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Tempeh consumption enhanced beneficial bacteria in the human gut



It has been known that human gut microbiota modulates host health and the composition is affected by lifestyle, including the availability of dietary fiber. Tempeh, a kind of traditional fermented food from Indonesia, is rich in soluble fibers and microbial consortia. A previous study showed that tempeh could enhance IgA production and modulate gut microbiota composition in rats. Meanwhile, in human, tempeh supplementation for 16 days has increased the number of Akkermansia muciniphila significantly. Many Indonesians consume tempeh on a daily basis, but the effect of tempeh consumption for a longer period of time in human remains to be investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tempeh consumption in human for longer term, especially its effect in modulating gut microbiota composition. A total of sixteen (16) healthy females participated in this study. For the first 7 days, they were not allowed to consume any soy product; followed by 28 days of 100 gram of tempeh (n=10), or 200 mL of soymilk (n=6) consumption. Analysis of gut microbiota showed that soymilk and tempeh supplementation generated different profiles. Twenty-eight days of tempeh supplementation seemed to improve metabolic health markers better than soymilk treatment; significantly enhancing the presence of Bifidobacterium and A. muciniphila populations compared to those at the beginning of the study. (PDF) Tempeh consumption enhanced beneficial bacteria in the human gut. Available from: [accessed Nov 17 2018].
*Corresponding author.
eISSN: 2550-2166 / © 2018 The Authors. Published by Rynnye Lyan Resources
Food Research 3 (1) : 57 - 63 (February 2019)
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Tempeh consumption enhanced beneficial bacteria in the human gut
1Stephanie, 2 Kartawidjajaputra, F., 2Silo, W., 1Yogiara, Y. and 1*Suwanto, A.
1Faculty of Biotechnology, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jalan Jenderal Sudirman 51
Jakarta Selatan 12930, Indonesia
2PT Nutrifood Indonesia, Kawasan Industri Pulogadung, Jalan Rawabali II No. 3, Jakarta 13920, Indonesia
Article history:
Received: 12 August 2018
Received in revised form: 19
September 2018
Accepted: 21 September 2018
Available Online: 5 October
Gut microbiota,
Akkermansia muciniphila
It has been known that human gut microbiota modulates host health and the composition is
affected by lifestyle, including the availability of dietary fiber. Tempeh, a kind of
traditional fermented food from Indonesia, is rich in soluble fibers and microbial
consortia. A previous study showed that tempeh could enhance IgA production and
modulate gut microbiota composition in rats. Meanwhile, in human, tempeh
supplementation for 16 days has increased the number of Akkermansia muciniphila
significantly. Many Indonesians consume tempeh on a daily basis, but the effect of tempeh
consumption for a longer period of time in human remains to be investigated. Therefore,
the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tempeh consumption in human
for longer term, especially its effect in modulating gut microbiota composition. A total of
sixteen (16) healthy females participated in this study. For the first 7 days, they were not
allowed to consume any soy product; followed by 28 days of 100 gram of tempeh (n=10),
or 200 mL of soymilk (n=6) consumption. Analysis of gut microbiota showed that soymilk
and tempeh supplementation generated different profiles. Twenty-eight days of tempeh
supplementation seemed to improve metabolic health markers better than soymilk
treatment; significantly enhancing the presence of Bifidobacterium and A. muciniphila
populations compared to those at the beginning of the study.
1. Introduction
The gastrointestinal tract is the most densely-
populated microorganisms in the human body. Gut
microbiota plays a pivotal role for human health; such as
metabolic function, immune cells maturation, digesting
the undigested carbohydrates, and production of short-
chain fatty acid, conjugated fatty acids,
exopolysaccharides, and neuroactive metabolites. Gut
microbiota is also important for providing energy and
bioactive compound production, such as vitamins
(Patterson et al., 2016).
A study by Bressa et al. (2017) revealed that active
lifestyle enhanced health-promoting bacteria. Healthy
lifestyle and avoidance of excessive food intake promote
better gut microbiota composition and prevent metabolic
disorder (Musso et al., 2010). A previous study showed
that gut microbiota in obese subjects and/or with Type-2
Diabetes were different from lean and non-diabetic
subjects (Patterson et al., 2016). Obese subjects had
more bacteria with carbohydrates fermentation capability
than lean subjects. Lean subjects tended to have higher
Bifidobacterium (Goffredo et al., 2016), whereas non-
obese subjects produced more Akkermansia muciniphila
(Patterson et al., 2016).
Probiotic, prebiotic, and antibiotic therapies have
improved metabolic inflammatory in mice with high-fat
diet (Cani et al., 2014). A study by Wang et al. (2015)
showed that probiotic addition in high-fat diet mice
ameliorated gut microbiota structure to lean mice
structure with an increase of Bifidobacterium production
in the gut. In human study, probiotic consumption
modulated human metabolism and prevented or treated
diseases such as hypercholesterolemia and obesity
(Fujimura et al., 2010); as well as reduce potential
pathogen infection (i.e. Citrobacter and Klebsiella) and
flatulence (Seo et al., 2017).
Two beneficial bacteria that would be focused in this
study were Bifidobacterium and A. muciniphila.
Bifidobacterium belongs to Actinobacteria phyla and
commonly found in the human digestive tract.
