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... Particularly, alternative employment has been one of the most cited opportunities, while fishing grounds has been the most cited perceived impact (Reilly et al., 2015). According to L.D. Jenkins et al. (2018), tidal energy in particular may impinge upon historical, traditional, or accustomed fishery grounds (Kerr et al., 2015;H. Todd & Zografos, 2005). ...
... L.D. Jenkins et al. (2018) argue that WE may benefit from examining the concept of recognition justice. Recognition justice is the idea that less influential actors should be empowered and ideological opponents should be respected (Heffron & McCauley, 2014). ...
Technical Report
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This deliverable comprises a critical review of selected Education and Public Engagement (EPE) programmes associated with marine energy test site and infrastructure deployments. Information on selected case studies was gathered through a literature view and interviews of key informants. The methods used for EPE in each of the cases were analysed, key challenges faced by such programmes identified, and best practices documented. The knowledge developed in this task and presented in this report will feed into the development of an Educational and Public Engagement Framework within Task 7.4.
... Prominent precursors that need to be addressed prior to the development of TSTs in the MaPP region, or any area globally for that matter, are the identification of tidal resources in proximity to demand [8,9] along with gaining social licence in the form of stakeholder acceptability and support from public policy [21][22][23]. Addressing these challenges requires engagement with a host of relevant stakeholders [21,[24][25][26][27] and analyses to delineate practical tidal resources [8,9]. As defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission, practical resources are those that comply with existing regulations, account for technical resource constraints, integrate with established MSP, and avoid sensitive habitats [28]. ...
... The identification of technically feasible and ultimately practical resources as a crucial precursor to understanding opportunities for tidal energy and guiding development [7,9,10]. 2. Stakeholder engagement to assess the views and acceptability of tidal energy along with barriers and drivers for electrification to evaluate potential benefits and drawbacks associated with development [7,12,23,24,36]. ...
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This study develops and implements an interdisciplinary framework to provide a holistic examination of the potential for tidal stream turbines (TST) to displace diesel generated electricity in remote coastal First Nations communities in British Columbia. In doing so it seeks to answer the following research questions: what is the distribution of practical tidal resources in the study region, for which communities is tidal energy a potentially viable electricity source, and what are the benefits and challenges of TST development. GIS Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis and interviews with high level marine spatial planning decision makers are used to identify practical resource sites, bridge knowledge gaps, assess views towards TST development, and understand the desired characteristics of community energy systems. Additional techno-economic criteria for tidal site identification are included to identify communities that may be candidates for TST integration. Results illustrate the need for information provision to communities from resource quantification to characteristics of renewable energy technologies; self sufficiency as being the primary electrification driver; and funding/human resource capacity as being substantial barriers to development. Approximately 89.8 km² of practical tidal resource is identified, with ≈21.9 km² of techno-economically feasible practical resource in proximity to nine communities. Four communities appear to be promising candidates for tidal development, and overall results indicate significant interest within the study region for TST development. The interdisciplinary framework presented here provides a methodology that can be adapted and implemented in other jurisdictions to identify practical resources and incorporate social dimensions into MRE decision making.
... Our study sheds light on public views and media representation of tidal energy. This research builds upon previous research conducted by the author team [2][3][4] and adds important qualitative analyses to existing quantitative work on tidal energy development in WA. ...
... Some of this has been summarized in Ruano-Chamorro's (2018) review of human dimensions of marine hydrokinetic energy, which covers the time period between 1950 through 2015. The body of work specific to tidal energy is smaller but recent contributions include a review of theories and frameworks for understanding and managing the human dimensions of tidal energy, of which an entire section is devoted to acceptance [3]. The majority of tidal energy social acceptance research focuses on attitudes, perceptions, place attachment, and symbolic fit [2,7,8], which tap into the sociopolitical and community dimensions of social acceptance [9]. ...
Article
This article explores stakeholder views on tidal energy in the state of Washington. Through compiling and analyzing three qualitative datasets, we take a triangulated approach to better understand stakeholders’ positive and negative views, concerns, and needs regarding tidal energy and if and how these are represented through print and online news sources. We analyzed comments submitted during the permitting process for the Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project, comments included as part of a tidal energy mail survey sent to Washington residents, and media articles about tidal energy. We found four types of concern themes within negative views towards tidal energy: environmental, social, economic, and technical. Shared concerns between organized stakeholder groups and resident stakeholders about the project and tidal energy in general included concerns related to the harm to marine life, the loss of native fishing rights, expensiveness of development, increased electricity costs, and the engineering challenge of developing tidal energy. Concerns unique to stakeholder groups for the project included threats from scaling up, issues related to public safety and security, damage to cables, inability to stop the turbine, harm to terrestrial flora, and sediment disruption and contamination. Positive views were commonly associated with the need to address environmental issues, technological innovation and leadership, desire to have a diverse energy portfolio, and economic benefits.
