Article

PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF ALOE VERA AND THEIR MULTIFUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

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  • Universal College of Medical Sciences, Nepal
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Abstract

Aloe vera belongs to the family Liliaceae commonly known as Ghrit Kumari, is the ever known oldest and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. Aloe Vera is used for vigor, wellness and medicinal purposes since rigvedic times. Health benefits of Aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, minimizing frost bite damage, protection against skin damage from x-rays, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), reducing blood sugar in diabetics, fighting against acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS), allergies and improving immune system. Phytochemistry of Aloe vera gel has revealed the presence of more than 200 bioactive chemicals. Commercially, aloe can be found in pills, sprays, ointments, lotions, liquids, drinks, jellies, and creams, to name a few of the thousands of products available. In the present scenario, the aloe industry is blooming but the consumers are misguided leading to unfavorable outcome due to reasons like unawareness about its proper and adequate medicinal and health value, improper marketing and unavailability of processing units at farmer‟s level, misleading hyped advertisement in cosmetic and health products. So, there is a burning need to educate about the importance of Aloe vera for human race and popularize it for greater interest.

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... [17][18][19][20] Moreover, flavonoids are also reported as a potent antioxidant, 20 which has a high potential to decrease inflammatory acne. A. vera has been used for centuries as a traditional medicine for various diseases and skin lesions. 21,22 Glucomannan, the biologically active ingredient from A. vera, can promote wound healing by stimulating fibroblast proliferation and increasing the production of collagen. A. vera also affects inhibiting inflammatory reactions through various pathways such as inhibition of thromboxane, IL-6, TNF alpha, and IL-8 and increase of IL-10 levels. ...
... A. vera also affects inhibiting inflammatory reactions through various pathways such as inhibition of thromboxane, IL-6, TNF alpha, and IL-8 and increase of IL-10 levels. [21][22][23][24] Therefore, A. vera could help to reduce the inflammatory process on the skin and acne. 7 Acne patch has been used as an alternative treatment for acne. ...
... In this study, P. emblica, C. asiatica, C. officinalis, and A. vera, were used as the active ingredient in the WHAP. The results of this study support the pharmacological activities (antimicrobial, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, woundhealing, whitening, and scar reducing properties) of all active ingredients that could facilitate acne treatment.7,[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26] Our finding supports the use of herbal ingredients as active constituents in the acne care product.26 ...
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Introduction: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Antibiotics, particularly clindamycin and erythromycin, are used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. However, emerging antibiotic-resistant strains have been an important problem. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the efficiency and safety of a novel water-soluble herbal acne patch (WHAP) compared with the hydrocolloid acne patch (HAP) in mild to moderate inflammatory acne patients. Methods: The randomized, assessor-blind controlled, intra-individual split-face study was performed on 49 acne patients. The clinical outcomes were evaluated on day 2, 4, 7, 9, and 11 of treatment. Results: It was shown that the median time to resolution of the inflammatory acne treated with WHAP was shorter than HAP with a statistically significant difference (WHAP was 4 days, whereas HAP was 6 days) (P-value <0.001). Moreover, WHAP had a more significant decrease in the rate of inflammatory diameter, erythema scores (by clinical and colorimetry), and a more increase in the rate of lightness scores (by colorimetry) than HAP (P-value <0.05). No adverse effects were reported in both groups. Conclusion: It is safe to use WHAP as an alternative treatment for inflammatory acne. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Sofowora (2003) reiterated that the use of traditional veterinary medicine may be due to its low cost, availability and ease of application compared to modern veterinary medicine. Many plants have beneficial multifunctional aspects which are derived from their specific bioactive components (Mothana and Lincleqist, 2005;Kar and Bera, 2018). Many plants have also been subjected to pharmacological test, and a substantial number of new antibiotics have been developed from them (Mothana and Lincleqist, 2005). ...
... Aloe vera is an ancient plant with its origin in African continent and has been reported to have beneficial effects on the growth performance, gut microflora, hematological characteristics, carcass characteristics and immune response of poultry (Kaithwas et al., 2008;Yadav, 2017;Kar and Bera, 2018). It can survive under a wide variety of conditions and has been shown to have many medicinal and antibiotic properties (Christaki and Florou-Paneri, 2010;Kar and Bera, 2018). ...