Bifidobacterium has probiotic functions, which
strengthen the bowel defenses, modulate the immune
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response and exclude pathogens. Various species of
Bifidobacterium that have been commonly used as
probiotics include Bifidobacterium bifidum (B. bifidum),
B. breve, B lactis, and B. adolescents. Bifidobacterium
species are anaerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, and do
not produce spores (Anandharaj et al., 2014). A study in
human also showed that Bifidobacterium produces bile
salt for lipid metabolism. The level of Bifidobacterium
was known to be higher in the lean subjects compare to
the obese subjects (Teixeira et al., 2013).
A. muciniphila, a mucin-degrading bacteria and is
known for its properties to reduce parameters related to
type-2 diabetes and obesity. A study by Dao et al. (2016)
showed that calorie restriction increased the number of
A. muciniphila and was associated with lower glucose
level, higher insulin sensitivity, and healthier metabolic
status. A. muciniphila also increased the level of
endocannabinoid that controls inflammation, gut barrier,
and gut peptide secretion (Everard et al., 2013).
To maintain beneficial gut microbiota composition,
dietary fibers and probiotics consumption is strongly
recommended. Low fiber intake is associated with
increased chronic diseases, such as obesity,
cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and colon cancer
(Holscher, 2017).
One source of fiber-rich food is tempeh, a popular
fermented food in Indonesia. As a soy product, tempeh is
known for being rich in isoflavones, vitamin B-12,
protein, calcium, folic acid, and easily digested due to
simpler protein form after fermentation process (Babu et
al., 2009). Studies revealed that Indonesian tempeh
contains a consortium of microbes. Tempeh is fermented
by Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus and contains
various types of bacteria. Indonesian tempeh harbors
Acetobacter indonesiensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae,
Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium sp., Brevundimonas
sp., Pseudomonas putida, and Acinetobacter spp. (Barus
et al., 2008). Further metagenomics study revealed that
Indonesian tempeh is inhabited by Firmicutes and
Proteobacteria. There are also common Lactobacillus
families, such as L. agilis, L. fermentum, and
Enterobacteria cecorum (Radita et al., 2017).
A study on the Sprague Dawley rats revealed that
tempeh consumption for 28 days modulated gut
microbiota composition, towards a healthier gut and
enhanced IgA production and IgA gene expression (Soka
et al., 2014; Soka et al., 2015). Although
microorganisms in tempeh were inactive due to the
cooking process, they induced immune responses, such
as IgA production. IgA was an antibody produced as the
defense against the antigen presence in gut. A study in
human showed that consumption of 100 gram of steamed
tempeh per day for 16 days enhanced IgA production
and enhanced A. muciniphila number significantly
(Stephanie et al., 2017), which acts as improvement
markers for lower diabetes type-2 and obesity.
To our knowledge, there was no report evaluating
the longer-term effect of tempeh consumption in human.
This study is important because Indonesians consume
tempeh on daily basis every day. Therefore, the objective
of this study was to investigate tempeh consumption
effect in human for longer term (28 days), specifically to
its effect in modulating gut microbiota composition.
2. Materials and methods
2.1 Human study
This study was reviewed and approved by the local
ethics committee, Atma Jaya Catholic University of
Indonesia. The intervention followed the institution
guidelines, including a written informed consent for each
participant. Sixteen healthy female participants aged 23-
30 years old, non-smokers and not being pregnant, were
divided into 2 groups. The first group comprised of 6
females, were assigned for soymilk consumption (soy
group); and the second group comprised of 10 females,
were assigned for tempeh consumption (tempeh group).
During the intervention period, subjects were asked not
to consume any probiotics or prebiotics product; and to
minimize fiber consumption from fresh fruits and
In this study, consumption of soy product was
designed for 28 days adapted from the most common
length of food or probiotic consumption from previous
studies in human (Andreasen et al., 2012; Rampelli et
al., 2012; Steenbergen et al., 2015).
For the first 7 days, participants were not allowed to
consume any soy product; including soymilk, tempeh,
and tofu. This treatment was intended to set a
homogeneous baseline for both groups, before entering
the intervention period. On the following 28 days, soy
group consumed 200 mL soymilk per day, while tempeh
group consumed 100 grams of tempeh per day. The
tempeh was purchased from Empang area, Bogor, which
had been previously studied (Barus et al., 2008; Soka et
al., 2014; Soka et al., 2015; Stephanie et al., 2017).
During the intervention, tempeh was cooked every day
according to participants preferences. However, it was
strongly suggested not to cook tempeh using the deep
fried method. Women were chosen as participants
because of their willingness to commit to the
intervention requirements neatly, especially with the
cooking requirement for tempeh respondents during the
intervention. Fecal samples were taken on Preliminary
Measurement (PM) or 7 days before soy product
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consumption started, day 0, 8, and 29 for gut microbiota
analysis (Figure 1).
2.2 Total fecal bacterial DNA extraction
Fecal samples were initially homogenized, then the
fecal bacterial DNAs were extracted using QIAamp
DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen, Germany). Modification
was performed by adding glass beads to ensure that fecal
samples were homogeneous. All bacterial genomic
DNAs were confirmed using 1.5% w/v agarose gel
visualization. DNA concentration was measured with
Nanodrop (Thermo Scientific, DE, USA) and diluted
into 50 ng/µL, subsequently.
