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Building on earlier efforts to develop cultural intelligence (CQ), the current study reports on the expansion of a framework to utilize instructional design (ID) theory and experiential learning in a blended learning environment. Japanese university students' intercultural learning engagement with topical online content and media, an asynchronous exchange with international counterparts and multi-cultural workshop were tracked across one semester. CQ measures were obtained pre-/post-course, while experience-based, in-class activities were extended with online learning reflection. Course goals included critical thinking, supporting intercultural skills in English and building digital literacy. Results indicate the multidisciplinary framework's compatibility with blended learning, and students' intercultural learning engagement patterns in terms of CQ were positive, supporting further course development despite not being statistically significant. Implications for intercultural learning, the design of instruction for blended learning, learning engagement patterns and the potential of adaptive learning are discussed against the backdrop of continued course refinement.
Learner reflections: Impact of the course on intercultural learning Discussion of findings 1) High scores on summative assessment and very positive levels of engagement with formative assessment tasks indicate successful application for the instructional method used in this investigation, i.e. blended learning. Summative assessments have traditionally been used as high-stakes evaluative instruments; however, the shift in the learning paradigm emanating from the blended methods approach is now increasing opportunities for using summative and formative methods as complementary means to understand learning (Looney, 2011). This blending of assessment approaches, together with ready access to learning materials, we believe, added to higher levels of engagement with the content. In addition, since the course was conducted in English, a second language for our students, we reasoned that increasing content exposure would also benefit language learning, even though it was not a directly measured as such. As a result of the online format, students had ready access to their answers and scoring and could approach the teacher easily in the F2F setting. Digital literacy is today identified as one of the four domains of 21 st century skills required from students (Kivunja, 2015) and our approach in blending summative and formative assessment in an online format, we believe, exemplifies an approach to learning that allows for maximum engagement with content, simultaneously supporting the development of other academic skills.
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International Journal for Educational Media and Technology
2018, Vol.12, No. 1, pp.18-28
IJEMT, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2018, pp.18-28 ISSN 18822290
18
Developing Cultural Intelligence (CQ):
Designs for Blended Learning
Peter W. Roux
Saga University, Kumamoto University, Japan
peteroux@cc.saga-u.ac.jp
Katsuaki Suzuki
Kumamoto University, Japan
ksuzuki@kumamoto-u.ac.jp
Ryuchi Matsuba
Kumamoto University, Japan
matsuba@kumamoto-u.ac.jp
Yoshiko Goda
Kumamoto University, Japan
ygoda@kumamoto-u.ac.jp
Building on earlier efforts to develop cultural intelligence (CQ), the current study reports on the expansion of a framework
to utilize instructional design (ID) theory and experiential learning in a blended learning environment. Japanese
university students’ intercultural learning engagement with topical online content and media, an asynchronous exchange
with international counterparts and multi-cultural workshop were tracked across one semester. CQ measures were
obtained pre-/post-course, while experience-based, in-class activities were extended with online learning reflection. Course
goals included critical thinking , supporting intercultural skills in English and building digital literacy. Results indicate
the multi-disciplinary framework’s compatibility with blended learning, and students’ intercultural learning engagement
patterns in terms of CQ were positive, supporting further course development despite not being statistically significant.
Implications for intercultural learning, the design of instruction for blended learning , learning engagement patterns and
the potential of adaptive learning are discussed against the backdrop of continued course refinement.
Keywords: cultural intelligence (CQ); experiential and blended learning; Japanese university; instructional design
The globalization of employment and the steady incursion of technology in education and training are obliging
institutions worldwide to incorporate some form of learning technology to educate and train employees, management
and students. Since 2009, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) has
aimed to internationalize Japanese university environments through a project called the Global 30, partially geared
towards the cultivation of ‘global citizens’ (MEXT, 2018). In previous reports (Roux & Suzuki, 2016, 2017a; 2017b;
2017c), we drew attention to the neglect of incorporating culturally sensitive methods and materials into designs for
online learning (Parrish & Linder-Vanberschot, 2010; Henderson, 2007; Clem, 2004). In a preliminary attempt to start
addressing some of these noted shortcomings, we developed a multi-disciplinary conceptual framework (Roux &
Suzuki, 2016, 2017a), as a foundation for an intercultural workshop that focused on the development of cultural
intelligence (CQ). The framework incorporated instructional design (ID) theory, cultural intelligence (CQ) theory
(Early & Ang, 2003; Ang, VanDyne & Tan, 2011) and experiential learning theory (Kolb, 1984). It was envisaged as
the initial step in our broader project, which seeks to develop the CQ, intercultural skill-set, or ‘global citizenship’ of
Japanese university students through an application of ID and supportive educational technologies.
