ArticlePDF Available

The impact of Landscape Architecture on the built environment

Authors:

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of Landscape Architecture on the built environment. Landscape is one of the important and fundamental issues which have been the center of attention recently. Landscape has had a unique position in discussions related to sustainable development in Architecture and urban planning so that landscape is regarded as one of the crucial elements in urban sustainable development. Landscape Architecture is the art and science of organizing land, spaces, and the elements on them to be used in an appropriate, healthy and pleasant way. The research method was based on descriptive method of data analysis to evaluate the impacts and significance of Landscaping to Architecture and the Environment. Studies has shown that landscaping has a direct effect on not only the building outfit but also the functionality, performance and aesthetics. Landscape Architecture over the years has not be given the deserved emphasis and considerations in design proposals and construction. Hence, the natural elements of the environment is not fully harnessed in maintaining ecological balance in built environments as proper landscaping offers owners and users an increased livability, improved health, greater flexibility, enhanced energy and environmental performance. Data was sourced primarily from books, internet and related literature. Landscape is more than a projection unto nature or the environment, it is a multivalent frame of territory, patterns, politics and aesthetics determining how the environment is perceived and shaped. The importance of this study goes beyond highlighting the benefits of Landscape Architecture in the built environment but also promote the awareness of sustainable Architecture and ecological balance of the built environment.
A preview of the PDF is not available
Article
Full-text available
This paper develops an analytical framework from which to understand the mobilisation of post-political urban environments across spatial and institutional contexts. Our analysis of two closely related cases from a Swedish context reveals the potential benefits of combining studies on urban political ecology and policy mobility. By utilising Actor-Network Theory (ANT) we illustrate how post-political environments that are shaped by mobile and mutating policies of sustainable urban development are stabilised through distinct discursive strategies, capital investments and the desire for increased influence within global frames of action and contribute to the creation of, what we call, selective geographies.
Article
Full-text available
Modeling and rendering of natural scenes with thousands of plants poses a number of problems. The terrain must be modeled and plants must be distributed throughout it in a realistic manner, reflecting the interactions of plants with each other and with their environment. Geometric models of individual plants, consistent with their positions within the ecosystem, must be synthesized to populate the scene. The scene, which may consist of billions of primitives, must be rendered efficiently while incorporating the subtleties of lighting in a natural environment. We have developed a system built around a pipeline of tools that address these tasks. The terrain is designed using an interactive graphical editor. Plant distribution is determined by hand (as one would do when designing a garden), by ecosystem simulation, or by a combination of both techniques. Given parametrized procedural models of individual plants, the geometric complexity of the scene is reduced by approximate instancing, in which similar plants, groups of plants, or plant organs are replaced by instances of representative objects before the scene is rendered. The paper includes examples of visually rich scenes synthesized using the system.
Article
We compared psychophysiological stress recovery and directed attention restoration in natural and urban field settings using repeated measures of ambulatory blood pressure, emotion, and attention collected from 112 randomly assigned young adults. To vary restoration needs, we had half of the subjects begin the environmental treatment directly after driving to the field site. The other half completed attentionally demanding tasks just before the treatment. After the drive or the tasks, sitting in a room with tree views promoted more rapid decline in diastolic blood pressure than sitting in a viewless room. Subsequently walking in a nature reserve initially fostered blood pressure change that indicated greater stress reduction than afforded by walking in the urban surroundings. Performance on an attentional test improved slightly from the pretest to the midpoint of the walk in the nature reserve, while it declined in the urban setting. This opened a performance gap that persisted after the walk. Positive affect increased and anger decreased in the nature reserve by the end of the walk; the opposite pattern emerged in the urban environment. The task manipulation affected emotional self-reports. We discuss implications of the results for theories about restorative environments and environmental health promotion measures.
