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School Reform: Case Studies in Teaching Improvement

Authors:
  • Australian College of Researchers

Abstract

Education Systems across the globe are focusing their attentions on the quality of teaching and learning that is occurring in their schools. The challenge for schools, their leaders and the teachers, ---‘the engine room’ so to speak of quality education provision--- is how to pragmatically and sustainably improve. While the published literature provides guidance and nominates effective leadership, opportunities for professional dialogue and collaborations and learning teaching content in context as potent strategies, Jake Madden argues that achievement in such agendas also requires the establishment in teachers, of what is termed, 'the teacher researcher capability'. Jake Madden, an education leader and researcher of note, has pioneered the concept of Teacher as Researchers in various educational settings across the globe. In this book Madden provides a set of teacher researcher based case studies which demonstrate, not only the development of new classroom knowledge, but a viable means through which such new knowledge is actioned for student learning impacts.
School Reform: Case Studies in Teaching Improvement
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School Reform
Case Studies in Teaching
Improvement
Jake Madden
4
School Reform: Case Studies in Teaching Improvement.
Copyright © Al Yassat Private School, Abu Dhabi, UAE
All rights reserved under conditions described in the Copyright Act 1968 of Australia. No part of this
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and is punishable by law. Under the Copyright Act of 1968 It is a fair dealing to make a reproduction for
the purposes of research or study, of one or more articles on the same subject in a periodical publication,
or, in the case of any other work, of a reasonable portion of a work. In the case of a published work in
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National Library of Australia Entry
School reform: case studies in teaching improvement / Jake Madden (editor)
Bib ID
7794979
Edition
First , 2018
Publisher
Sydney, NSW : Oxford Global Press,
ISBN
9780244404789 (paperback)
Subjects
School Reform, Teaching, Case studies of
First Published in 2018
by Oxford Global Press
Kemp House
152 City Road London (UK)
www.oxfordglobal.com
Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright. However, should
any infringement have occurred, the publisher and the author tenders their apology
and invite the copyright owner to contact them so the infringement may be
remedied.
These works have been blind peer reviewed.
School Reform: Case Studies in Teaching Improvement
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Contents
About the Authors (In Chapter Order) .........................................7
Foreword ..................................................................................11
Introduction:.............................................................................13
Chapter 1: Exploring how teacher-driven learning, for improved
student engagement, raises whole of school student learning
within a K-12 learning environment ..........................................19
Chapter 2: The Oscar Coaching Model as a Distributed Leadership
Strategy for Effective Teams......................................................29
Chapter 3: Assessment for Learning Strategies: The key to
improving students’ writing?.....................................................43
Chapter 4: Using Professional Readings to Guide Culturally
Responsive Instructional Practices in a Kindergarten Classroom57
Chapter 5: Whole School Behaviour Policy: Causes, Effects and
Impact on Learning in a Grade 2 Classroom ...............................73
Chapter 6: Improving Student Engagement: The role of the
Inquiring Teacher ......................................................................92
Chapter 7: Using Enriching Science Curriculum Materials to
Influence Science Learning of Students in Grades 8 and 9 at AYPS
...............................................................................................115
Chapter 8: The Use of Google Classroom in Teaching Math for
Grade 6 boys in Al Yasat Private School ...................................143
Chapter 9: Resolutions to Create Seamless Technology Shift &
Information/Data Evaluation in Al Yasat Private School ..........157
Jake Madden
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Chapter 10: The impact on learning when utilizing media devices
in the classroom......................................................................187
Chapter 11: Feeding Forward - Feedback Practice in A 21st
Century Classroom ..................................................................202
Chapter 12: Promoting Environment awareness through ‘Go
Green Drive’ in Al Yasat Private School....................................220
School Reform: Case Studies in Teaching Improvement
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About the Authors (In Chapter Order)
Dr Jake Madden
Dr. Jake Madden is the Head of School at Al Yasat, a private school offering
a bilingual American education in Arabic and English with a strong
emphasis on the respect and values of the local culture in Abu Dhabi. He
has enjoyed a successful teaching and principal leadership career over the
last thirty years building teacher capacity through the development of
learning in the contemporary world, the promotion of flexible learning
spaces to meet the needs of the 21st century learner and curriculum for
global mindedness. Jake sits on the editorial board for the International
Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change and was awarded a Fellowship
with the Australian Council of Educational Leaders in recognition of his
contribution in this area and to fostering teacher professional learning.