2.3 Gut microbiota enumeration
Gut microbiota analysis was performed using real-
time PCR Step One Plus (Applied Biosystems, CA,
USA) with SYBR Green (Promega, CA, USA) as
signaling detector. The standard curve was obtained
using serial dilution with bacterial specific 16S rRNA
gene in pGEM®T Easy (Promega, CA, USA). Isolation
of DNA plasmid was performed using the Alkaline Lysis
method. Isolated Plasmid was diluted into 7 points of
standard concentration between 106-1011 DNA copies per
reaction. Condition applied for real-time analysis
consists of 1 cycle of 94°C for 10 mins and 40 cycles of
95°C for 15 sec, 60 or 64°C for 30 sec, and 72°C for 30-
40 sec depending on which gene was being detected
(Table 1). All reactions were performed were duplicated.
2.4 Food recall analysis
Twenty-four-hour food recall data were collected on
the two-weekdays period, employing phone call
interview method. The difference between the two food-
recall interviews was about 2-3 weeks. All data were
inputted into ESHAs Food Processor® Nutrition
Analysis software (Salem, OR, USA) to obtain the
number of daily calories, protein, carbohydrates, fiber,
fat, and sugar. The data were analyzed statistically using
paired T-test.
2.5 Statistical analysis
Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad
version 6.0. All data were tested for its normality
distribution. Significant differences between soy group
and tempeh group; and within each group were analyzed
using T-test (p<0.05).
3. Results
3.1 Food recall analysis
For each participant, two 24-hour food recall data
were compared using a paired test (data not shown). Data
between soy and tempeh group were compared in the
same time-point. The results showed that there was no
significant difference in food pattern in both groups.
3.2 Gut microbiota quantification
At the beginning of the study, fecal samples were
collected for preliminary measurement analysis. Our data
showed that there was no significant difference in gut
microbiota patterns for both soy and tempeh group at the
beginning of intervention (Figure 2).
Enhancement of species-specific group was observed
for Bifidobacterium and A. muciniphila number. In the
soy group, the number of both Bifidobacterium and A.
muciniphila decreased after 28 days of intervention.
Meanwhile, in tempeh group, Bifidobacterium increased
significantly after 28 days of consumption (Figure 3A),
which was observed around for about 1.5-fold (Figure
Figure 1. Timeline of soy/tempeh intervention and fecal
collection. Preliminary measurement or PM was done 7 days
before soy product consumption started.
Bacterial Group
Specific Primers Sequence Size Annealing (°C) Elongation (s)
Bifidobacterium g-Bifid-F
Table 1. Gut microbiota primer list and analysis condition (Matsuki et al., 2004; Collado et al., 2007 )
Figure 2. Gut microbiota composition for the preliminary
measurement, which was measured before soy/tempeh
60 Stephanie et al. / Food Research 3 (1) (2019) 57 - 63
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4A). It was also observed that after tempeh consumption,
the number of A. muciniphila significantly increased
compared to day 0 and day 8 (Figure 3B) for about 37-
fold (Figure 4B). The enhancement of A. muciniphila for
tempeh group on day 29 was significantly different
compared to soy group (Figure 3B and 4B).
4. Discussion
Before the intervention period, we performed a
preliminary measurement to ensure the food pattern was
homogeneous for both soy and tempeh group. Our result
showed that there was no significant difference of
macronutrient and fiber intake in both groups (data not
shown); indicating that the modulation of gut microbiota
during this study was mostly due to the given treatment.
Besides, gut microbiota composition was also measured.
There was no significant difference found between soy
and tempeh group; indicating that gut microbiota
composition was homogenous in all participants; thus,
the condition was ideal for the start of the study.
Fecal samples were also collected on day 0, 8, and
29. Day 0 represented gut microbiota composition after 7
days of non-soy product consumption, day 8 represented
gut microbiota composition after short-term soy product
consumption for 7 days, and day 29 represented gut
microbiota composition after longer-term consumption
for 28 days.
Tempeh consumption for 28 days enhanced the
production of Bifidobacterium in the gut, while soymilk
consumption did not. This finding might be due to the
fiber composition in tempeh and soymilk. A study by
Boler et al. (2011) revealed soluble maize fiber could
enhance Bifidobacterium production in healthy males.
Tempeh is rich of soluble fibers (Babu et al., 2009),
therefore this property might contribute to the effect of
tempeh consumption in enhancing Bifidobacterium
In comparison to fermented food, whey cheese is
rich of amino acids, such as threonine and cysteine.
Whey cheese supplementation in mice improved
metabolic markers for inflammation in the large
intestine, mucus production, and fecal lactobacilli and
bifidobacteria (Sprong et al., 2010). Our study indicated
that tempeh consumption is promising to improve
metabolic biomarkers for large intestine health and was
proven already to enhance bifidobacteria population in
Our result showed that tempeh consumption
increased A. muciniphila level for about 35-fold after 28
days of tempeh consumption, while soymilk
consumption decreased the level of A. muciniphila, in
Figure 3. Gut microbiota enumeration on soy and tempeh group; (A) was for Bifidobacterium level, and (B) was for A.
muciniphila level. (*) shows a significant difference between soy and tempeh group, alphabetical symbols were the significant
label for each time point in soy group, and numerical symbols were the significant label for each time point in tempeh group.