... Aloe vera is an ancient plant with its origin in African continent and has been reported to have beneficial effects on the growth performance, gut microflora, hematological characteristics, carcass characteristics and immune response of poultry (Kaithwas et al., 2008;Yadav, 2017;Kar and Bera, 2018). It can survive under a wide variety of conditions and has been shown to have many medicinal and antibiotic properties (Christaki and Florou-Paneri, 2010;Kar and Bera, 2018). Jain et al. (2016) reported that Aloe vera gel has been used for management of various infections since ancient times as it has anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and immune-boosting properties. ...
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Aloe vera has a long history as a medicinal plant with diverse therapeutic applications. This study was conducted to assess the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera gel extract against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolated from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of guinea fowls. The conventional method was used for the isolation of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The antibacterial activity of Aloe vera gel extracts (50, 100 and 200 mg/ml) and standard antibiotics were evaluated using the disk diffusion method. The prevalence of Escherichia coli in the GIT of the guinea fowls was 100% (15/15). All the Escherichia coli were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. At 48h and 72h of incubation, all the Escherichia coli were susceptible to gentamicin but not at 24h. Inhibition zones using the Aloe vera gel extract ranged from 7.87-12.23mm (50 mg/ml), 8.53-17.23mm (100 mg/ml) and 7.43-10.67mm (200 mg/ml) for Escherichia coli. Also, antibacterial test for Escherichia coli using the Aloe vera gel extract revealed an inhibition zone of 9.10-12.23mm for Escherichia coli isolate GIT1, 7.8-8.57mm for Escherichia coli isolate GIT2 and 7.43-17.23mm for Escherichia coli isolate GIT7. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica in the GIT of the guinea fowls was 40% (6/15). All Salmonella enterica were susceptible to gentamicin. At 48h and 72h of incubation, all the Salmonella enterica were susceptible to suphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and tetracycline but not at 24h. Inhibition zones using Aloe vera gel extract ranged from 7.13-12.57mm (50 mg/ml), 4.2-6.7mm (100 mg/ml) and 0-9.23mm (200 mg/ml). Furthermore, antibacterial test for Salmonella enterica using the Aloe vera gel extract revealed an inhibition zone of 5.3-12.57mm for Salmonella enterica isolate GIT9, 0-7.8mm for Salmonella enterica isolate GIT10 and 4.2-9.0mm for Salmonella enterica isolate GIT15. The study revealed that Aloe vera gel extract possessed antibacterial properties. Therefore, it can be added to the feed of guinea fowls as a prophylactic to reduce bacterial infections.
... Aloe vera consists of vitamin E, A and C which are antioxidants. It also contains folic acid, choline, vitamin B12 and anti-oxidants that have the property to neutralize free radicals 13 . ...
... (iii) The last and most inner layer contains up to 99% water along with lipids, sterols, amino acids, vitamins and glucomannas 13 . The other dynamic constituents contain minerals, enzymes, sugars, saponins, lignin, amino acids and salicylic acid 27 . ...
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Background: Aloe vera belongs to the family Liliaceae and genus Aloe with a survival rate of up to 50 years under satisfactory conditions. It has been used since >5000 years to cure many kinds of human diseases. This plant is also used for ornamental purposes as an indoor potted plant. Aloe vera finds applications in allopathic and homeopathic medicine.
... Aloe vera (AV) (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is one of plants, having a great many medicinal and antibiotic properties (Christaki and Florou-Paneri 2010; Kar and Bera 2018). Aloe vera (AV) contains over 75 bio-logically active compounds include anthraquinones, polysaccharides, vitamins, enzymes and low molecular weight compounds (Choi and Chung 2003) which gives Aloe vera antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties (Ahlawat and Khatkar 2011; Radha and Laxmipriya 2015;Akram et al., 2019). ...
... Aloe vera gel contains polysaccharides, including acemannan which can improve the humoral immune response and cellular immunity (Du et al., 2011). Previous studies explained that Aloe vera has positive influence of on growth performance, gut microflora, and immune response (Kar and Bera 2018). Also, Aloe vera improved growth performance, reduced fecal oocyst shedding and lesion score in broilers challenged with coccidia (Yim et al., 2011;Akram et al., 2019;Ahmad et al., 2020). ...