Dr Paul Triegaardt
Dr Paul Triegaardt started his teaching career in 1991, having worked in
South Africa, England and United Arab Emirates. He earned a Doctor of
Education in 2013 from the University of South Africa. He also have British
Qualified Teacher since 2004. In his career, he taught children from
elementary to Grade 11 in a number of international schools. He endeavors
to make his classroom a learning environment for learners to learn 21st
century learning skills which will help them to be one-day capable citizens
and leaders for their own countries. Alongside teaching, he has held a range
of leadership responsibilities that include a principal role at a much
neglected disadvantage school in South Africa for three years and middle
leadership roles for seven years at international schools outside South
Africa. He also mentored teachers in the UK towards the gaining of their
qualified teachers’ status and published various academic articles in the field
of education leadership and management after gaining his Educational
Doctorate.
Reem Rekieh
Reem originates from Toronto Ontario, Canada and has resided in the
U.A.E for the last 11 years. Since her arrival in 2007, she has been a part of
the Al Yasat family since and has grown in her role from a class teacher, to a
Middle Leader and now as a part of the Senior Leadership Team. She most
recently completed her Masters of Arts in Educational Innovation from the
University of Warwick in the U.K specializing on the importance of
applying assessment for learning strategies to improve English as Second
Language Learners' writing. Her interests include spending quality time with
her children, cooking up a hearty meal and playing basketball.
Jake Madden
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Saman Jamshaid
Saman Jamshaid is an Early Childhood educator at Al Yasat Private School
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, where Saman teaches pre-school mixed
ability children aged four to six. Before joining Al Yasat Private School,
Saman taught Early Years Program Foundation Stage two for three years at
a local UK National Curriculum school. Saman is currently teaching mixed
ability Kindergarten which she enjoys, as it has allowed her to develop her
main professional development target on improving her differentiation
skills. This is something that she is constantly working on and improving.
Saman received her PGCEI from University of Dundee UK in May 2018 in
International Education, and received a Masters in Education degree from
Pakistan in 2015. Saman loves and enjoys painting and reading.
Huma Imran
The inability of the educationists to control, seemingly low level class
disruption, led Huma to dig deeper into the fabric of classroom culture and
analyze the scenarios that mar the capabilities of highly potential students.
Being a thorough educationist, she believes that exposing students to
reliable and confident environment helps them carve a niche for themselves.
Huma Imran, currently works as an Elementary teacher, at Al Yasat Private
School. Her expertise has given insight into the school management and Al
Yasat’s School Behaviour Policy.
Annie Madden
Annie Madden is a Teacher Librarian with over 30 years of teaching
experience in the classroom and as a TL. This experience covers many
schools in Australia as well as Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. This
experience has provided a wide variety of situations to discern what works
and what doesn’t, in a practical way. Annie’s passion is literacy and Inquiry
learning where her varied experience has enabled her to discern for herself
‘best practise’ and how to incorporate this into the classroom. Her challenge
is to enable teachers to embrace inquiry as an essential and meaningful way
to learn, as taking that leap can sometimes be difficult.
Manal Steitiyeh
Manal earned her Master Degree in Molecular Biology (Genetic
Engineering) from Beirut Arab University (B.A.U) in cooperation with the
American University of Beirut. She has a Bachelor Degree in Biology and
Environmental Sciences from B.A.U in addition to a teaching diploma from
the Education Department of the United Nations (UN). She worked with
the United Nations in the education section as a science teacher and
School Reform: Case Studies in Teaching Improvement
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assistant principal for several years. She shared in enriching the science
curriculum for middle and high classes and was responsible for science
remedial sessions in many UN schools. Also, she was a lecturer for certain
courses to new teachers joining the UN. Currently, she is a science teacher
at Al Yasat Private School. Manal keeps up to date with new studies and
pedagogical strategies for developing science curriculum and learning. She is
keen to let her students learn science through interesting and creative
strategies, thus helping them practicing the scientific methods and be able to
create and innovate scientifically.