... The adoption of SCM practices within the PHB industry follows SCM theories and frameworks, as these are widely used in other fields; [99,100] reported the complex nature of the offsite field; theoretical development is still immature and needs to be integrated with further research to expand the BOK. [101] defined theory as "a systemized structure capable of explaining and predicting phenomena to distinguish theoretically based works from atheoretical ones". ...
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Prefabricated house-building companies, as suppliers or supply chains, which use manufacturing as a business approach towards industrialisation, struggle to implement principles and optimal practices driven from well-established and validated theories in operational research. Supply chain management has a mature body of knowledge that has been widely adopted by research on offsite construction to improve its performance at an organisational level. However, there is no comprehensive review available in the literature for supply chain management theory within prefabricated house building research from the perspective of suppliers. In this study, a systematic review was conducted on the available literature on supply chain management within prefabri-cated house-building research. Initially, qualitative analysis was performed to identify the key themes. Later, quantitative analyses were applied to validate the overlapping themes and key-words. Further, key trends related to focus, methods and theories or frameworks were reported. The findings were discussed in the context of recent developments in all principal component bodies of supply chain management for future work. This study also provides a brief guide for potential future review studies to explore interdisciplinary intervention within the offsite stream.
... The PassamaquoddyTribe is a sovereign entity that can intervene in the FERC decision-making process and would also be affected by the resulting decisions. Under the FERC pilot project license, ORPC was required to develop an adaptive management plan (FERC 2012), in which regulators address project uncertainty and knowledge gaps by working directly with stakeholders in a continual, iterative learning processJenkins et al. 2018). Prior to this study, the federal, state, and industry participants were already interacting with each other and our research team through the formal FERC adaptive management process. ...
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Coastal community resilience requires connecting people with useful information that reflects their needs and interests and empowers them to make informed marine resource decisions. In this thesis, I explore how to effectively integrate disparate data from different disciplines and sources to make information more useful and usable at federal, state, tribal, and local levels in order to support more holistic and integrated management. To accomplish this, I draw on different types of knowledge and approaches, including Western science, local ecological knowledge, traditional ecological knowledge, and citizen science, to incorporate the social perspective and community values for holistic marine resource management. The central focus among all three thesis chapters is understanding knowledge gaps related to information use, accessibility, and sharing by taking an engaged research approach to co-produce potential solutions. Chapter 1 focuses on understanding information usability and accessibility from the perspectives of federal and state regulators, industry developers, and tribal representatives. I investigated these ideas in the context of proposed tidal power development in Downeast Maine, and applied concepts of knowledge co-production to engage these groups of decision-makers. I organized a series of workshops to explore strategies to improve information production and sharing. Through this process, I identified essential steps for researchers who want to make their science more useful to decision-makers, which include incorporating diverse stakeholder perspectives and co-producing holistic data integration strategies based on stakeholder needs and interests. Chapter 2 focuses on engaging indigenous communities in meaningful partnerships to address questions about information use and accessibility at a local level. I partnered with the Passamaquoddy Tribe Sipayik Environmental Department to co-organize collaborative community meetings to discuss traditional ecological knowledge, stories, memories, and values associated with the local ecosystem. I built on well-established best practices in working as non-indigenous researchers with indigenous researchers and communities, but I also acknowledge our lessons learned during this process. I propose a set of key components from our lessons learned to share capacity with indigenous researchers and communities through GIS training, engaging local youth and elders, and addressing intellectual property concerns with dignity and respect. These key components can be applied to partnerships in other contexts to encourage more meaningful collaborations that prioritize community needs and interests, while also empowering the next generation of community decision-makers. In Chapter 3, I focus on filling a knowledge gap identified by regulators: fish species in the Western Passage, a proposed tidal power project site in Downeast Maine. Traditional fisheries survey methods do not work well in this area and regulators were interested to know whether there were alternative ways to fish in the Passage. Coastal communities have extensive local and traditional ecological knowledge associated with how and where to fish. We built on this knowledge by using recreational fishing methods (hook-and-line gear). We also trialed two pilot citizen science projects to engage local fishers in data collection. These collaborative approaches to data collection allowed us to collect important information on fish species presence. This chapter concludes with proposed strategies to improve this protocol for future work.
... Much of the research on hydrological disasters risk assessment has a particular focus, and this backgroundrich study often lacks a framework that limits the ability to link lessons learned to different environments. Framework research helps to reveal how the background of the research results and constraints affects the applicability of this information [7]. In general, framework research is used in the initial stages of a series of studies aimed at building a conceptual framework for subsequent in-depth studies and revealing the methods and potential areas that will be used in subsequent research [8]. ...
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Hydrological disasters have become one of the most serious problems facing regional green development. In order to develop a method suitable for comprehensive assessment of urban hydrological disasters, this paper takes Urumqi, China as the research object, and proposes a conceptual framework. Urumqi is an urban area in the northwest of China, and it is often devastated by hydrological disasters. In combination with urban geographic data and the mathematical calculation model of Urumqi, China, the urban hydrological disasters analysis model of Urumqi is established by using the spatial analysis technology of the Geographic Information System according to the risk index of hydrological disaster. Considering the various related factors, like the hazard risk, vulnerability and exposure of disaster, and disaster environment, the risk assessment framework of hydrological disasters in Urumqi is finally designed. In addition, the framework provides a reference for relevant government agencies to develop disaster prevention and mitigation policies.
