fathers or (b) vary as a function of the Big Five personality traits.Background Higher peripartum social support in (expectant) mothers and fathers has been associated with fewer complications during pregnancy and delivery as well as better parental and offspring health.Methods Prospective-longitudinal data from two regional-epidemiological samples from Germany were used: MARI (N = 396, including n = 293 mothers and n = 103 fathers) and DREAM (N = 2,819, including n = 1,689 mothers and n = 1,130 fathers). The Big Five personality traits were assessed during pregnancy in MARI as well as 8 weeks after the anticipated birth date in DREAM with short forms of the Big Five Inventory. Perceived social support was assessed during pregnancy, 4 months postpartum, and 16 months postpartum in MARI as well as during pregnancy, 14 months postpartum, and 2 years postpartum in DREAM using the short version of the Social Support Questionnaire.ResultsMultilevel analyses revealed that perceived social support decreased across the peripartum period, and this decrease did not differ between mothers and fathers. More extraverted, emotionally stable, agreeable, conscientious, and open parents perceived higher levels of social support across the peripartum period. The peripartum decrease of perceived social support was smaller in parents who were more extraverted.Conclusion Our findings suggest that especially extraversion plays an important role for high and stable levels of perceived social support across the peripartum period.ImplicationsParticularly highly introverted parents might profit from targeted social support interventions.
... Women experience far-reaching (psycho-)physiological alterations during pregnancy and after delivery, and both women and men need to prepare for and adjust to their new family situation and parental role before and after the birth of a child (Asselmann and Specht, 2021;Doss and Rhoades, 2017). Being a parent often means joy and fulfillment but also more stress (e.g., less independency, a lack of sleep, and spare time) (Asselmann et al., 2020b;Baldwin et al., 2018;Richter et al., 2019) as well as changes in the partnership (Asselmann et al., 2016;van Scheppingen et al., 2018), sexuality (Asselmann et al., 2016), and social network (Asselmann et al., 2016). These changes may last for several years and impact parents' physical and mental health. ...
... In men, the peripartum period has also been associated with pronounced psychological problems, including partnership problems (Knappe et al., 2021), sleep problems , stress (Baldwin et al., 2018), fatigue (Wynter et al., 2020), depression (Cameron et al., 2016;Garfield et al., 2014;Garthus-Niegel et al., 2020;Rao et al., 2020), anxiety (Leiferman et al., 2021), and post-traumatic stress symptoms after the birth (Kress et al., 2021;Schobinger et al., 2020). For example, one study in young fathers found that depressive symptoms decreased slightly during pregnancy but increased substantially during the first five years after childbirth (Garfield et al., 2014). ...
Article
Background : The transition to parenthood is characterized by far-reaching changes in life. However, little prospective-longitudinal evidence from general population samples exists on changes of general physical and mental health in the years around the birth of a child among mothers and fathers. Methods : Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), this study examined continuous and discontinuous short- and long-term changes of general physical and mental health from five years before until five years after the birth of the first child in women (N = 1,912) and men (N = 1,742). Whether a child was born was assessed annually throughout the study. Physical and mental health was assessed biannually from 2002 to 2018 with the SF-12v2. Results : Multilevel analyses revealed that women experienced a considerable decrease of physical health during pregnancy, which remitted after delivery. On average, women's mental health increased in the last year before and first year after delivery. These mental health improvements were stronger in older vs. younger mothers and remained largely stable in the years after childbirth. In contrast, little evidence for changes of general physical or mental health in (expectant) fathers was found. Limitations : Physical and mental health was assessed with a short questionnaire only (SF-12v2). Conclusions : On average, women's mental health tends to improve before and after the birth of the first child. Men seem to be much less affected by the birth of a child than many previous studies suggest.
... However, the literature review of Mogos et al. neither reports a systematic search strategy, includes psychometric evaluations of generic instruments for this specific population, nor distinguishes between QoL instruments specific for the pregnant/postpartum period and instruments specific for maternal populations or female conditions. Furthermore, most literature reviews on QoL in the pregnant and postpartum period focus on the maternal population only [11,12,[19][20][21][22]. Health care research on men's transition to fatherhood [23][24][25][26][27][28][29] shows that this period affects their mental health and emotional wellbeing, the need for support and the fatherhood identity. These results support the need to include the paternal aspects of QoL during this period of life, and in turn, instruments that are validated and reliable in both fathers as well as mothers. ...
... Consequently, evidence on appropriate and useful QoL instruments for fathers in the pregnant and postpartum period is nearly non-existent to researchers. During the pregnancy and postpartum period, fathers experience health challenges relevant for their QoL status [23,29]. To gain useful and believable knowledge on fathers' QoL in this crucial period of life, we need to use validated instruments that are appropriate to this target group [5]. ...
Article
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Purpose To identify instruments used to measure parents’ Quality of Life (QoL) during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and to describe their characteristics and psychometric properties. Methods For this scoping review we conducted systematic literature searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and HaPI in mid-December 2020, to identify studies evaluating psychometric properties. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) were used to define and categorize psychometric properties. Two reviewers screened the studies independently, and customized screening questions were used to assess eligibility against inclusion criteria. Data were systematically extracted into a predesigned data charting matrix, and descriptively analyzed. Results The searches identified 5671 studies, of which 53 studies met the inclusion criteria. In total, there were 19 QoL instruments: 12 generic and seven period specific. The most reported instruments were SF-36, SF-12 and WHOQOL-BREF, and the most evaluated instruments were SF-12, WHOQOL-BREF, QOL-GRAV, and PQOL. We found that none of the identified instruments had been evaluated for all nine psychometric properties recommended by the COSMIN. The most reported psychometric properties were internal consistency and structural validity. The instruments were primarily assessed in parents residing in Asia (50%), and 83% of the studies were conducted from 2010 to 2020. Only three studies included psychometric measures assessed on fathers. Conclusion Our review shows there is extensive evidence on the internal consistency and structural validity of QoL instruments used on parents during pregnancy and the postpartum period, but that the evidence on other psychometric properties is sparse. Validation studies and primary studies are needed to provide evidence on the reliability, validity, responsiveness, and interpretability of QoL instruments for this target group, in particular for fathers and partners.
... (Sellmaier, 2019;Woodgate et al., 2015). Child-related concerns of parents of CYSHCN span environmental, behavioral/cognitive domains and may be accompanied by feelings of exhaustion, stress, sleeplessness, anxiety, and depression (Bailey-Pearce et al., 2018;Baldwin et al., 2018;Chung et al., 2012;Hatzmann et al., 2008;Heaman, 1995;Kerstis et al., 2018;Kuo et al., 2011;Smith & Grzywacz, 2014). Children with medical complexity (CMC) represent a medically fragile subset of CYSHCN (1%) characterized by: health care service need (therapy, educational, medical), one/more chronic condition, functional limitation in bodily structure/performance of activities, and increased health care utilization. . ...
... mentoring, planned social experiences) possibly facilitating camaraderie among male caregivers of CYSHCN (Ainbinder et al., 1998;Feudtner, 2002;Kerstis et al., 2018;Kobylianskii et al., 2018;Nicholas et al., 2016;Solomon et al., 2001). Programs should consider potential barriers such as possible caregiver adherence to a 'strong man' identity, possibly mediating his openness to receiving emotional support from others (Baldwin et al., 2018;Tully et al., 2017). Our results suggest programs focused on problem-solving, developing strategies to maintain perceived self-control (process-driven thinking), and focus on analyzing immediate problems could be useful design considerations. ...
Article
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Objectives The caregiving experiences and unique health needs of male caregivers of children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN) are not well described. This study seeks to understand potential unmet health needs and attitudes toward supportive resources from the perspective of a sample of male caregivers of CYSHCN. Methods This mixed-methods study recruited a convenience sample of 30 men with CYSHCN who receive care for a chronic medical condition from primary care medical homes in Pennsylvania. We conducted semi-structured interviews (SSI), administered quantitative surveys to caregivers, and produced a thematic analysis. The SSI explored the health needs of male caregivers, assessed attitudes toward and preferences regarding supportive resources, and garnered their advice to other caregivers regarding parenting and health care system navigation. Results Participants’ median age is 41 years (IQR: 33, 44), and most (80%) reside full time with their CYSHCN. Most male caregivers deprioritized their own emotional, mental, and physical health needs to support the needs of their families. Many male caregivers articulated interest in seeking emotionally supportive resources (not time-intensive). They advised other male caregivers to remain involved in the medical care and wellbeing of their CYSCHN and to openly seek and receive emotional support despite the daily challenges they face. Conclusions for Practice Male caregivers of CYSHCN experience intense daily stress and express the need for emotionally supportive resources. Programs designed to facilitate such support may benefit from flexible formats (time and location) and involve male caregivers of CYSHCN as both facilitators and participants.
... It has been demonstrated that becoming a father for the first time is associated with finding new fatherhood identity and its associated challenges, which can lead to negative feelings, fears, and increased levels of stress. 39 These challenges have already been overcome in fathers who had other dependent children, thus increasing their level of knowledge and confidence. Interestingly, beliefs of fathers of foreign nationality were ranked higher than those of Swiss fathers. ...
