ChapterPDF Available

Katz/Lazarsfeld (1955): Personal Influence



Das Buch » Personal Influence « ist eine der meist zitierten und einflussreichsten Veröffentlichungen der amerikanischen Massenkommunikationsforschung aus der Nachkriegszeit. Es steht in der Folge der von Paul Lazarsfeld et al. (1944) realisierten Studien zum Einfluss der Medienberichterstattung auf die Präsidentschaftswahlen von 1940 (zum weiteren Kontext siehe auch Lazarsfeld und Merton → 1964). Im engeren Sinne hat die Publikation ihren Ursprung in einer 1944/45 durchgeführten, von einer Zeitschrift finanzierten Auftragsforschung zur Medienbeeinflussung des Entscheidungsverhaltens von Frauen in Decatur, Illinois.
Katz, Elihu/Lazarsfeld, Paul F. (1955): Personal Influence. The Part Played by People in
the Flow of Mass Communication. New York: Free Press.
Andreas Hepp
[English translation of Hepp, A. (2019) Katz, E. / Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1955): Personal Influence. The Part Played by
People in Mass Communication. In Schlüsselwerke der Netzwerkforschung [Key Works of Network Analysis], (Eds,
Holzer, B. & Stegbauer, C.) Springer VS, Wiesbaden, pp. 293-296.]
Personal Influence is one of the most influential and most regularly cited piece of American
mass communication research written in the post-war period. It is the sequel to a study carried
out by Paul Lazarsfeld et al. (1944) on the influence of media coverage on the presidential
elections of 1940 (for further context, see Lazarsfeld and Merton in 1964). The book emerged
from a 1944 journal-funded research project that set out to investigate media influence on
women's decision-making in Decatur, Illinois. Several other researchers were involved in the
empirical investigation, including C. Wright Mills. Elihu Katz’s contribution enriched the study
with an extensive literature review on group sociological research that introduced the concept
of the ‘interpersonal network’ (pp. 82-115). The second part of the publication presents the
results from the Decatur empirical study on peer groupopinion leadersand the role they play
in decision-making. While the two parts complement each other very well, the authors self-
critically note that rather than forming a fully integrative analysis the should be considered as
companion pieces (p. 12). Personal Influence takes a stand against the mass communication
research of the day which, Katz and Lazarsfeld argue, short-sightedly understands media
impact as a direct influence of media content on socially isolated individuals. By contrast, as
demonstrated by the book’s subtitle, the authors emphasize the ‘part played by people’ (p. 13)
in the flow of mass communications and in so doing reoriented media and communications
research for decades to come.
Katz and Lazarsfeld’s central argument hinges on what they refer to as the two-step flow of
communication’ which maintains that the influence media content has does not unfold in a
direct manner. Instead, influence is exerted or mediated through the personal networks in
which people are embedded and the communication that takes place within them. Through
this process, individuals they refer to as opinion leaders, that is, individuals who provide
interpretations of everyday life as well as current events that orientate others, play a prominent
role. This thesis is justified in two ways: theoretically in the first part of the book and empirically
in part two.
In theoretically justifying part one, Katz and Lazarsfeld draw attention to a fundamental
connection between interpersonal relationships and communication networks (p. 44): On the
one hand, interpersonal relationships operate as an anchor point for individual opinions,
attitudes, habits and values. On the other, these interpersonal relationships imply networks of
interpersonal communication. In essence, Katz and Lazarsfeld are not simply interested in
social networks in general but rather the influence communication networks have on
interpersonal relationships and the opinions and attitudes anchored within:
It is our guess that these two characteristics of small, intimate groups (1) person to
person sharing of opinions and attitudes (which we often shall refer to as group norms)
and (2) person-to-person communications networks – are the keys to an adequate
understanding of the intervening role played by interpersonal relations in the mass
communications process. (p. 45)
Their empirical study of the ‘two-step flow of communicationin part two of the book is based
on a snowball sampling technique of follow-up interviews. This approach broke new
methodological ground. To this day, their methodological innovation is still tangible in the
detailed appendix, included in the book, in which the problems of the procedure are discussed
in detail. The aim of the follow-up interviews, which were later used more widely in network
research, was, on the one hand, to verify whether the interpersonal communication mentioned
in the first interview took place the way it was described. On the other hand, the follow-up
interviews were used to help determine whether or not, and if so, in which ways, interpersonal
communication had an ‘influenceon decision making processes (p. 355). The study’s analysis
was drawn from around 800 interviews. They focused on four areas of everyday decision-
making: marketing, fashion, (local) public affairs, and visits to the cinema.