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Coastal and marine governance has been characterised as a ‘wicked’ problem due to difficulties in definition, uncertainty, and conflicting perspectives and values. Social Cost-Benefit Analysis (SCBA), which is an application of welfare economics, 'tames' such problems by assuming away many of these complexities. This article reviews the simplifying assumptions underlying SCBA in four major areas. First, welfare-economics and SCBA assume a utilitarian, consequentialist frame and a clear problem delineation, whereas wicked problems are difficult to define and delineate. Second, welfare economics can deal with risk and uncertainty as long as all policy alternatives, states of nature, and success criteria are known, whereas for wicked problems it is not known with certainty which alternatives are to be evaluated and by which criteria, and which states of nature are possible. Third, welfare economics can deal with a variety of perceptions as long as the legitimacy of each perception is uncontested, whereas in wicked problems some stakeholders' or experts' views are contested by others. Fourth, welfare economics can deal with a variety of preferences and hence conflicting interests, as long as all values are individual and substitutable, whereas in wicked problems some values cannot be substituted as they represent ‘sacred’ values such as religion and identity. Despite its limitations, however, the explicit definition of the assumptions behind SCBA make it a helpful benchmark to determine what makes a given problem in coastal and marine governance wicked.
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As climate policies change through the legislative process, public attitudes towards them may change as well. Therefore, it is important to assess how people accept and support controversial climate policies as the policies change over time. Policy acceptance is a positive evaluation of, or attitude towards, an existing policy(1-3); policy support adds an active behavioural component(1,3). Acceptance does not necessarily lead to support. We conducted a national survey of Australian residents to investigate acceptance of, and support for, the Australian carbon pricing policy before and after the 2013 federal election, and how perceptions of the policy, economic ideology, and voting behaviour affect acceptance and support. We found acceptance and support were stable across the election period, which was surprising given that climate policy was highly contentious during the election. Policy acceptance was higher than policy support at both times and acceptance was a necessary but insufficient condition of support. We conclude that acceptance is an important process through which perceptions of the policy and economic ideology influence support. Therefore, future climate policy research needs to distinguish between acceptance and support to better understand this process, and to better measure these concepts.
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Abstract Ocean energy has the potential to play a significant role in the future energy system, whilst contributing to the reduction of carbon emissions and stimulating economic growth in coastal and remote areas. Ocean energy has attracted increasing interest, particularly in the EU, which is currently at the forefront of ocean energy development. Tidal and Wave energy represents the two most advance types of ocean energy technologies. In the EU, the aim is to reach 100 GW of combined wave and tidal capacity installed by 2050. In order to achieve these targets the sector needs to overcome a series of challenges and barriers with regards to technology readiness, financing and market establishment, administrative and environmental issues and the availability of grid connections especially in remote areas. Currently these barriers are hindering the sector's progress; its ability to attract inwards investments and to engage with the supply chain to unlock cost-reduction mechanisms. A number of policy initiatives and mechanisms have been put in place to ensure that ocean energy technologies could become cost-competitive in the short term, in order to exploit the benefits that these technologies could provide to the EU.
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Evidence suggests that state control of wind facility siting decisions fosters new project development more effectively than local control, yet the literature suggests that affected citizens tend to be more fairly represented in local siting processes. We argue that successful renewable energy policy must satisfy both the need for new project development and the obligation to procedural justice. To suggest how it can do so, we analyze existing state- and county-level siting processes in Washington state, finding that both fall short on measures of procedural justice. To overcome this limitation and address the tension between procedural justice and project development, we then propose a collaborative governance approach to wind facility siting, in which state governments retain ultimate authority over permitting decisions but encourage and support local-level deliberations as the primary means of making those decisions. Such an approach, we argue, would be more just, facilitate wind development by addressing community concerns constructively and result in better projects through the input of diverse stakeholders.
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This paper describes innovation activities in the marine energy sector across ten European countries in 2011. Intense knowledge creation occurred in the UK and northern European countries, while European research networks encouraged public–private partnerships facilitating knowledge diffusion. An analysis based on a technological innovation system (TIS) has identified challenges for the system to evolve from one phase of development to another, i.e. from pre-development to take-off phase. In order for marine energy to pass successfully through the commercialisation ‘valley of death’, entrepreneurial experimentation and production is crucial. Entrepreneurial initiatives were developed mainly in the United Kingdom, Denmark, Norway and Ireland, whereas France, Germany and Sweden were active through venture capital initiatives. Additional system-builders, such as the authorities in charge of energy policies, could offer guidance for research, ensure legitimacy and effectively mobilise resources for system development. Although public support was efficient in stimulating private investment, national targets seemed less efficient in creating a long time horizon for private investors, due to consecutive, unexpected changes. In contrast, positive interactions between technology developers and policy-makers could empower market formation. Ultimately, the creation of a policy community, also involving local communities, could foster a positive environment for the development of innovation activities.