Findings from this initial step indicated that our framework effectively supported intercultural, experiential learning
activities (Roux & Suzuki, 2016, 2017a), which gave preliminary support for expanding our investigation. The CQ
model offers a practical understanding of cultural learning and the development of intercultural skills, which has been
linked to the notion of a ‘global mindset’ (Roux, 2018; Lovvorn & Chen, 2010). CQ refers to an individual’s capacity
to function effectively in situations characterized by cultural diversity (Ang, Van Dyne & Tan, 2011). Conceptually,
CQ has roots in intelligence theory and can be described as an individual’s capacity to adapt to unfamiliar cultural
environments through an application of four intelligent capacities: (1) cognition, (2) motivation, (3) behavior and (4)
strategy (Early & Ang, 2003). CQ is now considered an essential skill for the modern workforce and has gained
additional popularity through adaptations in university courses (Barnes, Smith & Hernández-Pozas, 2017; Fischer,
2011), organizational development (Ang, Van Dyne & Tan, 2011), and internationalized training (Livermore, 2011;
Lovvorn & Chen, 2011).
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Given the relative novelty of the CQ model however, educational and/or instructional models for the development
of CQ are scarce (MacNab, Brislin & Worthley, 2012). Research studies using the CQ construct has indicated its
application potential to university participants (MacNab et. al., 2012; Fischer, 2011), while the experiential learning
approach for CQ development have shown particular effectiveness (Ng, Van Dyne & Ang, 2009). Considering the
reported need for a renewed cognizance of culture’s pervasive influence in the design of instruction (Parrish & Linder-
Vanberschot, 2010; Clem, 2004), and given earlier successes with incorporating some online media and surveys with
our learner audience (Roux & Suzuki, 2016, 2017a), it seemed logical for our investigation to continue using technology
more comprehensively in exploring CQ development. Training and structured learning as components in the
development of intercultural skill and using educational technology to augment such intercultural learning are
therefore central to the present investigation.
Increasing the use of technology as an educational tool implied a consideration of suitable models for course design
and application. Computer-assisted learning and the Internet has radically changed the teaching paradigm (Alonso,
López, Manrique & Viñes, 2005) and higher education is struggling with incorporation and adaptation of the
appropriate pedagogical principles. With this consideration in mind, Watson (2008) suggests that blended learning
shows significant potential, and quoting Dziuban, Hartman and Moskal (2004), he describes it as “… a pedagogical
approach that combines the effectiveness and socialization opportunities of the classroom with the technologically
enhanced active learning possibilities of the online environment”. Figure 1 below depicts the blended learning
continuum, as described by Watson (2004). Our course is matched by the description as highlighted.
Figure 1. The Blended Learning Continuum (Adapted from Watson, 2004)
This type of learning is thus a fundamental redesign of the instructional model in that it mixes various event- or
experience-based activities, including live e-learning (synchronous), self-paced learning (asynchronous) and face-to-
face (F2F) classrooms (Alonso et al., 2005). Moreover, the introduction and blending of key instructional procedures
with technological aids are creating profound shifts in the learner-instructor relationship, with obvious effects on the
individual learning process. This impact is broadly seen as follows: (1) it constitutes a shift from lecture- to student-
centered instruction in that students become active and interactive learners; (2) it increases interaction between
students and instructor, between the students, and between students and content (inside or outside of the course),
and (3) it integrates formative and summative assessment mechanisms for students and instructor (Watson, 2008).
Given that our project continues to refine an instructional model for the development of CQ, the qualitative aspects
of the BL approach, in terms of its potential impact on learning, appeared very suitable for our stated goals. Our
current study thus reports how the BL method was utilized in the design of instruction, and how it served as an
application of ID to cultivate and develop CQ. We provide a discussion of the course design and development,
implementation methods and present results from students’ learning engagement and response patterns as well as
selected student feedback.
Research Design, Methods and Procedures
Expanding an earlier framework aimed at encouraging intercultural learning (Roux & Suzuki, 2016, 2017a), we
designed and implemented a 15-week intercultural communication course that combined: 1) traditional F2F short
lectures; 2) experiential learning activities in a facilitated face-to-face format with groups; 3) one multi-cultural
workshop; 4) online media, quizzes and feedback to enhance learning; and 5) an asynchronous online discussion forum
with international counterparts. CQ measures were obtained pre- and post-course and used as a self-rated indication
of intercultural competence development. Fourteen undergraduate (2nd year) Japanese students enrolled in a 15-week
FULLY
ONLINE
all
learning
online at a
distance
no F2F
Fully
online
curriculum
options
for F2F,
but not
required
Mostly/
fully online
select days
required in
classroom
or PC lab
Mostly /
fully online
in PC lab or
classroom
where
students
meet every
day
Classroom
instruction
with
significant,
required online
components
that extend
learning
beyond the
classroom
FACE TO
FACE
Traditional
setting with
few or no
online
resources or
communication
The Blended Learning Continuum
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2018, Vol.12, No. 1, pp.18-28
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course as part of an international study abroad (ISAC) preparation program (Hayase, 2017; Roux & Angove, 2017).