The main result of their analysis was that in almost 60% of decisions made no other person
was remembered as being relevant to the decision-making process as decisions were
generally made alone and, at times, these decisions were influenced by mass media. In
approximately 40% of decisions made, however, certain discussions were mentioned that
were identified as relevant to the decision-making process. Family members and friends were
typically mentioned as communication partners (p. 142-143). In this way they were able to
identify particular relationships between opinion leaders (‘influentials’) and those who orientate
themselves toward them (‘influencees’). The study found that opinion leadership is domain-
specific: opinion leaders and the patterns of the opinion leadership they engage in differ in the
areas of marketing, fashion, public affairs, and films. The opinion leaders are ‘expertsin their
respective area and are asked for advice by other members of their communication networks
in the course of everyday life.
Katz and Lazarsfeld revealed that opinion leaders can be found within different educational
groups, that they are particularly sociable people, and that they have many social contacts.
Across the various educational groups, opinion leaders were found to use more media than
those who orient themselves towards them and that they used these media as an important
information source (p. 310). These opinion leaders then passed on their knowledge to others
in their personal networks as if they were the foundation of their opinions and attitudes. This
is the essential nature of the ‘two-step flow of communication’.
In a moment of reflexivity, however, the two authors criticize their own investigation as they
did not fully grasp this flow of communication” as they could only describe isolated ‘influential-
influencee’ relationships (p. 309). In order to adequately understand the two-step flow of
communication, a full investigation of an entire network within a municipality would have been
necessary. In looking back at the study in the present day, however, it is clear that this ‘ideal
of analysing an entire network is difficult to realize.
In examining Personal Influence’s reception and the impact it had on the field, it should be
noted, as already mentioned above, that this is one of the most influential and frequently cited
American studies of media and communications research of the post-war era. Reviews from
the time heralded the work as a ‘major contribution to our understanding of the communication
process(Eagle 1957: 176), and as a ‘brillianttheoretical contribution (Riley 1956: 355). From
a methodological point of view, the reflexivity harnessed in their approach was considered
exemplary. Overall, the study’s contribution to media and communications research consists
first of all in having dissolved the dominant theory that there exists one homogeneous
audience. According to Katz and Lazarsfeld’s thesis, personal influences in social groups and
their communication networks have the potential to be more significant than mass media
content. It is important, therefore, to consider the social context of media use if one wants to
imply an argument related to media content’s influence. For this approach, the study provided
a theoretical and empirical framework to consider the internal structure of groups as well as
the subsequent communication about media content in any analysis of media and
From a network research perspective, Katz and Lazarsfeld’s book forms an early connection
between media and communications research and network analysis as the two authors sought
to capture the idea of opinion leadership as supported by media use in group (communication)
networks (see Schenk 1995: 6- 13; see also Schenk 1984). Nevertheless, it is precisely at this
point that the gaps between the theoretical and empirical sections of the study noted by Katz
and Lazarsfeld are revealed. The empirically valid combination of network analysis and
research on opinion leadership would only succeed in later studies.
Personal Influence should be considered as the starting point for a long-standing tradition in
media and communications research that, among others, Elihu Katz has worked to develop
(see Katz 1957, as an overview Okada 1986 and Robinson 1976). To this day, even as our
media environment has become rapidly and increasingly more complex, Personal Influence
remains an important reference point for understanding the relationships between public
engagement, social groups, and personal communication (Couldry and Markham, 2006; Watts
and Dotts, 2007) by opening up a differentiated view of what was previously only vaguely
described as a mass audience.
Translation: Jeanette Asmuss & Marc Kushin
Adler, K. P. (1957). Elihu Katz and Paul F. Lazarsfeld. Personal influence: The part played by
people in the flow of mass communication. The Annals of the American Academy of
Political and Social Science 309, 176 177.
Couldry, N. & Markham, T. (2006). Public connection through media consumption: between
oversocialization and de-socialization. The Annals of the American Academy of Political
and Social Science 608, 251 269.
Katz, E. (1957). The two-step-flow of communication. An up-to-date report on a hypothesis.
Public Opinion Quarterly 21, 61 78.