Figure 4. Gut microbiota population dynamics on day 8 and 29 compared to day 0; (A) was for Bifidobacterium, and (B) was for
A. muciniphila. (*) shows a significant difference between soy and tempeh group, and numerical symbols were the significant
label for each time point in tempeh group.
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which the lowest value was found at the end of the study
(day 29). This finding was consistent with the previous
study, in which 16 days of tempeh consumption
increased A. muciniphila production in the human gut
(Stephanie et al., 2017).
The enhancement of A. muciniphila production in
the gut might be caused by polyphenol compound in
tempeh. Soybean is a concentrated source of secondary
metabolites, such as polyphenol compound (Messina
1999). The previous study revealed that dietary
polyphenol from grape in high-fat diet mice lowered the
expression of inflammatory markers, glucose absorption
related genes, and dramatically increased A. muciniphila
and reduced the proportion of Firmicutes to
Bacteroidetes (Roopchand et al., 2015). A study by
Monk et al. (2016) showed that mice fed with high-fat
diet supplemented with navy bean had 20-fold higher of
A. muciniphila production compared to mice fed with
high-fat diet per se, which indicated that soybean solely
was sufficient to enhance A. muciniphila in mice.
Nevertheless, a significant increase of A. muciniphila
after 28 days of tempeh consumption indicated that
tempeh consumption gave healthier metabolic status by
improving obesity and type-2 diabetes parameters in the
human gut.
Our study also showed that beneficial bacteria
decreased after soymilk consumption; indicating that
soluble macromolecule, such as protein, and
carbohydrate in soymilk might not be sufficient to
enhance beneficial bacteria. In contrast, tempeh has a
higher bioavailability of macromolecules due to the
fermentation process (Nout and Kiers, 2005), which
seemed to enhance beneficial bacteria in the human gut.
In addition, taking into consideration that tofu is
made by curdling soymilk with a coagulant, our findings
indicated that beneficial bacteria might decrease after
tofu consumption and enhance biomarkers for
inflammation. This hypothesis was aligned with a cross-
sectional study by Pramudya (2015) and Hogervorst et
al. (2008). A study in males revealed that the
suppression of Enterococcus bacteria was lower in
participants who consumed tofu rather than tempeh
(Pramudya, 2015). In addition, brain-gut microbiota axis
was found to trigger inflammation and metabolic
diseases, such as dementia. Indonesian elderly
participants with high tofu intake had worse memory
compare to participants who consumed tempeh (Alkasir
et al., 2017).
The enhancement of beneficial bacteria was
observed in female participants, which have higher
hormone fluctuations compare to male, by nature.
Therefore, we hypothesized that enhancement of
beneficial bacteria in male participants might develop
different gut microbiota profiles.
Further study is needed to conclude whether the
enhancement of beneficial bacteria was due to the bean
in tempeh solely; or due to the interaction of bean and
consortium of microbes inside of tempeh.
4. Conclusion
Taken together, tempeh and soymilk consumption
gave different effects on gut microbiota composition. In
general, we found that tempeh consumption modulated
gut microbiota towards a healthier profile by increasing
the number of Bifidobacterium and A. muciniphila
significantly. These results were important as a baseline
for future researches to explore the potential of tempeh
in managing metabolic syndrome diseases, such as
obesity and type-2 diabetes. Furthermore, a more
controlled diet for every participant is suggested, to
obtain a stronger evidence of tempehs effects in
modulating human gut microbiota.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This research was supported by grant from Faculty
of Biotechnology, Atma Jaya Catholic University of
Indonesia to Antonius Suwanto.
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... Tempeh is a traditional Indonesian food rich in probiotics and beneficial for cognitive function (Stéphanie et al., 2017;Stephanie et al., 2018). A study by Handajani et al. (2020) found that the intervention of giving 100 grams of tempeh improved cognitive function in the elderly compared to controls. ...
... Animal studies found that the extract from tempeh can affect brain function through its role in the gastrointestinal system (Hamad et al., 2016;Kridawati et al., 2020). In a study comparing the administration of tempeh and soy milk for 28 days, Stephanie et al. (2018) found that tempeh consumption modulated gut microbiota, increasing amounts of Bifidobacterium and A. muciniphila. Although tempeh comes from the fermentation of Rhizopus oligosporus, many other types of bacteria found in tempeh can be beneficial. ...