Article
The full complexity of the ideas of landscape and nature has been largely lost due to a modern tendency to appropriate the meaning of landscape to a concept of nature as scenery. The resulting conflation of meaning has not only led to questionable forms of determinism, it has obscured the substantive meaning of landscape, and related concepts, in European and North American culture. This study of the evolving meaning of a key geographical term advocates a substantive conception of landscape in which substantive is used to mean “real rather than apparent,”“belonging to the substance of a thing.” It is also used in the legal sense of “creating and defining rights and duties.”A substantive concept of landscape is more concerned with social law and justice than with natural law or aesthetics. This essay will seek to recover this substantive meaning of landscape through an historical and geographical analysis of the transformations of meaning undergone by the concepts of landscape and nature.
Chapter
Landscape has become an important area of endeavour for archaeologists, both for research and preservation (for example, among more recent overviews, Muir 1999, Knapp and Ashmore 1999, Ucko and Layton 1999, Fairclough et al. 1999, Fairclough and Rippon 2002, Rippon 2004). Unlike many other parts of the archaeological (or cultural heritage) resource, however, it also 'belongs' to many other disciplines, and indeed to non-experts. Its wide field requires interdisciplinary research and wide-ranging partnerships. Archaeologists can contribute a great deal to this broad 'landscape', but doing so brings archaeology into contact with many other disciplines that have their own theories, practices and objectives and which are also struggling to become more inter-disciplinary (Palang and Fry 2003). This chapter is partly about the implications of this encounter with other disciplines. Inter-disciplinary work at landscape level encourages critical review of ideas or behaviours that have been taken for granted, especially in the field of preservation or management. Such reflexivity might change how the cultural heritage resource is explored, explained and exploited, and might widen the range of things that are studied by archaeological methods or emphasise the value of studying recent material culture as well as ancient. More fundamentally, working through landscape might change how archaeologists perceive the role of past material culture in the present day. The ubiquity of landscape might lead to reconsideration of the best spatial scale for managing the resource. One of this chapter's main themes is that working at landscape scale requires new objectives. This chapter is not a methodological discussion, but its ideas are set within one particular way of looking at landscape that is known as Historic Landscape Characterisation (HLC). HLC was designed to help with managing change in the whole landscape in ways that are rooted in sustainability and integrated management. It uses principles and objectives that differ from those used in traditional monumentbased protection (Fairclough 1995, Bloemers 2002, Fairclough 2003a) This focus on HLC, however, is not intended to suggest that other types of landscape archaeology (such as detailed reconstruction of past environments at extensive scales, the exploration of past societies' mental landscape) cannot be equally useful and rewarding, especially in relation to research and understanding historic landscapes. (Ashmore and Knapp 1999; Muir 1999) In most countries of Europe (and particularly in the UK or more accurately England which is the particular perspective of this chapter), all landscape can be seen to be 'cultural' and little of it as truly natural. Almost any piece of territory, and the character of its biodiversity, can be shown to be the product of centuries and millennia of human actions or of human interaction with nature, whether through deliberate design or the indirect result of behaviour and actions. One reaction to this, because virtually no true wilderness remains, has been the creation of a new category of land-'wild-land', land where people consciously leave room for 'Nature'; in landscape management terms, the recreation of lost habitats and attempts to restore biodiversity is very fashionable. Another reaction, at least since the1940s in the United Kingdom, is characterised by the almost casual use of the word 'countryside' as if it was a synonym for landscape. Once a simple geographic term, countryside is now a label for a particular form of rural nostalgia. It evokes feelings of loss and nostalgia, and a vanished 'golden age' of rural idyll, as powerful drivers for landscape preservation in an almost wholly urbanised society. If Heritage is a problematic word, so too is Countryside, but where heritage boasts a massive critical and analytical literature, countryside is very largely taken for granted. Cultural heritage and archaeological resource managers have not, on the whole, worked out a distinctive and consistent response of their own to landscape change, but instead shelter behind objectives developed by amenity and nature conservation lobbies. One underlying theme of this chapter, therefore, is what a more specifically-archaeological response to landscape change might be; this paper's answer is that it should reflect archaeology's interest in past processes and change, and should not oppose all future change. Preservation is a concept suited to monuments and buildings, to fabric and collections; landscape requires something more subtle.