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Aloe vera gel and Yucca schidigera extract supplementation on growth performance, oocyst shedding, intestinal lesions and inflammatory response in broilers challenged with coccidia. Two hundred and ten, one-day old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated to seven equal groups (30 birds/group). (G1): non- infected non-treated group, (G2): infected non-treated group, (G3)&(G4): infected and treated with Aloe vera gel 5gm/L and Yucca schidigera extract 200 mg/ L respectively from 7th day of age till the end of the experiment, (G5)&(G6): infected and treated with Aloe vera gel 5gm/L and Yucca schidigera extract 200 mg/L respectively from 15th day of age till the end of the experiment and (G7): infected and treated with Amprolium 1g/ 2 L from 15th day for five successive days. Chickens in infected groups were challenged with 50,000 sporulated oocysts of field strain of Eimeria spp. on the 14th days of age. The average body weight gains, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded all over the experimental period. The anticoccidial evaluation post infection depended on severity of bloody diarrhea, lesion scores as well as the oocyst shedding. In addition, histopathological changes in intestine and serum level of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Aloe vera gel and Yucca schidigera extract supplementation were able to mitigate the devastating effects of coccidia challenge in broilers. Growth performances represented by bodyweight gain, and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved. The Lesion score and oocysts shedding were significantly reduced as well as the serum level of pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly down regulated in challenged treated groups. The histopathological changes of intestine were ameliorated in treated supplemented groups. In conclusion, Aloe vera gel and Yucca schidigera extract can be a promising candidate to be used as a natural, low cost alternative to control coccidiosis in chickens. Keyword: broilers- Aloe vera- Yucca schidigera-performance-cytokines.
... Komposisi dari gel aloclair meliputi ekstrak lidah buaya (Aloe vera), asam hyaluronat, glycyrrhetic acid, dan polyvinyl-pyrrolidone. 13 Asam hialuronat bekerja menghambat sintesis prostaglandin, metaloproteinase, dan molekul bioaktif lainnya. 14 Efek samping dari asam hialuronat yaitu menyebabkan iritasi lokal berupa kemerahan, bengkak dan gatal. ...
... Aloe vera yang menjadi kandungan utama dari gel aloclair memiliki senyawa polifenol yang juga ditemukan pada tanaman kopi, yang diduga mempunyai cara kerja yang sama sebagai anti inflamasi. 13 Sifat anti inflamasi dari aloclair diduga turut berperan dalam menurunkan osteoklas. ...
... Aloe vera belongs to the Asphodelaceae family is known for its multiple benefits. Aloe vera leaf contains vitamins, minerals, enzymes, sugars, anthraquinones or phenolic compounds, lignin, tannic acids, polysaccharide, glycoprotein, saponins, sterols, amino acids and salicylic acid [3]. Aloe contains two major active components aloe polysaccharides presenting in aloe filet and anthraquinone derivatives present in the leaves of different aloe plants. ...
... It is useful in various diseases such as type II diabetes, arthritis, eye disease, tumor, spleen enlargement, liver complaints, vomiting, bronchitis, asthma, jaundice and ulcers. Relieves constipation, maintains a good gastric pH, help in inflammatory bowel diseases, non-ulcer dyspepsia, gastric and duodenal ulcers [3,4]. ...
Article
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Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects multiple joints. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) is believed to be the major culprit involved in the progression of inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the phytochemicals of Aloe vera as antagonist for TNF-α using in-silico approach. Firstly the 3D structure of human TNF-α (PDB ID: 2az5) and ligands were retrieved from RCSB PDB and Pubchem database respectively. The molecular docking was done using Hex 8.0.0 CUDA server followed by pharmacological analysis using SwissADME. The study revealed that Quercetin, Kampferol, Aloe-emodin, and Emodin have higher affinity for tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) satisfying the pharamacological parameter. Thus, these phytochemicals have therapeutic prospective to be developed into drug for managing RA.
... The A. vera leaf is divided into three parts, including the outer thick layer, middle layer, and inner gel. The outer green rind layer, which has a protective role, is primarily involved in the production of carbohydrates and proteins (Kar & Bera, 2018). The middle layer produces an intensely bitter, yellow latex, commonly termed as aloe juice, or sap, or aloes (Vogler & Ernst, 1999). ...
... The dry form of A. vera gel contains polysaccharides (53%), sugar (17%), minerals (16%), protein (7%), lipids (5%), and phenolic compounds (2%). In addition, vitamins, minerals, lignins, saponins, salicylic acids, and amino acids have functional activities in this plant (Kar & Bera, 2018; Table 1). ...
... Turmeric is well known for its healing properties which are largely due to its constituent curcumin [12]. One of the main active constituents of aloe vera is a anthraquinone compound Aloin A [13], that of giloy is a terpenoid cordioside [14]. Main constituent of neem is nimbin [15]. ...