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Introduction: Oral consumption of probiotics can alter Gut Microbiota by causing changes in the production of probiotic derivatives. Therefore, by utilizing Gut-Brain-Axis (GBA), probiotics could provide an opportunity for central nervous system (CNS) modulation, including cognitive function. Tempeh is a traditional Indonesian food rich in probiotics and beneficial for cognitive function. However, the type of probiotics that play a role in cognitive improvement and the number of probiotics needed for the benefits of increasing cognitive function was unknown. Method: This experimental study involved a total of 93 subjects, divided into 3 groups: A, B and C/control (n: 33, 32, and 28), who were provided with probiotic supplementation isolated from tempeh for 12 weeks intervention. Inclusion criteria were age > 60 years, and memory impairment with the third repetition value of Word List Memory Immediate Recall (WLMIR) < 7. Subjects with diabetes were excluded. Cognitive function examinations were carried out before and after treatment. The tempeh-derived probiotics were prepared trough several processes. Genomic isolation, detection of GABA-encoding genes, and species identification using the 16S-rRNA gene encoding were performed. Results: The probiotics isolate used in the intervention was identified as Limosilactobacillus fermentum. We assigned this isolate as L. fermentum A2.8. The presence of the gene encoding GABA was found on this isolate. There was an increase in the cognitive domains of memory, learning process, and verbal fluency (p < 0.05) in group A (probiotics at concentration of 108 CFU/mL). Memory function, visuospatial, and verbal fluency improved (p < 0.05) in group B (probiotics at concentration of 107 CFU/mL). Only an increase in the memory domain was observed in the control group. Improvement of the learning process occurred only in group A (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Administration of probiotics derived from L. fermentum A2.8 increased the cognitive domains of memory, language and visuospatial function. However, probiotic supplementation at a concentration of 108 CFU/mL was better in improving the learning process. This study succeeded in detecting Lactic Acid Bacterial isolates L. fermentum A2.8 that enclosed gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase (gad) which is involved in the synthesis of -aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter vital for cognitive function.
... It has been shown to have beneficial effects on the immune system. In a study performed in 16 participants by Tjasa Subandi et al. [100], it was reported that tempeh increased secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) production in the ileum and colon. Tempeh acted as a potential modulator of the composition of gut microbiota, since its consumption increased the population of A. muciniphila in the human intestinal tracts [100]. ...
... In a study performed in 16 participants by Tjasa Subandi et al. [100], it was reported that tempeh increased secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) production in the ileum and colon. Tempeh acted as a potential modulator of the composition of gut microbiota, since its consumption increased the population of A. muciniphila in the human intestinal tracts [100]. ...
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Traditional fermented foods and beverages play an important role in a range of human diets, and several experimental studies have shown their potential positive effects on human health. Studies from different continents have revealed strong associations between the microorganisms present in certain fermented foods (e.g., agave fructans, kefir, yeats, kombucha, chungkookjang, cheeses and vegetables, among others) and weight maintenance, reductions in the risk of cardiovascular disease, antidiabetic and constipation benefits, improvement of glucose and lipids levels, stimulation of the immunological system, anticarcinogenic effects and, most importantly, reduced mortality. Accordingly, the aim of this review is to corroborate information reported in experimental studies that comprised interventions involving the consumption of traditional fermented foods or beverages and their association with human health. This work focuses on studies that used fermented food from 2014 to the present. In conclusion, traditional fermented foods or beverages could be important in the promotion of human health. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in inflammatory, immune, chronic and gastrointestinal diseases and the roles of fermented traditional foods and beverages in terms of preventing or managing those diseases.
... Variations of the Indonesian tempeh have been developed to enhance antioxidant activity, including a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-rich product [124]. A pilot clinical study with a 28-day tempeh supplementation in 16 healthy women showed improved metabolic indicators and enhanced gut Bifidobacterium and A. muciniphila levels [125]. ...
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Fermented foods have been used over the centuries in various parts of the world. These foods are rich in nutrients and are produced naturally using various biological tools like bacteria and fungi. Fermentation of edible foods has been rooted in ancient cultures to keep food for preservation and storage for a long period of time with desired or enhanced nutritional values. Inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and chronic inflammatory pain are chronic disorders that are difficult to treat, and current treatments for these disorders fail due to various adverse effects of prescribed medications over a long period of time. Fermented foods containing probiotic bacteria and fungi can enhance the immune system, improve gastrointestinal health, and lower the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases. Foods prepared from vegetables by fermentation, like kimchi, sauerkraut, soy-based foods, or turmeric, lack proper clinical and translational experimental studies. The current review has focused on the effectiveness of various fermented foods or drinks used over centuries against inflammation, arthritis, and oxidative stress. We also described potential limitations on the efficacies or usages of these fermented products to provide an overarching picture of the research field.
... Kegiatan produksi tersebut dilakukan oleh pengurus pondok pesantren dan santri. Tempe atau bungkil kedelai merupakan makanan yang dikonsumsi masyarakat Indonesia dan dunia dalam jumlah besar karena nilai gizi dan rasa dari makanan tersebut (Bavia et al., 2012;Dinesh Babu et al., 2009;Nout & Kiers, 2005;Stephanie et al., 2019). Hal tersebut menjadi latar belakang pondok pesantren tersebut memilih untuk memproduksi tempe. ...
Pondok Pesantren Asy-Syifa’ Muhammadiyah Bambanglipuro Bantul berada di bawah tanggung jawab Pengurus Daerah Muhammadiyah Kabupaten Bantul. Pondok tersebut merupakan mitra dari kegiatan pengabdian masyarakat yang fokus pada bidang peningkatan kualitas tempe yang diproduksi oleh mitra. Masalah masalah berupa proses fermentasi yang tidak sesuai dengan yang diharapkan sehingga tempe yang didistribusikan ke pelanggan tidak dalam kondisi terbaik. Masalah tersebut dapat diatasi dengan penyuluhan tentang proses fermentasi dan pelatihan pengemasan tempe karena proses fermentasi pada tempe sangat dipengaruhi oleh proses pengemasan. Penyuluhan tersebut mempunyai manfaat bagi mitra karena mitra dapat mempertimbangkan semua aspek yang berhubungan dengan proses fermentasi sehingga dapat memperkirakan setiap Langkah dalam produksi untuk mendapatkan kualitas fermentasi pada tempe yang bagus dan pelatihan pengemasan dapat membantu proses pengemasan pada tempe dapat lebih efisien. Hasil dari peroses pengabdian kepada masyarakat dengan mitra Pondok Pesantren Asy-Syifa yaitu kualitas tempe meningkat karena mitra paham teori yang terjadi pada proses fermentasi, proses produksi lebih cepat, dan produk lebih mudah dikenal masyarakat karena kemasan yang menarik dan informatif.