The average age was 19 with gender balance almost equal. An audience analysis, conducted at the inception of the
project (Roux & Suzuki, 2016, 2017a, 2017b), indicated a highly motivated, predominantly Asian group of mostly
intermediate to advanced English second language learners. The ISAC program provides higher-level, additional
English-based content classes over 3 years which can include a short or longer sojourn abroad. Students met weekly
for a 90-minute, F2F class in a PC lab with Wi-Fi and audio-visual equipment.
Course designs for CQ
In line with our project goals, and cognizant of Fischer’s (2011) contention that intercultural training needs a pedagogy
that can support the development of CQ, we designed a course that would reflect this goal in content, depth and
scope. We incorporated ID principles that would ensure the effective dissemination of learning, track and evaluate
the learning process itself and deliver research data for a learning analysis. This complex set of goals, with the
accompanying rationale and content examples are displayed in Table 1. Three broad areas of the course are covered:
1) learning content, 2) assessment and evaluation and 3) research. Each of these domains are then broken down into
summarized segments, indicating the relevant learning considerations and rationale in relation to CQ development.
Table 1
An intercultural learning course to develop CQ, using a blended learning approach
Textbook study consisted of academic-type readings with comprehension activities, Japanese translations of
vocabulary and downloadable materials. Classroom work typically consisted of facilitated group- and/or pair work,
engagement with online media, short lectures, online (asynchronous) discussion with international and local
counterparts, and weekly learning reflections, utilizing online feedback/evaluation formats developed by the instructor.
The course further utilized four (summative, quiz-type format) evaluations for grading purposes that also included
formative evaluation sections for continued course design purposes. The online discussion forum (Moodle-based),
entitled ‘International Virtual Exchange project’ (IVE) (see https://iveproject.org/) is hosted at the Muroran Institute
of Technology and maintained through a Japanese government funding grant. The program connects local and
Course Element
Content and Rationale
Learning
content
§ Textbook
(8 chapters)
Title: Culture and Conflict: Changing the World for the Better
Developing cultural understanding - CQ knowledge/behaviour.
§ Classroom
worksheets
Instructor-developed, topical experience- and/or content-based
worksheets to enhance the text. Focused on personal CQ development
and linguistic support.
§ Mini-lectures (8)
Short topical lectures developed to enhance the text.
§ Experience-
centred learning
activities
Topical activities (brainstorm, group & pair discussions, mini-
presentations, show-and-tell activities, etc.) to enhance conceptual
understanding and peer-interaction.
§ Multi-cultural
workshop (1)
Title: Does race matter? Voluntary attendance to an open workshop.
Mixed audience with local and international students.
§ Online media
Topical videos, talks provided by teacher and/or students. Eg: YouTube
& TED Talks. Subtitles provided where possible.
§ IVE Project
(4 topics/8 weeks)
Moodle based, asynchronous online discussion exchange with
international counterparts to develop linguistic skills (English as a 2nd
language) and intercultural competence.
§ Homework
Reading for comprehension, listening, vocabulary study and answering
topical questions in relation to the content.
Assessment
&
Evaluation
§ Online review
quizzes (4)
Summative quizzes for learning assessment purposes
§ Online feedback
surveys (13)
Formative evaluation for a qualitative understanding of learning progress
and problems.
§ IVE Project
Qualitative evaluation of online discussions to gage levels of interaction,
issues, topics and potential problems.
Research
§ CQ Scale
Surveyed pre/post course to establish a self-measurement of cultural
intelligence and the postulated development thereof.
§ Online surveys
(weekly)
Formative/summative evaluations and feedback were combined in one
survey-type quiz to provide a sense of learning progress.
§ IVE Project
Analysis of online discussions to obtain a quantitative and qualitative
sense of engagement and learning patterns.
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international colleges and currently incorporates 9 countries. The asynchronous forum relies on English as a lingua
franca (ELF) and we were teamed with colleges in Tokyo and Colombia. A multi-cultural workshop (Roux & Suzuki,
2016, 2017a) was embedded as an additional intercultural learning experience within the larger course framework. As
an indicator of intercultural education and its influence on the development of CQ, we surveyed participants pre- and
post-course with the Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) using a 7-point Likert type scale. The CQS captures a self-rated
ability to perform and adapt in diverse environments and can be used as a diagnostic tool for intercultural success
(Ang et al., 2011; Fischer, 2011).
Course implementation
The 15-week course plan with weekly lesson contents is shown below (Table 2) with the concomitant learning elements
and research dimensions.
