Article

Live Biofeedback as a User Interface Design Element: A Review of the Literature

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With the advances in sensor technology and real-time processing of neurophysiological data, a growing body of academic literature has begun to explore how live biofeedback can be integrated into information systems for everyday use. While researchers have traditionally studied live biofeedback in the clinical domain, the proliferation of affordable mobile sensor technology enables researchers and practitioners to consider live biofeedback as a user interface element in contexts such as decision support, education, and gaming. In order to establish the current state of research on live biofeedback, we conducted a literature review on studies that examine self and foreign live biofeedback based on neurophysiological data for healthy subjects in an information systems context. By integrating a body of highly fragmented work from computer science, engineering and technology, information systems, medical science, and psychology, this paper synthesizes results from existing research, identifies knowledge gaps, and suggests directions for future research. In this vein, this review can serve as a reference guide for researchers and practitioners on how to integrate self and foreign live biofeedback into information systems for everyday use.
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... Besides, the huge amount of available information creates a poverty of attention [8]. Following the NeuroIS paradigm, one can design advanced self-tracking systems that increase users' awareness about specific affective and cognitive states [9][10][11]. Therefore, office workers would benefit of a self-tracking feature that helps them to analyze and understand their attention management while using an IS like an information dashboard. ...
... Following this paradigm, we suggest designing a dashboard called "AttentionBoard" to visualize the previous attention allocation of office workers based on eye-movement data as an attention management support. Although the NeuroIS community called for the usage of eye-tracking devices to design and evaluate innovative systems [20][21][22], to the best of our knowledge, personal informatics systems to support the users in tracking and reflecting attention are not investigated well so far [10]. As an example, in a previous study we investigated the usage of offline records as well as real-time sensing of eye-movement data to increase users' self-awareness about their attention [14]. ...
... Previous studies in human-computer interaction (HCI) highlighted the need for designing different types of attention support systems [24][25][26]. Moreover, by investigating the basket of eight in the IS field, we uncovered that although researchers in the NeuroIS field highlight the need for designing neuro-adaptive systems [21] and providing live-biofeedback [10], there is a lack of research about systems that actually support users' attention management. Furthermore, our previous study showed the difficulty of users in managing their limited attentional resources while working with IS applications such as information dashboards [7]. ...
Chapter
In the age of information, office workers process huge amounts of information and distribute their attention to several tasks in parallel. However, attention is a scarce resource and attentional breakdowns, such as missing important information, may occur while using information systems (IS). Currently, there is a lack of support to understand and improve attention management to avoid such breakdowns. In the meantime, self-tracking applications are becoming popular due to the increasing sensory capabilities of smart devices. These systems support their users in understanding and reflecting their behavior. In this research-in-progress paper, we suggest leveraging self-tracking concepts for attention management while working with ISs and describe the design of the NeuroIS-based system called “AttentionBoard”. The goal of AttentionBoard is to help office workers in improving their attention management competencies. The system records attention allocation in real-time using eye-tracking and presents the aggregated data as metrics and visualizations on a dashboard. This paper presents the first step by motivating and introducing an initial design following the design science research (DSR) methodology.
... It is becoming increasingly clear that digitally manifesting human biosignals can increase engagement and reduce stress [35], increase bodily awareness [97], infuence social behavior [45] and trust [66], increase intimacy and enable more authentic communication [56] and heightened co-presence [24], and elicit empathy and social connectedness [17,55,105]. Despite the foregoing, the sensing modality (e.g., ECG), the context where biosignals are used (e.g, self or other), and how they are visualized (e.g., heart icon) [58] can impact their interpretation. Prior work has shown that biosignals are inherently ambiguous and open to multiple interpretations [43], and this can infuence how (which modality) [40] and when they are shared ( [56]). ...
... Visualizing human biosignals has a rich history within HCI, where the type of manifestation is largely contingent on the situation and social context [58]. For such representations, researchers have explored several visual and non-visual representations (primarily for HR), and include: ambient light [53,91], clothing color change [43], graph-based [54,66,100], patterned image overlays [90], skeuomorphic [15,26,33,50,62] and text/numerical [30,54,62,69,97,100] HR representations, abstract shapes [30,33,55,87], screen overlay color [2,30,33,39,55,97], brightness and frequency [27], haptics [67,104], auditory heartbeats [19,97,105], interactive (game) element adjustment [68,94], tangibles [31], wearable skeuomorphic artifacts [21], emojis [53], fur-based and particle systems on avatars [11], realistic blood fow animations [63], and animated creature embodiments (motion) [55,56]. ...
... For such representations, researchers have explored several visual and non-visual representations (primarily for HR), and include: ambient light [53,91], clothing color change [43], graph-based [54,66,100], patterned image overlays [90], skeuomorphic [15,26,33,50,62] and text/numerical [30,54,62,69,97,100] HR representations, abstract shapes [30,33,55,87], screen overlay color [2,30,33,39,55,97], brightness and frequency [27], haptics [67,104], auditory heartbeats [19,97,105], interactive (game) element adjustment [68,94], tangibles [31], wearable skeuomorphic artifacts [21], emojis [53], fur-based and particle systems on avatars [11], realistic blood fow animations [63], and animated creature embodiments (motion) [55,56]. We refer the reader to Lux et al. 's [58] comprehensive literature review of diferent biosignal representations. While these works explore diferent (visual) representations of biosignals, comparative analyses (e.g., [30,53]) across signals and visualization methods are rare. ...
Conference Paper
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Visualizing biosignals can be important for social Virtual Reality (VR), where avatar non-verbal cues are missing. While several biosignal representations exist, designing effective visualizations and understanding user perceptions within social VR entertainment remains unclear. We adopt a mixed-methods approach to design biosignals for social VR entertainment. Using survey (N=54), context-mapping (N=6), and co-design (N=6) methods, we derive four visualizations. We then ran a within-subjects study (N=32) in a virtual jazz-bar to investigate how heart rate (HR) and breathing rate (BR) visualizations, and signal rate, influence perceived avatar arousal, user distraction, and preferences. Findings show that skeuomorphic visualizations for both biosignals allow differentiable arousal inference; skeuomorphic and particles were least distracting for HR, whereas all were similarly distracting for BR; biosignal perceptions often depend on avatar relations, entertainment type, and emotion inference of avatars versus spaces. We contribute HR and BR visualizations, and considerations for designing social VR entertainment biosignal visualizations.
... In the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research and design community there are a plethora of systems designed to support social interaction and connection. Several reviews [48,66,104,112,132] have identified such systems and analyzed the common strategies employed in their design. The largest areas of HCI exploring approaches for supporting connection are: technology for long distance relationships (romantic and familial), and technology for cooperative work. ...