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To date, there has been no recent opinion that explores tempeh as a functional food that can improve sports performance. Hence, this opinion article aims to elaborate on recent findings on the potential effect on sports performance of soy-based tempeh. This opinion paper presents updated evidence based on literature reviews about soy-based tempeh and its relationship with sports performance. The paraprobiotic role of Lactobacillus gasseri for athletes has been found to restore fatigue and reduce anxiety. This is achieved by increasing protein synthesis activity in eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (EIF2) signaling known as an adaptive pathway for integrated stress response. In addition, these paraprobiotics prevent down-regulation associated with the oxidative phosphorylation gene, thereby contributing to the maintenance of mitochondrial function and recovery from fatigue. The authors believe that this opinion article will encourage researchers to continue to evolve soybean-based tempeh food products and increase the performance of athletes by consuming soy-based foods.
Background The role of the gut microbiota in improving glycemic control in diabetic patients is gaining attention. Tempeh is a fermented soy food from Indonesia that has antidiabetic and antidysbiotic effects. Interestingly, modification of tempeh processing by adding lactic acid bacteria has been reported to enhance the antidiabetic effect of tempeh. Aim To evaluate the effects of modified tempeh on serum glucose, insulin, and gut microbiota diversity of diabetic rats. Methods Modified tempeh was developed by adding lactic acid bacteria from fermented cassava during tempeh processing. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin nicotinamide. Normal tempeh or modified tempeh was added to the diet and replaced 15% or 30% of casein. Serum glucose and insulin were analyzed before and after 30 days of intervention. At the end of the experiment, the appendix was sampled for gut microbiota analysis. Result Modified tempeh has a significantly higher number of lactic acid bacteria (9.99±0.09 versus 7.74±0.07 log CFU, p < 0.001) compared to normal tempeh. There was a significant difference (p < 0.01) in serum glucose and insulin after treatment. Both tempeh supplements increased the diversity of the gut microbiota. Gut microbiota diversity has a strong negative correlation with delta glucose (r=-0.63, p < 0.001) and delta insulin resistance index (r=-0.54, p=0.003). Conclusion Modified tempeh has potential therapeutic antidiabetic activity, possibly through increased diversity of the gut microbiota.
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Introduction: Gut microbiota dysbiosis indicated by increased gram-negative bacteria and reduced Firmicutes-producing short chain fatty acids bacteria has been linked with impairment in glucose metabolism. Tempeh is traditional fermented soy food that can stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria. In Indonesia, some tempeh was produced by adding acidifier that contains lactic acid bacteria. This process may impact the nutrient and anti-dysbiosis activity of tempeh. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of acidifier on nutrient and gut microbiota profile of diabetic animal model. Method: Modified tempeh was made by addition of water extract of fermented cassava. Standard and modified tempeh were subjected to proximate analysis and dietary fibre. Diabetic animals were received standard tempeh or modified tempeh diet replacing 15% and 30% of protein in the diet for 4 weeks of intervention. At the end of experiment, caecal content was collected. Short chain fatty acids and microbiota composition were analysed using 16s rDNA next generation sequencing (NGS). Result: There is significant different (p<0.05) on fat, protein, water and dietary fibre content between regular soy tempeh and modified tempeh. There is significant different (p<0.05) on serum glucose and short chain fatty acid composition among group. Diabetic animal has low ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes. Supplementation of both tempeh increased bacterial diversity, Firmicutes /Bacteroidetes ratio and short chain fatty acids producing bacteria. Conclusion: Addition of naturally occurred lactic acid bacteria from fermented cassava during tempeh processing improved both nutrient and microbiota composition in the gut of diabetes mellitus.
Abstract Background Inflammatory diseases are a real scourge of contemporary times. Chronic inflammation is the result of dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability and activation of the immune system. Its causes are sought in the widespread Western diet, which is claimed to elicit an adverse effect on the microbiota composition and balance in the intestinal ecosystem. Therefore, one of the means to assure good health condition is to maintain the function of the intestinal barrier. Recent reports have indicated the role of fermented foods and bioactive food compounds in shaping microbiota, alleviating inflammation, and restoring homeostasis. Although the human body has developed certain natural mechanisms to ensure body homeostasis, like e.g. autophagy, understanding the role of food in managing this process is a needed line of research. Scope and approach This review article discusses the current knowledge about fermented food and its role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier. It emphasizes the role of fermented products and bioactive food compounds in alleviating inflammation and indicates the importance of the autophagy process in maintaining homeostasis in the intestinal epithelium. Finally, it highlights the need for further studies into the role of food in managing processes that affect gut balance. Key findings and conclusions: The presented overview of recent scientific reports indicates the role of fermented products in modulating microbiota composition and of bioactive food ingredients in autophagy activation. However, most of the reported studies were performed in vitro or in a rodent model. Thus, their results should not be extrapolated to humans. Because of the lack of comprehensive studies in this respect, there is a need for further, well-designed research to understand the molecular mechanisms by which food ingredients affect health.