Table 2
An intercultural learning course to develop CQ
Our framework (Roux & Suzuki, 2016, 2017a) supported an integration with the BL model (Fig. 1), and intercultural
learning contents to develop CQ (Table 2) could thus be adapted in such a way as to combine F2F instruction with
online elements. The final design thus incorporated all the elements as described thus far, with relevant components
Lesson conten ts
Learning elements
Research elements
1
§ Introduction
§ CQ Scale
§ Content orientation & overview
§ CQ Scale: Time 1
2
§ Chapter 1: Thinking about
Culture
§ Mini-lecture & activit ies to
address CQ development
§ Learning reflection 1 (online)
§ Formative feedback 1
(online)
3
§ Explanation and enrolment:
IVE Project Unit 1:
Introduction
§ Asynchronous online discussion
for linguistic &
CQ development
§ Qualitative analysis of
online discussions
4
§ Chapter 2: Hidden Culture &
Differences
§ Mini-lecture & activit ies to
address CQ development
§ Learning reflection 2 (online)
§ Formative feedback 2
(online)
5
§ Review 1: Chapters 1&2
§ IVE Project Unit 2: My
Place
§ Online Quiz 1:
Summative evaluation
§ Learning reflection 3 (online)
§ Formative feedback 3
(online)
6
§ Chapter 3: Conflict
§ Mini-lecture & activit ies to
address CQ development
§ Learning reflection 4 (online)
§ Formative feedback 4
(online)
7
§ Chapter 4:
Identifying Conflicts
§ Mini-lecture & activit ies to
address CQ development
§ Learning reflection 5 (online)
§ Formative feedback 5
(online)
8
§ Review 2: Chapters 3&4
§ IVE Project Unit 3: Events
in our lives
§ Online Quiz 2:
Summative evaluation
§ Learning reflection 6 (online)
§ Formative feedback 6
(online)
9
§ Chapter 5: Values and Belief
Systems
§ Mini-lecture & activit ies to
address CQ development
§ Learning reflection 7 (online)
§ Formative feedback 7
(online)
§ Workshop: Does race matter?
§ Multi-cultural workshop
§ Learning reflection
§ Analysis of audience
feedback
10
§ Chapter 6: The role of Values
in I ntercultural Conflict
§ Mini-lecture & activities to
address CQ development
§ Learning reflection 8 (online)
§ Formative feedback 8
(online)
11
§ Review 3: Chapters 5&6
§ IVE Project Unit 4 (final):
Plans for the future
§ Online Quiz 3:
Summative evaluation
§ Learning reflection 9 (online)
§ Formative feedback 9
(online)
12
§ Chapter 7: Perceptions
§ Mini-lecture & activit ies to
address CQ development
§ Learning reflection 10 (online)
§ Formative feedback 10
(online)
13
§ Chapter 8: Stereotypes
§ Mini-lecture & activit ies to
address CQ development
§ Learning reflection 11 (online)
§ Formative feedback 11
(online)
14
§ Review 4: Chapters 7&8
§ Online Quiz 4:
Summative evaluation
§ Learning reflection 12 (online)
§ Formative feedback 12
(online)
15
§ Consolidation & reflection
§ Conduct CQ Scale
§ Learning reflection 13 (online)
§ Formative feedback 13
(online)
§ CQ Scale: Time 2
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2018, Vol.12, No. 1, pp.18-28
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for data collection. Steps 1-4 in the project are visualized in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Outline of steps in the investigation
To assess and track student progress in relation to our intercultural education course and its influence on CQ
development, we surveyed participants pre- and post-course with the Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) using a 7-point
Likert type scale. The CQS captures a self-rated ability to perform and adapt in environments characterized by diversity
and has been used for research purposes as a diagnostic tool to measure intercultural competence (Ang, Van Dyne &
Tan, 2011; Fischer, 2011). To track learning progress, summative and formative evaluations (see Table 2) took place
at 4 intervals, providing a sense of learner engagement and performance, used as feedback to guide instruction.
Learner responses were captured using online survey forms (via Google). These provided a useful and ongoing means
of tracking learning engagement, adding an adaptive dimension to the design of instruction as the course progressed.
The visual below depicts all the theoretical and practical elements for this investigation.
Figure 3. A blended learning model for developing CQ (Adapted from Roux & Suzuki, 2017b, c).
Results
We present the results as follows: (1) summative assessment (4 online quiz-type reviews) to show student learning and
performance; (2) a sample of learner feedback to accompany the summative assessment across the 4 quizzes; (3) a
statistical analysis of the pre- and post-course CQ surveys to determine if there was a significant change in these self-
rated scores; (4) learner feedback regarding the IVE to enhance understanding of intercultural learning; (5) a summary
of learning feedback gathered as part of the formative reviews conducted throughout the course, specifically in
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2018, Vol.12, No. 1, pp.18-28
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relation to intercultural skill development and CQ. Results for the multicultural workshop will be reported elsewhere
to continue earlier reports (Roux & Suzuki, 2017a) on its development.
Student learning and performance
Results from the summative assessment from scores obtained across the 4 quizzes show a class average performance
of 88% for this learning assessment component (Table 3). The high average performance could perhaps be explained
by the fact that we used an open-book test format to gain maximum engagement with the learning material, and that
each quiz covered only two textbook chapters with 10 multiple-choice questions for each chapter. Pointedly, and as
part of a formative assessment, students responded to specific learning moments or issues which are included here to
show learner response but will be analyzed at a later stage. A further content-related written task was included in each
quiz to check comprehension and pick up on issues with the learning content; however, this task was not formally
assessed as part of the student grade.