Lazarsfeld, P. F., Berelson, B. & Gaudet, H. (1944). The People’s Choice New York: Free
Press. Okada, N. (1986). The process of mass communication: a review of studies on
the two-step flow of communication hypothesis. Studies of Broadcasting 22, 57 78.
Riley, J. W., Katz, E. & Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1956). Personal influence: The part played by people
in the flow of mass communication. Public Opinion Quarterly 20, 355 356
Robinson, J. P. (1976). Interpersonal influence in elections campaigns: the two- step flow
hypothesis. Public Opinion Quarterly 40, 304 19.
Watts, D. J & Dodds, P. S. (2007). Influentials, networks, and public opinion formation. Journal
of Consumer Research 34, 441 458.
... En este sentido, es importante traer a mención la tesis del efecto mínimo o efectos limitados, que sostiene que los medios no producen conversiones de actitud sino el refuerzo de predisposiciones anteriores. Las relaciones sociales informales se manifiestan como puntos de anclaje de actitudes, opiniones y esquemas conductuales, e implican la existencia de redes de comunicación (Hepp, 2019), en las cuales hay que entretejer el objetivo de conservación del pnn Tinigua. En esta apuesta, es donde la investigación juega un papel importante para promover la apropiación y divulgación del conocimiento. ...
Full-text available
En esta investigación, el autor determinó algunos aspectos de incidencia de los procesos e intervenciones en educación y comunicación para la conservación, desarrollados en el Parque Nacional Natural Tinigua en el periodo 2016-2020. Se usó una metodología cualitativa para conocer la percepción de los actores estratégicos del territorio respecto a la incidencia de los procesos de educación ambiental en los que han participado, a través de la aplicación de una encuesta semiestructura a una muestra de 30 personas. Como resultado, se observó una amplia cobertura de los procesos educativos en áreas urbanas fuera del área protegida, con un contenido temático muy apropiado a los objetivos de conservación; pero, una cobertura reducida en los centros educativos del área protegida. El lenguaje y guion tecnicista tradicional de la conservación no alcanza a irrumpir en los puntos de anclaje de las redes de comunicación social rural; este no trasciende a los esquemas conductuales y actitudinales, y genera baja incidencia en el marco de una comunicación bidireccional y educación continua. La violencia que aún persiste en el área de estudio, en la actual etapa del posconflicto, afecta la participación comunitaria necesaria en la construcción e implementación conjunta de estrategias de educación para la conservación de la naturaleza.
... There are two concepts directly related to the use of social media as a marketing tool: e-Word of Mouth and viral marketing (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2011). According to Katz and Lazarsfeld (1955), WoM could influence consumer behaviour and be more effective than traditional advertising methods in impacting brand switching decisions (Hepp, 2019) while e-WoM had a higher diffusion speed for new pieces of information (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2011). Research showed that social media has altered the "bottom-down" model of traditional advertising to a "bottom-up" one. ...
A few years ago, marketing managers considered the Internet as another advertising channel and used it as a magazine advertisement, equipped with sound and motion. They placed banner ads and pop-ups to display advertisements on websites, but once again consumers identified them as distractions and found ways to ignore or avoid them. Nowadays, digital technology offers numerous ways for brands to engage with their customers and present new exciting challenges. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the marketing world is changing every day. But as the digital world is evolving, so is the balance shifting between consumers and marketing experts who try to adjust to this new era of consumer engagement. The purpose of the present paper is to address the question of how digital innovation is changing the marketing field. In a post-pandemic environment, terms like social media, artificial intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, Cloud Computing, Blockchain, and cryptocurrencies, Augmented Reality marketing, and Virtual reality marketing are not just buzzwords but crucial aspects of digital marketing. Nonetheless, their integration into a business strategy is followed by the challenges accompanying them. The ever-changing nature and complexity of digital technology and other issues like privacy regulations and funding can be intimidating, especially for SMEs. In the field of entrepreneurship, their use can be viewed as a creative and innovative response to the evolving environment and an ability to recognize and exploit economic opportunities as many companies include the use of digital technology as the original idea. The theoretical framework of the aforementioned digital technologies and their use as marketing tools are analysed. This is followed by an insight into the digital transformation of Greek SMEs, the adoption of such technologies from start-up companies, and the opportunities they provide for the development of entrepreneurship.