Article
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Background Transition to parenthood is a wonderful yet stressful period especially when it involves the newborn's hospitalisation. To support and facilitate this transition, it is essential to understand parental beliefs and needs. The father's perspective remains an understudied yet fundamental question. Objectives The objective of the study was to measure beliefs and needs of fathers of newborns hospitalised in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and their correlations with sociodemographic variables. Methods Fathers with a newborn hospitalised for 4–15 days in a level III NICU in Western Switzerland completed the NICU Parental Beliefs Scale and the short form of the NICU Family Needs Inventory. For each item of the NICU Family Needs Inventory, fathers also answered with regard to their satisfaction level. Additional needs were collected with an added open-ended question. Simple linear regressions were used to correlate beliefs, needs, and the sociodemographic data. Results Seventy fathers were included. The average score for paternal beliefs was 68.44 (standard deviation = 10.29), indicating a good perception of their role. The majority (77%) considered all needs as very important or important, and 70% were very satisfied or satisfied. Fathers described communication as a very important, but unmet, need. Fathers' beliefs were higher in those who were not first-time fathers (71.88 ± 8.27 vs 66.06 ± 10.97, p = 0.028), who had a paternity leave (72.68 ± 10.19 vs 66.05 ± 9.68, p = 0.014), and who were of foreign nationality (71.86 ± 9.39 vs 63.85 ± 9.80, p = 0.002). Conclusions Fathers with a newborn hospitalised in the neonatal unit had good paternal beliefs. Most of the listed needs were perceived as very important and had a good level of satisfaction. Significant differences between Swiss fathers and fathers of foreign nationality were measured. Reasons of these differences should be explored in a forthcoming study.
... Despite important policy changes before the pandemic recognising the needs of fathers and the importance of improving paternal support (Baldwin, 2020), restrictions to services during the pandemic have left many fathers and families without psychosocial support (Menzies, 2021;Recto & Lesser, 2021). Men are also at elevated risk of mental health difficulties during the transition to parenthood (Giallo et al., 2012;Leach, Poyser, Cooklin, & Giallo, 2016), and these have also been shown to negatively impact children's development (Baldwin, Malone, Sandall, & Bick, 2018;Ramchandani et al., 2008). One study involving young Hispanic fathers in the United States during the pandemic reported that fathers had significant worries about societal expectations to provide for their family, as well as concerns related to job insecurity and future provisions for their family (Recto & Lesser, 2021). ...
Preprint
Young parents (aged 16-24 years) in the perinatal period may be at an increased risk of poor mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, due to multiple risk factors, including social and economic instability. COVID-19 related restrictions had significant implications for the delivery of some perinatal care services and other support structures for young parents. Investigating young parents’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, including their perceived challenges and needs, is important to inform good practice and provide appropriate support for young parents.Qualitative interviews were conducted with young parents (n=21) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom from February – May 2021. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.Three key themes were identified to describe parents’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents reported specific COVID-19 related anxieties and stressors, including worries around contracting the virus and increased feelings of distress due to uncertainty created by the implications of the pandemic. Parents described feeling alone both at home and during antenatal appointments and highlighted the absence of social support as a major area of concern. Also, parents felt their perinatal care had been disrupted by the pandemic and experienced difficulties accessing care online or over the phone.This study highlights the potential impact of COVID-19 on young parents, including on their mental wellbeing and the perinatal support they were able to access during the pandemic. Insights from this study could inform the support and services offered to families during future pandemics. Specifically, the findings underlie the importance of (a) supporting both parents during perinatal appointments, (b) providing parents with early mental health support and (c) finding ways to facilitate communication pathways between professionals and parents.
... Une recension systématique des écrits serait une option appropriée pour combler cette lacune, mais cela constitue en soi le travail d'une autre publication. L'expérience des pères lors de la transition à la paternité Cet axe est de loin celui qui regroupe le plus d'études intégratives (k = 14/22) (Baldwin et al., 2018;Cameron et al., 2016;Gentile & Fusco, 2017;191 Les Cahiers du CEIDEF -volume 8 -septembre 2021 Genesoni & Tallandini;Jazayerinezhad et al., 2018;Genmayel et al., 2018;Leach et al., 2016;Pérez et al., 2017;Philpott et al., 2017;Philpott et al., 2019;Sisson et al., 2015;Sweeney & MacBeth, 2016;Shorey & Ang, 2019). Ainsi, la période périnatale semble être conçue comme un moment particulier de vulnérabilité dans l'expérience vécue par les pères. ...
Chapter
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Inspiré de l’expérience du Programme d’aide personnelle, familiale et communautaire (PAPFC2 : Lacharité, 2014) et de l’initiative AIDES (Chamberland et al., 2012) au Québec, le Laboratoire de recherche et d’intervention en éducation familiale (LabRIEF) de l’Université de Padoue met en œuvre, depuis 2011, le Programme d’Intervention Précoce pour Prévenir l’Institutionnalisation (P.I.P.P.I.), grâce au soutien du Ministère italien du travail et des affaires sociales. L’acronyme fait référence à la résilience de Pippi Longstocking1. L’objectif de ce chapitre est de présenter une évaluation des processus et des résultats de l’implantation du programme, axée spécifiquement sur les familles ayant des enfants âgés de 0 à 2 ans qui ont participé à celui-ci. Les questions suivantes seront abordées : quelles sont les conditions de vulnérabilité spécifiques de ces familles? Quels sont les dispositifs du programme planifiés et mis en œuvre avec ces familles? En quoi les processus d’intervention et les résultats obtenus diffèrent-ils selon l’âge des enfants? Y a-t-il des effets différentiels du programme au sein du groupe d’enfants les plus jeunes? L’analyse est descriptive et présente les variables du programme en comparant les données relatives au groupe des enfants âgés de 0 à 2 (groupe 02) ans avec celles relatives au groupe des enfants de 3 à 10 ans (groupe 3-10)2. Après la description du programme et des conditions de vulnérabilité qui caractérisent les situations initiales des enfants, une analyse des processus d’intervention et des résultats obtenus grâce à la méthode d’évaluation et aux dispositifs du programme est proposée. Une analyse des effets différentiels axée sur le groupe 0-2 suit. Les résultats sont discutés afin de mettre en évidence le potentiel et les difficultés de la mise en œuvre d’une action précoce et écosystémique, comme le P.I.P.P.I. vise à promouvoir, en petite enfance dans des familles vulnérables.
... Une recension systématique des écrits serait une option appropriée pour combler cette lacune, mais cela constitue en soi le travail d'une autre publication. L'expérience des pères lors de la transition à la paternité Cet axe est de loin celui qui regroupe le plus d'études intégratives (k = 14/22) (Baldwin et al., 2018;Cameron et al., 2016;Gentile & Fusco, 2017;191 Les Cahiers du CEIDEF -volume 8 -septembre 2021 Genesoni & Tallandini;Jazayerinezhad et al., 2018;Genmayel et al., 2018;Leach et al., 2016;Pérez et al., 2017;Philpott et al., 2017;Philpott et al., 2019;Sisson et al., 2015;Sweeney & MacBeth, 2016;Shorey & Ang, 2019). Ainsi, la période périnatale semble être conçue comme un moment particulier de vulnérabilité dans l'expérience vécue par les pères. ...
... Traditional male lifestyle is associated with risk behaviour (Jenkins, 1998) and men's health might be influenced during the transition to parenthood (Baldwin et al., 2018). The physical and mental well-being of fathers plays a vital role in healthy parenting practices (Mikolajczak et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Fathers' involvement in childcare has been increasing in recent years. However, very little is known about the health impact on fathers when they are caring for or living with a disabled child. This study aims to understand the psychological distress and subjective health outcomes among fathers living with a disabled child compared to fathers living without a disabled child. Data for this study were obtained from the Comprehensive Survey of the Living Conditions conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in 2016. Multivariable logistic regression was used among 438 disabled-child and father dyads and 27,682 non-disabled-child and father dyads to analyse the association between a child's disability status with father's health outcomes. Fathers of disabled children had a higher prevalence of psychological distress (17% vs. 12%) and poor subjective health status (13% vs. 8%) than fathers of non-disabled children. A large proportion of disabled children were boys (70%) and had disability level 1 (47%). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio (OR) of having psychological distress (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.19–1.97) and poor subjective health status (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.34–2.36) among fathers of disabled children is significantly higher compared to fathers of non-disabled children. Unemployed fathers had a higher odds ratio of psychological distress (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.49–3.79) and poor subjective health status (OR, 4.90; 95% CI, 3.95–6.09) compared to regular working fathers. Fathers of children with disabilities need greater physical and mental health and wellbeing support. They should be provided with additional support not just for their mental but also their subjective wellbeing.
... Une recension systématique des écrits serait une option appropriée pour combler cette lacune, mais cela constitue en soi le travail d'une autre publication. L'expérience des pères lors de la transition à la paternité Cet axe est de loin celui qui regroupe le plus d'études intégratives (k = 14/22) (Baldwin et al., 2018;Cameron et al., 2016;Gentile & Fusco, 2017;191 Les Cahiers du CEIDEF -volume 8 -septembre 2021 Genesoni & Tallandini;Jazayerinezhad et al., 2018;Genmayel et al., 2018;Leach et al., 2016;Pérez et al., 2017;Philpott et al., 2017;Philpott et al., 2019;Sisson et al., 2015;Sweeney & MacBeth, 2016;Shorey & Ang, 2019). Ainsi, la période périnatale semble être conçue comme un moment particulier de vulnérabilité dans l'expérience vécue par les pères. ...