Dr. Eva Noble
Eva is a lifelong learner. She has a Doctor of Education (majoring in
Educational Planning and Management), Master of Arts in Education with a
major in Mathematics and Bachelor of Science in Education, also majoring
in Mathematics. She has been working in education for 23 years in various
position including Math Teacher, Head of Mathematics Department,
Mathematics Coordinator, Assistant Curriculum Coordinator and
Classroom Teacher. She has worked in Philippines and Thailand before
moving to the UAE in 2011. She has an interest in preparing reports for
school inspection and accreditations and conducting school-based research.
Asma Zafar
Asma Zafar, is an IT professional, who has worked in the industry for
nearly two decades. Her career path has given her diversity in experience
which ranges from programming, system development, system analyses,
data analysis, administration of websites, management of Information
Systems and management of Google domains and apps. Uplifting her
profile a bit, only just recently she has ventured into writing articles in
international publications on data analysis and IT matters. On the lighter
side, she enjoys reading, company of family and friends, mind mapping
games and her solitary walks.
Harison Varghese
Harison has been supporting & administering the technology in Al Yasat as
the IT personnel for school. He has been pursuing various roles like
Computer application developer, System Analyst, Systems & Network
administrator etc., after his master’s in Computer Application. Harison's
passion is about applying the tools and techniques of digital technology in
supporting the daily activities of people around him.
Dalia Tapia
Dalia Tapia is an Education Media Communication Specialist. She holds a
Bachelors Degree in education from the University of Illinois at Chicago, a
Master Degree in film and video from Columbia College Chicago, and more
Jake Madden
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recently she completed the coursework in a PhD program on global
economy from the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. She has
many years of experience producing and directing for television, film and
various media platforms. Throughout her producing career, Tapia has
managed to maintain her teaching career. Her inspiration has always been
her former, current and future students. Thus, recently she established I AM
ME (I Apply Media to My Education) in Sharjah to train educators and
students how to apply media to their education. Education is in a new era
which requires that media technology becomes an integral part of the
curriculum. As an educator Ms. Tapia strives to be the best she can be for
her students.
Alberti E. Strydom
Alberti completed a Bachelor’s in Education from the North West
University, South Africa and started her career in teaching English to both
first and second language students from different backgrounds and cultures.
In 2016, she aspired to enhance her career and moved to the UAE to teach
at Al Yasat Private School. She has experienced the positive impact of
action research in her own teaching and shares her experiences and
enthusiasm with colleagues. She was a contributor of an action research
project in the book Teachers Teaching Teachers lead by Dr Jake Madden in
2017. She is a teacher and mother who is passionate about effective
education from both these perspectives. Alberti is keen on engaging in new
pedagogies and learning new skills in an ever-changing world that could be
of an advantage to parents, her students and colleagues in education.
Joseph Jamal
Jamal James Joseph is a part of Al Yasat Private School since 1999. Being
the Business Manager and Safety Officer of Al Yasat Private School, Sesame
Street Private Nursery & Busy Bees Private Nursery, he has been
instrumental in bringing a well-built financial, managerial, personnel, social,
transportation and safety administration in the operation of the school and
nurseries. He was an active component for bringing up the new facility and
creating a safe environment for the new school building. He enthusiastically
took part in the endeavor or encourage the staff at Al Yasat to be writers
through Dr. Jake's book titled "Teachers Teaching Teachers", as he
authored a chapter of Safety in the School. Mr. Joseph's love for children
and his fellow being always makes him look out for the latest developments
in child safety and eco-friendly environment. He loves traveling, enjoying
varied cuisine and movies apart from his work at school.
School Reform: Case Studies in Teaching Improvement
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Foreword:
Governments across the globe are focusing their attentions on the quality of
teaching and learning that is occurring in their schools. This attention has its
genesis in vast quantities of published literature informing how teachers
should best teach and correspondingly how school leaders should act to
maximise the capacities of their teachers. But more pointedly,
Governments appreciate that ‘the winners’ in today’s technologically based
global economy are those societies that place a premium on education
success for all. No small feat given the diversity of need present in the
average classroom today.
The challenge for schools, their leaders and the teachers who are the engine
room of quality education provision is how to pragmatically and sustainably
improve. While the published literature provides guidance and signals
provisions ---such as effective leadership, opportunities for professional
dialogue and collaborations and learning teaching content in context, ---
achievement in such agendas requires the establishment in teachers, of what
can be termed, a new fundamental in teaching practice.