Table 3
Contrasting summative and formative feedback across four course reviews
Summative
Feedback
Results (sample): Formative Feedback
Methods
& Tools
Average
score
Samples from the free comment section of reviews
Review
Quiz 1
90%
S1:
I can learn some ideas of culture in this class; this is valuable time.
S2:
I didnt prepare by reading so the class was a little difficult.
S3:
I have never think about culture deeplythis time I could learn about culture. In addition, I could
learn that culture can divided into 3 parts. Befo re this lecture, I think culture depend on each country or
community. But now I think culture have more deep meaning. For example, visible culture, hidden
culture and cultural roots. Visible culture can change easily, however hidden culture is difficult to change.
Hidden culture and cultural roots are difficult t o understand, so sometimes cause conflict. I understood
why conflicts happen between communities. Chapter 1 and 2 are good contents to think about culture
which surround us.
S4:
I had a good study about culture t hrough the lessons. I want to use the knowledge which I learned
when I interact with international people.
Review
Quiz 2
90%
S1:
I could learn about conflicts. I was surprised because conflicts have positive synergy and negative
aspect s.
S2:
People are different; we should try to understand others.
S3:
It was difficult for me to learn about conflict because there were many kinds in conflict.
S4:
Lesson about chapter 3 and 4 was very interesting especially, there are negative conflict and positive
conflict.
Review
Quiz 3
85%
S1:
When I compare my answer with my partner, I found differences in rankingeach person has own
values and opinions.
S2:
This chapter was difficult for me.
S3:
I found it difficult to think of my important personal or cultural values. Through this chapter, I
could know what the belief and value for me is deeply. Moreover, I realized I am happy now.
S4:
I want to make a habit of learning or something such as learning other language or practice sports.
Do you know good way to continue to something?
Review
Quiz 4
90%
S1:
I wanted to study about textbook's passage. I didn't understand the chapters deeply. The way of
active learning was good. However, I would like to study or get to know further about conflict and
culture.
S2:
I learned many things from this class, for example it is important to take another perception when
you encounter some difficulties. The class is good time for me.
S3:
It is difficult for me to understand this chapter. However, through read this chapter more deeply, I
found that it is interesting and important for me to understand another person.
S4:
This class was very interesting because there are a few chances that I can learn and discuss cultural
conflict and working with a group. Thank you very much for teaching this class.
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Learner feedback
Table 3 further provides selected samples from the learning feedback we collected as part of the review quizzes. These
show a variety of responses that we will analyze in full and report elsewhere; for present purposes, we summarize
observations into three broad themes: (1) specific learning content-related thoughts, opinions and questions; (2)
general learning observations regarding both the contents and process of learning; and (3) student reflections that
signified a very personal engagement with the class/learning contents, such as thought-provoking/challenging
questions and/or particularly emotional responses. Methods that bring together learners’ previous experiences, link
conceptual foundations with practice and encourage reflection are pivotal to learning (Lewis & Williams, 1994) and
are the hallmarks of experiential learning, one of the core principles embedded in our framework (Roux & Suzuki,
2017a). In reading these student learning reflections, we were impressed with the level of engagement and depth of
consideration displayed. The depth and variety of reflection support the contention that learning is not only a very
personal process, but also that this process can be tracked and captured via technological means and analyzed to
improve teaching and learning. It appears that our framework, which incorporated the online feedback surveys, in
combination with the BL approach managed to capture these learning processes very well.
CQ development
Results from the analysis of the pre-/post-course CQ surveys were a central indicator for the development of
intercultural competence in this course and we applied it here to augment the formative feedback we collected. We
used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare the two matched samples (treatment 1 pre-, and treatment 2 post-
course) to assess whether the mean ranks of our group differ. This test was chosen because of the low N size (13)
and provide the results in Table 4. The Z-value is -1.74 and the p value is 0.08; therefore, the result is not significant at
p 0.05. The W-value is 20.5 and the critical value for N = 13 at p 0.05 is 17. Therefore, the result is also not
significant at p ≤ 0.05. Given the very small group size (N=13), we expected that it would be statistically difficult to
show significant changes on the CQS for the course.
Table 4
Results from the CQ surveys pre- & post-course
Learner feedback from the International Virtual Exchange
Results from the learner feedback regarding the International Virtual Exchange (IVE) are shown below in Figure 4.
These responses encapsulate a central question related to learners’ qualitative estimation of the cultural learning they
experienced during their participation in this online, asynchronous forum. We reasoned that these could be usefully
added to the previous CQ survey data, together with other formative feedback to provide additional depth to
understanding their learning development in the area of intercultural competence. It is noteworthy that across the 4
topic areas covered by the IVE, constituting almost 8 weeks of participation, students self-reported writing between
80-100 comments (in total), while receiving a similar total amount of responses in return. This is not a very high
number considering the period of time and suggests that there was a limited engagement within the forum that might
have been influenced by the fact that there was limited class-time made available, its asynchronous format and the fact
that it was not ‘instructor-driven’, i.e. participation carried no reward except the potential benefit coming from the
mutual personal investment of engaging with foreign peers. Nevertheless, as the graph below shows, a number of
positive observations can be drawn from student reflections.