... Another review is presented by Lux et al. [112] who analyzed 76 bio-feedback systems including 20 multi-user systems. They found that multi-user biofeedback systems were typically designed to support social interaction by providing information about the internal state of the other user to amplify social cues and support understanding and connection. ...
... Feijt et al. [48] present a systematic review of 57 prototypes identified in the literature, analyzing them through the lens of communication and media theory. However, even though Feijt et al. followed a systematic review procedure, they did not include several of the systems discussed in Lux et al. [112] and Prpa et al. [140] reviews that also include multi-user biofeedback sharing systems, and thus should have fallen within the scope of Feijt's et al. analysis. This suggests that there is a lack of consistent terminology in the field, making comprehensive systematic reviews challenging. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Human connection is essential for our personal well-being and a building block for a well-functioning society. There is a prominent interest in the potential of technology for mediating social con- nection, with a wealth of systems designed to foster the feeling of connection between strangers, friends, and family. By surveying this design landscape we present a transitional definition of medi- ated genuine connection and nine design strategies embodied within 50 design artifacts: affective self-disclosure, reflection on unity, shared embodied experience, transcendent emotions, embodied metaphors, interpersonal distance, touch, provocations, and play. In addition to drawing on design practice-based knowledge we also identify un- derlying psychological theories that can inform these strategies. We discuss design considerations pertaining to sensory modalities, vulnerability–comfort trade-offs, consent, situatedness in context, supporting diverse relationships, reciprocity, attention directed- ness, pursuing generalized knowledge, and questions of ethics. We hope to inspire and enrich designers’ understanding of the possi- bilities of technology to better support a mediated genuine feeling of connection.
... This BCI view emphasizes the notion of control of the IS artifact driven by the electrophysiological measures. On the contrary, biofeedback systems tend to focus on helping users' selfregulation of physiological activity, stress, emotion, or behaviors (Lux et al. 2018;Noorbergen et al. 2019). For example, Astor et al. (2013) presented one of the first biofeedback systems in IS using electrocardiography to measure arousal in an auction game. ...
... The ''meaningfulness'' of the feedback is a crucial factor for the user in understanding the adaptive system (Lux et al. 2018). The interface visual neurofeedback design followed a traffic lighting signal paradigm for quick cognitive association: red for critical, amber for unfocused, and white for decision-ready. ...
... For the adaptive interface, we utilize the term neurofeedback here not to signify a direct intervention at the interface but rather in the passive sense, in which the user is aware of a component of the interface changing color in response to their current level of sustained attention. Lux et al. (2018) noted that obstructive biofeedback design could be perceived as distracting and stressful, leading to unattended consequences. Thus, the pBCI (feedback controller) provides an assessment of the user's sustained attention through a visual interface element that does not interfere with the task interface. ...
Article
Full-text available
Arguably, automation is fast transforming many enterprise business processes, transforming operational jobs into monitoring tasks. Consequently, the ability to sustain attention during extended periods of monitoring is becoming a critical skill. This manuscript presents a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) prototype which seeks to combat decrements in sustained attention during monitoring tasks within an enterprise system. A brain-computer interface is a system which uses physiological signals output by the user as an input. The goal is to better understand human responses while performing tasks involving decision and monitoring cycles, finding ways to improve performance and decrease on-task error. Decision readiness and the ability to synthesize complex and abundant information in a brief period during critical events has never been more important. Closed-loop control and motivational control theory were synthesized to provide the basis from which a framework for a prototype was developed to demonstrate the feasibility and value of a BCI in critical enterprise activities. In this pilot study, the BCI was implemented and evaluated through laboratory experimentation using an ecologically valid task. The results show that the technological artifact allowed users to regulate sustained attention positively while performing the task. Levels of sustained attention were shown to be higher in the conditions assisted by the BCI. Furthermore, this increased cognitive response seems to be related to increased on-task action and a small reduction in on-task errors. The research concludes with a discussion of the future research directions and their application in the enterprise.
... Besides, the huge amount of available information creates a poverty of attention [8]. Following the NeuroIS paradigm, one can design advanced self-tracking systems that increase users' awareness about specific affective and cognitive states [9][10][11]. Therefore, office workers would benefit of a self-tracking feature that helps them to analyze and understand their attention management while using an IS like an information dashboard. ...
... Following this paradigm, we suggest designing a dashboard called "AttentionBoard" to visualize the previous attention allocation of office workers based on eye-movement data as an attention management support. Although the NeuroIS community called for the usage of eye-tracking devices to design and evaluate innovative systems [20][21][22], to the best of our knowledge, personal informatics systems to support the users in tracking and reflecting attention are not investigated well so far [10]. As an example, in a previous study we investigated the usage of offline records as well as real-time sensing of eye-movement data to increase users' self-awareness about their attention [14]. ...
... Previous studies in human-computer interaction (HCI) highlighted the need for designing different types of attention support systems [24][25][26]. Moreover, by investigating the basket of eight in the IS field, we uncovered that although researchers in the NeuroIS field highlight the need for designing neuro-adaptive systems [21] and providing live-biofeedback [10], there is a lack of research about systems that actually support users' attention management. Furthermore, our previous study showed the difficulty of users in managing their limited attentional resources while working with IS applications such as information dashboards [7]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the age of information, office workers process huge amounts of in- formation and distribute their attention to several tasks in parallel. However, attention is a scarce resource and attentional breakdowns, such as missing important information, may occur while using information systems (IS). Currently, there is a lack of support to understand and improve attention management to avoid such breakdowns. In the meantime, self-tracking applications are becoming popular due to the increasing sensory capabilities of smart devices. These systems support their users in understanding and reflecting their behavior. In this research-in-progress paper, we suggest leveraging self-tracking concepts for attention management while working with ISs and describe the design of the NeuroIS-based system called “AttentionBoard”. The goal of AttentionBoard is to help office workers in improving their attention management competencies. The system records attention allocation in real-time using eye- tracking and presents the aggregated data as metrics and visualizations on a dashboard. This paper presents the first step by motivating and introducing an initial design following the design science research (DSR) methodology.
... Eventually, systems able to adapt to flow intensities could, for instance, reduce flow interruptions (e.g. by blocking incoming messages -see, e.g. Rissler et al., 2018) or provide feedback information to improve flow regulation (e.g. by adjusting task difficulty, or by optimising arousal levels through bio-or neurofeedback -see Lux et al., 2018;Knierim et al., 2017a). Especially electrophysiological methods, like Electrocardiography (ECG) to observe changes in the heart, or Electroencephalography (EEG) to observe the electrical activity of neuron assemblies in the brain, provide promising means for continuous user state detection (Blankertz et al., 2016;Wascher et al., 2019). ...