This new fundamental is a teaching capability known as the Teacher
Researcher. The logic of teachers acting as researchers of their own practice
is an understanding and a harnessing of two inter-related phenomena. The
first is the emergence of ‘evidence-based practice’ in teaching. While nothing
new to professions that have their genesis in the sciences going back
centuries, the prevailing thought that teaching is an art, has meant a rapid
catch-up is now required for how teachers are prepared. The inherent
challenge for education systems is how to enable the busy teacher to
efficiently create value propositions in both their classroom curriculums and
in themselves as a continuously improving professional. The Teacher
Researcher is one such strategy.
Second, is to appreciate that the generation of the evidence-base for
teaching is not the sole domain of people in ‘white coats’ nor is it just for
academics to ponder. For practical in classroom effect it requires teaching
practitioners to be equal contributors. Teachers cannot just be
unquestioning passive consumers of research. Teachers must be able to
recognise the contributing components of new findings and work to insert
same into a personal research agenda or their practice by posing new
research questions and working through the process of research to make
new and viable contributions. In effect appreciate the potent process that is
researching in professional practice.
These opening statements bring me to the aim of this book. The chapters
that appear in this book are examples of teachers acting as researchers. Each
Jake Madden
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author has considered their own teaching related circumstance to contribute
to the education evidence base. In effect they have expanded the knowledge
base of the profession while applying higher level skills to enhanced their
own capabilities as a teacher. Taken together the chapters in this book
come to represent a dimension of highly skilled teaching work and which is
the fabric of how teachers today can solve localised problems, contribute to
the teaching knowledge base and ensure all students make the required
learning gains.
This book is a credit to both Dr Jake Madden, as the Al Yasat School leader
and the book’s editor and to the contributing authors who are paving the
way for what it means to be a highly skilled teacher in the 2000s.
I commend these chapters and their associated findings to you.
Professor David Lynch
Professor of Education
Southern Cross University, Australia.
School Reform: Case Studies in Teaching Improvement
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Introduction:
Jake Madden
When discussing student engagement with colleagues around the globe the
answers narrow to improving student attainment through measures that
attempt to re-engage and typically “to manage classroom behaviour”.
A student not on task, not busy with a learning activity is often cited as
being disengaged in their learning.
Defining student engagement is often at the discretion of how it is measured
(ie quantitatively - attendance, test scores, graduation rates) and usually in
terms of achievement rather than the levels of engagement in learning (ie
interest, time on task, enjoyment and satisfaction).
John Hattie has, stated in numerous presentations in the past few years, that
to enhance student learning all one needs is a pulse1. His meta-analysis on
what works in improving student learning, (see John Hattie’s 2008 book,
Visible Learning for deeper insight) aims to centre educators on what they
can do to make a difference. Although much of what teachers do (95%
according to Hattie) has an impact on student learning, knowing when to
use the effective teaching strategies is less known.
Consequently, the competent educator is also looking to improving their
own learning.
The escalation in efforts to improve the professionalization of teaching has
seen the rise of the agencies charged with this growing responsibility. The
introduction of professional teacher standards (AITSL2), teacher
certification subscriptions3 and even a teacher licensing program4 illustrates
the increased scrutiny on the role of the teacher.
Changing Landscape
1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rzwJXUieD0U
2 https://www.aitsl.edu.au/
3 https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/11/opinion/teacher-certification-new-york.html
4 https://government.ae/en/information-and-services/education/school-education-k-12/joining-k-12-
education/qualifications-to-be-a-teacher
Jake Madden
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Students are living in a diverse, technology rich world, vastly different from
our parents and grandparents. Schools, charged with the responsibility of
preparing students for a workforce/life in society, need to adapt to new
curricula, pedagogy and assessment strategies (Prensky, 2005) otherwise they
will lead students to failure.
David Hargreaves, (2004) states pedagogy should at its best, be about what
teachers do that not only help students to learn but actively strengthens their
capacity to learn. The role of teachers is to make learning relevant, authentic
and valuable in students’ lives. Once students make the connection they
hooked for life.