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Figure 4. Learner reflections from the International Virtual Exchange (IVE)
As for the IVE impacting on the improvement of cultural understanding and knowledge, as well as the motivation
for exploring this area further, the majority of students self-rated very positively, indicating interest, enjoyment and a
wish to continue themselves and/or offering it as a recommendation to peers. A smaller but significant group indicated
that their PC skills, in their own estimation, were not sufficient. Observations from the F2F situation supported this
contention, as the instructor were often occupied with student queries regarding the use of the Moodle platform for
uploading pictures, and/or other media, as well as fairly simple procedures in replying to comments. This finding
deserves more investigation considering that these students all use smartphones for communicative purposes. A final
observation relates to their fairly low rating of confidence/skill using English with other English 2nd language users,
and indications that it might have been perceived as a pervasive problem that could have affected the low number of
exchanges reported earlier.
Self-estimated cultural learning feedback
Results from learner feedback regarding their self-estimated cultural learning across the course is provided in Figure
5 below. Considering our investigation goals, it was timed to coincide with the learning reviews/quizzes and aimed at
capturing a comprehensive sense of the intercultural learning impact students experienced as the course progressed.
Questions were designed to incorporate students’ self-rated impressions of knowledge gains, interpersonal
skill/behavior and strategies, and an attempt to link these to a sense of personal growth/change. These questions
mirror broad themes addressed by the course and we reasoned that having these elements as reflective points in the
reviews could help retain an interest for the broader project goals in students’ minds. Options for feedback range from
judging the course as having little impact to gaining new insight/knowledge and interpersonal behavior change with a perspective
to the future and finally, an impact on personal growth. Although results here vary across the four reviews, Review 3 was
rated highest, but with all reviews indicating impactful impressions on student minds. This is a positive result with
respect to our project goals but will need further investigation both in terms of depth and breadth, which will be
obtained through a more comprehensive qualitative analysis.
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Figure 5. Learner reflections: Impact of the course on intercultural learning
Discussion of findings
1) High scores on summative assessment and very positive levels of engagement with formative assessment tasks
indicate successful application for the instructional method used in this investigation, i.e. blended learning.
Summative assessments have traditionally been used as high-stakes evaluative instruments; however, the shift in
the learning paradigm emanating from the blended methods approach is now increasing opportunities for using
summative and formative methods as complementary means to understand learning (Looney, 2011). This
blending of assessment approaches, together with ready access to learning materials, we believe, added to higher
levels of engagement with the content. In addition, since the course was conducted in English, a second language
for our students, we reasoned that increasing content exposure would also benefit language learning, even though
it was not a directly measured as such. As a result of the online format, students had ready access to their answers
and scoring and could approach the teacher easily in the F2F setting. Digital literacy is today identified as one of
the four domains of 21st century skills required from students (Kivunja, 2015) and our approach in blending
summative and formative assessment in an online format, we believe, exemplifies an approach to learning that
allows for maximum engagement with content, simultaneously supporting the development of other academic
skills.
2) Learner feedback and learning analysis provided through the online feedback formats indicate activated learning
processes, providing support for the combination of experiential- and blended learning formats. Results from
the learning feedback that were collected from a formative feedback component that was integrated with every
quiz provided very useful insights with regard to student engagement with the learning contents. As indicated
previously, this blended form of learning assessment gave opportunities for students to assess their own
understanding, going beyond the correct/incorrect dualism typical of summative scores. Importantly for
instruction purposes, gathering information and data about learner comprehension helps to build a knowledge
base about what is practical and beneficial (both in the content and the manner of presentation) (Looney, 2011).
Since course development always continues, this is a crucial capacity to expand and is being usefully accomplished
through the online survey formats. We see our current approach as a precursor to utilizing more extensive
technological tools and envisage that future developments here could expand into learner analytics and adaptive
learning. Essentially, learning analytics is the process of capturing and analyzing all the digital footprints of
learners as they engage with an institution of learning to help improve teaching and learning (Sclater, Peasgood
& Mullan, 2016). In a review on international practices in this burgeoning field, Sclater et. al., (2016, p. 5) points
to four advantages of instituting learner analytics in higher education, stating that it could act as a tool for (1)
quality assurance and improvement; (2) boosting retention rates; (3) assessing and acting upon differential
outcomes among the student population; and (4) as an enabler for the introduction and enabling of adaptive
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2018, Vol.12, No. 1, pp.18-28
IJEMT, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2018, pp.18-28 ISSN 18822290
27
learning.
3) Although the pre/post CQ surveys did not indicate statistically significant support for the intercultural skill
development aimed at with our course, there are important reasons to consider in understanding this result. These
include the small sample size, moderating influences such as personality and the impact of variables not accounted
for here. In a study that correlated CQ developments with cultural essentialism beliefs, Fischer (2011) measured
the effects of a brief intercultural training intervention as part of a New Zealand university course (N=107) but
found no significant effect for the tested hypotheses. Among his findings were the observation that personality
factors constituted a powerful moderating effect on results. He contends that intercultural interventions have
some effectiveness in increasing intercultural awareness in that such learning is often instigated and developed
through participation in such activity. Given CQ’s 4-factor model that encapsulates intercultural development on
the metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioral levels, we could further analyze results at this level to
ascertain effects; however, our small sample size mitigates against proving significance and would perhaps be
better followed up in future investigations with larger groups.