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In July 2012, the Australian government instituted the Clean Energy Legislative Package. This policy, commonly known as the carbon policy or carbon tax, holds industries responsible for emissions they release through a carbon price. Because this will have an indirect effect on consumer costs, the policy also includes a compensation package for households indirectly impacted. This study, building upon past work in distributive justice, examines the determinants of the policy’s acceptance and support. We proposed perceived fairness and effectiveness of the policy, and endorsement of free-market ideology, would directly predict policy acceptance. We tested this through an on-line survey of Australian citizens and found that policy acceptance was predicted by perceived fairness and effectiveness. More Australians found the policy acceptable (43 %) than unacceptable (36 %), and many found it neither acceptable nor unacceptable (21 %). In contrast, when asked about support, more Australians tended not to support the policy (53 %) than support it (47 %). Support was predicted by main effects for perceived fairness, effectiveness, free-market ideology, and the interaction between free-market ideology and effectiveness. We conclude by considering some of the implications of our results for the implementation of policies addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation, for theories of social justice and attitudinal ambivalence, and for the continuing integration of research between economics and psychology. Furthermore, we argue for the distinction between policy support and acceptance and discourage the interchangeable use of these terms.
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To date, academic research relating to Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) has largely focused on resource assessment, technical viability and environmental impact. Experiences from onshore renewable energy tell us that social acceptability is equally critical to project success. However, the specific nature of the marine environment, patterns of resource distribution and governance means experiences from onshore may not be directly applicable to MRE and the marine environment. This paper sets out an agenda for social studies research linked to MRE, identifying key topics for future research: (i) economic impacts; (ii) wealth distribution and community benefits; (iii) communication and knowledge flow; (iv) consultation processes; (v) dealing with uncertainty; (vi) public attitudes; and (vii) planning processes. This agenda is based on the findings of the first workshop of ISSMER, an international research network of social scientists with interests in marine renewable energy. Importantly, this research agenda has been informed by the experiences of developers, regulators and community groups in Orkney. The Orkney archipelago, off the north coast of Scotland, is home to the most intense cluster of MRE research, development and deployment activity in the world today.
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This paper makes a case for examining energy transition as a geographical process, involving the reconfiguration of current patterns and scales of economic and social activity. The paper draws on a seminar series on the ‘Geographies of Energy Transition: security, climate, governance' hosted by the authors between 2009 and 2011, which initiated a dialogue between energy studies and the discipline of human geography. Focussing on the UK Government's policy for a low carbon transition, the paper provides a conceptual language with which to describe and assess the geographical implications of a transition towards low carbon energy. Six concepts are introduced and explained: location, landscape, territoriality, spatial differentiation, scaling, and spatial embeddedness. Examples illustrate how the geographies of a future low-carbon economy are not yet determined and that a range of divergent – and contending – potential geographical futures are in play. More attention to the spaces and places that transition to a low-carbon economy will produce can help better understand what living in a low-carbon economy will be like. It also provides a way to help evaluate the choices and pathways available.
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The literature on ocean energy has, to date, largely focussed on technical, environmental, and, increasingly , social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received far less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. Building on the social sciences research agenda developed by the International network for Social Studies of Marine Energy (ISSMER) and published in Energy Policy, a complementary agenda for legal research linked to ocean energy was set out. Key directions for future research structured around the core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources were identified.
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The non-statutory pilot regional marine spatial plan for the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters (PFOW) is a test to establish a precedent for the whole of Scotland. It is a pilot because it precedes and tests implementation of the statutory process for marine planning set out in the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010. It was selected by the government for the pilot because of the high level of existing and proposed marine renewable energy (MRE) development in a relatively pristine area of coastal waters where traditional activities and habitats protection are already important. The PFOW is the first designated ‘Marine Energy Park’ in Scotland. It is under immediate pressure of development and the PFOW plan is already in use in support of the development consenting regime. This case study of the emerging plan identifies issues of generic importance to the planning of marine areas under development pressure in near shore locations. In particular, it highlights issues affecting the relationship between marine and terrestrial planning and the interests of adjacent island and coastal communities. The study concludes that a strong central marine governance regime is developing but that engagement of the local community and accommodation of terrestrial planning interests require further consideration. Full integration between marine and land planning may be unattainable but an equitable working relationship between them is essential. A notable feature of the PFOW plan is rejection of zoning in favour of a more pragmatic approach based on consenting criteria and locational guidance.
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Despite robust research, prototype development and demonstration of in-stream tidal energy devices, progress to the commercialization stage has been slow. Some of this can be attributed to a lack readiness or financing. However, when uncertainty is high, a developer may choose to delay a project until more is known. The option to delay has value for a company. This study applies the real option valuation model to an investment in a 10 MW array of in-stream tidal energy conversion devices at the Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy (FORCE) in the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada. The values of investing and the option to delay are calculated. A sensitivity analysis of key drivers and scenarios with various input values to the option model are constructed to observe the impact on the 'invest versus delay' decision. The analysis suggests there is value in owning the option to develop, by leasing a FORCE berth, but waiting while uncertainty is resolved. Implications for policy-setting are discussed.