Article
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La recherche permet de rendre visible ce que la vie quotidienne nous fait oublier. C’est dans le quotidien qu’on peut apercevoir ces petits détails qui peuvent du jour au lendemain nous faire plonger dans un contexte de vulnérabilité. Une situation familiale qui peut osciller dans ces zones de vulnérabilité est l’adoption, et en ce qui nous concerne plus précisément l’adoption internationale. L’adoption est souvent méconnue du grand public ou encore des intervenants. Pourtant, il y a de nombreux défis au quotidien, beaucoup de besoins, mais peu d’outils ou de ressources. Ce contexte amène les familles à composer avec ce qu’ils ont pour éviter de glisser vers la vulnérabilité. C’est pour cette raison que nous utilisons l’image du bricolage, puisque les familles tentent de se construire avec les matériaux qu’ils ont, ceux qu’ils cherchent, ceux qu’ils créent ainsi que ceux qu’ils leur manquent. C’est là l’extraordinaire dans l’ordinaire. C’est la complexité dans sa plus pure expression.
... Le père, comme la mère, traverse une période riche en remaniements psychiques et identitaires pouvant entraîner de profonds bouleversements sur le plan individuel et au sein du couple [6]. Par ailleurs, les effets de la santé mentale du père sur le développement du bébé [7,8], sur la relation mère-bébé [9] ou sur la relation de couple [10] sont de plus en plus documentés et révèlent l'importance d'un accompagnement précoce adapté aux spécificités paternelles. Il semble dès lors essentiel de repenser l'accueil et l'accompagnement des pères en période périnatale, de prendre en considération les remaniements psychologiques qu'ils vivent en devenant pères, de les informer et de les soutenir en considérant leurs attentes et leurs spécificités. ...
Article
La littérature s’accorde sur l’idée que l’accompagnement du père en période périnatale doit être repensé en fonction de ses attentes et de ses besoins spécifiques. Les enjeux étant considérables au regard du risque de développement de vulnérabilités paternelles et de leurs effets délétères sur le développement de l’enfant, nous proposons dans cette synthèse des pistes de réflexion pour impliquer, informer et soutenir les pères durant cette période. - Literature review reveals that the father’s support during the perinatal period must rethink according to his expectations and specific needs. The stakes being high regarding the risk of developing paternal vulnerabilities and their negative impact on child development, we therefore bring, in this synthesis, ideas and thoughts to involve, inform and support fathers during this period.
... All items reflected positive feelings. Fathers face the dilemma of balancing their work responsibilities with spending time with their children [54]. This factor can screen the perspective of fathers about life with children as they attempt to maintain a balance between work and family. ...
Article
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The mental health of fathers influences the development of children and the functioning of families significantly. However, there is no useful scale for the mental health screening of childrearing fathers. This study developed a Mental Health Scale for Childrearing Fathers (MSCF) and determined its reliability and validity. Childrearing fathers are working fathers who co-parent with their spouses. This survey was conducted in two stages: a pilot study and a main survey. Data were obtained from 98 fathers raising preschoolers in the pilot study and 306 fathers in the main survey. The collected data were used to confirm the construct validity, criterion-related validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency reliability. The final MSCF consisted of 25 items comprising four factors: peaceful familial connection, healthy mind and body, satisfying paternal alliances, and leading a meaningful life as a parent. The internal consistency reliability estimated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the total scale was 0.918. The validity of the MSCF was logically secured using a confirmatory factor analysis. The MSCF can be an effective tool for mental health screening among fathers in relation to the burden of childrearing during regular infant health checks.
... Despite policy changes before the pandemic recognising the needs of fathers and the importance of improving paternal support [19], restrictions to services during the pandemic have left many fathers and families without psychosocial support [20,21]. Men are also at elevated risk of mental health difficulties during the transition to parenthood [22,23], and these have also been shown to negatively impact children's development [24,25]. One study involving young Hispanic fathers in the United States during the pandemic reported that fathers had significant worries about societal expectations to provide for their family, as well as concerns related to job insecurity and future provisions for their family [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Young parents (aged 16–24 years) in the perinatal period are at an increased risk of poor mental health especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, due to multiple risk factors including social and economic instability. COVID-19 related restrictions had profound implications for the delivery of perinatal care services and other support structures for young parents. Investigating young parents’ experiences during the pandemic, including their perceived challenges and needs, is important to inform good practice and provide appropriate support for young parents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with young parents ( n = 21) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom from February – May 2021. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Three key themes were identified to describe parents’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents reported specific COVID-19 related anxieties and stressors, including worries around contracting the virus and increased feelings of distress due to uncertainty created by the implications of the pandemic. Parents described feeling alone both at home and during antenatal appointments and highlighted the absence of social support as a major area of concern. Parents also felt their perinatal care had been disrupted by the pandemic and experienced difficulties accessing care online or over the phone. This study highlights the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on young parents, including their mental wellbeing and the perinatal support they were able to access. Insights from this study can inform the support and services offered to families going forward. Specifically, the findings emphasise the importance of (a) supporting both parents during perinatal appointments, (b) providing parents with mental health support early on and (c) finding ways to facilitate communication pathways between professionals and parents.
... The participants frequently possess delinquent behaviors such as smoking, skipping school for gang wars, and even engaging in multiple affairs with women. The entry into fatherhood gave them a new identity, making them change and recognize their priorities (Baldwin et al., 2018). Further, it encourages them to provide for their children's needs, build social capital, and even desist from crime (Florsheim and Ngu, 2006). ...
Article
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With the increasing number of single-father family households worldwide, there is a need to conduct substantial research to provide sufficient information about this understudied population. This qualitative phenomenological study seeks to describe, explore and interpret the lived experiences of emerging adult single fathers on parenting. It utilized the purposive and snowballing sampling techniques to select the participants. The data were gathered through face-to-face interviews guided by interview protocol. Lichtman's 3 C's of Data Analysis was employed to generate themes extracted from participants' verbatim transcripts. Five themes emerged from their lived experiences: Providing Care and Nurturance, Rearing One's Child Properly, Dealing with Drawbacks in Single Fatherhood, Receiving Relief from Empathic Hands, and Appreciating Blissful Moments in Solitary Parenting. The findings provided insights that a transformation is required to adjust to their current situation and, most significantly, to change for their children's sake. To conclude, single fathers can truly nurture and raise their children with tenderness, warmth, care, and affection like single mothers and dual-household families. Given the limitations of this qualitative research, quantitative research is suggested for further research to create a comprehensive intervention program for mental health professionals to promote single fathers' quality of life
... The transition to fatherhood involves formation of an identity as a parent and navigation of competing challenges to the new father role (Baldwin et al., 2018;Fletcher et al., 2020). Strength of commitment to the father identity varies, and is influenced by contextual factors such as spousal evaluation (Pasley et al., 2002), beliefs related to fathering (Pleck & Masciadrelli, 1997), and pregnancy intention (Lindberg et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Background Becoming a father is a profound change in a man's life that is not always planned or wanted. Little is known about the subjective experiences of men who become fathers unintentionally or reluctantly. The aim of this research was to explore how men who did not intend to have children discuss their feelings about becoming a father in an online, anonymous environment. We sought insights into emotional responses, appraisals of family functioning, and relationships with infants. Method Data were collected from two Reddit forums for new and expectant fathers, r/Daddit and r/Predaddit. Approximately 2600 posts and 21,000 comments were extracted from the period between January 2019 and March 2020. We employed a two-stage methodology, blending big data techniques and qualitative analyses. Stage One included extraction and data preparation for topic modelling Stage Two was an adapted approach to thematic qualitative analysis. Results Topic modelling revealed 49 topics of which 6 were relevant thematically to unintended fatherhood. Men's communication in these were then classified within three domains: 1) Men's Concerns included their mental health, problems bonding with baby, their relationships with family and partner, and finances; 2) Men's Affective Experiences existed on a spectrum of complex emotions including regret, resignation, ambivalence, acceptance, and excitement; and 3) the Purpose of Communication included asking for and offering advice, normalisation, and perspective. Conclusions Online forums like Reddit provide a unique opportunity for fathers who did not intend to have children to normalize their experience by expressing concerns and emotions in a pseudonymous environment. This study highlights the supportive environment that online discussions offer to fathers, and particularly unexpected fathers who may face stigma or barriers in other settings.
... Indeed, most pregnant women decrease their PA levels and increase their SB levels over the course of their pregnancy [16], while PA levels remain low postpartum [16][17][18][19]. As for fathers-to-be, the pregnancy period has also been described as a stressful period during which they might experience similar mental, physical and lifestyle changes [20][21][22][23]. As a consequence, maintaining PA levels and limiting SB is equally important for them. ...