4) Broad measures of the course’s effectiveness should consider the combined results from the student feedback
regarding the IVE, course content and personal reflections. Methods that bring together learners’ previous
experiences, link conceptual foundations with practice and encourage reflection are pivotal to learning (Lewis &
Williams, 1994) and are the hallmarks of experiential learning, one of the core principles embedded in our
framework (Roux & Suzuki, 2017a). In reading student learning reflections, we were impressed with the level of
engagement and depth of consideration displayed. The depth and variety of reflection support the contention
that learning is not only a very personal process, but also that our framework, in conjunction with the BL approach
managed to track and capture these developments well.
Conclusion and implications for future research
The pace of application and expansion of technology in modern learning environments continue to create pressures
for instructional designers to ensure that principles of learning remain intact. Building on earlier efforts aimed at the
development of cultural intelligence (CQ) (Roux & Suzuki, 2017a) through an application of instructional design (ID),
the current study reported on the expansion of our framework using a blended learning (BL) approach at a Japanese
university. Findings indicate that the BL approach could be successfully integrated with the framework and brought
about commendable advantages for the F2F environment. Noted positive developments relate to the expansion of
intercultural learning activities through online media, reflective learning experiences captured through online means,
a cross-cultural asynchronous virtual exchange and online tools for summative and/or formative evaluation and
reflection. Indicators for the development of cultural intelligence (CQ) were statistically not significant, although other
forms of evaluation showed effective intercultural learning, in addition to learners’ self-reported, increased confidence
in areas related to intercultural skill development, critical thinking and digital literacy. Implications from this study
point to the utility of integrating our framework with the BL approach and its subsequent potential to provide insights
into general, and intercultural learning processes. Additional utility of the framework was observed in the course
engagement patterns, which included its capacity to track and provide insights into intercultural learning and -skills
development. Findings here indicate a comprehensive capacity of our framework to capture and assist in
understanding the necessary elements of learning behaviors. We are cautiously optimistic that with continued
refinement our framework and the blended learning method will be further integrated into course design and
development in conjunction with possible application in designs for adaptive learning in the area of developing CQ.
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... The current study forms part of a larger project that is concerned with the development of a comprehensive pedagogy for cultivating CQ in Japanese HEI (Roux & Suzuki, 2017;Roux, Suzuki, Matsuba & Goda, 2018;2019a;2019b;2020). The project links the fields of instructional design and educational technology (ID&T) with developments in the areas of human resource (HR) training and CQ learning (Roux & Suzuki, 2017). ...
... EBL constitutes a foundational principle in the current project and was integrated with well-known instructional design models (ADDIE & ARCS), forming the basis of an initial multicultural workshop to develop ICC in undergraduates at a Japanese university (Roux & Suzuki, 2017). Findings from this workshop indicated a successful synthesis of theoretical concepts, providing a platform for further investigation and the expansion to a full course aimed at CQ development (Roux, Suzuki, Matsuba & Goda, 2018). In essence, the original framework placed EBL alongside the chosen ID models (ADDIE & ARCS) to allow for each of the models' components to be aligned, calibrated and integrated to support CQ growth (Roux & Suzuki, 2017). ...
... Participants further reported preferences for receiving lectures by the instructor, engagement with audio-visual materials and an increasing preference for doing online work using PCs/smart devices from one course to the next. Previous research iterations in this project (Roux & Suzuki, 2017;Roux et al., 2018Roux et al., , 2019aRoux et al., , 2019bRoux et al., , 2020 linked CQ learning to similar analyses and found evidence that CQ growth was achieved through application of this instructional approach. While the current findings appear to support, in broad, the use of various instructional methods in achieving some of the goals of ICC and concomitant developments in CQ, the measures employed do not allow for a direct and clear assessment of EBL's unique or exact contribution to these purported gains. ...
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... CQ studies demonstrate a positive impact on graduates (Fischer, 2011;Sit, et al., 2017;Roux & Suzuki, 2017), while EBL for CQ development has also shown effectiveness (Ng, Van Dyne & Ang, 2009;Leung et al., 2014). Since the CQ model is still relatively new, instructional models for its application remain scarce Roux et al., 2018), while ID studies have highlighted the necessity for acknowledging cultural influences in learning design (Parrish & Linder-Vanberschot, 2010;Clem, 2004;Thomas, Mitchell & Joseph, 2002). These issues remain fundamental to our project and the aim here is to consider whether an EBL approach in CQ education retains utility in blended environments. ...