... Eventually, systems able to adapt to flow intensities could reduce flow interruptions (e.g. by blocking incoming messages -see, e.g. Rissler et al., 2018) or provide feedback for flow self-regulation (e.g. by optimising arousal levels and catalysing task focus through EEG-neurofeedback -see Lux et al., 2018). ...
... To induce relaxation to facilitate flow in instances of overload, would also appear to be supported by findings that more recovered individuals find it easier to experience flow throughout the workday (Debus et al., 2014). As bio-and neurofeedback methods are more becoming readily implemented in NeuroIS (Lux et al., 2018), such approaches could be implemented soon, even for small groups (Knierim et al., 2017a). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The experience of flow is a unique sensation of complete task absorption and effortless action that is highlighted as a correlate of peak performances, personal and social growth, and general well-being. For organisations, higher flow frequencies, therefore, relate to a more engaged, skilled, and productive workforce. Especially as global phenomena like increasing knowledge work demand and low worker engagement are developing, organisations could strongly benefit from fostering workers’ flow experiences. However, facilitating flow represents a substantial challenge due to the variety of workers’ abilities, tasks and workplace configurations. Knowledge workers are faced with unstructured and complex tasks, that require numerous domain-specific abilities and cooperation with others. Workplaces are diversifying with boundaries disappearing between centralized and digitally-mediated workspaces. This variety means that only person-, task- and situation-independent approaches can deliver comprehensive flow support. For this reason, research on the experiences neurophysiological basis is increasingly pursued. On this basis, adaptive Neuro-Information Systems (NeuroIS) could be developed that are able to detect flow continuously (especially through wearable sensor systems), and that can provide flow-supporting mechanisms. Presently, despite these efforts, the knowledge on how to detect flow with neurophysiological measures is sparse, highly fragmented, and lacks experimental variety. On the individual level, competing propositions exist that have not been consolidated through cross-situational, and multi-sensor observation. On the group level, almost no research has been conducted to investigate neurophysiological correlates in social interactions, particularly not in digitally-mediated interactions. This dissertation addresses these gaps through the cross-situational observation of flow using wearable ECG and EEG sensor systems. In doing so, limitations in the present state of experimental flow research are addressed that refer to central shortcomings of established paradigms for the controlled elicitation of flow experiences. Specifically, two experiments are conducted with manipulations of difficulty, naturalism, autonomy, and social interaction to investigate the question of how flow elicitation can be intensified, and the experience detected more robustly across situations. These investigations are based on an extensive integration of the theoretic and empiric literature on flow neurophysiology. Altogether, the results suggest flow to be represented by moderate physiological activation and mental workload, by increased attentional task engagement and by affective neutrality. Especially EEG features indicate a diagnostic potential to separate lower from higher flow intensities by the reflection of optimal and non-optimal (individual and group) task difficulties. To catalyse, that the positive promises of fostering flow in individuals and social units, can be realised, avenues to advance flow facilitation research are outlined.
... However, as Davey, Davey, and Singh (2014, p. 181) note, at this stage, "most m-health studies are not guided by any conceptual framework, neither the research questions are instigated by existing Third, scholars have argued that system designers should consider the potential of mobile biosensors in delivering BCIs. More broadly, the design strategy of using biosensors as built-in information system (IS) functions (vom Brocke, Riedl, & Léger, 2013, p. 3) allows designers to develop "systems that recognize the physiological state of the user and that adapt, based on that information, in real time" (Riedl, Davis, & Hevner, 2014, p. i; see Lux et al., 2018, for a review). In doing so, mobile biosensors can facilitate a feedback loop between users' health behavior and their physiological state (e.g., biofeedback (Xiong et al. 2013;Uddin et al., 2016) and, thus, just-in-time interventions (Gutierrez, Fast, Ngu, & Gao, 2015)). ...
... Numerous training interventions use activity sensors for improving physical activity (Glynn et al., 2014), muscular fitness, movement skills, and weight-related behaviors (Smith et al., 2014) by providing instructions on how to perform these behaviors through the mHealth interface. Researchers in the mHealth space have also used biofeedback training to develop skills and improve users' physical capability to regulate their own physiological processes (Lux et al., 2018). For instance, Uddin et al. (2016) developed a mobile training app called Beat that uses an electrocardiographic sensor to provide real-time biofeedback of heart rate variability. ...
Article
Full-text available
A person's health behavior plays a vital role in mitigating their risk of disease and promoting positive health outcomes. In recent years, mHealth systems have emerged to offer novel approaches for encouraging and supporting users in changing their health behavior. Mobile biosensors represent a promising technology in this regard; that is, sensors that collect physiological data (e.g., heart rate, respiration, skin conductance) that individuals wear, carry, or access during their normal daily activities. mHealth system designers have started to use the health information from physiological data to deliver behavior-change interventions. However, little research provides guidance about how one can design mHealth systems to use mobile biosensors for health behavior change. In order to address this research gap, we conducted an exploratory study. Following a hybrid approach that combines deductive and inductive reasoning, we integrated a body of fragmented literature and conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with mHealth stakeholders. From this study, we developed a theoretical framework and six general design guidelines that shed light on the theoretical pathways for how the mHealth interface can facilitate behavior change and provide practical design considerations.
... In addition, previous studies in other disciplines highlight the positive impact of individualized visual attention feedback (VAF) as a self-tracking feature on information processing performance (Deza et al., 2017;Qvarfordt et al., 2010;Sharma et al., 2016;van Gog et al., 2009). However, only a few studies have examined the potential of eye movement data for designing such feedback for IS (Lux et al., 2018) and to the best of our knowledge no studies specifically focus on integrating it for dashboards. Therefore, to close this knowledge gap in IS research, our study addresses the following research question: ...
... This is specifically relevant when users explore dense information on UIs, such as dashboards. Moreover, Lux et al.'s (2018) literature review on realtime feedback applications based on neuroscience tools in IS revealed that there is an IS research gap regarding the use of eye trackers for designing cognitive feedback. This study closes the identified research gap by contributing design knowledge on how to provide users with individualized feedback on their visual attention allocation while they interact with dashboards based on real-time eye movement data. ...