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What socioeconomic factors are indicative of support or opposition for offshore wind development? At some distance offshore, does the local community incur a social cost or benefit from building a wind farm as measured through non-market valuation? This contingent valuation method (CVM) case study was conducted to explore the socioeconomic dimensions of opinions regarding offshore wind development in Lake Michigan and estimate willingness to pay (WTP) in two regions: 1) Evanston, Rogers Park, and Wilmette, Illinois (N=2880; n=208) and 2) Mason and Oceana Counties, Michigan (N=952; n=122). Data was collected from November 2012 though February 2013 via online surveys after mailing invitations to systematic samples that received 7% and 13% response rates, respectively. Respondents were presented with three WindPro simulations of a 400 MW wind farm at three, six and ten miles from each region???s respective shore along with one hypothetical (+ or -) monthly electricity price impact and then asked to vote ???for??? or ???against??? each scenario. Initial probit model results indicate that variables for the monthly increase/decrease in utility bill price, offshore wind farm siting distance, and liberal political ideology are statistically significant in determining the probability of support for the proposed offshore wind farm scenario; the logit analysis also suggests that individuals with a household income between $160,000 ??? $200,000/year are more likely to support the proposed offshore project relative to the most affluent respondents. Mean WTP calculations imply a negative WTP (social cost) from siting a wind farm 3 and 6 miles offshore but a positive WTP (social benefit) when setback 10 miles for the average respondent. Additional results indicate considerable uncertainty among respondents regarding not only current support for offshore wind development but also both the type and extent of subsequent impacts. These results could provide valuable insight regarding offshore wind development opinions and environmental economic implications for policymakers in coastal communities both with and without prior exposure to formalized development proposals.
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Integrated marine planning, which must take into consideration environmental and social impacts, is being introduced widely in Europe, the USA, Australia and elsewhere. Installation of offshore windfarms creates impacts both on local marine ecosystems and the view of the seascape and is one of multiple activities in the marine area that must be addressed by marine planning. The impacts on people's values (and hence welfare) of changes in ecology and amenity that could arise from the installation of a windfarm in the Irish Sea were assessed using a discrete choice experiment administered through an online survey. The ecological changes investigated were: increased species diversity resulting from artificial reef effects, and the effect of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on marine life; whilst the amenity change was the visibility of offshore turbines from land. Respondents expressed preferences for ecological improvements but had less clear preferences regarding the height and visibility of the turbines. In particular distance decay effects were observed with respondents further away from the coast being less concerned about visual impact created by offshore turbines. Understanding ecological and amenity impacts and how they are valued by people can support the decisions made within marine planning and licensing.
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Social acceptance, along with technical, economic and legal aspects, is a prerequisite for the successful adoption of renewable energies. Research into the social acceptance of the underlying implementation of different renewable energy technologies, such as grid connected photovoltaic solar, biomass and wind power plants, is increasingly gaining interest. Nevertheless, studies that address the issue of the social acceptance of sea wave energy plants are very rare. This article aims at making a contribution towards filling this gap analyzing the community acceptance of the oscillating water column (OWC) shoreline plant of Mutriku, a facility that has been subject of great interest due to its innovative technical characteristics. This article's findings emphasize the importance of effective and meaningful social involvement in the successful promotion and diffusion of renewable energy infrastructures such as wave energy plants.
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Development of renewable energy affects or is affected by numerous stakeholders. Understanding who the stakeholders are and how they are engaged in the process is necessary for improving the responsible development of renewable energy technologies. Using structured community interviews and in-depth ethnographic research (semistructured interviews, informal interviews, observations, and document review), we identified and characterized the most salient stakeholders associated with tidal power development in Maine and documented stakeholder perceptions of developer engagement strategies. Stakeholder characterization was facilitated using a framework by Mitchell et al. (The Academy of Management Review 22: 853-886, 1997) that characterizes salient stakeholders using attributes of power, urgency, and legitimacy. Key stakeholders identified include fishermen, community members, tribes, regulators, developers, and scientists. Fishermen and regulators are definitive stakeholders, with legitimacy, power, and urgency in the process. Tribes are considered dominant stakeholders; they have legitimacy and power, but their interests are, at this time, not viewed as urgent. Scientists are considered to have urgency and power. The developers viewed their stakeholder engagement strategy as open and transparent. Community stakeholders, regulators, and fishermen generally perceived the developer's approach as effective; they noted the company's accessibility and their efforts to engage stakeholders early and often. Given the dynamic nature of stakeholder salience, our findings highlight the importance of engaging dominant stakeholders so that future conflict can be more easily avoided as new information develops. Our approach can be used to inform stakeholder identification and engagement research in other renewable energy contexts.