Article
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Background: Becoming a parent may cohere with drastic changes in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). A clear understanding of determinants of changes in PA and SB during pregnancy and postpartum is needed to facilitate the development of tailored family-based interventions. Methods: Thirteen focus group discussions targeting determinants of changes in PA and SB behavior were conducted, involving a total of 74 expecting and first-time parents. A semi-structured question guide was used to facilitate the discussions. Results: Four main levels of determinants were identified: the individual (including psychological, situational and biological determinants), interpersonal, environmental and policy level. Some determinants were mentioned to be a barrier (e.g., "barriers to self-care") while others were a facilitator (e.g., "weight control"). Determinants were related to both PA and SB and applicable during pregnancy as well as postpartum (e.g., "self-regulation"), or only related to one behavior and/or one period (e.g., "feeding baby"). Some were described by both parents (e.g., "parenthood perceptions"), whereas others were mentioned by women (e.g., "PA knowledge") or men (e.g., "time opportunities") only. Conclusions: Focus should be given to interventions aimed at improving parents' self-regulation skills and support on how to cope with interpersonal and situational constraints as well as parenthood perceptions.
... Une recension systématique des écrits serait une option appropriée pour combler cette lacune, mais cela constitue en soi le travail d'une autre publication. L'expérience des pères lors de la transition à la paternité Cet axe est de loin celui qui regroupe le plus d'études intégratives (k = 14/22) (Baldwin et al., 2018;Cameron et al., 2016;Gentile & Fusco, 2017;191 Les Cahiers du CEIDEF -volume 8 -septembre 2021 Genesoni & Tallandini;Jazayerinezhad et al., 2018;Genmayel et al., 2018;Leach et al., 2016;Pérez et al., 2017;Philpott et al., 2017;Philpott et al., 2019;Sisson et al., 2015;Sweeney & MacBeth, 2016;Shorey & Ang, 2019). Ainsi, la période périnatale semble être conçue comme un moment particulier de vulnérabilité dans l'expérience vécue par les pères. ...
... The implications of this recommendation to have father's NHS number on birth notifications reach beyond the immediate scope of fatherhood research. The Early Years Healthy Development Review and other research have demonstrated that new fathers do not access services or feel adequately supported, like new mothers (Baldwin et al., 2018;HM Government, 2021). Having a father's information on birth notifications would not only make data linkage easier for the good of children but enable targeted service offers to new fathers after the child is born, providing opportunities to reduce this unmet need. ...
Article
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Research has shown that paternal involvement positively impacts on child health and development. We aimed to develop a conceptual model of dimensions of fatherhood, identify and categorise methods used for linking fathers with their children in administrative data, and map these methods onto the dimensions of fatherhood. We carried out a systematic scoping review to create a conceptual framework of paternal involvement and identify studies exploring the impact of paternal exposures on child health and development outcomes using administrative data. We identified four methods that have been used globally to link fathers and children in administrative data based on family or household identifiers using address data, identifiable information about the father on the child's birth registration, health claims data, and Personal Identification Numbers. We did not identify direct measures of paternal involvement but mapping linkage methods to the framework highlighted possible proxies. The addition of paternal National Health Service numbers to birth notifications presents a way forward in the advancement of fatherhood research using administrative data sources.
... An integrative review found that skin-to-skin contact of fathers with their infants had a positive impact on infant outcomes, but also for fathers, such as a reduction in paternal stress and anxiety and better parental interaction behaviour (Shorey et al., 2016). Transition to fatherhood can also be stressful and mental disorders can develop before and after the birth of an infant (Baldwin et al., 2018;Garfield et al., 2014). The literature describes that about 5% of the fathers experience severe symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder after witnessing the birth of their infant (Ayers et al., 2007) and that about 10% of the fathers suffer from prenatal and postpartum depression (Paulson & Bazemore, 2010). ...
Article
Introduction: Mental disorders, such as postnatal depression, are common in mothers. Repetitive negative thinking has been identi- fied as a cognitive factor underlying the resulting difficulties in mother-infant interactions. Method: The present online survey investigated associations between infant carrying (baby-wearing) and maternal repetitive negative thinking and positive mental health. Results: Repetitive negative thinking was significantly lower, and positive mental health was significantly higher while carrying com- pared to overall levels. There were no relations between maternal mental health and frequency of carrying. Maternal activities during carrying are portrayed. Conclusion: These results are the first indication that carrying could be a low threshold, easily administered intervention method for maternal mental health problems.
... According to Kessler et al. (2003) and Condon et al. (2004) mild psychological distress involves maladaptive psychological responses and a range of psychological symptoms, such as anxiety, stress, and depression, which are clinically relevant and therefore warrant some form of minimum preventive or efficacious minimum interventions provided by health institutions. Some elements of a universal prevention policy should include offering sources of support and advice; tailor-made information for first-time fathers about perinatal depression (Baldwin, Malone, Sandall, & Bick, 2018), infant care, their role as fathers, and potential relationship changes or strains that might be expected with their partners in routine care (Kumar, Oliffe, & Kelly, 2018). ...
Article
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Introduction The transition to parenthood can be a source of stress for fathers and, in some cases, it can be accompanied by emotional distress. This aspect has been neglected in Mexican research. Objective To estimate the prevalence of emotional distress and the sociodemographic factors associated with it in Mexican fathers. Method Cross-sectional study. A subsample of 997 fathers, over 18 years of age, was taken from the data of a national survey, whose partners were pregnant or had given birth in the last six months. The Kessler Emotional Distress Scale (K6) was used. Results About 25% of the fathers experienced moderate emotional distress during their partner's pregnancy and 29.5% during the postpartum period; 1.0% and 1.9% showed serious emotional distress in those periods, respectively. Being between 18 and 29 years old (PR = .10; CI [.01, .79]), having lower educational attainment (PR = 5.59; CI [1.19, 26.21]), and going through postpartum (PR = 4.11; CI [1.00, 16.78]) were at higher risks for severe emotional distress; having one or two children (PR = .16; CI [.05, .55]) or more than three (PR = .08; CI [.01, .44]) was a higher risk than being a first-time father. Discussion and conclusion It is necessary to continue studying paternal perinatal mental health due to the impact it has on the mother and the infant, and to design tailored interventions. Parental emotional distress needs to be better understood considering recent changes in the paternal role in developing countries.
... Despite important policy changes before the pandemic recognising the needs of fathers and the importance of improving paternal support [16], restrictions to services during the pandemic have left many fathers and families without psychosocial support [17], [18]. Men are also at elevated risk of mental health di culties during the transition to parenthood [19], [20], and these have also been shown to negatively impact children's development [21], [22]. One study involving young Hispanic fathers in the United States during the pandemic reported that fathers had signi cant worries about societal expectations to provide for their family, as well as concerns related to job insecurity and future provisions for their family [18]. ...
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Young parents (aged 16-24 years) in the perinatal period are at an increased risk of poor mental health especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, due to multiple risk factors including social and economic instability. COVID-19 related restrictions had profound implications for the delivery of perinatal care services and other support structures for young parents. Investigating young parents’ experiences during the pandemic, including their perceived challenges and needs, is important to inform good practice and provide appropriate support for young parents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with young parents (n=21) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom from February – May 2021. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Three key themes were identified to describe parents’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents reported specific COVID-19 related anxieties and stressors, including worries around contracting the virus and increased feelings of distress due to uncertainty created by the implications of the pandemic. Parents described feeling alone both at home and during antenatal appointments and highlighted the absence of social support as a major area of concern. Also, parents felt their perinatal care had been disrupted by the pandemic and experienced difficulties accessing care online or over the phone. This study highlights the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on young parents, including their mental wellbeing and the perinatal support they were able to access. Insights from this study can inform the support and services offered to families going forward. Specifically, the findings emphasise the importance of (a) supporting both parents during perinatal appointments, (b) providing parents with mental health support early on and (c) finding ways to facilitate communication pathways between professionals and parents.
... There is a longstanding focus in Australia on services for youth mental health and these findings confirm that this phase of life is associated with high levels of mental health problems. We have already introduced some of the social and economic drivers that may be affecting younger people, and it might be speculated that the observed high distress levels could reflect disproportionate impacts of various social factors, such as personal income and relationship stressors, and worsening housing affordability across Australia (36) at a stage of life where young people are often establishing long-term co-habiting relationships and starting families and careers (68)(69)(70)(71)(72). This emphasizes that, with services focusing on youth often defined as up to 25, the needs of people who may just miss out on these more intensive services should not be neglected, and furthermore that social, education, employment and mental health programs need better integration to address these needs. ...
Article
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Purpose To examine Australian psychological distress trends from 2001 to 2017/18, including analysis by age, sex, location, and household income. Methods Secondary analysis of the working age population (18–64 years) in six successive representative national health surveys. Measures were prevalence of psychological distress at very-high symptom level (defined by a Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) score of 30 or more) and combined high/very-high level (K10 score of 22 or more). Very-high K10 scores are associated with mental health problems meeting diagnostic thresholds in past year. Results From 2001 to 2017/18 Australian rates of K10 very-high distress rose significantly from 3.8 to 5.1% and combined high/very-high from 13.2 to 14.8%. In women aged 55–64, very-high distress rose significantly and substantially from 3.5 to 7.2% and high/very-high distress from 12.4 to 18.7%. In men aged 25–34, very-high distress increased from 2.1 to 4.0% and high/very-high from 10.6 to 11.5%. Income was strongly and inversely associated with distress (lowest vs. highest quintile adjusted OR 11.4). An apparent association of increased distress with regional location disappeared with adjustment for income. Conclusion Australia’s population level of psychological distress increased significantly from 2001–2017/18, with levels highest in women and with rates inversely associated with income. This is likely to be indicative of increased community rates of mental disorders. Given that this has occurred whilst mental healthcare expenditure has increased, there is an urgent need to reconsider how best to respond to mental illness, including targeting the most vulnerable based on social determinants such as age, gender, and lower incomes.