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Aims: Tempeh is a soy-based traditional food fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus. Although this mold is the main microorganism responsible for tempeh fermentation, various unknown bacteria presence in tempeh could enhance tempeh's nutritional value. This study is aimed to examine the identity of bacteria in tempeh bacterial community by combining metagenomics analysis and culturable technique. Methodology and results: Samples were obtained from a tempeh producer which consists of raw soybeans, fresh water used to soak the beans, soaking water after the beans were soaked for 18 h, dehulled-soybean before inoculation, starter culture, and fresh tempeh. All samples were plated onto Enterobacteriaceae and Lactic Acid Bacteria agar media, and the total DNA was extracted for metagenomics analysis based on 16S rRNA gene cloning and High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS). Metagenomic analysis indicated that Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the predominant and subdominant bacteria, respectively, while the culturable technique showed Proteobacteria were the predominant bacteria. Firmicutes species detected in tempeh were similar to the ones in the soaking water, which were populated by Lactobacillus. However, another predominant bacteria from tempeh, Enterococcus, was similar to minor population of Enterococcus detected in dehulled-soybean before inoculation. Based on the cloned 16S rRNA genes, we observed L. agilis, L. fermentum, and E. cecorum as the predominant bacteria in tempeh. The starter culture, which was dominated by Clostridium, did not alter bacterial community in tempeh, since its proportion was only 2.7% in tempeh clean reads. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The dominant bacteria in tempeh was Lactobacillus from Firmicutes. The bacterial community in tempeh was not affected by the starter culture used, but mainly because of the soybean soaking process.
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Tempeh is a traditional fermented soybean product from Indonesia. Although tempeh is consumed as daily menu in Indonesia, its nutrigenomic study employing human has not been reported yet. On the other hand, our study in mice showed that tempeh could enhance immune system, especially by increasing secretory immunoglobulin A production in ileum and colon. Tempeh was also found to be potential in modulating the composition of gut microbiota. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the impact of tempeh supplementation on the profiles of human intestinal immune system and gut microbiota analysis. This experimental design was reviewed and approved by the ethics committee. A total of 16 participants, comprising of each 8 healthy females and males, aged between 20 and 23 were recruited to this study. The volunteers consumed 200 mL milk from day 1-8 followed by consumption of 100 grams steamed tempeh each day from day 9-24. Fecal samples, which were taken on day 9 and 25, were analyzed with half sandwich ELISA for IgA enumeration while fecal samples, which were taken on day 0, 9, and 25, were analyzed for Akkermansia muciniphila enumeration employing quantitative real time PCR. The result of this study suggesting that tempeh supplementation might act as paraprobiotic and slimming agent since tempeh enhanced production of IgA and increased the number of A. muciniphila in human intestinal tract.
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Trial design The aim of this study was to investigate which of the gut microbes respond to probiotic intervention, as well as study whether they are associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in a healthy adult human. For the experimental purpose, twenty-one healthy adults were recruited and received probiotic mixture, which is composed of five Lactobacilli strains and two Bifidobacteria strains, once a day for 60 days. Defecation survey and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis were conducted pre- and post-administration to measure phenotypic differences. Stool samples of the subjects were collected twice. Methods The statistical analysis was performed for pair designed metagenome data with 11 phenotypic records of the bioelectrical impedance body composition analyzer and 6 responses of the questionnaires about gastrointestinal symptom. Furthemore, correlation-based network analysis was conducted for exploring complex relationships among microbiome communities. Results The abundances of Citrobacter, Klebsiella, and Methanobrevibacter were significantly reduced, which are strong candidates to be highly affected by the probiotic administration. In addition, interaction effects were observed between flatulence symptom attenuation and decreasing patterns of the Methanobrevibacter abundance. Conclusions These results reveal that probiotic intervention modulated the composition of gut microbiota and reduced the abundance of potential pathogens (i.e. Citrobacter and Klebsiella). In addition, methanogens (i.e. Methanobrevibacter) associated with the gastrointestinal symptom in an adult human.
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Physical exercise is a tool to prevent and treat some of the chronic diseases affecting the world’s population. A mechanism through which exercise could exert beneficial effects in the body is by provoking alterations to the gut microbiota, an environmental factor that in recent years has been associated with numerous chronic diseases. Here we show that physical exercise performed by women to at least the degree recommended by the World Health Organization can modify the composition of gut microbiota. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16s rRNA gene, eleven genera were found to be significantly different between active and sedentary women. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed higher abundance of health-promoting bacterial species in active women, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis and Akkermansia muciniphila. Moreover, body fat percentage, muscular mass and physical activity significantly correlated with several bacterial populations. In summary, we provide the first demonstration of interdependence between some bacterial genera and sedentary behavior parameters, and show that not only does the dose and type of exercise influence the composition of gut microbiota, but also the breaking of sedentary behavior.