Article
Full-text available
Information dashboards are a critical capability in contemporary business intelligence & analytics systems. Despite coming with strong potential to support better decision making, the huge amount of information provided challenges their users when they perform data exploration tasks. Accordingly, dashboard users face difficulties in managing their limited attentional resources when processing the presented information on dashboards. Also, recent studies show that the amount of concentrated time humans can spend on a task is reduced massively and there is a need for designing user interfaces that support their users' attention management. Therefore, in this design science research project, we propose attentive information dashboards that provide individualized visual attention feedback (VAF) as an innovative artifact to solve this problem. We articulate theoretically grounded design principles and instantiate a software artifact leveraging users' eye movement gaze data in real-time to provide individualized VAF. The instantiated artifact was evaluated in a controlled lab experiment with 92 participants. The results from analyzing users' eye movement after receiving individualized VAF reveal that our proposed design has a positive effect on users' attentional resource allocation, attention shift rate, and attentional resource management. We contribute a system architecture for attentive information dashboards that support data exploration and two theoretically grounded design principles that provide prescriptive knowledge on how to provide individualized VAF. Further, practitioners can leverage the prescriptive knowledge derived from our research and design innovative systems that support users' information processing by managing their limited attentional resources.
... The attentional process in the visual field is known as visual attention [21] and visual attention allocation (VAA) is the set of processes enabling and guiding the selection of incoming perceptual information [12,22]. Tracking the VAA of users can be used for designing live biofeedback [14,[23][24][25] that informs users about their attentional state. Moreover, AUIs that provide visual attention feedback (VAF) are known as being supportive to recover from attentional breakdowns and improve the performance in several contexts [13,[26][27][28]. ...
... Moreover, AUIs that provide visual attention feedback (VAF) are known as being supportive to recover from attentional breakdowns and improve the performance in several contexts [13,[26][27][28]. Although the NeurosIS community called for the usage of eye-tracking devices to design and evaluate innovative systems [18,20,29], there is limited research on using eye activity for designing live biofeedback [25]. Also, to the best of our knowledge, designing VAF to support users exploring information dashboards is not investigated so far. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the age of big data, decision-makers are confronted with enormous amounts of information coming from various resources at high velocity. However, humans have limited cognitive capabilities such as attentional re-sources. Inappropriate attentional resource allocation can lead to severe loss-es in performance. Nowadays, the usage of eye-tracking devices brings the opportunity to design neuro-adaptive information systems that support users in better managing their limited attentional resources. In this study, we in-vestigated the design of an attentive information dashboard which provides visual attention feedback (VAF) as live biofeedback. Later, we examined how three different VAF types assist decision makers in their visual atten-tion allocation (VAA) performance and focused attention while conducting a data exploration task. The results show that providing an individualized VAF as live biofeedback using real-time gaze data supports users in managing their attention better than general VAFs.
... The attentional process in the visual field is known as visual attention [21] and visual attention allocation (VAA) is the set of processes enabling and guiding the selection of incoming perceptual information [12,22]. Tracking the VAA of users can be used for designing live biofeedback [14,[23][24][25] that informs users about their attentional state. Moreover, AUIs that provide visual attention feedback (VAF) are known as being supportive to recover from attentional breakdowns and improve the performance in several contexts [13,[26][27][28]. ...
... Moreover, AUIs that provide visual attention feedback (VAF) are known as being supportive to recover from attentional breakdowns and improve the performance in several contexts [13,[26][27][28]. Although the NeurosIS community called for the usage of eye-tracking devices to design and evaluate innovative systems [18,20,29], there is limited research on using eye activity for designing live biofeedback [25]. Also, to the best of our knowledge, designing VAF to support users exploring information dashboards is not investigated so far. ...
Chapter
In the age of big data, decision-makers are confronted with enormous amounts of information coming from various resources at high velocity. However, humans have limited cognitive capabilities such as attentional resources. Inappropriate attentional resource allocation can lead to severe losses in performance. Nowadays, the usage of eye-tracking devices brings the opportunity to design neuroadaptive information systems that support users in better managing their limited attentional resources. In this study, we investigated the design of an attentive information dashboard which provides visual attention feedback (VAF) as live biofeedback. Later, we examined how three different VAF types assist decision makers in their visual attention allocation (VAA) performance and focused attention while conducting a data exploration task. The results show that providing an individualized VAF as live biofeedback using real-time gaze data supports users in managing their attention better than general VAFs.
... Experiential and behavioural processes have become a central topic in humancomputer interaction and IS in the last decade, especially in the context of digital system and platform use (Knierim et al. 2017b, Lux et al. 2018, Peukert et al. 2018b). This is due to an emerging consensus that aspects like emotion, motivation and trust critically interplay with decision-making quality and with individual and social functioning. ...
... This is due to an emerging consensus that aspects like emotion, motivation and trust critically interplay with decision-making quality and with individual and social functioning. For example, emotions have been determined as the cause of both irrational behaviour (Adam et al. 2011, Jung and and high-quality decision-making (Hariharan et al. 2016, Lux et al. 2018. Emotional salience and management have been considered a vitalizing and conflict-moderating aspect in digital participation platforms (Lux et al. 2015a, Peukert et al. 2018b) or a driver of small group performances and interaction satisfaction (Knierim et al. 2017a). ...
Chapter
Information systems (IS) are nowadays at the core of many personal and institutional activities and influence daily life more than ever before. To understand, evaluate and envision the forms of how we interact with IS, interdisciplinary and multifaceted research efforts are required. At the Information and Market Engineering chair at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, this task is taken head-on via research that stretches from user experiences to system design. In this review, the present research foci at the department are outlined, together with a brief description of its origins and the global developments that underly the necessity of conducting these particular IS studies.
... Hence, future studies may put more emphasis on complementing self-reported behavioural intention measurement scales with neurophysiological measurements. Also, in recent years, researchers and practitioners have begun to consider live biofeedback as a user interface element in non-clinical contexts (Lux et al., 2018). As such, researchers could explore the possibility of using live biofeedback in designing time-pressure-sensitive information systems that are capable of generating adaptive security prompts to users by taking into account the user's current physiological state. ...
Article
Full-text available
In today's fast-paced society, users of information technology increasingly operate under high time pressure. Loaded with multiple tasks and racing against deadlines, users experience considerable cognitive load and stress which can detrimentally impact their behaviour. As a result, scholars have shown that the human firewall in cybersecurity is often compromised, with potentially catastrophic consequences for users, the organisations they represent, and their clients. However, despite concerns about the impact of time pressure on human cybersecurity (HCS) behaviour, research on this matter is scant and there is no literature review available that may inform researchers and practitioners about the current body of knowledge. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review of 21 studies in leading outlets. Synthesising the findings of the extant literature, we present an integrative theoretical framework that conceptualises the impact of time pressure on HCS behaviour along the contexts, psychological constructs, consequences, and moderating factors of the phenomenon. For researchers, this framework can serve as a ‘route map’ to conceptualise the role of time pressure in the HCS context and to identify directions for further research. Practitioners can use the framework as a guide for devising effective countermeasures and for designing and provisioning systems.