Article
How fathers cope with stress may be critical to their mental health during the perinatal period. Using a sequential explanatory design for systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to identify associations and causal relations between higher- and lower-order avoidant and approach coping strategies and paternal psychopathology. We searched five electronic databases and grey literature, and used random-effects models to calculate pooled effects from 11 quantitative studies. Meta-analytic results were integrated with findings from 18 qualitative studies. Fathers' avoidant coping was positively associated with global psychopathology and depression. Approach-oriented coping, particularly problem-solving, was associated with positive affect but not psychopathology. Qualitative findings indicate distressed fathers employ avoidant coping strategies such as suppression, distraction, and social withdrawal. Approach-oriented coping strategies such as problem-solving and cognitive reappraisals appeared to be constructive components of men's coping repertoires supporting adaptation to fatherhood. Different coping strategies and approaches may reflect enactment of constrictive, moderate, or reinterpreted masculine norms. Study designs did not allow conclusions about causal relations between coping and psychopathology. Screening for, and targeting of, high avoidant coping among expectant and new fathers may help detect men at risk of or experiencing mental health difficulties and inform clinical response to psychopathology. Research examining whether different patterns of avoidant and approach coping are associated with psychopathology over time could inform interventions to support men's mental health and adaptation to fatherhood.
Article
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Male partners/fathers are key support persons for many childbearing women and their involvement in pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum/postnatal period has beneficial effects on a wide range of outcomes related to maternal and child health and family wellbeing. Social support is implicated in the relevant causal pathway, but has received largely tangential attention in the public health literature. This discussion paper aims to reframe men's participation in maternity care as an opportunity to enhance their readiness and ability to provide social support to women, contributing to the debate on the definition and rationale for male partner involvement, and paving the way for further empirical work. I begin by presenting a theory of change illustrating the causal pathway leading from male partner participation, through the key intermediate step of social support, to improved health and wellbeing for women and children. I proceed by arguing that many people desire male partner participation in maternity care; however, in practice, this is often limited owing to cultural, social and institutional barriers. I use examples from the intervention literature to demonstrate how participation in care can boost men's motivation to support women and enhance their ability to do so by increasing their knowledge and skills. Finally, I draw up general implications for further male partner involvement programmes, suggesting that in order to achieve meaningful and sustainable gains, attention to design is crucial in order to avoid reinforcing patriarchal gender norms. Programmes should be implemented alongside other efforts to improve quality and promote woman-centred care. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Multidisciplinary perspectives on social support and maternal–child health’.
Article
Background/Aims Depression during pregnancy and following the birth of a child is now also recognised as a paternal issue. However, the evidence has received little attention compared to maternal depression. The aim of this article was to systematically review the available evidence examining factors that influence the development of depressive symptoms in men during the perinatal period. Methods A systematic search of six electronic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Internurse, Intermid and Maternity and Infant Care) from the period 2010–19 was undertaken. A total of 20 studies were identified using the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings were synthesised using thematic analysis. Results A total of five synthesised risk factors were identified as pregnancy and infant, individual, social and relationship, psychological and demographic. Conclusions Expectant fathers are vulnerable to the development of depressive symptoms during the transition to parenthood. Mental health organisations should deliver services to support fathers during the perinatal period.
Article
Objective: Social support may be effective in alleviating fear associated with childbirth in adolescent pregnancy. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between social support and fear of childbirth in adolescent pregnancy. Design: The study was designed to assess any relationships between the social support perceived by adolescent pregnant women and the fear of childbirth they experienced through a cross-sectional analysis. Setting: The study was carried out in the obstetrics outpatient clinics of a public hospital. Patients: The study was conducted with 100 pregnant adolescents. Measurements: A Personal Information Form, the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Wijma Birth Expectancy/Experience Scale Version A (WDEQ-A) were applied for data collection. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine relationships between two continuous variables. Results: There was a significant negative correlation between the mean scores of the MSPSS and the WDEQ-A (r = -0.345, p <0.01). The MSPSS was found to be associated with gestational age, residence area and type of marriage. The WDEQ-A was associated with educational status. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that social support is highly important for pregnant adolescents, especially considering the fact that the social support received from the spouse was relatively lower among women with lower gestational age. Nurses should evaluate the family of the pregnant adolescent, especially their partner, in terms of the social support they provide to the pregnant woman and support them with necessary counseling.
Article
Purpose: This study was conducted to develop a couple-centered antenatal education program and to test the program’s feasibility. Methods: With a preliminary-experimental study design, 33 pregnant couples who were expecting their first child participated in this study. The program consisted of four sessions (1 hour/session/week) of education and counseling. Data were collected before and after the intervention from September 2018 to April 2019 at a women’s hospital in Daejeon, Korea, with demographic data forms, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Maternal–Fetal Attachment Scale, Korean Newborn Care Confidence Scale, Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale-10. Results: The pregnant women and their husbands were on average 32.30±3.11 and 33.21±6.25 years old, respectively. The mean marriage duration was 2.34±1.63 years, the gestational age was 31.30±2.66 weeks, and 78.8% of the couples had a planned pregnancy. After the program, both the pregnant women and their husbands showed significant improvements in attachment to the fetus and confidence in providing infant care. Prenatal depression, prenatal stress, and fear of childbirth in pregnant women significantly decreased after completing the program. However, the dyadic adjustment score did not change significantly either in the pregnant women or their husbands.Conclusion: A couple-centered antenatal education program seems to be effective for couples adjusting to parenthood, but further studies should explore ways to have a positive impact on couples’ relationships.
Chapter
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Fatherhood has a direct and substantial impact on men’s physical, mental and social health, and sense of paternal generativity over their life course. This chapter, the second of a pair in this volume, explores the bidirectional impact of fatherhood on men’s health in the perinatal period. It pulls together a scattered fatherhood literature and articulates six broad pathways by which fatherhood could potentially impact on men’s health and development, both positively and negatively. This systematic exploration represents a new focus for the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) field, especially in addressing the perinatal time period, a time not usually thought of as impacting on men’s health. This chapter attempts to establish a firmer scientific knowledge base and rationale to support new, targeted perinatal fatherhood health programs, policies, and research. Hopefully, these will also further contribute to the growing efforts to expand men’s and women’s parental gender role expectations and equity, and enhance the parenting health and men’s health movements. Similar to the dual orientation of the women’s preconception health initiatives, earlier, healthier, and more actively engaged fatherhood should lead to both improved reproductive and infant health outcomes and men’s own improved health across the life course.
Article
Purpose: This study was conducted to explore first-time fathers' experiences during their transition to parenthood in South Korea. Methods: Data were collected from September 2019 to February 2020 through in-depth interviews that were conducted individually with 12 participants. First-time fathers with children under 2 months of age were recruited. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Results: Four theme clusters were identified: Preparing to become a father, challenges of becoming a father, motivation to foster familial bonds, and acknowledgement of fatherhood. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Korean first-time fathers prepared to practice parenthood through prenatal education, taegyo, and feeling bonds with their new baby. They recognized their identity as fathers and experienced self-growth. These results would be beneficial for health professionals in developing perinatal care programs, and the results provide basic data for studies on fathers and families during the transition to parenthood.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of planned training given to fathers in the prenatal period on their functional status in the postpartum period. We selected 143 participants and randomly assigned them to intervention (n = 72) and control (n = 71) groups for an experimental study. Prenatal Information Form, Postnatal Information Form, Inventory of Functional Status-Fathers and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were used for data collection. In the postpartum period, functional status and perceived social support levels of fathers receiving training were affected positively.
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Als Fachperson, welche Menschen in die Elternschaft begleitet, wissen Sie, dass Elternwerden eine Herausforderung mit Höhen und Tiefen ist. Damit Sie werdende Mütter und Väter im Elternwerden gut unterstützen können, ist es wichtig, ihre psychische Gesundheit zu berücksichtigen und zu fördern. Ziel dieser Empfehlungen ist es, dass alle Fachpersonen, die werdende Mütter und Väter beraten und betreuen, wissen, wie sie gemeinsam und vernetzt zur psychischen Gesundheit von Eltern beitragen können.