... The minor burns and inflammatory diseases can be treated by this mucilage and is also used to develop anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic-controlled release formulations. The matrix forming ability of the mucilage is found responsible for this controlled action [10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. ...
Article
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The aim of the article was to obtain maximum information about plant mucilage, its sources and applications in the pharmaceutical industry. This study focuses on the scientific articles and books available in Internet resources and college library that deal with the sources, applications, extraction and isolation of plant mucilage. Mucilage is obtained mainly from plant sources and can be isolated easily. Due to the low cost, easy availability, non-toxicity, non-irritancy, and biocompatibility, mucilage is of great demand in the field of pharmaceuticals. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Abelmoschus esculentus L, Plantago ovata Forssk. and Aloe barbadensis L. are some common sources of mucilage. The isolation methods vary depending on the part of the plant where mucilage is present. It is commonly used as gelling agent, suspending agent, binder, and disintegrant. Since it is hydrophilic in nature, chances of deterioration are higher. In this review, different mucilage sources and their isolation methods are discussed in detail. Mucilage is used as excipient in many formulations of tablets, suspensions, gels, etc. The study explores the potential of plant mucilage as an excipient in pharmaceutical formulations. The biodegradable and biocompatible properties of this inexpensive excipient make it more favourable for the newer formulation development.
... 13 Moreover, aloe vera has many anti-inflammatory agents such as C-glucosyl chromone, campesterol, β-sisosterol, lupeol, auxins, gibberellins, and peptidase bradykinase. [14][15][16] In the study of Molazem et al, 17 aloe vera was used on patients who underwent cesarean section, discovering wounds healed faster. ...
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Background Hypertrophic scars and keloids are post‐surgery problems. Some studies showed that onion extract and aloe vera might be beneficial for postoperative scars. However, few of the randomized clinical trials were investigated. Objectives To compare the efficacy of silicone gel containing onion extract and aloe vera (SGOA) to silicone gel sheets (SGS) to prevent postoperative hypertrophic scars and keloids. Methods The prospective randomized assessor‐blind controlled trial was conducted with forty patients who had undergone surgery. The patients were divided into two groups: one treated with SGOA, the other with SGS. The patients were evaluated after one, two, and three months. The objective assessment was to determine the incidences of scarring, erythema, and melanin values using Mexameter, and pliability through Cutometer. The subjective assessment consisted of the patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) and patient satisfaction. Results After the twelve‐week follow up, there was no statistically significant difference in the scarring incidence rate of both groups. There were no statistical differences in the POSAS score, erythema, and melanin value between both groups. Using objective assessment, pliability in the SGOA group was statistically significantly higher compared to the SGS group. Pain and itchiness significantly decreased in both groups. No adverse effects were reported in either group. Conclusion SGOA is effective as SGS for postoperative scar prevention.
... Los carbohidratos son los compuestos mayoritarios en A. vera y en diversas especies de la familia Asphodelaceae (Hamman, 2008;Kar y Bera, 2018). Grace et al. (2013) reportan que la glucosa, manosa y xilosa son los monosacáridos mayoritarios en el gel de 31 especies del género Aloe. ...
Thesis
El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición química y el perfil genético de 16 especies, pertenecientes a cinco géneros, de la familia Asphodelaceae. La composición química se determinó empleando ensayos colorimétricos, cromatografía de capa fina (TLC) y espectroscopía infrarroja con transformada de Fourier (FTIR); por otra parte, el perfil genético fue determinado utilizando el marcador molecular de DNA de repetición entre secuencias simples (ISSR). Dicho perfil genético, permitió agrupar a las especies estudiadas a nivel de género. La determinación de la capacidad antioxidante y del contenido de carbohidratos, proteínas, compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides indicó variación entre las especies estudiadas, los niveles de estas determinaciones no fueron consistentes por género (Aloe, x Alworthia, Bulbine, Gasteria y Haworthia). La TLC permitió identificar carbohidratos como glucosa, fructosa, sacarosa y fructooligosacáridos para algunas especies, así como identificar la presencia de compuestos fenólicos, donde predominaron los derivados de flavonoles y flavonas. En el análisis por espectroscopía FTIR, que se realizó en la corteza y en el mesófilo de once especies de la familia Asphodelaceae, se identificaron carbohidratos, lípidos, proteínas y compuestos fenólicos para la corteza y carbohidratos y lípidos para el mesófilo. Las huellas químicas de las cortezas, generadas por espectroscopía FTIR, fueron especie-especificas, lo que permitió ordenarlas de acuerdo con la taxonomía para la familia Asphodelaceae. Los grupos generados por el PCA de los espectros de corteza y del perfil genético tuvieron una correlación de 0.522, sugiriendo que la espectroscopía FTIR tiene un importante potencial taxonómico y que el perfil químico depende del genotipo. Las especies con mayor similitud química con Aloe vera, como A. vera var. chinensis, x Alworthia, B. frutescens y H. cymbiformis, que presentaron compuestos de interés como fructooligosacáridos y compuestos fenólicos, podrían usarse en investigaciones futuras para determinar sus propiedades biológicas y/o medicinales.