Full-text available
To inhibit the spread of the Covid-19 virus, several governmental guidelines (e.g., social contact, vaccination) were proposed. Whether or not these protective behaviours are implemented often depends on citizens’ risk perceptions which, according to previous research, are formed by social media, news media, and interpersonal communications. However, previous research is limited in two ways. First, research mostly focused on adults, thereby neglecting emerging adults who are less affected but equally needed to adhere to the rules. Second, research mainly measured behaviours at one-time point and studied between-person associations, thereby neglecting short-term within-person effects. We therefore conducted a daily diary study among 208 emerging adults (Mage = 21.63, SDage = 1.15) and examined which communication channels increased Covid-19 risk perceptions (i.e., perceived personal susceptibility and societal severity) and, in turn, individuals’ willingness to get vaccinated and follow Covid-19 rules. The results showed that only news media predicted societal severity on the within-level and that severity, in turn, predicted willingness to get vaccinated and follow rules at the between-level. Additionally, social media predicted interpersonal conversations about Covid-19 at the between-and within-level. Overall, this study highlights the importance of news media in affecting emerging adults’ health perceptions and behaviours during a crisis.
Conference Paper
Social media has changed our day to day life in so many aspects, and especially with COVID19 forcing people to stay at home, the use of the internet and platforms has increased dramatically. We now use social media for communication, learning, entertainment, and even for work purposes. There has been a significant increase in the number of people on all social media platforms, and this increase in the number of users viewing all sorts of content gave rise to influencers or “leaders of opinion”, i.e. experts in certain fields with many followers viewing their content. Influencers in many cases have the ability to affect the decision-making process of their followers, which caused many organizations to turn to them, giving them partnerships and sponsorships in exchange for influencers marketing their products/services. In this study, a comparison is attempted between the two biggest influencer marketing platforms, Tiktok and Instagram, and an attempt is made to give businesses who are thinking of using influencer marketing a better understanding of this phenomenon. The paper also aims to help businesses that already have an influencer marketing strategy in place realize if their current platform is most suitable to their business. This study uses qualitative research, as the data has been gathered through the multiple interviews with different types of businesses, influencers and social media experts.
Conference Paper
В последние годы возросло внимание специалистов разного профиля к проблемам пожилых людей. Рост интереса связан с тем, что относительная доля и абсолютное число престарелых граждан во всем мире стремительно растет, а потому проблемы старости и старения становятся глобальными. Старение населения во всем мире означает, что и абсолютное число пожилых людей с нарушениями употребления алкоголя также растет.
Conference Paper
Физическая травма и лечение ее последствий в основном находится в сфере задач специалистов-медиков. Но вряд ли мы можем себе представить, что какое-либо физическое воздействие может привести только к телесному повреждению. Фактически, человек сталкивается с рядом психологических последствий, начиная ограничениями, вызванными болью, заканчивая тонкими изменениями в жизненной ситуации и отношениях. Таким образом, можно считать, что пациенты с последствиями физических травм могут успешно получать помощь и у психологов. В статье предлагается и описывается метод восстановления микродвигательных реакций (ВМР). Этот метод основан на принципе дифференциации микродвигательных реакций. В нашем подходе мы используем концепцию «незавершенных дел», происходящую из гештальт-терапии. Метод ВМР позволяет развивать различные разнонаправленные и противоречивые импульсы и реакции, которые были временно остановлены в эпизоде перенесенной физической травмы. Такой вид работы дает каждому незавершенному двигательному импульсу, рожденному во время травмы, полностью развиться. В результате восстанавливается вера в спонтанность движений и увеличивается резилентность пациента. Также в статье представлены три клинических случая, демонстрирующих возможности использования метода ВМР в психотерапевтической работе. Physical trauma and treatment of its consequences basically lies in the domain of medical specialists. But we would hardly imagine that some physical injury may result in bodily impairment only. As a matter of fact, one encounters with a number of psychological consequences from restriction caused by pain to subtle changes in life situation and relationships. Thus, we can consider that patients with physical trauma consequences may be also successfully treated by psychologists. Micro-motion reactions restoration method (MRR) is suggested and described in the article. This method is based on the principle of micro-motion reactions differentiation. In our approach we are using the concept of “unfinished tasks” which originates from Gestalt therapy. The MRR method enables development of various multidirectional and contradictory impulses and reactions that had been temporarily stalled in the episode of past physical trauma. That type of work permits each unfinished motion impulse born during trauma to develop completely. As a result, trust in spontaneity of movement is restored and one’s resilience grows. Also three clinical cases are presented in the article to demonstrate the possibilities of using the MRR method in psychotherapeutic work.