Technical Report
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[fr] Cette recherche financée par ONE Academy, inscrite dans un projet interdisciplinaire et interuniversitaire (Uliège, Pr Pirard et UMons, Pr. Gaugue) porte sur la question du genre dans les métiers de l’enfance et dans l’exercice de la parentalité et l’éducation des jeunes enfants ». Dans le volet liégeois, elle s’intéresse particulièrement aux relations entre les parents et les professionnel-le-s, plus précisément aux places accordées aux pères dans les milieux d’accueil de la petite enfance et dans les lieux de rencontre enfants et parents. En effet, la littérature scientifique et le retour d’expériences montrent des difficultés dans les relations parents-professionnel-le-s, en particulier avec les pères. Loin de tout fatalisme, le dispositif proposé a pour objectif d’identifier des leviers porteurs validés par des expériences de terrain. Il repose sur une démarche collaborative entre les chercheurs de l’Université de Liège, des experts de différentes disciplines et les acteurs de terrain. Quant à lui, le volet montois interroge le vécu et l’adaptation de jeunes pères en postpartum immédiat et tardif, en tentant de mettre en avant les ressources et les vulnérabilité pendant cette période. Un regard complémentaire est porté sur le lien père bébé au travers de l’observation de dyades rencontrées à domicile. [en] This research project, funded by ONE Academy and part of an interdisciplinary project with Uliege (Pr. Pirard) and UMons (Pr. Gaugue), addresses the issue of gender in childhood professions and in parenthood and education of young children. The Liege compenent of this research project is particularly interested in the relationship between parents and professionals, specifically in the place given to fathers in the early childcare services and in meeting places for parents and children (play groups). Indeed, the scientific literature and experiences show some difficulties in the relationships between parents and professionals, especially with fathers. Far from any fatalism, the proposed device aims to identifying levers validated by field experiments. It is based on a collaborative approach between researchers, experts from different disciplines and actors in the field of early childhood. As for the Montois component, it questions the experience and adaptation of young fathers in immediate and late postpartum, by attempting to highlight resources and vulnerabilities during this period. A complementary look is taken at the father-baby bond through the observation of dyads met at home.
Article
The transition to fatherhood may be challenged with anxiety and trepidation. A high prevalence has been found for paternal depression and it is reactive to maternal depression. This review aims to address potential sources of paternal depression, which may have adverse consequences on child development. We describe through three hypotheses how fathers may be at risk of depression during the transition to fatherhood: (1) psychological (interacting with ecological systems); (2) brain functional∖structural changes; and (3) (epi)genomic. We propose that paternal stressful experiences during the transition to fatherhood may be the source for paternal depression through direct stressful paternal experiences or via (potential, currently debated) nonexperienced (by the father) epigenomic transgenerational transmission. On the other hand, we suggest that resilient fathers may undergo a transient dysphoric period affected by identifying with the newborn's vulnerability as well as with the mother's postpartum vulnerability resulting in “paternity blues.” In accordance with recent views on paternal “heightened sensitivity” toward the infant, we propose that the identification of both parents with the vulnerability of the newborn creates a sensitive period of Folie a Deux (shared madness) which may be a healthy transient, albeit a quasi-pathological period, recruited by the orienting response of the newborn for survival.
Book
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This aim of this open access book is to launch an international, cross-disciplinary conversation on fatherhood engagement. By integrating perspective from three sectors—Health, Social Policy, and Work in Organizations—the book offers a novel perspective on the benefits of engaged fatherhood for men, for families, and for gender equality. The chapters are crafted to engaged broad audiences, including policy makers and organizational leaders, healthcare practitioners and fellow scholars, as well as families and their loved ones.
Article
Background Even though fathers participate in childcare at a higher rate than before, there remains a lack of research on the factors that contribute to parenting stress among fathers. This study explored the socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with parenting stress among fathers of preschool children. Methods Our study included 17,645 fathers who participated in the 2016 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions in Japan. Parenting stress was assessed using a single question. Socioeconomic and demographic factors were predictors. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for parenting stress. Results Overall, 6.6% fathers experienced parenting stress. Fathers with a youngest child aged 0–2 years were more likely to experience parenting stress than those with a youngest child aged 3–6 (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.25–1.68). Compared with fathers who lived in two-parent households without grandparents, those who lived in single-father households (both with and without grandparents) were more likely to experience parenting stress (OR 12.13, 95% CI 5.60–26.29 and OR 4.19, 95% CI 2.04–8.60, respectively). Furthermore, there was a significant negative association between education and parenting stress. Conclusions Having a child aged 0–2 years, single fatherhood, and higher education were associated with parenting stress among fathers of preschool children. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of these factors when supporting fathers in raising their children.
Article
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Background: Parental leave use has been found to promote maternal and child health, with limited evidence of mental health impacts on fathers. How these effects vary for minority populations with poorer mental health and lower leave uptake, such as migrants, remains under-investigated. This study assessed the effects of a Swedish policy to encourage fathers' leave, the 1995 Father's quota, on Swedish-born and migrant fathers' psychiatric hospitalisations. Methods: We conducted an interrupted time series analysis using Swedish total population register data for first-time fathers of children born before (1992-1994) and after (1995-1997) the reform (n=198 589). Swedish-born and migrant fathers' 3-year psychiatric hospitalisation rates were modelled using segmented negative binomial regression, adjusting for seasonality and autocorrelation, with stratified analyses by region of origin, duration of residence, and partners' nativity. Results: From immediately pre-reform to post-reform, the proportion of fathers using parental leave increased from 63.6% to 86.4% of native-born and 37.1% to 51.2% of migrants. Swedish-born fathers exhibited no changes in psychiatric hospitalisation rates post-reform, whereas migrants showed 36% decreased rates (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.64, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.86). Migrants from regions not predominantly consisting of Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries (IRR 0.50, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.33), and those with migrant partners (IRR 0.23, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.38), experienced the greatest decreases in psychiatric hospitalisation rates. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that policies oriented towards promoting father's use of parental leave may help to reduce native-migrant health inequalities, with broader benefits for family well-being and child development.
Article
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Review question/objective: This qualitative review seeks to identify first-time fathers' needs and experiences in relation to their mental health and wellbeing during their transition to fatherhood. This will include resident first-time fathers who are either the biological or non-biological father.The objectives are to explore first-time fathers' experiences in relation to.
Article
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Background The prevalence of fathers’ depression and anxiety in the perinatal period (i.e. from conception to 1 year after birth) is approximately 5–10%, and 5–15%, respectively; their children face increased risk of adverse emotional and behavioural outcomes, independent of maternal mental health. Critically, fathers can be protective against the development of maternal perinatal mental health problems and their effects on child outcomes. Preventing and treating paternal mental health problems and promoting paternal psychological wellbeing may therefore benefit the family as a whole. This study examined fathers’ views and direct experiences of paternal perinatal mental health. Methods Men in the Born and Bred in Yorkshire (BaBY) epidemiological prospective cohort who met eligibility criteria (baby born <12 months; completed Mental Health and Wellbeing [MHWB] questionnaires) were invited to participate. Those expressing interest (n = 42) were purposively sampled to ensure diversity of MHWB scores. In-depth interviews were conducted at 5–10 months postpartum with 19 men aged 25–44 years. The majority were first-time fathers and UK born; all lived with their partner. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. ResultsFour themes were identified: ‘legitimacy of paternal stress and entitlement to health professionals’ support’, ‘protecting the partnership’, ‘navigating fatherhood’, and, ‘diversity of men’s support networks’. Men largely described their ‘stress’ with reference to exhaustion, poor concentration and irritability. Despite feeling excluded by maternity services, fathers questioned their entitlement to support, noting that services are pressured and ‘should’ be focused on mothers. Men emphasised the need to support their partner and protect their partnership as central to the successfully navigation of fatherhood; they used existing support networks where available but noted the paucity of tailored support for fathers. Conclusions Fathers experience psychological distress in the perinatal period but question the legitimacy of their experiences. Men may thus be reluctant to express their support needs or seek help amid concerns that to do so would detract from their partner’s needs. Resources are needed that are tailored to men, framed around fatherhood, rather than mental health or mental illness, and align men’s self-care with their role as supporter and protector. Further research is needed to inform how best to identify and manage both parents’ mental health needs and promote their psychological wellbeing, in the context of achievable models of service delivery.
Article
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The importance of findings derived from syntheses of qualitative research has been increasingly acknowledged. Findings that arise from qualitative syntheses inform questions of practice and policy in their own right and are commonly used to complement findings from quantitative research syntheses. The GRADE approach has been widely adopted by international organisations to rate the quality and confidence of the findings of quantitative systematic reviews. To date, there has been no widely accepted corresponding approach to assist health care professionals and policy makers in establishing confidence in the synthesised findings of qualitative systematic reviews. A methodological group was formed develop a process to assess the confidence in synthesised qualitative research findings and develop a Summary of Findings tables for meta-aggregative qualitative systematic reviews. Dependability and credibility are two elements considered by the methodological group to influence the confidence of qualitative synthesised findings. A set of critical appraisal questions are proposed to establish dependability, whilst credibility can be ranked according to the goodness of fit between the author's interpretation and the original data. By following the processes outlined in this article, an overall ranking can be assigned to rate the confidence of synthesised qualitative findings, a system we have labelled ConQual. The development and use of the ConQual approach will assist users of qualitative systematic reviews to establish confidence in the evidence produced in these types of reviews and can serve as a practical tool to assist in decision making.