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Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy offers a promising new source of renewable ocean energy. However, the young industry is faced with significant challenges. Most notable is the challenge of regulatory uncertainty that is thought to hamper the successful deployment of new tidal energy technologies. Adaptive management may be one approach to deal with uncertainty and inform permitting decisions for hydrokinetic projects. In this study, we apply the concept of adaptive management to the Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project in Maine to better understand and inform permitting decisions. Using a social science approach of observation, interviews, and document analysis, we examine (1) agency roles and authority, (2) agency interactions, (3) regulatory change, and (4) challenges faced in the regulatory and permitting process for MHK development at the federal and state level. We found four institutional factors favorable to an adaptive approach. These include experimentation and learning, institutionalized choice to correct avoidable error, a strong commitment to interagency coordination, and an emphasis on early proactive engagement with project developers. We also identified institutional challenges or vulnerabilities. These include conflicting agency cultures, high financial costs, and long timeframes associated with baseline data collection. Lessons learned from this study can assist regulators, policymakers, and project developers design and implement an actively adaptive management approach that can move new renewable ocean energy development forward in a way that is socially acceptable and environmentally responsible.
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In promoting renewable energy options, the environmental problem of GHG emissions should not be replaced with other environmental problems. Large-scale renewable infrastructure projects in particular – from offshore wind farms to concentrated solar towers to hydropower installations – need to be accompanied by adequate environmental and social impact assessments. For policies, plans and programmes around renewable energy investments, strategic environmental assessments should be applied. Such assessments will increasingly need to consider the changing nature of supporting ecosystem services and the need for climate adaptation. Financing institutions should promote appropriate safeguards, supported by capacity building activities from international organizations, including IRENA, in order to unleash the full sustainable potential of renewable energy options. This paper explores the experiences of applying impact assessment tools and processes to renewable investments and highlights some of the key aspects which should be taken into consideration when pursuing a renewable energy future.
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The Choice Experiment (CE) technique is applied for the first time to one of the most promising marine renewables, tidal stream energy, with two objectives: (i) to investigate the public perceptions of this renewable, and (ii) to estimate the externalities, i.e., the monetary value of the impacts of a tidal stream farm. Both aspects, public perceptions and externalities, are relevant to the policy makers: if a policy is to maximise social welfare, it should be in line with public supporting attitudes and have positive externalities; moreover, the externalities are a prerequisite for establishing the appropriate level of subsidy (e.g., through a feed-in tariff). In this work the environmental and socioeconomic externalities are calculated independently, in a procedure that is illustrated through a case study: a prospective tidal farm in Ria de Ribadeo, an estuary in NW Spain. The public perceptions are found to be generally positive; notwithstanding, a certain degree of NIMBYism is detected. As regards the externalities, we find a positive net value. These findings are encouraging for the development of tidal stream energy, and the quantitative results provide a basis to establish the level of subsidisation.
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The acronym NIMBY, known to stand for ‘Not-In-My-Back-Yard’, generally describes resistance to siting specific projects close to one's area of residence while exhibiting acceptance of similar projects elsewhere. As wind energy continues to be recognized as a successful technology for meeting renewable energy targets and decreasing carbon dioxide emissions, the siting of wind turbines is a growing challenge that policy makers, facility planners, and wind developers face. The most often cited motivations for public support and opposition are reviewed here with a focus on wind energy developments in the United States. The purpose is to present the existing state of research on community responses to wind energy and to answer the following questions: What motivates support and opposition to facility siting, and in particular to wind energy facilities? Does the literature provide substantial evidence that NIMBYism is the determining motivation for opposition in the United States and, by extension, does the term's widespread use help to explain opposition? What mechanisms have been proposed for ‘overcoming’ NIMBYism, if it is present? This paper, following the recommendations of other social scientists, provides a collective call for a significant course shift: rather than proposing strategies to ‘overcome’ opposition, research should focus on proposing how to make siting successful. Drawing on a review of the relevant literature, the ‘ENUF’ framework—which stands for ‘Engage, Never use NIMBY, Understand, and Facilitate’—is introduced as a step in that direction. WIREs Clim Change 2013, 4:575–601. doi: 10.1002/wcc.250 Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
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This paper analyses the findings of recent mail surveys of residents living near two proposed offshore wind power projects – Cape Wind off Massachusetts and Bluewater Wind off Delaware. In 2009, 57% supported Cape Wind, while 80% supported Bluewater Wind. To measure the relationship between perceptions of public process and substantive support or opposition, we assessed opinions of procedural fairness, local community voice and trust in developers. A plurality ofresidents in both cases is relatively satisfied with the process, while statistical modelling suggests that satisfaction with the process and outcome may be mutually reinforcing or jointly determined.
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Scottish Government targets for renewable energy developments are ambitious. The creation of new marine industries requires a structured approach that links marine spatial planning with Strategic Environmental Assessment and Sustainability Appraisal. Marine Scotland Science has worked with The Crown Estate spatial decision support tool MaRS to plan for wave, tidal and wind power in Scottish waters. This multi-factorial spatial modelling system has been used to visualise and balance the relative opportunities and constraints on development arising from a wide range of environmental, industrial and socio-economic factors. Areas of search for development sites have been identified, explored through Regional Locational Guidance and adopted in development plans.