... The key issue is that a single means for assessing and capturing the individual reflective learning experience remains elusive due to the unique and complex nature of the learning experience (Gosen & Washbush, 2004). Nevertheless, we suggest that the widespread and well-documented use of EBL in education, across disciplines in HE, as well as in CQ training (McNab, 2012;Eisenberg et al., 2013;Sit et al., 2017;Roux et al., 2018) demonstrate a sufficient credibility for continued exploration of its validity in CQ education and training within the HE context. ...
... These parallels inform the foundations of our framework (Roux & Suzuki, 2017) that investigates CQ education. This approach grew out of the research contention that ICC lacks a pedagogy to further CQ education (Fischer, 2011;Eisenberg et al., 2013;Roux & Suzuki, 2017;Sit et al., 2017;Roux et al., 2018). Our framework integrated ID, EBL and CQ theory, aimed for effective learning, tracked and evaluated the ICC learning process and delivered rich data for a learning analysis. ...
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... This practice allows for the student to gain ownership of their learning through more attainable terms. Another study by Roux, Matsuba, Goda and Suzuki (2018), just like Lim et al. (2009), asserted that blended learning with technology introduces students to the global mindset and it shows "a pedagogical approach that combines the effectiveness and socialization opportunities of the classroom with the technologically enhanced active learning possibilities of the online environment" (Kyei-Blankson & Ntuli, 2014, p. 300). Roux et al. (2018) designed a study using Japanese university students in a 15-week course that combined traditional learning with face-to-face classroom learning. ...
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... As part of a broader project that explores the design of an instructional system to support intercultural skill-or cultural intelligence (CQ)-development (7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13) , the current investigation presents a limited set of results that showcases the self-reported CQ gains made by a group of mostly Japanese university students. Earlier reports (11,12) confirmed the efficacy of a framework we developed to explore and support intercultural skills development, while later research work presented findings that measured CQ development (8)(9)(10)13) . ...
... The blended learning format utilized here thus incorporated three areas which are important to an ID application: (1) a focus on relevant learning content; (2) formative and summative assessment/evaluation; and (3) the generation of data for research and development purposes. Earlier research work (9,10) presented a comprehensive outline and discussion of the intercultural learning course contents, its rationale and methods of instruction, and we therefore provide only a brief summary here. ...
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... Blaco (Blasco 2009) claims that a universal and truly effective CQ development technique is still to be found. In addition, two studies (Fischer 2011;Roux et al. 2018) failed to demonstrate the positive effect of the adopted method on the development of CQ. In the first of them, the author attributed this failure to the difficulties the students had with understanding the assigned exercises (simulation game, a game focused on modifying behavior). ...
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... Based on the literature (Alonso et al., 2005;Francis and Shannon, 2013;Mosca et al., 2010;Roux et al., 2018;Vernadakis et al., 2011;Watson, 2008), the BL approach requires a shift in all aspects of the pedagogy strategy, including (1) a curriculum learning style to align the bestpractice instruction based on collaborative, exploratory, practice and expository approaches; ...
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... A blended learning model for developing cultural intelligence (CQ) (Roux et al., 2018) ...
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... It therefore seems vital that educationists should consider not only the cultural sensitivity and appropriateness of educational methods and pedagogies, but also the intercultural competence of course participants that engage in online environments (Parrish & Linder-Vanberschot, 2010;Rogers, Graham & Mayes, 2007;Clem, 2004). The current project (Roux, Suzuki, Matsuba, & Goda, 2018) brings together a number of these overlapping issues through a focus on training and structured learning as necessary components in developing intercultural skill, with specific consideration towards utilizing online technologies to enable the development of cultural intelligence (CQ). ...
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... The participation of physical activity in the youth forms a prerequisite for future physical activity in the future (Smith et al., 2015). By using the opened book, confirmed that problem comprehensive skill student was getting lower (Roux et al., 2018). Thus, it should be taught in various techniques. ...
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The study reports on the implementation of a brief intercultural training intervention as part of a university course. The intervention consisted of a series of six lectures, one simulation game and one behaviour modification session, administered over a period of four weeks. Measures of cultural essentialism and cultural intelligence (CQ) were obtained prior to the first lecture and one week after the completion of the last training session. A total of 107 students participated and pre-post test scores were matched for 49 participants. The findings show that cultural essentialism increased, but cognitive and meta-cognitive scores decreased following the intervention. Personality moderated the trainings’ effectiveness: more open-minded students at Time 1 were more likely to report increases in motivational CQ at Time 2. Challenging claims about negative effects of psychological essentialism, cultural essentialism beliefs were positively related to both open-mindedness and cognitive CQ over Time. Implications for brief intercultural training interventions are discussed.
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This article’s goal is to provide suggestions for teaching students about culture and cultural intelligence. This article pursues this goal by first exploring and defining culture and presenting the nuances and challenges of teaching students about culture in an environment supportive of multiple cultures (e.g., national, regional, local, corporate, etc.). Finally, the article concludes with a discussion of a cultural intelligence development process consisting of a cultural intelligence pre assessment and feedback, cultural intelligence transformation activities, and a cultural intelligence post assessment and feedback.