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Alcohol and malaria

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tropical countries.1,2 During gametocytogenenesis malaria parasites
hide in the bone marrow. Ethanol has an effect on bone marrow.
Biopsies from 30 alcohol-dependent individuals were investigated.
The ndings took the form of heightened ineffective erythropoiesis in
bone marrow associated with impaired iron utilization. Both may be
detrimental to the survival of the gametocytes.3 The effect of ethanol
on the in vitro growth of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum
was investigated during six days of incubation. A signicant growth
inhibition for ethanol concentrations was observed on each day.
Malarial parasites are strongly inhibited by ethanol concentrations.4,5
Fever is accompanied by glycogen destruction. This was already
discovered more than 100 years ago. Glycogen disappears from the
liver during tetanus, diphtheria and pneumonia. A natural way of our
body to ght parasites and diseases. It makes thus complete nonsense
to ght fever in the early stages of a malaria infection.6,7 Alcohol
also removes glycogen from the liver.8 Chronic ethanol consumption
also results in a dramatic decrease in liver glycogen concentrations,
which could be related to either a depressed rate of synthesis or an
increased rate of breakdown.9 Macrophages, including Kupffer cells,
appear to increase their production of cytokines in patients with
alcoholic liver disease. Precursors of macrophages, i.e. monocytes
with alcohol induced hepatitis produce greater amounts of TNF-α and
reactive oxygen species. These data have been conrmed in animals.
Malaria parasites are destroyed by oxidative species, like NO, H2O2
or artemisinin peroxides.10‒12 Wine is efcient against other pathogens.
An in vitro study was undertaken to determine the potential for
survival of enteric pathogens in common drinking beverages. Three
carbonated soft drinks, two alcoholic beverages, skim milk, and
water were inoculated with Salmonella, Shigella, and enterotoxigenic
Escherichia coli and quantitative counts were performed over 2 days.
The study showed poorest survival of all three organisms in wine, and
greatest growth in milk and water.
Long-term intake of alcohol affects the immune system. Serum
levels of immunoglobulins (total IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgA) therefore,
were analyzed in adult chronic alcoholics in Indian population and
were correlated with different epidemiological and alcohol-related
parameters. The results showed that 98% of alcoholics had abnormal
immunoglobulin levels and 92% showed high or very high total serum
IgE levels compared to 24% of the control group. Several other studies
have shown that that total serum IgE concentrations are increased in
moderate alcohol consumers with respect to abstainers. This increase
is independent of cofounders such as age, sex, liver disease, cigarette
smoking.13‒16 In a recent paper we have shown how IgE contributes to
malaria prophylaxis.17 Alcohol can increase the solubility of poorly
soluble drugs and hence increase their bioavailability. And increases
the intestinal permeability to indigested macromolecules.18,19
Palm wines
A study from Niger showed that palm wine consumption may
deplete the body’s antioxidants against free radical attacks and render
the body in a state of oxidative stress.20 In Nigeria a face-to-face ethno-
medical survey on 1000 randomly selected families in conrmed the
use of palm wines as antimicrobial agents and prophylactic agents
against malaria. The hypothesized mechanism is that the ethanol
content of the palm wines may increase membrane uidity, altering
ion channels and K content of the infected erythrocytes thereby
impairing motor performance of Plasmodia.21,22 Medicinal herbs can
be infused in palm wine. Palm wine is added to the decoctions of
bitter herbs to increase their palatability. Palm wine is very rich in
potassium, sodium is only present in traces, a situation very similar to
that of Artemisia annua.23 Many palm wines are rich in anthocyanins
concentrated in the pericarp. Anthocyanins have a strong effect on
hemozoin inhibition like in black or red grapes or in pomegranate.24,25
It is hard to outline a conclusion. Heavy alcohol drinking certainly
never should be recommended. Alcoholism is a health problem. Lets
rather listen to the French” Boire du vin rouge modérément est bon
pour la santé”.
Conict of interest
The author declares that there is no Conict of interest.
1. Jerome M, Lucile CV, Michel I. Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra tea
infusions were equal to or better than artesunate-amodiaquine (ACT) in
treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a large scale, double blind,
randomized clinical trial; 2018.
2. Chrostek L, Jelski W, Szmitkowski M, et al. Gender-related differences
in hepatic activity of alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde
dehydrogenase in humans. J Clin Lab Anal. 2003;17(3):93–96.