Furthermore, researchers like Barnett Berry (2011), Collins & Halverson
(2018) and Hargreaves, Lieberman, Fullan, & Hopkins, (2014) pinpoint
specific skills educators will need to teach in the schools of tomorrow.
These include teachers being prepared to find and adapt new technologies
to engage the digital generation. This, together with the engagement of
project based learning pedagogy, teachers need to be able to connect
students to a more authentic learning experience. The use of data and
evidence to inform not only their own practice but also establish student
learning schemes based on individual needs, is becoming the bread and
butter of the effective teacher’s teaching repertoire.
Teacher quality has captured the spotlight of policy makers and
practitioners, of politicians and businessmen around the world and teachers
are under pressure to produce results. The continual push for external
assessments has seen an emphasis on test-driven accountability and on
standardization of teaching and learning. In this era of accountability-by-
numbers, (read here the dominance of conversation on PISA, TIMMS,
PiRLS, etc), teachers have been known to narrow their teaching (ie teach to
the test); negatively impacting upon their teaching practice.
As our knowledge of how students learn improves, our teaching practices
must adapt to implement new knowledge. Teachers need to be continually
learning about what works in the classroom to improve student learning.
New technologies, new pedagogy,
While some institutions are sprouting “future ready graduates”, ready to hit
the ground running, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that
teachers may not finish university with all the necessary requisites to be an
effective teacher. Simply put, what teachers learnt at university may not be
enough to sustain student learning well into the future (Hoffman & Pearson,
School Reform: Case Studies in Teaching Improvement
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2000). Teacher preparation programs have remained largely unchanged over
the decades (Lynch, 2012; Lynch & Smith, 2012) with the traditional
paradigm being centred within schools of education in colleges and
universities worldwide. Lynch & Smith (2010) note the scarcity of research
on the effectiveness of teacher training has allowed the teacher workforce to
graduate without the necessary skills needed to succeed in a rapidly changing
learning environment.
Hargreaves & Fullan (2012) advocate the need for building human capital. It
may seem obvious but in order to make an impact on student learning,
improvement in teacher performance, knowledge and skills is warranted.
This in turn leads to improved teaching. The fruits of improved teaching
leads to improved student learning.
The question all effective leaders, in providing effective professional
learning for their staff, are seeking to solve is this notion of ongoing teacher
professional learning.
As this book demonstrates, advocating the need for an action research
approach to daily school life to continually learn “on the job”, is beneficial
to both student and teacher. The benefits of a job embedded professional
learning program have been promulgated elsewhere (Madden, 2017; Croft,
Coggshall, Dolan, & Powers, 2010) but is rarely seen in context is schools.
One potential strategy for moving forward is to ensure our teachers build an
action research mindset to their teaching.
Unpacking the Chapters?
Given that there are more teachers in the workforce than there are students
learning to be teachers, the emphasis on in school professional learning is
becoming more important to the profession at large. This is where action
research becomes the vehicle for teacher improvement. Following on from
the “Teachers Teaching Teachers” (Madden, 2017) the sharing of best
practice continues in this edition. Providing a forum for hearing the teacher
voice (Quaglia & Lande, 2016) benefits the profession, empowers the
teacher and raises productivity. This book opens the doors to the daily life
of the teacher researcher and offers support to the budding teacher leader.
It brings together stories of classroom research from one school focusing
on building teacher reflective learning as a means to improving teacher
performance.
This book is the culminating efforts of a number of dedicated teachers
seeking to improve their practice.
Jake Madden
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The opening chapter provides insight into how an action research
framework within a school can lead to building teacher capacity. After two
years of engaging in action research at Al Yasat Private School, this chapter
reveals several conditions for supporting the teacher researcher.
Chapter Two explores how effective distributed leadership contributes to
school improvement. Unpacking implementation of The Oscar Coaching
Model, this chapter reports on a study of how one school fostered
distributive leadership to support effective meetings, school-wide
improvements, instruction and academic achievement.
The impact on assessment has been a popular point of conversation in
recent years. Using assessment for learning strategies, Chapter Three
uncovers some proven strategies for class teachers to improve the nature of
students’ writing. Building success criteria, training students in peer and self-
assessment along with providing meaningful feedback are a few findings
illuminated.