... travaux,Lux et al. [2018] notent que la recherche autour du biofeedback s'est intensifiée au cours des 15 dernières années, et mettent en évidence trois types de biofeedback :-De soi-à-soi : l'utilisateur perçoit ses propres informations physiologiques. ...
Thesis
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Les travaux de cette thèse se concentrent sur l'utilisation originale des wearables (objets connectés portés) comme substituts aux capteurs physiologiques traditionnels dans le cadre d'applications immersives. Ce travail de thèse propose à la fois une réflexion fondamentale sur l'expérience utilisateur (UX) et une étude de faisabilité technologique. Il vise à étudier les effets de la rétroaction biologique sur les sentiments d'engagement et d'agentivité en environnement virtuel immersif. Sur le plan expérimental, les deux études menées dans le cadre de ces recherches permettent d'identifier les intérêts et limites des wearables ainsi que les impacts de la rétroaction biologique sur l'expérience utilisateur.
... For example, in the domain of everyday life feedback (i.e., sixth feedback domain) scholars investigate real-time feedback on energy consumption (e.g., Tiefenbeck et al., 2016) or live biofeedback (e.g., Lux et al., 2018). In contrast, many scholars rather put the emphasis on particular types of feedback (i.e., formative feedback, process feedback, progress feedback and cognitive feedback), which are indirectly linked to timely feedback due to their purpose and content. ...
Article
Full-text available
Feedback is essential for learning and progress. However, the concept of feedback is used for a multitude of purposes in an overwhelming diversity of fields such as performance management, education, and information retrieval. Given a fragmented landscape and lack of coherence, it remains unclear how the concept of feedback is used in the existing body of information systems (IS) research. This problem is addressed by conducting a systematic literature review that queries the AISeL database and the Senior Scholar Basket of journals. In total, 144 articles were analyzed to explore different domains in which the concept of feedback is adopted within IS research. The results highlight seven feedback domains: (1) product and service feedback, (2) machine performance feedback, (3) human performance feedback, (4) community contribution feedback, (5) educational feedback, (6) everyday life activity feedback, and (7) system (use) feedback. By providing an overview of seven domains and by discussing the roles which feedback plays in these domains, complexity is reduced. Further, this article provides a foundation for scholars to assess their feedback domain and inspires scholars to transfer knowledge in between these domains.
... Numerous training interventions use activity sensors for improving physical activity (Glynn et al., 2014), muscular fitness, movement skills, and weight-related behaviors (Smith et al., 2014) by providing instructions on how to perform these behaviors through the mHealth interface. Biofeedback training has also been used in the mHealth space to develop skills and improve users' physical capability to regulate their own physiological processes (Lux et al., 2018). For instance, Uddin et al. (2016) developed a mobile training app called Beat, which uses an electrocardiographic sensor to provide realtime biofeedback of heart rate variability. ...
Preprint
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A person's health behavior plays a vital role in mitigating their risk of disease and promoting positive health outcomes. In recent years, mHealth systems have emerged to offer novel approaches for encouraging and supporting users in health behavior change. A promising technology in this regard are mobile biosensors, that is, sensors that enable the collection of physiological data (e.g., heart rate, respiration, skin conductance) and that are intended to be worn, carried, or accessed during normal daily activities. Designers of mHealth systems have started to use the health information that can be gained from physiological data for the delivery of behavior change interventions. However, research providing guidance on how mHealth systems can be designed to utilize mobile biosensors for health behavior change is scant. In order to address this research gap, we conducted an exploratory study. Following a hybrid approach that combines deductive and inductive reasoning, we integrated a body of fragmented literature and conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with mHealth stakeholders. Arising from this study, a theoretical framework and six general design guidelines were developed, shedding light on the theoretical pathways for how the mHealth interface can facilitate behavior change and providing practical design considerations.
... Many of these devices are designed to assist user groups (e.g., chronic patients) in adapting their behaviors (e.g., eating healthier). Representing and processing physical data (e.g., live biofeedback from neurophysiological sensors) in real time is, therefore, an important design challenge (Lux et al. 2018), while behavioral change in actual human experience is the most important outcome (Van Woensel et al. 2015). Therefore, how physical data, such as steps, calorie intake, or heart rate, is modeled in a script is an important aspect of facilitating change in physical reality, such as attaining healthier shopping habits or consuming more nutritious food (Kim 2014). ...
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The role of information systems (IS) as representations of real-world systems is changing in an increasingly digitalized world, suggesting that conceptual modeling is losing its relevance to the IS field. We argue the opposite: Conceptual modeling research is more relevant to the IS field than ever, but it requires an update with current theory. We develop a new theoretical framework of conceptual modeling that delivers a fundamental shift in the assumptions that govern research in this area. This move can make traditional knowledge about conceptual modeling consistent with the emerging requirements of a digital world. Our framework draws attention to the role of conceptual modeling scripts as mediators between physical and digital realities. We identify new research questions about grammars, methods, scripts, agents, and contexts that are situated in intertwined physical and digital realities. We discuss several implications for conceptual modeling scholarship that relate to the necessity of developing new methods and grammars for conceptual modeling, broadening the methodological array of conceptual modeling scholarship, and considering new dependent variables.
... Building on these insights, researchers have not only investigated how to design information systems in order to carry out auctions electronically, but also explored how to assist bidders during auction participation, e.g., by predicting auction outcomes based on psychophysiological measurements (Müller et al. 2016). Conceptually, user assistance systems in this context build on the notion of supporting bidders in regulating the emergence of arousal as well as its impact on decision making (Lux et al. 2018;Morana et al. 2020). For instance, system designers can employ biofeedback to support bidders in recognizing and regulating their own physiological arousal levels while participating in an auction (Astor et al. 2013b;Jerčić et al. 2012). ...
Chapter
The design of electronic auction platforms is an important field of electronic commerce research. It requires not only a profound understanding of the role of human cognition in human bidding behavior but also of the role of human affect. In this chapter, we focus specifically on the emotional aspects of human bidding behavior and the results of empirical studies that have employed neurophysiological measurements in this regard. By synthesizing the results of these studies, we are able to provide a coherent picture of the role of affective processes in human bidding behavior along four distinct theoretical pathways.
... NeuroIS researchers also suggested using this technology to design innovative applications [13][14][15][16] and AUIs [17][18][19][20][21]. However, there is a lack of research on using eye tracking devices for designing attention feedback [22]. Therefore, in this study, we suggest designing an AUI that focuses on T&C. ...