... The synthesised nanoparticles were analysed using UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction studies (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (beta-carotene), C and E, which are antioxidants [6]. In this biosynthesis, aqueous leaves extract of Aloe barbadensis used to synthesize copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) and thereby improving the importance of plant source and involving green chemistry for the synthesis of other NPs as future research. ...
... This compound has been widely used in clinical trials, with promising antipsoriatic effects. A preclinical study on a mouse tail model of psoriasis used an ethanolic extract of Aloe vera gel which had significant positive effects on psoriatic skin (differentiation with orthokeratosis), comparable to those of tazarotene applications (42)(43)(44). ...
Article
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Cytokines involved in pathogenesis of psoriasis such as interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, IL-23), interferon-α, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ can also become therapeutic targets. Research currently uses murine models of imiquimod-induced psoriatic-type dermatitis in order to analyze potentially helpful phytotherapeutics for psoriasis treatment: Curcuma longa, Aloe vera, Nigella sativa, Rubia cordifolia, Smilax china, Thespesia populnea, Wrightia tinctoria, Scutellaria baicalensis, Cassia tora, Pongamia pinnata and various Chinese herbal formulas. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with complex pathogenic mechanisms that yield abnormal immune responses with clinical and morphological echoes (erythematous, scaly plaques with a histopathological basis made up of alterations i.e. keratinocyte aberrant proliferation, parakeratosis or chronic inflammation). The current therapeutic approach has only been able to manage the disease, without ensuring a certified treatment, thus giving rise to the need for better medications. This novel therapeutic approach has shown promising results in preclinical studies, giving hope for future phytochemical animal-based studies.
... Aloe gel contains about 98% of water and polysaccharides constitute 55% of dry matter 15 . Acemannan, the major polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, can stimulate macrophages activation and promote the release of cytokines from fibroblasts 16 . The beneficial properties of acemannan in wound healing have been reported 17 . ...
Article
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Purpose To develop a new wound dressing composed of alginate and Aloe vera gel and cross-linked with zinc ions. Methods The aloe-alginate film was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling profile, mechanical properties, polysaccharide content and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thirty Wistar rats were divided in two groups a) treated with aloe-alginate film and b) control (treated with sterile gauze). Wound contraction measurements and hystological analysis were performed on 7th, 14th and 21st days after wound surgery. Results The aloe-alginate film presented adequated mechanical resistance and malleability for application as wound dressing. There was no statistical difference in wound contraction between two groups. Histological assay demonstrated that aloe-alginate film presented anti-inflammatory activity, stimulated angiogenesis on proliferative phase and a more significant increased in collagen type I fibers and decreased type III fibers which promoted a mature scar formation when compared to control. Conclusions The aloe-alginate film showed adequate physicochemical characteristics for wound dressing applications. The in vivo assay demonstrated that aloe-alginate film enhanced the healing process of incisional skin wounds.
... Its anti-oxidant properties regulate expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (inhibition of this enzyme helps relieve pain and inflammation. The study reported significant inhibition of inflammation in arthritic models on using Aloe vera extracts (Khemkaran et al.,2011,Tiwari et al.,2018Kar andBera, 2018 (Sethi,2020). ...
... 6 It is due the Aloe vera gel can produce biodegradable films, 7 and it presents antimicrobial activity because of its chemical composition. 8 The coating could protect the fruit through different action mechanism. The first one, it is forming a protection layer of oxygen and humidity, preventing the oxidation and strange losses. ...