Article
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This article discusses men's transition to first time fatherhood, with a focus on the way they recognise various in-tension moral demands and negotiate an appropriate role for themselves. The findings are taken from a longitudinal study, drawing on elements of grounded theory, comprising a series of face-to-face and telephone interviews with 11 men over a 9-month period from the 12th week of pregnancy to 8 weeks after the birth. The analysis focuses on men's feelings and experience of exclusion and participation, and their response and reaction to that experience. The findings present two descriptive themes, ‘on the inside looking in’ and ‘present but not participating’, followed by third theme ‘deference and support: a moral response’ that exposes the dilemmatic nature of men's experience and explains the participants’ apparent acceptance of being less involved. The discussion explores the concept of moral residue, arguing that while deference and support may be an appropriate role for fathers in the perinatal period it may also be a compromise that leads to feelings of uncertainty and frustration, which is a consequence of being in a genuinely dilemmatic situation.
Article
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Background Despite robust evidence of fathers’ impact on children and mothers, engaging with fathers is one of the least well-explored and articulated aspects of parenting interventions. It is therefore critical to evaluate implicit and explicit biases manifested in current approaches to research, intervention, and policy.Methods We conducted a systematic database and a thematic hand search of the global literature on parenting interventions. Studies were selected from Medline, Psychinfo, SSCI, and Cochrane databases, and from gray literature on parenting programs, using multiple search terms for parent, father, intervention, and evaluation. We tabulated single programs and undertook systematic quality coding to review the evidence base in terms of the scope and nature of data reporting.ResultsAfter screening 786 nonduplicate records, we identified 199 publications that presented evidence on father participation and impact in parenting interventions. With some notable exceptions, few interventions disaggregate ‘father’ or ‘couple’ effects in their evaluation, being mostly driven by a focus on the mother–child dyad. We identified seven key barriers to engaging fathers in parenting programs, pertaining to cultural, institutional, professional, operational, content, resource, and policy considerations in their design and delivery.Conclusions Barriers to engaging men as parents work against father inclusion as well as father retention, and undervalue coparenting as contrasted with mothering. Robust evaluations of father participation and father impact on child or family outcomes are stymied by the ways in which parenting interventions are currently designed, delivered, and evaluated. Three key priorities are to engage fathers and coparenting couples successfully, to disaggregate process and impact data by fathers, mothers, and coparents, and to pay greater attention to issues of reach, sustainability, cost, equity, and scale-up. Clarity of purpose with respect to gender-differentiated and coparenting issues in the design, delivery, and evaluation of parenting programs will constitute a game change in this field.
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This study aimed to examine the transition to parenthood and mental health in first-time parents in detail and explore any differences in this transition in the context of parental gender and postpartum mental health. Semistructured clinical interviews (Birmingham Interview for Maternal Mental Health) were carried out with 46 women and 40 men, 5 months after birth. Parents were assessed on pre- and postpartum anxiety, depression, and postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and a range of adjustment and relationship variables. One fourth of the men and women reported anxiety in pregnancy, reducing to 21% of women and 8% of men after birth. Pregnancy and postpartum depression rates were roughly equal, with 11% of women and 8% of men reporting depression. Postpartum PTSD was experienced by 5% of parents. Postpartum mental health problems were significantly associated with postpartum sleep deprivation (odds ratio [OR] = 7.5), complications in labor (OR = 5.1), lack of postpartum partner support (OR = 8.0), feelings of parental unworthiness (OR = 8.3), and anger toward the infant (OR = 4.4). Few gender differences were found for these variables. This study thus highlights the importance of focusing interventions on strengthening the couple's relationship and avoiding postnatal sleep deprivation, and to address parents' feelings of parental unworthiness and feelings of anger toward their baby. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
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The purpose of this study was to understand the meaning of the lived experience of Japanese men during the transition to fatherhood. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used. Participants were 12 Japanese men who had a first-time healthy child younger than 1 year of age, who were sought by using a purposeful sampling technique. The following six themes were identified: (1) feeling like a father; (2) realizing oneself as a husband; (3) finding the wife's pregnancy and delivery for the first time to be an impressive experience; (4) sharing time and space with one's child; (5) being aware of a change and trying to adjust to a new life; and (6) being aware of the difference between oneself and one's wife. These six themes created essence of the phenomenon of "becoming a father." This study revealed Japanese men's own voice on becoming first-time fathers of infants.
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Objective: Empirical evidence demonstrates that fathers have a strong influence on a mother's decision to initiate and continue breast feeding. However, no clear delineation of what behaviours and attributes constitute father support or differentiate it from other kinds of support is provided in the current literature. The purpose of this study was to analyse the concept of 'father support' in relation to maternity services and broader health settings, thereby clarifying meaning to enable comprehension and application in practice, education, and research. Design: A concept analysis combining the evolutionary model of concept development with the inter-related theoretical, fieldwork and analytical phases of the hybrid model of concept development. Setting: Children's Centres in East and West Sussex in Southern England. Participants: Repeated qualitative research over two phases with 16 parents of breast fed infants through seven focus groups and five telephone interviews. Measurements and findings: CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, MEDLINE, OVID and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published in English between 1999 and 2013 using the keywords breast feeding, father, and support. Seven same-sex focus groups and five individual interviews were also conducted over two research phases with the parents of breast fed infants to expand and exemplify, and then validate the analysis of the literature search. Five main attributes of father support in relation to breast feeding were identified: (1) knowledge about breast feeding; (2) positive attitude to breast feeding; (3) involvement in the decision-making process; (4) practical support; and (5) emotional support. Multiple antecedents and consequences to these attributes were also identified. Key conclusion: This study has contributed to clarifying the meaning of father support in relation to breast feeding and provides an important starting point for the development of a theoretical and practical model of optimal breast feeding that takes into account father support. Implications for practice: Identification of attributes, antecedents, and consequences of father support may assist practitioners to reflect on current working practices and service delivery models, and offer important educational opportunities for the training of student midwives and other health professionals.
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Although the negative impact of maternal depression on infants' affective and cognitive development is well-documented, the contribution of paternal depression is often overlooked in the research literature and in early intervention practices. This review examines research on the link between paternal depression and infant cognitive outcomes. Although some disagreement exists, studies indicate that paternal depression limits father involvement, which, in turn, influences cognitive development. These findings have implications for research and early intervention programming that address fathers and young children. Further research on paternal depression is needed to understand how paternal depression specifically influences infant cognitive development and to clarify its implications for early intervention. The authors discuss ways that programs, including Early Head Start, have begun to address this issue, by intervening with fathers and children, building partnerships with mental health service agencies, and increasing staff members' abilities to identify and support parents who are experiencing depression. Finally, discussion focuses on directions for future research and ways to support fathers who struggle with depression.
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Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers' anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding. A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results. The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289) and control group (n=244) were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6 weeks postnatal (only matched pairs), intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048). Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09) and at six weeks (mean=1.09) were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11) and at six weeks (mean =1.07) with no significant changes. Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their knowledge and potentially lower the risk of postnatal anxiety. (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000667213).
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Background Factors related to parents and parenting capacities are important predictors of the development of behavioural problems in children. Recently, there has been an increasing research focus in this field on the earliest years of life, however, relatively few studies have addressed the role of fathers, despite this appearing to be particularly pertinent to child behavioural development. This study aimed to examine whether father–infant interactions at age 3 months independently predicted child behavioural problems at 1 year of age. Method A sample of 192 families was recruited from two maternity units in the United Kingdom. Father–infant interactions were assessed in the family home and coded using the Global Rating Scales. Child behaviour problems were assessed by maternal report. Hierarchical and logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between father–infant interaction and the development of behavioural problems. Results Disengaged and remote interactions between fathers and their infants were found to predict externalising behavioural problems at the age of 1 year. The children of the most disengaged fathers had an increased risk of developing early externalising behavioural problems [disengaged (nonintrusive) interactions – adjusted Odds Ratio 5.33 (95% Confidence Interval; 1.39, 20.40): remote interactions adj. OR 3.32 (0.92, 12.05)] Conclusions Disengaged interactions of fathers with their infants, as early as the third month of life, predict early behavioural problems in children. These interactions may be critical factors to address, from a very early age in the child’s life, and offer a potential opportunity for preventive intervention.
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BACKGROUND: Depression in fathers in the postnatal period is associated with an increased risk of child behaviour problems. A key potential pathway of risk transmission is exposure of the child to negative cognitions and affect in the context of early parenting. This study examines paternal speech during face-to-face father-infant interactions at 3 months.Method Currently depressed (n=19) and non-depressed (n=19) fathers were individually matched on age and education. Speech was coded for cognitive biases and mentalizing statements using a modified version of previous measures of maternal speech. Paternal depression was diagnosed using a structured psychiatric interview. RESULTS: Depression in fathers was associated with more speech focused on the paternal experience and less on the infants' experience. Depressed fathers' speech comprised more negative and critical utterances, compared with non-depressed fathers. CONCLUSIONS: Important differences emerge in the speech of fathers who experience depression. Examining negative cognitions in the speech of these fathers as early as 3 months may help in understanding children's risk in relation to paternal psychopathology.
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This longitudinal study examined the effect of the birth of the 1st child on relationship functioning using data from 218 couples (436 individuals) over the course of the first 8 years of marriage. Compared with prebirth levels and trajectories, parents showed sudden deterioration following birth on observed and self-reported measures of positive and negative aspects of relationship functioning. The deterioration in these variables was small to medium in size and tended to persist throughout the remaining years of the study. Mothers and fathers showed similar amounts of change after birth. The amount of postbirth deterioration in relationship functioning varied systematically by several characteristics of the individual, the marriage, and the pregnancy itself. In a group of couples who did not have children, results indicated more gradual deterioration in relationship functioning during the first 8 years of marriage without the sudden changes seen in parents, suggesting that the results seen in the parent sample may be due to birth.