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Now and then, users are asked to accept terms and conditions (T&C) before using Internet-based services. Previous studies show that users ignore reading T&C most of the time and accept them tacitly without reading, while they may include critical information. This study targets solving this problem by designing an innovative NeuroIS application called EyeTC. EyeTC uses webcam-based eye tracking technology to track users' eye movement data in real-time and provide attention feedback when users do not read T&C of Internetbased services. We tested the effectiveness of using EyeTC to change users’ behavior for reading T&C. The results show that when users receive EyeTCbased attention feedback, they allocate more attention to the T&C, leading to a higher text comprehension. However, participants articulated privacy concerns about providing eye movement data in a real-world setup.
... There is, however, some work that can be mentioned. The recent review by Lux et al. (2018) provides examples of the development of live biofeedback systems from non-clinical application domains such as decision making and computer games. ...
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The use of neurophysiological measurements to advance the design, development, use, acceptance, influence and adaptivity of information systems is receiving increasing attention. Within the field of education, neurophysiological measurements have commonly been used to capture a learner’s psychological constructs such as cognitive load, attention and emotion, which play an important role in student learning. This paper systematically examines the literature on the use of neurophysiological measurements in higher education. In particular, using a well-established Systematic Literature Review (SLR) method, we identified 83 papers reporting empirical evidence about the outcome of employing neurophysiological measurements within educational technologies in higher education. The findings of the SLR are divided into three main themes discussing the employed measurements, experimental settings and constructs and outcomes. Our findings identify that (1) electroencephalography and facial expression recognition are the dominantly employed types of measurement, (2) the majority of the experiments used a pre-experimental design, (3) attention and emotion are the two foremost cognitive and non-cognitive constructs under investigation, while less emphasis is paid to meta-cognitive constructs and (4) the reported results mostly focus on monitoring learners’ states, which are not always the same as the intended purpose, such as developing an adaptive system. On a broader term, the review of the literature provides evidence of the effective use of neurophysiological measurements by educational technologies to enhance learning; however, a number of challenges and concerns related to the accuracy and validity of the captured construct, the intrusiveness of the employed instruments as well as ethical and privacy considerations have surfaced, that need to be addressed before such technologies can be employed and adopted at scale. (Read here: https://rdcu.be/cmHaC)
... NeuroIS researchers also suggested using this technology to design innovative applications [13][14][15][16] and AUIs [17][18][19][20][21]. However, there is a lack of research on using eye tracking devices for designing attention feedback [22]. Therefore, in this study, we suggest designing an AUI that focuses on T&C. ...
Chapter
Now and then, users are asked to accept terms and conditions (T&C) before using Internet-based services. Previous studies show that users ignore reading T&C most of the time and accept them tacitly without reading, while they may include critical information. This study targets solving this problem by designing an innovative NeuroIS application called EyeTC. EyeTC uses webcam-based eye tracking technology to track users’ eye movement data in real-time and provide attention feedback when users do not read T&C of Internet-based services. We tested the effectiveness of using EyeTC to change users’ behavior for reading T&C. The results show that when users receive EyeTC-based attention feedback, they allocate more attention to the T&C, leading to a higher text comprehension. However, participants articulated privacy concerns about providing eye movement data in a real-world setup.
... At a fundamental level, biofeedback comprises "the measurement of physiological activities (e.g., brainwaves, heart function, breathing, muscle activity, and skin temperature) and the generation of a feedback response that targets at least one of the five human senses -sight (visual), hearing (auditory), touch (tactile), taste (gustatory), and smell (olfactory) -in order to trigger a change in perception, behavior, and regulation of physiological activities" (Lux et al., 2018, p. 260). Live biofeedback systems may provide users with real-time feedback about their own as well as another person's current physiological state, based on measures of cardiovascular activity, electrodermal activity, (electrical) muscle activity, body movements, eye activity, respiration, and body temperature (Lux et al., 2018). Research has shown that biofeedback about one's own physiology facilitates stress management and emotion regulation (e.g., Astor, Adam, Jerčić, Schaaff, & Weinhardt, 2013;Bouchard, Bernier, Boivin, Morin, & Robillard, 2012;Cederholm, Hilborn, Lindley, & Sennersten, 2011;Hilborn, Cederholm, Eriksson, & Lindley, 2013;Osman, Dong, & Saddik, 2016;Peira, Fredrikson, & Pourtois, 2014), whereas feedback about others' physiology (also referred to as foreign feedback) was found to be particularly useful for easing social interactions (Howell et al., 2016;Järvelä, Kätsyri, Ravaja, Chanel, & Henttonen, 2016;Snyder et al., 2015). ...
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Complex work in teams requires coordination across team members and their technology as well as the ability to change and adapt over time to achieve effective performance. To support such complex interactions, recent efforts have worked toward the design of adaptive human‐autonomy teaming systems that can provide feedback in or near real time to achieve the desired individual or team results. However, while significant advancements have been made to better model and understand the dynamics of team interaction and its relationship with task performance, appropriate measures of team coordination and computational methods to detect changes in coordination have not yet been widely investigated. Having the capacity to measure coordination in real time is quite promising as it provides the opportunity to provide adaptive feedback that may influence and regulate teams’ coordination patterns and, ultimately, drive effective team performance. A critical requirement to reach this potential is having the theoretical and empirical foundation from which to do so. Therefore, the first goal of the paper is to review approaches to coordination dynamics, identify current research gaps, and draw insights from other areas, such as social interaction, relationship science, and psychotherapy. The second goal is to collate extant work on feedback and advance ideas for adaptive feedback systems that have potential to influence coordination in a way that can enhance the effectiveness of team interactions. In addressing these two goals, this work lays the foundation as well as plans for the future of human‐autonomy teams that augment team interactions using coordination‐based measures.
Chapter
This paper investigates whether mental workload can be classified in an operator setting using unobtrusive psychophysiological measures. Having reliable predictions of workload using unobtrusive sensors can be useful for adaptive instructional systems, as knowledge of a trainee’s workload can then be used to provide appropriate training level (not too hard, not too easy). Previous work has investigated automatic mental workload prediction using biophysical measures and machine learning, however less attention has been given to the level of physical obtrusiveness of the used measures. We therefore explore the use of color-, and infrared-spectrum cameras for remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) as physically unobtrusive measures. Sixteen expert train traffic operators participated in a railway human-in-the-loop simulator. We used two machine learning models (AdaBoost and Random Forests) to predict low-, medium- and high-mental workload levels based on heart rate features in a leave-one-out cross-validated design. Results show above chance classification for low- and high-mental workload states. Based on infrared-spectrum rPPG derived features, the AdaBoost machine learning model yielded the highest classification performance.