Conference Paper
В статье анализируются тревожные расстройства, возникающие на фоне вирусной пневмонии, вызванной коронавирусом SARS-CoV-19. Прослежены частота проявлений, формы нарушений, особенности тревоги во время инфекционного процесса у пациентов с тяжелыми соматическими заболеваниями. Отмечены изменения тревожных нарушений в процессе затягивания пандемии, свидетельствующие о снижении адаптационных способностей у людей с комбинированными соматическими нарушениями. The article analyzes anxiety disorders that occur against the background of viral pneumonia caused by the SARS-CoV-19 coronavirus. The frequency of manifestations, forms of disorders, features of anxiety during the infectious process in patients with severe somatic diseases were traced. Changes in anxiety disorders in the process of delaying the pandemic were noted, indicating a decrease in adaptive abilities in people with combined somatic disorders.
Conference Paper
Понимание конструкции рабочей памяти и структуры образов в индивидуальной модели мира является основной задачей образной психологии. Ключевой момент решения задачи — выяснение принципов адаптации к недостатку знаний о мире. Игровые методы обучения не только восполняют недостаток, но и позволяют обрести полезные навыки поведения. В данной работе наблюдали за тем, как опыт, полученный в ходе индивидуальных и групповых игр, помогает находить выход их семейного кризиса. Подводя итог игре, участники отметили последовательность плодотворного влияния игры на преодоление кризиса. Во-первых, формировался конструктивный подход к решению проблем в основе кризиса. Во-вторых, восстановительные мотивации приходили на смену разрушительным, провоцировавшим конфликты и предвзятые негативные оценочные суждения. В-третьих, в результате игрового обучения отрабатывались навыки урегулирования разногласий. В-четвертых, благодаря прояснению общих целей членов семьи открывалась перспектива упрочения внутрисемейных отношений в рамках общепринятой модели взаимодействия. Визуализация образа межличностных отношений облегчала понимание причин кризиса и нахождение выхода из кризисной ситуации. По мнению, высказанному участниками при подведении итогов игрового моделирования семейных кризисов, игра является эффективной формой обучения, снабжающего знаниями о природе кризиса и способах его преодоления. Одновременно игра обладает психотерапевтическим эффектом, поскольку мобилизует интеллект, избавляя от последствий негативных переживаний, вызванных кризисной ситуацией. Understanding the construction of working memory and the structure of images in an individual model of the world is the main task of figurative psychology. The key point of task solution is to find out the principles of adaptation to the lack of knowledge about the world. Game-based learning methods not only make up for the lack, but also allow to acquire useful behavioral skills. In this work, we observed how the experience gained during individual and group games helps to find a way out of the family crisis. Summing up the game, the participants noted the sequence of the fruitful influence of the game on overcoming the crisis. First, a constructive approach to solving the problems at the heart of the crisis was formed. Secondly, restorative motivations replaced destructive ones that provoked conflicts and biased negative value judgments. Thirdly, as a result of game learning, the skills of dispute resolution were worked out. Fourth, due to the clarification of the common goals of family members, the prospect of strengthening intra-family relations within the framework of the generally accepted model of interaction opened up. Visualization of the image of interpersonal relationships made it easier to understand the causes of the crisis and to find a way out of the crisis situation. According to the opinion expressed by the participants when summing up the results of the game modeling of family crises, the game is an effective form of learning that provides knowledge about the nature of the crisis and ways to overcome it. At the same time, the game has a psychotherapeutic effect, since it mobilizes the intellect, eliminating the consequences of negative experiences caused by a crisis situation.
Conference Paper
Чтобы оказать эффективную помощь в разрешении проблем, связанных с бесплодием и невынашиванием, необходимо организовать качественный процесс взаимодействия между репродуктивным психологом и врачом.