How teachers gain knowledge of new practices and teaching methodologies
is often a conundrum for school leaders. Chapter Four highlights the role of
professional reading in guiding one teacher’s culturally responsive
instruction practices in a kindergarten setting.
Chapter Five highlights the findings of one teacher’s interest in the impact
of the Whole of School Behaviour Policy on the learning in her classroom.
Using the SEAL framework, this chapter discusses meaningful interventions
under the umbrella of SEAL Framework, involving parents, students,
teachers and stakeholders to achieve desired behavioural attitudes.
Exploring the development of the Al Yasat Private School Inquiry Model is
the focus of Chapter Six. Building a model that meets the needs of both the
teacher and student, this chapter unpacks each phase of the inquiry model
used to enhance the teaching and learning throughout the school.
The next chapter provides the results of study into using enriching resources
to stimulate student attitude towards science. Noting that when students feel
that science enriches their daily life, student engagement increased in the
classroom leading to higher achievement levels.
Chapter Eight explores the impact of using Google Classroom in Teaching
Maths in a middle school classroom. The results of this study will help
teachers motivate all students to be engaged in the use of Google Classroom
School Reform: Case Studies in Teaching Improvement
17
on a regular basis and how its use can be maximized by students, teachers
and parents.
Following this chapter is a whole of school focus on the impact of
technology in the various aspects of school life. It follows a previous study
on teacher integration of technology and offers the school leader insight
into leading technology reform within the school setting.
Chapter Ten explores the use of media in a Grade One classroom and how
it can be leveraged to enhance student learning.
Chapter Eleven discussed feedback where the role of various participants in
providing formative feedback is examined. Implications for class teachers
on how they support student learning are illuminated.
The final chapter is an account of the activities Al Yasat undertakes to play
its part in saving the environment. A number of the key initiatives
developed at Al Yasat are unpacked.
References
Berry, B. (Ed.). (2011). Teaching 2030: What we must do for our students and our
public schools: Now and in the future. Teachers College Press.
Collins, A., & Halverson, R. (2018). Rethinking education in the age of technology:
The digital revolution and schooling in America. Teachers College Press.
Croft, A., Coggshall, J. G., Dolan, M., & Powers, E. (2010). Job-Embedded
Professional Development: What It Is, Who Is Responsible, and How to
Get It Done Well. Issue Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
Gilbert, J. (2007). " Catching the Knowledge Wave": Redefining Knowledge
for the Post-Industrial Age. Education Canada, Toronto, 47(3), 4.
Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to
achievement. Routledge.
Hargreaves, A., & Fullan, M. (2012). Professional capital: Transforming teaching in
every school. Teachers College Press.
Hargreaves, D. H. (2004). Learning for life: The foundations for lifelong learning.
Policy Press.
Jake Madden
18
Hargreaves, A., Lieberman, A., Fullan, M., & Hopkins, D. W. (Eds.). (2014).
International handbook of educational change: Part two (Vol. 5). Springer.
Hoffman, J., & Pearson, P. D. (2000). Reading teacher education in the next
millennium: What your grandmother's teacher didn't know that your
granddaughter's teacher should. Reading Research Quarterly, 35(1), 28-44.
Lynch, D. (2012). Preparing Teachers in Times of Change. Lulu. com.
Lynch, D., & Smith, R. (2012). Teacher education partnerships: an
Australian research-based perspective. Australian Journal of Teacher Education,
37(11).
Madden, J. (2017) Teachers TEACHing Teachers: How teacher learning
improves student learning, QLD. Oxford Global Press
Quaglia, R. J., & Lande, L. L. (2016). Teacher voice: Amplifying success. Corwin
Press.
Smith, R., & Lynch, D. (2010). Rethinking teacher education. Lulu. com.
Prensky, M. (2005). Listen to the natives. Educational leadership, 63(4).
... As stated in Tarigan and Liana (2018), the most difficult part of writing is that students cannot organize their thoughts and the purpose of their writing. Likewise, Madden (2018) states that "the lack of teachers' time to evaluate writing in accordance with strict timetable constraints and rigorous pressure to cover demands of the curriculum, teachers at a disadvantage. In addition, feedback from multiple peers can yield improvements in writing that are significantly higher than improvement for those who received assessment only from an instructor or subject matter expert." ...
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