Article
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The Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) has an ongoing production in Colombia and is considered a competitive market product with the potential for exportation and broad applications in agroindustry because of its high content of antioxidants, nutrients, and proteins, which are keys to a balanced diet. In this study, the effect of an Aloe vera gel coating on the preservation of the nutraceutical properties of the Andes berry was evaluated by measuring the antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content of the fruit using the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and Folin-Ciocalteu methods, respectively. The antioxidant activities in fruits without and with coating were 95.14 ± 3.28 mmol AAE 100 g-1 sample and 135.94 ± 1.09 mmol AAE 100 g-1 sample, respectively, after ten day of storage. The total phenolic content of the fruits with and without coating did not present significant differences, i.e., the phenol concentrations remained constant over time. Implementation of the gel coating is recommended as a low-cost and highly available option for the preservation of the Andes berry and its nutraceutical properties.
... Compounds with a phenolic scaffold originating from natural sources have been introduced as potent antioxidants [7][8][9]. Aloe vera is a medicinal plant that contains natural polyphenols and exhibits different biological properties such as antibacterial [10], anti-inflammatory [11], immune improving [12], wound healing [13], anticancer [14], antidiabetes [15,16], and antioxidant [16] effects. One of the phenolic components in Aloe vera is emodine, a compound with an anthraquinone moiety that is expected to possess antioxidant, anticancer [17,18], and anti-inflammatory [19] effects; it also exhibits notable antiviral properties against the herpes simplex virus [20][21][22]. ...
Article
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Prediction of the antioxidant activity of three Aloe vera components (aloesone, aloe-emodin, and isoeleutheol) was performed based on DFT calculations using the B3LYP hybrid functional and the 6–311++ G** basis set. Calculation of HOMO, LUMO, and Egap revealed that aloe-emodin has the lowest Egap value, indicating good antioxidant activity. Also in terms of electron affinity, softness, electrophilicity, and chemical potential, aloe-emodin is a potent structure with potential high radical scavenging activity. Calculation of the ionization potential revealed that isoeleutherol likely also possesses a high degree of antiradical scavenging. To study the conjugating system of the radicals, density plots of HOMO, NBO analyses, and spin density plots were used. According to calculations, the isoeleutherol radical is more delocalized and the most stable radical. Calculated proton affinity values revealed that the most probable antioxidant mechanism is sequential proton loss-electron transfer. Our results were compared with available experimental data. Published experimental data were found to correlate well with our theoretical predictions. These results support the usefulness of theoretical calculations not only for identifying potentially useful structures of studied compounds but also for predicting their relative activity.
... It is also used as antioxidant, as mouth wash to prevent dental plaques and antimicrobial agent. 9 As it is used in traditional system of medicine for wound healing, this study was under taken to test the possible haemostatic effect of aloe vera. ...
Article
Background: Blood clotting is a process which prevents blood loss during injuries. Blood clots even when it is coming out from the blood vessels. Aloe vera is a perennial plant found all over India. It is commonly used in traditional system of medicine for treatment of wound healing, mouth ulcers, constipation, skin wrinkles and diabetes mellitus It is also used as antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. As it is used in traditional system of medicine for wound healing, this study was under taken to test the possible haemostatic effect of aloe vera.Methods: 12 rats were divided into two groups (control and test) with 6 rats in each group. Determination of Bleeding Time (BT), rat tail was warmed for one minute in water at 40˚C and then dried. A small cut was made in the middle of the tail with a scalpel. In test group, a drop of aloe vera leaf extract was applied on the injured area immediately after making the cut in the middle of the tail, where as in the control group nothing was applied, and BT estimated. Determination of Clotting Time (CT), 12 test tubes were arranged in water bath at 37˚C. Control Group: 0.4 ml of blood was collected from each rat in the control group and added to 6 test tubes kept in the water bath. Test group: For the remaining 6 test tubes 0.1 ml of aloe vera leaf extract was added. 0.4 ml of blood collected from the test group was added to these test tubes. The CT was estimated for both control group and test group.Results: The results were statistically analyzed by using unpaired t-test. The reduction in BT and CT for test group was statistically highly significant (p<0.001) compared to control group.Conclusions: In this study aloe vera leaf extract significantly reduced both BT and CT in the test group.