Conference Paper
Physio-adaptive systems define a class of information systems that refer to an innovative mode where system interaction is reached by monitoring, analyzing, and responding to hidden psychophysiological user activity in real-time. However, despite a strong interest of scholars and practitioners in physio-adaptive systems, there exists a lack of a structured and systematic form in which physio-adaptive systems research can be classified. Against this backdrop, this article showcases the current state-of-the-art of physio-adaptive systems research along three different stages, namely (1) collection of physiological data, (2) state determination, as well as (3) system adaptation. Analyzing 44 articles during the years 1994-2019, our main contribution resides in the synopsis of physio-adaptive systems literature along these stages. For instance, we illustrate that there exist three categories for adaptive responses: state display (20% of the analyzed studies), assistance offering (18%), and challenge adaptation (61%). On the grounds of our review, we propose seven promising avenues, which will support scholars in their endeavors on how to pursue with future research in the field of physio-adaptive systems.
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On the 10th anniversary of the NeuroIS field, we reflect on accomplishments but, more importantly, on the future of the field. This commentary presents our thoughts on a future NeuroIS research agenda with the potential for high impact societal contributions. Four key areas for future information systems (IS) research are: (1) IS design, (2) IS use, (3) emotion research, and (4) neuro-adaptive systems. We reflect on the challenges of each area and provide specific research questions that serve as important directions for advancing the NeuroIS field. The research agenda supports fellow researchers in planning, conducting, publishing, and reviewing high impact studies that leverage the potential of neuroscience knowledge and tools to further information systems research.
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This paper describes an investigation into how real-time but low-cost biometric information can be interpreted by computer games to enhance gameplay without fundamentally changing it. We adapted a cheap sensor, (the Lightstone mediation sensor device by Wild Divine), to record and transfer biometric information about the player (via sensors that clip over their fingers) into a commercial game engine, Half-Life 2. During game play, the computer game was dynamically modified by the player's biometric information to increase the cinematically augmented "horror" affordances. These included dynamic changes in the game shaders, screen shake, and the creation of new spawning points for the game's non-playing characters (zombies), all these features were driven by the player's biometric data. To evaluate the usefulness of this biofeedback device, we compared it against a control group of players who also had sensors clipped on their fingers, but for the second group the gameplay was not modified by the biometric information of the players. While the evaluation results indicate biometric data can improve the situated feeling of horror, there are many design issues that will need to be investigated by future research, and the judicious selection of theme and appropriate interaction is vital.
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The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an intervention consisting of mental coaching combined with either electro encephalogram (EEG) alpha power feedback or heart rate variability (HRV) feedback on HRV, EEG outcomes and self-reported factors related to stress, performance, recovery and sleep quality in elite athletes. A prospective pilot study was performed with two distinct cohorts. Soccer players were provided with four sessions of mental coaching combined with daily HRV biofeedback (Group A); track and field athletes were provided with four sessions of mental coaching in combination with daily neurofeedback (Group B). Measurements were performed at baseline, post intervention and at 5 weeks follow-up. Objective measures: EEG and ECG. Subjective measures: Numeric Rating Scale for performance, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Rest and Stress Questionnaire and Sports Improvement-60. Group characteristics were too distinct to compare the interventions. Linear mixed models were used to analyze differences within groups over time. In Group A, significant changes over time were present in alpha power at 5 of 7 EEG locations (p < 0.01–0.03). LF/HF ratio significantly increased (p = 0.02) and the concentration (p = 0.02) and emotional scale (p = 0.03) of the SIM-60 increased significantly (p = 0.04). In Group B, the HRV low frequency power and recovery scale of the REST-Q significantly increased (p = 0.02 and <0.01 resp.). Other measures remained stable or improved non-significantly. A mental coaching program combined with either HRV or EEG alpha power feedback may increase HRV and alpha power and may lead to better performance-related outcomes and stress reduction. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of either type of feedback and to compare effects with a control group.
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Stress is a major problem in the human society, impairing the well-being, health, performance, and productivity of many people worldwide. Most notably, people increasingly experience stress during human-computer interactions because of the ubiquity of and permanent connection to information and communication technologies. This phenomenon is referred to as technostress. Enterprise systems, designed to improve the productivity of organizations, frequently contribute to this technostress and thereby counteract their objective. Based on theoretical foundations and input from exploratory interviews and focus group discussions, the paper presents a design blueprint for stress-sensitive adaptive enterprise systems (SSAESes). A major characteristic of SSAESes is that bio-signals (e.g., heart rate or skin conductance) are integrated as real-time stress measures, with the goal that systems automatically adapt to the users’ stress levels, thereby improving human-computer interactions. Various design interventions on the individual, technological, and organizational levels promise to directly affect stressors or moderate the impact of stressors on important negative effects (e.g., health or performance). However, designing and deploying SSAESes pose significant challenges with respect to technical feasibility, social and ethical acceptability, as well as adoption and use. Considering these challenges, the paper proposes a 4-stage step-by-step implementation approach. With this Research Note on technostress in organizations, the authors seek to stimulate the discussion about a timely and important phenomenon, particularly from a design science research perspective.
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Remote Photoplethysmography (rPPG) allows remote measurement of the heart rate using low-cost RGB imaging equipment. In this paper, we review the development of the field since its emergence in 2008, classify existing approaches for rPPG, and derive a framework that provides an overview of modular steps. Based on this framework, practitioners can use the classification to orchestrate algorithms to an rPPG approach that suits their specific needs. Researchers can use the reviewed and classified algorithms as a starting point to improve particular features of an rPPG algorithm.
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Introduction: Stress is one of the leading global causes of disease and premature mortality. Despite this, interventions aimed at reducing stress have low adherence rates. The proliferation of mobile phone devices along with gaming-style applications allows for a unique opportunity to broaden the reach and appeal of stress-reduction interventions in modern society. We assessed the effectiveness of two smartphone applications games combined with biofeedback in reducing stress. Methods: We compared a control game to gaming-style smartphone applications combined with a skin conductance biofeedback device (the Pip). Fifty participants aged between 18 and 35 completed the Trier Social Stress Test. They were then randomly assigned to the intervention (biofeedback game) or control group (a non-biofeedback game) for thirty minutes. Perceived stress, heart rate and mood were measured before and after participants had played the games. Results: A mixed factorial ANOVA showed a significant interaction between time and game type in predicting perceived stress [F(1,48) = 14.19, p < 0.001]. Participants in the biofeedback intervention had significantly reduced stress compared to the control group. There was also a significant interaction between time and game in predicting heart rate [F(1,48) = 6.41, p < 0.05]. Participants in the biofeedback intervention showed significant reductions in heart rate compared to the control group. Discussion: This illustrates the potential for gaming-style smartphone applications combined with biofeedback as stress reduction interventions.