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We compared the prevalence of depression in the postpartum period and its relationship with perceived stress and social support in first-time mothers and fathers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in mainland China with a convenience sample of 130 pairs of parents. Measures taken at 6-8 weeks after delivery included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Social Support Rating Scale. Eighteen (13.8%) of the mothers and 14 (10.8%) of the fathers were suffering from depression. No signficant differences were found in their prevalence rates. Perceived stress, social support, and partner's depression were significantly associated with depression. These findings suggest counseling, support, and routine screening for depression should be provided to both mothers and fathers.
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This paper is a report of a study to explore the needs of first-time fathers in relation to the care, support and education provided by healthcare professionals during the antenatal period, particularly in relation to preparing them for the transition to fatherhood. Pregnancy and transition to parenthood are major developmental periods within families throughout the world. Previous research suggests that fathers in many different countries feel unprepared for parenthood. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 20 partners of primiparous women from two healthcare provider organizations in South-West England between December 2005 and July 2006. Recruitment took place at about 28 weeks gestation. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken at home in the last trimester of pregnancy and 3-4 months postpartum. Content analysis of the interview data was undertaken. Several common themes emerged from both the ante- and postnatal data, including lack of support mechanisms, involvement in antenatal provision and the need for more information given in the antenatal period on parenting, baby care and relationships. Adequately preparing new fathers for parenthood in advance of the birth of their baby is important, and healthcare professionals can contribute to this by involving and supporting new fathers. Further study is needed to explore the role of fathers in antenatal education and the types of interventions that are effective in improving their early experiences of parenthood. The study needs to be repeated with fathers from black and ethnic minority groups.
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For most men, first-time fatherhood involves significant changes in self-identity and their relationship with their female partner. This paper presents some findings from a longitudinal, qualitative study into the first 6 months of new fatherhood for a group of 15 Australian men. The discussion draws on a series of semistructured interviews undertaken on a minimum of four occasions from a few days before the child was born until 5-6 months after birth. We found that first-time fathering in contemporary western society requires men to be simultaneously provider, guide, household help and nurturer. The demands of these roles, and the tensions they sometimes produce, challenge men's relationships with their female partners, the meaning and place of work in their lives and their sense of self as competent adults. Almost all the men we interviewed found the early weeks and months of fatherhood more uncomfortable than rewarding, despite looking forward to fatherhood very positively. Their experience appeared more closely aligned to their difficulties with meeting social expectations and roles rather than individual deficits.
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The authors examined the relationship between maternal depression, paternal psychopathology, and adolescent diagnostic outcomes in a community sample of 522 Australian families. They also examined whether chronic family stress, father's expressed emotion, and parents' marital satisfaction mediated the relationship between parental psychopathology and adolescent outcomes. Mother's education, child's gender, and family income were covaried in all analyses. Results revealed that maternal depression and paternal depression had an additive effect on youth externalizing disorders. In addition, maternal depression interacted with both paternal depression and paternal substance abuse in predicting youth depression but not youth nondepressive disorders. Chronic family stress and father's expressed emotion appeared to mediate the relationship between parental psychopathology and youth depression.
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Background: despite the evidence that fatherhood has a long-term positive and protective effect on men's health, there is also evidence that fatherhood in the perinatal period can be complex and demanding. Due to the potential increase in stressors in the perinatal period, there is reason to hypothesise that it is a time of increased stress for fathers. However, it is not clear how significant a problem stress is for fathers during this stage of life. This is in part, due to the fact that the available research has not been systematically reviewed. Purpose: the purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise the empirical evidence that examined stress in fathers in the perinatal period. Design: systematic review. Methods: a systematic review protocol was developed and registered with PROSPERO (Reference number: CRD42016035821). The review was guided by the PRISMA reporting process. Electronic databases Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collections were searched to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria. Studies that researched fathers in the perinatal period were included if stress was the principal focus of the research, if stress was in the title and/or aim of the study or if stress was an outcome or dependent variable. Data were extracted and presented in narrative form including tables and figures. Findings: eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings indicate that fathers experience stress in the perinatal period, particularly at the time of birth. Stress levels were found to increase from the antenatal period to the time of birth, with a decrease in stress levels from the time of birth to the later postnatal period. There are a number of factors that contribute to stress in fathers in the perinatal period and these included negative feelings about the pregnancy, role restrictions related to becoming a father, fear of childbirth and feelings of incompetence related to infant care. The review found that stress has a negative impact on fathers, with higher stress levels contributing to mental health issues such as anxiety, depression, psychological distress and fatigue. Key conclusion: during the perinatal period fathers experience stress and face unique stressors that can impact negatively on their health and social relationships.
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Objective: to describe first-time fathers experiences of their prenatal preparation in relation to challenges met in the early parenthood period. Design: a qualitative study was conducted and data was analysed with a phenomenographical approach. Setting and participants: 15 first-time fathers were recruited from three postnatal units in southern Sweden and interviewed approximately one month after their baby was born. Measurements and findings: three categories and 14 conceptions about fathers' experiences of their preparation emerged from the data. 'Acquiring knowledge and forming realistic expectations' was essential for 'Developing strategies' and 'Being facilitated and supported' enhanced these processes. Key conclusions and implications for practice: supporting fathers to develop strategies for life with a new baby and providing expert guidance to fruitful and accurate information may help the construction of a fatherhood identity and strengthen the fatherhood role. The findings can be used to develop a parental preparation for early parenthood that will correspond to fathers' needs.
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Interventions targeting parents’ mental health in the perinatal period are critical due to potential consequences of perinatal mental illness for the parent, the infant, and their family. To date, most programs have targeted mothers. This systematic review explores the current status and evidence for intervention programs aiming to prevent or treat paternal mental illness in the perinatal period. Electronic databases were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed studies that described an intervention targeting fathers’ mental health in the perinatal period. Mental health outcomes included depression, anxiety, stress as well as more general measures of psychological functioning. Eleven studies were identified. Three out of five psychosocial interventions and three massage technique interventions reported significant effects. None of the couple-based interventions reported significant effects. A number of methodological limitations were identified, including inadequate reporting of study designs, and issues with the timing of interventions. The variability in outcomes measures across the studies made it difficult to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the interventions. Father-focused interventions aimed at preventing perinatal mood problems will be improved if future studies utilise more rigorous research strategies.
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Background: Men's experiences of anxiety within the perinatal period can adversely impact themselves, their partner and infant. However, we know little about the prevalence and course of men's anxiety across the perinatal period. The current review is one of the first to systematically review the published literature. Methods: Five databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane, SCOPUS, and Web of Science) were searched to identify relevant papers published prior to April 2015. The literature search identified articles with data for expectant fathers (prenatal period) and/or fathers of an infant aged between 0 and 1 (postnatal period). The following data were extracted: (a) anxiety disorder prevalence (diagnostic clinical interviews), (b) 'high' anxiety symptom prevalence (above thresholds/cut-points on anxiety symptom scales) and (c) mean anxiety levels (anxiety symptom scales). Initially, 537 unique papers were identified. Subsequently, 43 papers met criteria for inclusion in the review. Results: Prevalence rates for 'any' anxiety disorder (as defined by either diagnostic clinical interviews or above cut-points on symptom scales) ranged between 4.1% and 16.0% during the prenatal period and 2.4-18.0% during the postnatal period. The data reviewed suggest the course of anxiety across the perinatal period is fairly stable with potential decreases postpartum. Limitations: Wide variation in study measurement and methodology makes synthesis of individual findings difficult. Anxiety is highly comorbid with depression, and thus measures of mixed anxiety/depression might better capture the overall burden of mental illness. Conclusions: Anxiety disorders are common for men during the perinatal period. Both partners should be included in discussions and interventions focused on obstetric care and parent mental health during the perinatal period.
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This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and determinants of depressive symptoms in first-time expectant fathers during their partner's third trimester of pregnancy. As part of a prospective study examining depressive symptoms in men over the first postnatal year, 622 men (mean age = 34.3 years, ±5.0 years) completed standardized online self-report questionnaires measuring depressed mood, physical activity, sleep quality, social support, marital adjustment, life events, financial stress, and demographics during their partner's third trimester of pregnancy. The Edinburgh Depression Scale was used to assess depressed mood. Partners also completed the Edinburgh Depression Scale in the third trimester. The results revealed that 13.3% of expectant fathers exhibited elevated levels of depressive symptoms during their partner's third trimester of pregnancy. Significant independent factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in men were poorer sleep quality, family history of psychological difficulties, lower perceived social support, poorer marital satisfaction, more stressful life events in the preceding 6 months, greater number of financial stressors, and elevated maternal antenatal depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of including fathers in the screening and early prevention efforts targeting depression during the transition to parenthood, which to date have largely focused only on women. Strategies to promote better sleep, manage stress, and mobilize social support may be important areas to address in interventions tailored to new fathers at risk for depression during the transition to parenthood.
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Perinatal distress is a significant public health problem that adversely impacts the individual and their family. The primary