... Aloe vera L merupakan tanaman yang banyak dimanfaatkan untuk berbagai produk nutrisi, produk farmasi dan kosmetik (Chandegara and Varshney, 2013;Miroddi et al., 2015). Pada produk farmasi Aloe vera L memiliki efektivitas farmakologi antara lain : antitumor, anti ulkus, antiviral, ansiolotik, hipolipidemik, hipoglikemik, anti aterogenik, anti fungal, antioksidan, anti bakterial, nefroprotektif dan membantu penyembuhan luka (Chatterjee et al., 2013;Kar and Bera, 2018). Zat aktif biologi yang terkandung dalam Aloe vera L lebih dari 100 macam. ...
Article
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Purpose of the study: The main purpose of this study is to do the comparison of the chemical constituents present in the leaves of Aloe Vera (A. barbadensis Mill) plant grown in different soil combinations using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) data analysis. Plants were grown in two different combinations of soil, one in normal soil and the other in the combination of normal soil and solid chemical waste obtained from the chemistry laboratory of an educational institute. Methodology: One Aloe Vera (A. barbadensis Mill) plant was grown in normal soil without adding any compost or any fertilizer to the soil. The other plant was grown in soil, which was combined with the solid chemical waste collected from the chemistry laboratory. After observing the morphological characters of the plants, plants were studied for the chemical constituents present in them by using GC-MS data analysis technique. Main Findings: Growth of plants depends on the soil composition, physical characters and the surrounding environment. How the variation in chemical composition of soil affects the chemical constituents of plant leaves, has been discussed in this paper. According to morphological characters the Aloe Vera (A. barbadensis Mill) plant grown with soil combined with solid chemical waste has shown better results compared with the one grown in normal soil. GC-MS results also indicated variation in the chemical constitution of plant leaves taken for the research experiment. Applications of this study: This study has helped to understand that the soil environment and soil nutrients are largely responsible for the changes in chemical constituents of plants. This study can be applied to the other plants as well. Novelty/Originality of this study: In place of fertilizers, solid chemical waste from the laboratory was used for the research purpose. The method is useful and if implemented on a large scale, will help to curb pollution caused by educational institutes to some extent. This kind of research is not done previously by any other researcher.
Article
Composite films of sodium alginate and aloe vera gel were prepared using sorbitol as plasticizer. These films were studied for their physical, mechanical, barrier, optical and antioxidant properties. The results of the study showed a direct relationship between aloe vera gel concentrations and total phenolic contents of the composite films.The phenolic compounds present in aloe vera contribute to the antioxidant properties of the composite films. The results also indicated that the antioxidant activity of the composite films increased with the increasing concentration of aloe vera reaching a maximum value at the maximum (50%) concentration of aloe vera gel. The influence of aloe vera in enhancing tensile strength was found to be more prominent, giving maximum value of tensile strength at only 10% concentration of aloe vera gel. The results also showed that incorporation of aloe vera gel into sodium alginate upto a concentration of 50% did not significantly alter the transparency of the composite films. The water vapour permeability of the films decreased with the increasing concentration of aloe vera in the films. The solubility of the films increased with the increasing concentration of aloe vera due to the presence of highly water soluble compounds in aloe vera gel.
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Introduction: Kukkutand twak bhasma is the ayurvedic medicine advised to treat calcium deficiency and leucorrhea like disease conditions. In preparation of KTB variations are found in usage of herbal drugs and pattern of temperature for incineration. Objectives: Thus the attempt was made to formulate KTB samples with different herbal combinations and temperature ranges on Kukkutand twak [KT]. Physico- chemical analysis and safety data of KTB is generated. Material and methodology: Purified KT was processed in Kumari Swaras and incinerated in Gajaputa to prepare four samples of KTB. While KT was triturated with Kumari Swaras, Nimbu Swaras and Gulab Jala, processed in Laghu Puta to prepare three samples of KTB. Analysis of KTB samples was done in laboratory. One sample of KTB was tested for toxicity through acute and subacute studies. Results and conclusions: KTB prepared in seven and three Gajaputa revealed white colour but little bit burning sensation. KTB-M-7GP showed high percentage of calcium than other KTB-GP samples. KT incinerated in three cycles of Laghuputa showed grayish colour with no burning sensation and estimated quantitative concentration of calcium. In acute toxicity study, animals didn’t show any mortality and morbidity. In subacute study, sample of KTB didn’t show any abnormal change in ileum and bone; insignificant inflammatory lesions are observed in liver and kidney. Present study has demonstrated different preparation methods and analytical data for KTB samples processed in Gajaputa and Laghu puta. Acute and subacute toxicity study records have been illustrated for KTB sample processed with Kumari Swaras in Gajaputa.
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