Pharm Pharmacol Int J. 2018;6(4):310311. 310
© 2018 Lutgen. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Alcohol and malaria
Volume 6 Issue 4 - 2018
Pierre Lutgen
IFBV-BELHERB, Luxembourg
Correspondence: Pierre Lutgen, IFBV-BELHERB, BP 98
L-6905, Niederanven, Luxembourg, Email
Received: July 18, 2018 | Published: August 08, 2018
Pharmacy & Pharmacology International Journal
Opinion Open Access
In a large scale clinical trial with malaria infected patients in
RDCongo comparing ACTs with Artemisia infusion we observed
a gender difference. Whilst both genders responded equally well
to Artemisia, in the ACT-treated arm there was signicantly more
gametocyte carriage in females than males for days 14-28. Having
no valid explanation for this observation, one may wonder if it due to
differences in enzyme between males and females, like those which are
responsible for a lower susceptibility of males to alcohol consumption.
It is well known on the other hand that alcohol consumption,
especially palm wine, is much higher for males than for females in
Alcohol and malaria 311
©2018 Lutgen
Citation: Lutgen P. Alcohol and malaria. Pharm Pharmacol Int J. 2018;6(4):310311. DOI: 10.15406/ppij.2018.06.00193
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Glycogen. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and
Medicine, Newyork: Columbia University; 1905. 17 p.
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disease. Alcohol Res Health. 2003;27(4):300–306.
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causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease. J Allergy Clin
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in serum immunoglobulin IgE levels in human subjects. Front Biosci.
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... It makes thus complete nonsense to fight fever with aspirin in the early stages of a malaria infection. 55 Aspirin inhibits cyclooxygenase and affects the TNF-α and prostaglandin E2 produced by the malaria parasite. Let's not forget that only 1% of those infected by malaria die of the disease because the humane immune system is very efficient. ...
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Long-term intake of alcohol affects virtually every organ in the body including the immune system. The relation between alcohol abuse and immunoglobulin production has not been studied in Indian population. Serum levels of immunoglobulins (total IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgA) therefore, were analyzed in adult chronic alcoholics and were correlated with different epidemiological and alcohol-related parameters. The results showed that 98% of alcoholics had abnormal immunoglobulin levels and 92% showed high or very high total serum IgE levels compared to 24% of the control group. Long term and moderate consumption of alcohol were also associated with frequent infections. Serum immunoglobulin assay including total IgE may be helpful in screening and assessment of chronicity of alcohol abuse.
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Ethanol can increase the solubility of poorly soluble and hence present a higher drug concentration in the gastrointestinal tract. This may produce a faster and more effective absorption resulting in variable and/or high drug plasma concentrations, both of which can lead to adverse drug reactions. In this work we therefore studied the solubility and absorption effects of nine diverse compounds when ethanol was present. The apparent solubility was measured using the μDiss Profiler Plus (pION, MA) in four media representing gastric conditions with and without ethanol. The solubility results were combined with in-house data on solubility in intestinal fluids (with and without ethanol) and pharmacokinetic parameters extracted from the literature and used as input in compartmental absorption simulations using the software GI-Sim. Apparent solubility increased more than 7-fold for non-ionized compounds in simulated gastric fluid containing 20% ethanol. Compounds with weak base functions (cinnarizine, dipyridamole and terfenadine) were completely ionized at the studied gastric pH and their solubility was therefore unaffected by ethanol. Compounds with low solubility in intestinal media and a pronounced solubility increase due to ethanol in the upper gastric compartments showed an increased absorption in the simulations. The rate of absorption of the acidic compounds indomethacin and indoprofen was slightly increased but the extent of absorption was unaffected as the complete doses were readily absorbed even without ethanol. This was likely due to a high apparent solubility in the intestinal compartment where the weak acids are ionized. The absorption of the studied non-ionizable compounds increased when ethanol was present in the gastric and intestinal media. These results indicate that concomitant intake of alcohol may significantly increase the solubility and hence, the plasma concentration for non-ionizable, lipophilic compounds with the potential of adverse drug reactions to occur.
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The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg, Ca, K, and Na were determined in some traditional alcoholic beverages (oil palm wine, raphia palm wine, burukutu, pito, ogogoro) consumed in southern Nigeria, with a view to providing information on the dietary intakes of essential metals and exposure of humans to toxic metals. The concentrations of these 13 elements were determined by atomic spectrometry after nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide digestion. The mean concentrations of the metals (mg/L) in the samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 for Cd; 0.01 to 0.19 for Pb; nd to 0.11 for Ni, nd to 0.15 for Cr; 0.09 to 0.60 for Cu; 0.01–0.08 for Co; 0.30 to 10.3 for Fe; 0.02 to 3.97 for Mn; 0.12 to 3.84 for Zn; 2.08 to 301.3 for Mg; 2.21 to 49.2 for Ca; 35.05 to 926.1 for K; 6.30–58.1 for Na. The mean concentrations of metals in these alcoholic beverages were below statutory limits for the metals in alcoholic beverages and were similar to concentrations found in other alcoholic beverages in the literature. The estimated daily intakes of metals from the consumption of these alcoholic beverages were less than 2% of the recommended dietary allowance values except for Cd and Pb. The individual and combined metals target hazard quotient values were less than 1 except for raphia palm wine and burukutu. From the estimated target hazard, no long life health concerns of metals are associated with the consumption of these alcoholic beverages.