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This paper presents a detailed analysis of the activities in which ocean energy public funding in the UK and the U.S. has been spent. It conducts a direct comparison of funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) with that from the UK and Scottish Governments. UK investment in the sector has been relatively sustained and has increased since 2002. Almost $295 million has been spent in total, across multiple funding bodies. U.S. spending began with the establishment of the Marine Hydrokinetic division of the DoE Water Power Programme in 2008, which has administered all non-defence federal public funding for the sector. U.S. funding has steadily increased since 2008, with the total funding approaching $92 million. Approximately 40% of total U.S. spending has been on underpinning R&D activities, compared to 20% in the UK which has had a larger focus on funding full scale test infrastructure and related deployment activities. Whilst the U.S. has seen steadily increasing funding for all activities to support the sector, UK funding for deployment activities, especially test centre infrastructure and demonstration activities, has not been sustained and has had significant peaks and troughs in recent years as funding programmes and initiatives have started and finished.
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Centring on landscape, considerable social tension persists around siting windfarms in Wales. While the policy of both Wales and UK governments commits them to cutting carbon emissions to mitigate climate change and so to increasing the percentage of electricity derived from renewable energy sources, political support for windfarms vacillates and there is vociferous public opposition. Taking landscape as our organising concept, we analyse the 62 turbine, approximately 155 Megawatt Nant y Moch proposal in Ceredigion. We ask how landscape is represented in pro and anti-windfarm discourses and how reconsideration of landscape might lead to alternative constructions of justice. We thus develop a notion of ‘landscape justice’ which blends elements of deontological, virtue and consequentialist ethics, and argue for: (i) a deeper appreciation of the exclusion of ‘other’ voices in deciding outcomes; (ii) a heightened awareness that how public space is created and how arguments are made, received and facilitated therein is critically important to just outcomes; (iii) a renewed interest in how landscape, wind and energy ought to be valued; (iv) an understanding that, although justice with respect to landscape may be irresolvable across space and time, that arguments may be incommensurable, this pluralistic limit can be celebrated.
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A number of review articles have synthesized current expert opinion regarding interactions of ocean energy generation technologies with environmental parameters and their potential effects and impacts. Fewer articles have documented such interactions, as operational devices and or demonstration sites at which to make such observations are limited. In this paper, we discuss how the perceived risk or impact of ocean renewable energy development on coastal communities (both the human and marine biological communities) is a function not only of actual physical interactions but also depends on the regulatory environment and how potentially impacted coastal resources are valued by stakeholders. In this paper, we review potential environmental effects of ocean energy, identify applicable federal regulations that address potentially affected ecological components, and highlight observations about stakeholder concerns from experiences in Oregon. Understanding the societal lens through which potential environmental effects are viewed is important for developers to move forward as it will be the regulators and local communities who will determine if projects are permitted.
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Sense of place is a widely researched concept that has been used to describe and analyze people–place relationships. However, there is no consensus regarding the forms of place attachment, the relative importance of the sources for such attachments, or the spatial extent of place formation. The purpose of the paper is to contribute case examples of sense of place for significant natural areas, thereby adding to the body of evidence that explicates the diverse sources and forms of place attachment. Using content analysis of qualitative stakeholder interviews, we identify these dimensions of place attachment for two nationally significant Australian natural areas. Our data support a tripartite structure for sense of place comprising affective, functional and cognitive forms of attachment. We also examine the extent to which these place attachments are localized on the study sites and/or spatially generalized across sites possessing the same sources of place formation. Our case studies provide evidence for both localized and generalized senses of place. Localized place attachments had affective and functional components, respectively founded on social and biophysical sources. Generalized senses of place comprised functional and cognitive components, with appreciation of historical values of these places key to the formation of the latter. Our results indicate the spatial diversity of place attachments for protected areas and their social, cultural and biophysical sources.
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In the contingent valuation method for the valuation of public goods, survey respondents are asked to indicate the amount they are willing to pay (WTP) for the provision of a good. We contrast economic and psychological analyses of WTP and describe a study in which respondents indicated their WTP to prevent or to remedy threats to public health or to the environment, attributed either to human or to natural causes. WTP was significantly higher when the cause of a harm was human, though the effect was not large. The means of WTP for 16 issues were highly correlated with the means of other measures of attitude, including a simple rating of the importance of the threat. The responses are better described as expressions of attitudes than as indications of economic value, contrary to the assumptions of the contingent valuation method.
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The UK Government is committed to ambitious targets to reduce carbon emissions. The large tidal ranges in estuaries on the west coast of the UK make the deployment of tidal barrages an attractive proposition, and repeated feasibility studies have been undertaken. No barrage scheme has yet been taken forward, and one factor contributing to this reluctance to proceed is the significant environmental impacts that could result from the barrage construction and operation. This paper provides a detailed review of the current understanding of the potential ecological and social impacts of tidal barrages, including a case study of La Rance in northern France, and a discussion of strategies for mitigating barrage impacts. The review considers how more comprehensive ecological modelling could reduce uncertainty in predicting the impacts in specific estuaries, and discusses the use of Multi-criteria Analysis and ecosystem valuation as tools for evaluating the disparate costs and benefits of barrages schemes.