Article
Landscapes change because they are the expression of the dynamic interaction between natural and cultural forces in the environment. Cultural landscapes are the result of consecutive reorganization of the land in order to adapt its use and spatial structure better to the changing societal demands. Particularly in Europe, history has recorded many successive and even devastating landscape changes, which have left barely any relics today. Today, the changes are seen as a menace, as a negative evolution because they cause a loss of diversity, coherence and identity, which were characteristic for the traditional cultural landscapes that are rapidly vanishing. This growing concern is also expressed in the European Landscape Convention, which will be used as a start for the analysis in this article. Three periods of landscape dynamics are considered: the traditional landscapes before the important changes that started in the 18th century, the landscapes of the revolutions age of the 19th to 20th century, and the post-modern new landscapes. The combined effect of the driving forces such as accessibility, urbanization, globalization and the impact of calamities have been different in each of the periods and affected the nature and pace of the changes as well as the perception people have had about the landscape. Values change accordingly and so does the way of using and shaping the landscape. It is argued that this changing perception also influences what kind and aspects of landscapes are studied, protected and managed. Diversity and identity of cultural landscapes are central in the discussion. It is shown that coherence between small composing elements in a broader spatial context is important for the legibility of the landscape and that the ability to tell the (his)story of a place strongly enhances the identity and the overall value. This offers criteria for inventorying and assessing landscapes, which is needed to define future management and development. Although the general trends of future development of the European landscapes are rather well known, planning and managing future landscape remains difficult and extremely uncertain. The processes and management in past traditional landscapes and the manifold relations people have towards the perceivable environment and the symbolic meaning it generates, offer valuable knowledge for more sustainable planning and management for future landscapes.
Article
Europe has a long history of landscape use, ranging from prehistoric to present times. Many old cultural landscapes have high qualities, but the management regime they developed under is no more feasible economically. Modern society increasingly utilizes landscape in a great variety of ways and for many purposes. This poses a complex pressure on cultural landscapes, threatening landscape qualities. Therefore planners and managers are facing the question: how can a sustainable future for old cultural landscapes, based on sound economics and the commitment of all actors be achieved? After a comprehensive overview of landscape use in the past, the various ways in which people have regarded their landscape and the ever changing attitude towards landscape use are reviewed. Modern agricultural practices, urbanization and recreation all threaten the existence of valuable cultural landscapes, but simple solutions to conserve many of these landscapes are not at hand. Perspectives for a sustainable future for historic European cultural landscapes are based on the following observations: society’s demand for multifunctionality; the inclination of farmers to meet this demand if it is economically profitable; support from national and local authorities (and the public) for ecologically sound management and finally, decentralization of landscape ruling and legislation, which favours regional solutions. Landscape ecology, as a study of relations on the earth’s surface can tackle planning and management issues from numerous view points, each with its own focal points. Scientists from all over Europe, convening in the Netherlands, set out new directions for landscape science. Priorities for the next century include: integration between disciplines; matching of scales in time and place with users, researchers and decision makers to enhance interaction and understanding.
Article
Natural resources management typically requires prediction of environmetal changes over large areas or long time periods. In the case of forest management, for example, decisions can affect timber production, water catchment properties, recreational values, aesthetic values, energy usage, or employment opportunities. Complex decisions can be assisted by effective presentation of the outcome of systems modelling. In this paper we describe the development of advanced visualisation techniques in combination with a geographic information system and resource modelling. Application potential is illustrated through examples in forest management and visual impact assessment. The emphasis is on provision of visual feedback on the outcome of decision options. The main interactive window allows three-dimensional movement of, or over, the management area based initially on imagery draped on a digital terrain model. Also on screen are menus or sliders which may control time, position along a line, or the values of data or modelling parameters including sliders for decision variables. As the time or the decision variables are altered by the user, the result is presented through replacement of textures in the three-dimensional view to represent the changes in land cover or other outcome. Initially the visualisation is based on prior modelling in a well-defined decision space. The system reads model output in ARC/INFO export format whereas interactive visualisation is based on the Silicon Graphics Performer toolkit.