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The gastrointestinal microbiota has an important role in human health, and there is increasing interest in utilizing dietary approaches to modulate the composition and metabolic function of the microbial communities that colonize the gastrointestinal tract to improve health, and prevent or treat disease. One dietary strategy for modulating the microbiota is consumption of dietary fiber and prebiotics that can be metabolized by microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Human alimentary enzymes are not able to digest most complex carbohydrates and plant polysaccharides. Instead, these polysaccharides are metabolized by microbes which generate short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate. This article reviews the current knowledge of the impact of fiber and prebiotic consumption on the composition and metabolic function of the human gastrointestinal microbiota, including the effects of physiochemical properties of complex carbohydrates, adequate intake and treatment dosages, and the phenotypic composition of the human microbiota.
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Dementia is a comprehensive category of brain diseases that is great enough to affect a person’s daily functioning. The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, which makes most of cases. New researches indicate that gastrointestinal tract microbiota are directly linked to dementia pathogenesis through triggering metabolic diseases and low-grade inflammation progress. A novel strategy is proposed for the management of these disorders and as an adjuvant for psychiatric treatment of dementia and other related diseases through modulation of the microbiota (e.g. with the use of probiotics).
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Tempeh, a well-known Indonesian fermented food made from soybeans, results from mixed-culture fermentation using a diverse group of microorganisms. The presence of many nonviable microorganisms in cooked tempeh may trigger responses in the immune system. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard diet supplemented with either non-fermented soybeans or tempeh (uncooked or cooked), for 28 days. Gene expression of intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) was analyzed using semi-quantitative real-time PCR, and intestinal IgA was further quantified from the ileum wash using ELISA. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in IgA gene expression between animals groups receiving feed supplemented with cooked or uncooked tempeh. However, a significant (p<0.05) difference was observed between animals receiving feed supplemented with tempeh and with non-fermented soybeans. Microbial cells in tempeh might increase IgA protein secretion.
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Objective Individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes differ from lean and healthy individuals in their abundance of certain gut microbial species and microbial gene richness. Abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin-degrading bacterium, has been inversely associated with body fat mass and glucose intolerance in mice, but more evidence is needed in humans. The impact of diet and weight loss on this bacterial species is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the association between faecal A. muciniphila abundance, faecal microbiome gene richness, diet, host characteristics, and their changes after calorie restriction (CR). Design The intervention consisted of a 6-week CR period followed by a 6-week weight stabilisation diet in overweight and obese adults (N=49, including 41 women). Faecal A. muciniphila abundance, faecal microbial gene richness, diet and bioclinical parameters were measured at baseline and after CR and weight stabilisation. Results At baseline A. muciniphila was inversely related to fasting glucose, waist-to-hip ratio and subcutaneous adipocyte diameter. Subjects with higher gene richness and A. muciniphila abundance exhibited the healthiest metabolic status, particularly in fasting plasma glucose, plasma triglycerides and body fat distribution. Individuals with higher baseline A. muciniphila displayed greater improvement in insulin sensitivity markers and other clinical parameters after CR. These participants also experienced a reduction in A. muciniphila abundance, but it remained significantly higher than in individuals with lower baseline abundance. A. muciniphila was associated with microbial species known to be related to health. Conclusions A. muciniphila is associated with a healthier metabolic status and better clinical outcomes after CR in overweight/obese adults. The interaction between gut microbiota ecology and A. muciniphila warrants further investigation.
Objective: We aimed at determining the relationship of the gut microbiota and short chain fatty acids with obesity and fat partitioning and at testing potential differences in the ability of gut microbiota to ferment equal amounts of carbohydrates (CHO) between lean and obese youth. Research design and methods: We analyzed the gut microbiota of 84 youth in whom body fat distribution was measured by fast-magnetic resonance imaging, de novo lipogenesis (DNL) quantitated using deuterated water, and the capability of gut flora to ferment CHO was assessed by (13)C-fructose treatment in vitro. Results: A significant association was found between the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, and the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria with body mass index, visceral and SC fat (all P < .05). Plasma acetate, propionate, and butyrate were associated with body mass index and visceral and SC fat (all P < .05) and with hepatic DNL (P = .01, P = .09, P = .04, respectively). Moreover, the rate of CHO fermentation from the gut flora was higher in obese than in lean subjects (P = .018). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that obese youth show a different gut flora composition than lean and that short chain fatty acids are associated with body fat partitioning and DNL. Also, the gut microbiota of obese youth have a higher capability than the gut flora of lean to oxidize CHO.
The central role of the intestinal microbiota in the progression and, equally, prevention of metabolic dysfunction is becoming abundantly apparent. The symbiotic relationship between intestinal microbiota and host ensures appropriate development of the metabolic system in humans. However, disturbances in composition and, in turn, functionality of the intestinal microbiota can disrupt gut barrier function, a trip switch for metabolic endotoxemia. This low-grade chronic inflammation, brought about by the influx of inflammatory bacterial fragments into circulation through a malfunctioning gut barrier, has considerable knock-on effects for host adiposity and insulin resistance. Conversely, recent evidence suggests that there are certain bacterial species that may interact with host metabolism through metabolite-mediated stimulation of enteric hormones and other systems outside of the gastrointestinal tract, such as the endocannabinoid system. When the abundance of these keystone species begins to decline, we