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Oil palm, a plantation crop of major economic importance in Southeast Asia, is the predominant source of edible oil worldwide. We report the identification of the VIRESCENS (VIR) gene, which controls fruit exocarp colour and is an indicator of ripeness. VIR is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor with homology to Lilium LhMYB12 and similarity to Arabidopsis PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1 (PAP1). We identify five independent mutant alleles of VIR in over 400 accessions from sub-Saharan Africa that account for the dominant-negative virescens phenotype. Each mutation results in premature termination of the carboxy-terminal domain of VIR, resembling McClintock's C1-I allele in maize. The abundance of alleles likely reflects cultural practices, by which fruits were venerated for magical and medicinal properties. The identification of VIR will allow selection of the trait at the seed or early-nursery stage, 3-6 years before fruits are produced, greatly advancing introgression into elite breeding material.
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The medicinal values of fresh Raphia hookeri and Elaeis guineensis wines were evaluated. Face-to-face interview questionnaire-based ethno-medical survey on 1000 randomly selected families in some southeastern and southsouthern states in Nigeria on the use of the palm wines as antimicrobial agents, vehicles for antimicrobial agents, galactogogues in postpartum mothers and prophylactic agents against malaria in ethno-medicine were carried out. The presence of bioactive phytochemical and biochemical constituents with reported pharmacological activities were detected and their biochemical modes of action were proposed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial values of the wines are phytochemical and ethanol mediated, their lactogenic effects are saponin-mediated increases in serum prolactin content and their prophylactic effect is by the inhibition of the intra-erythrocytic plasmodial growth.
Background: High alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels in observational studies; however, whether high alcohol consumption leads to high IgE levels and allergic disease is unclear. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that high alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels and allergic disease both observationally and genetically using a Mendelian randomization design free of reverse causation and largely free of confounding. Methods: Among 111,408 subjects aged 20 to 100 years from the general population, 50,019 had plasma IgE measurements, and 102,270 were genotyped for the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH-1B; rs1229984) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH-1C; rs698). Observationally, we investigated associations between IgE levels and allergic disease (allergic asthma, rhinitis, and eczema) and between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. Genetically, we explored potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. Results: The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for IgE levels greater than versus less than 150 kU/L and compared with subjects without allergic disease was 2.3 (95% CI, 2.2-2.5) for 1 allergic disease, 3.9 (95% CI, 3.5-4.4) for 2 allergic diseases, and 7.5 (95% CI, 6.2-9.0) for 3 allergic diseases. High alcohol consumption was associated with high IgE levels but not with high risk of allergic disease. The odds ratio for high versus low IgE levels per 1 alcoholic drink per week higher consumption was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.02-1.23) genetically and 1.01 (95% CI, 1.01-1.02) observationally; for allergic disease, the corresponding odds ratios were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.92-1.00) genetically and 1.00 (95% CI, 1.00-1.00) observationally. Conclusion: High alcohol consumption is associated observationally and genetically with high IgE levels but not with high risk of allergic disease.
One central component in the complex network of processes leading to the development of alcoholic liver disease is the activation of immune cells residing in the liver (i.e., Kupffer cells) by a substance called endotoxin, which is released by bacteria living in the intestine. Alcohol consumption can lead to increased endotoxin levels in the blood and liver. When activated, Kupffer cells produce signaling molecules (i.e., cytokines) that promote inflammatory reactions as well as molecules called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage liver cells. Endotoxin activates Kupffer cells by interacting with a complex of protein molecules that are located on the outside of the Kupffer cell or which extend into the cell. Binding of endotoxin alters the activities of the proteins in this complex so that they trigger a cascade of biochemical signals in the Kupffer cell, resulting in cytokine and ROS production and, ultimately, liver damage. Because alcohol can enhance endotoxin release and, therefore, Kupffer cell activation, novel approaches to inhibit these processes might help prevent or ameliorate alcoholic liver disease.