Conference Paper
В статье рассматривается традиционное понимание адаптивной функции интеллекта, обоснованное в трудах Ж.Пиаже, Г.Култона и многих других авторов. Даются исчерпываю щие представления о принципиально новых подходах к пониманию адаптивно интеллектуальной функции, разработанных в контексте общей теории психотерапии. Приводится краткое и развернутое определение новой модели адаптивного интеллекта. Обсуждаются эвристическ ие следствия данной модели в психотерапии, в частности в мета модели социальной психотерапии, в сфере деятельности научных и религиозных институтов, а также в сфере научной этики. Делаются выводы о состоятельности и перспективности использования данной мод ели в науке и практике. The article examines the traditional understanding of the adaptive function of intelligence, substantiated in the works of J. Piaget, G. Coulton and many other authors. Exhaustive ideas about fundamentally new approaches to understanding the adaptive-intellectual function, developed in the context of the general theory of psychotherapy, are given. A short and detailed definition of a new model of adaptive intelligence is given. The heuristic consequences of this model in psychotherapy, in particular in the meta-model of social psychotherapy, in the field of activities of scientific and religious institutions, as well as in the field of scientific ethics are discussed. Conclusions are made about the consistency and prospects of using this model in science and practice.
Full-text available
A central idea in marketing and diffusion research is that influentials-a minority of individuals who influence an exceptional number of their peers-are important to the formation of public opinion. Here we examine this idea, which we call the "influentials hypothesis," using a series of computer simulations of interpersonal influence processes. Under most conditions that we consider, we find that large cascades of influence are driven not by influentials but by a critical mass of easily influenced individuals. Although our results do not exclude the possibility that influentials can be important, they suggest that the influentials hypothesis requires more careful specification and testing than it has received. (c) 2007 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
This article reviews the ongoing contribution of Personal Influence to our understanding of media' social consequences from the perspective of recent research (the London School of Economics “Public Connection” project, 2003-2006, conducted by the authors and Sonia Livingstone) into the extent to which shared habits of media consumption help sustain, or not, U.K. citizens' orientation to a public world. As well as reviewing specific findings of the Public Connection project that intersect with themes of Personal Influence(particularly on citizens' networks of social interaction and the available discursive contexts in which they can put their mediated knowledge of the public world to use), the article reviews the methodological similarities and differences between this recent project and that of Katz and Lazarsfeld. The result, the authors conclude, is to confirm the continued salience of the questions about the social embeddedness of media influences that Katz and Lazarsfeld posed.
A study of "the dynamics of person-to-person communication and influence" as compared to the apparent direct effect of mass media. The authors have found evidence of the "possible relevance of interpersonal relations as an intervening variable in the mass communications process." The latter half of the book is concerned with a research carried on in Decatur, Illinois, upon a cross-section sample of 800 women in which a variety of reaction producing influences were studied to determine the degree and extent of their impact on ultimate behavior. Factors influencing leadership status were analyzed. 180-item bibliography. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The hypothesis that "ideas often flow from radio and print to opinion leaders and from these to the less active sections of the population" has been tested in several successive studies. Each study has attempted a different solution to the problem of how to take account of interpersonal relations in the traditional design of survey research. As a result, the original hypothesis is largely corroborated and considerably refined. A former staff member of the Bureau of Applied Social Research at Columbia University, the author is now on leave from his post as assistant professor of sociology at the University of Chicago and is currently guest lecturer in sociology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
Research subsequent to the classic statement of a two-step flow-of-infiuence hypothesis has isolated a number of inaccuracies in the hypothesis as originally formulated. Analysis of a question series on interpersonal influence, included in the 1968 national election study of the Center for Political Studies, reveals further difficulties with the hypothesis. These analyses further suggest the existence of two distinct patterns of mass media and interpersonal influence at work in separate segments of the electorate. One process operates solely through interpersonal channels, in which the mass media's role is unclear. The second proceeds directly through exposure to the mass media, particularly newspapers. Some ways in which the study results are consistent with the original hypothesis are discussed.
Elihu Katz and Paul F. Lazarsfeld. Personal influence: The part played by people in the flow of mass communication
  • K P Adler
Adler, K. P. (1957). Elihu Katz and Paul F. Lazarsfeld. Personal influence: The part played by people in the flow of mass communication. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 309, 176 -177.
The process of mass communication: a review of studies on the two-step flow of communication hypothesis
  • P F Lazarsfeld
  • B Berelson
  • H Gaudet
Lazarsfeld, P. F., Berelson, B. & Gaudet, H. (1944). The People's Choice New York: Free Press. Okada, N. (1986). The process of mass communication: a review of studies on the two-step flow of communication hypothesis. Studies of Broadcasting 22, 57 -78.
The process of mass communication: a review of studies on the two-step flow of communication hypothesis
  • N Okada