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Marine renewable energy generation (ocean energy) is a growing industry due to global demands for increasing power supplies and reduction in carbon emissions. Intrinsic assets associated with deployment environments and values associated with their existing use need to be established to ensure balanced decisions can be made regarding the sustainable development of marine areas.This paper assesses the value of the marine environment around St. David's, Pembrokeshire, UK, where a tidal stream turbine demonstration project is underway and larger array developments, both wave and tidal, are planned for the next few years. It was found that the marine environment contributed, on average, to 78% of visitors' total enjoyment of the area.A Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) and Travel Cost Method (TCM) used data collected from questionnaires at the case study site to produce cost and valuation results. The results showed there was a higher revealed preference average value of £148 per person attributed to the area through the Travel Costs incurred by visitors than their stated preference average valuation of £6.70 per person from a willingness to pay CVM contribution. Interviewees were also asked about the potential impact renewable energy generation in the area would have on their visit. Visual aspects of developments and the impact of wave height reduction were queried in particular. Using these responses from interviewees, the influence of marine energy generation in the case study area and the impact on the value of the marine environment was analysed.The results show that only a small number of visitors, 3.5%, would be put off visiting the area again due to marine renewable energy developments. Underwater, non-visible devices were shown to have the least impact on people's enjoyment of the marine environment compared to surface based designs. These results suggest that marine energy developments should not affect tourist revenue.
Article
Harvesting the energy of waves and tides is still the subject of research and development as an increasing number of devices are invented and subjected to test. It is unclear which, if any, of these will ultimately be chosen for commercial deployment. The capacity for research and testing has expanded rapidly into an active industrial sector worth several hundreds of millions of Euros. Preparations for a commercial phase are underway in Scotland with the allocation of seabed leases to developers in the seas around Orkney; just in advance of Scotland's first detailed marine spatial plan which is under preparation in the area. Anxiety to build confidence in a new and nationally important industrial sector conflicts with a plethora of uncertainties about technology and impacts on the natural environment and existing uses. Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) will help to build a new governance structure for marine space but in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters (PFOW) area it is struggling to catch up with the pace of events. This paper identifies the political objectives driving development and the impact on decision making in areas under clear and present pressure from new activities. It argues that the PFOW area is of special interest highlighting issues which will be of widespread and generic influence in the future. A governance structure based on central authority in decision making is emerging. Conclusions are drawn about the need for more research into the delegation of marine stewardship powers to local communities.
Article
Deployment of marine renewable energy (MRE) in the UK is desirable in order to address climate change, meet mandatory EU renewable energy targets and provide significant economic development opportunities, including new export markets. Public funding constraints in the UK mean that substantial investment is required from the private sector to commercialize the industry. By focussing on investor attitudes and behaviours towards wave and tidal technologies, this paper reveals significant observations from the investment community with serious implications for the future of the MRE industry. Through a series of in-depth interviews with individuals from the investment community, device developers and industry support, the research seeks to identify common barriers and incentives to investment. The paper demonstrates that although investors' attitudes are generally aligned, they do appear to have changed over time. Of the participants that had previously invested in early stage MRE device development, none were likely to do so again. It is concluded that this is a function of investors' greater understanding of the scale, and unpredictability of the costs, and the length of time required to develop these technologies. This presents a significant policy challenge for all actors interested in the commercialization of wave and tidal technologies.
Article
The promotion of low carbon energy and associated infrastructures for tackling climate change is a central task for governments worldwide. However, public and, mainly, local, opposition to those infrastructures may slow down or even halt that process. Thus, in the last few years a body of research has developed specifically to understand the social acceptance of technologies such as wind turbines or bioenergy plants. We argue that the use of ‘acceptance’ in this literature should be further discussed. We contend that using the word ‘acceptance’ may present some constraints for the theoretical advancement of this area of research and to the implications that may be taken from it to the wider society. This is further highlighted through the presentation of findings from surveys conducted with nationally representative samples from the UK and Norway which examined their acceptance of and support for new high voltage power lines. We conclude by suggesting that the literature on public responses towards low carbon energy and associated infrastructures should be more critical in the conceptualisation of its research agenda, become empirically more consistent and transparent, and examine other types of relations between people and energy infrastructures besides acceptance or opposition.
Article
In this paper we argue that traditional approaches to risk assessment should be supplemented by an explicit discussion of the moral acceptability of nuclear technology and the risks it poses. The introduction of nuclear energy in society should be seen as an ongoing social experiment, whose (moral) acceptability should continuously be addressed. Given the long-term risks of nuclear energy, intergenerational justice should be explicitly included in such an analysis. This will also have implications for nuclear power policies. Furthermore, emotions such as sympathy and feelings of responsibility can provide moral insights; they should be taken seriously in the debate about nuclear energy rather than being dismissed as irrational distractions as is currently the case. These proposed reforms would help society to move beyond the usual stalemate in the debate about nuclear power.