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Biofeedback videogames are physiologically driven games that offer opportunities to individually improve emotional self-regulation and produce mental and physical health benefits. To investigate the feasibility of a novel collaborative multiplayer methodology, we created Space Connection, a videogame to promote empathy in teenagers. Space Connection depicts a futuristic adventure aboard a spaceship in which players have to jointly use their powers to solve a set of physics-based puzzles. The game relies on the use of physiological self-regulation to activate the playing partner powers. Using a low-cost brain computer interface and a respiration rate sensor we provided players with two game powers, namely telekinesis and time-manipulation which are mapped to changes in attention and relaxation. In this paper we describe the game mechanics in three different scenarios: i) the cryogenic room, ii) the space ship corridor and iii) the cargo hold. Finally, we performed a feasibility study with 10 users (aged 22.2 ± 5.6) to evaluate the game experience. Results revealed high scores in enjoyment and empathy but low scores on interface control. Our preliminary data supports the use of novel biofeedback strategies combined with videogames to promote positive emotions and incentive collaboration and teamwork.
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Recent evidence suggests the minimisation of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimising the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimise the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the centre of pressure (CoP). CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from ten healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects’ responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P
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Serious games augment utilitarian applications with an entertainment dimension. Hence, information pertaining to a utilitarian objective is seamlessly incorporated into the gaming scenario. In this work, we present the concept of Ubiquitous Biofeedback Serious Games (UBSGs), a family of games that integrate biofeedback processes in their operation. They rely on physiological inputs collected from the player through biological sensors for game control. These physiological inputs are converted to quantifiable parameters that reflect the status of a certain physiological process. To prove the practicality of this concept, we develop a UBSG aimed at providing mental stress management services to players. We assess the ability of the game feedback to assist players in modulating their behavior to reduce their stress levels. In our evaluation, we have shown that the majority of participating subjects showed more control over their mental stress when game feedback was enabled.
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Both breathing and internal self-awareness are an integral part of any yoga practice. We describe and discuss the development of ExoPranayama, an actuated environment that physically manifests users’ breathing in yoga. Through a series of trials with yoga practitioners and expert teachers, we explore its role in the practice of yoga. Our interview results reveal that biofeedback through the environment supported teaching and improved self-awareness, but it impacted group cohesion. Two practical uses of the technology emerged for supporting breath control in yoga: (1) biofeedback can provide new information about users’ current internal states; (2) machine-driven feedback provides users with a future state or goal, and leads to improved cohesiveness.
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In this paper we describe the concept, design and implementation of LivingSurface, an interactive wall-like surface as a shape-changing display of biofeedback. The surface changes its shape responding to an individual's physiological data, reflecting the internal bodily processes. The surface design basically consists of two layers: the pattern layer (front layer) and the actuating layer (back layer). The first is a complex paper-based structure with repetitive incisions created by laser cutting. The actuating layer serves as a medium transforming the force from servomotors, vibration motors or fans into an action on the pattern layer. The cutout patterns are stimulated to vibrate, swing, bulge, or rotate which is used to display physiological information in dynamic physical form. This work has been exhibited on Milan Design Week 2015; we collected and analyzed the feedback from the visitors during the exhibition and discuss the possibilities of the proposed surfaces as a shape-changing interface of biofeedback or an ambient display of information.
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We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion – communicative expression and physiological state – to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member’s physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.
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Good public speaking skills convey strong and effective communication, which is critical in many professions and used in everyday life. The ability to speak publicly requires a lot of training and practice. Recent technological developments enable new approaches for public speaking training that allow users to practice in a safe and engaging environment. We explore feedback strategies for public speaking training that are based on an interactive virtual audience paradigm. We investigate three study conditions: (1) a non-interactive virtual audience (control condition), (2) direct visual feedback, and (3) nonverbal feedback from an interactive virtual audience. We perform a threefold evaluation based on self-assessment questionnaires, expert assessments, and two objectively annotated measures of eye-contact and avoidance of pause fillers. Our experiments show that the interactive virtual audience brings together the best of both worlds: increased engagement and challenge as well as improved public speaking skills as judged by experts.
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Recognized stress management techniques include cultivating mindfulness, breathing exercises, and meditation. While these approaches have been shown to mitigate the negative effects of stress, they can be difficult to learn or consistently apply. To support these techniques, we developed MoodLight, a playful system that uses ambient colored light to provide feedback regarding an individual's current arousal levels. Like many affective computing systems, MoodLight was designed to help users observe their internal state and learn to relax. However, our findings indicate that prompting or leading feedback can be more effective than real time feedback in helping users relax. This work contributes to affective computing by suggesting alternative approaches to designing biofeedback systems for stress management.
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Traders are required to work in the financial market with highly complex information and to perform efficiently under high levels of psychological pressure. Multiple disciplines, from programs with artificial intelligence to complex mathematical functions, are used to help traders in their effort to maximize profits. However, an essential problem not yet considered in this rapidly evolving environment is that traders are not supported to adequately manage how stress influences their decisions. This paper takes into consideration the negative influences of stress on individuals and proposes a system designed to support traders by providing them with information that can reduce the likelihood of poor decision-making. The system has been designed considering both technical and physiological aspects to make information available in a suitable way. Biometric sensors are used to collect data associated with stress, a software platform then analyses this information and displays it to the trader. The resulting system is capable of making individual traders, as well as teams of traders, self-aware of their levels of stress. The system has been tested in real environments and the results provide evidence that self-aware traders benefit from the system by reducing risky decisionmaking.
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Recent research has made a strong case for the importance of NeuroIS methods for IS research. It has suggested that NeuroIS contributes to an improved explanation and prediction of IS phenomena. Yet, such research is unclear on the source of this improvement; while some studies indicate that NeuroIS constitutes an alternative to psychometrics, implying that the two methods assess the same dimension of an underlying IS construct, other studies indicate that NeuroIS constitutes a complement to psychometrics, implying that the two methods assess different dimensions of an IS construct. To clarify the role of NeuroIS in IS research and its contribution to IS research, in this study, we examine whether NeuroIS and psychometrics/psychological methods constitute alternatives or complements. We conduct this examination in the context of technostress, an emerging IS phenomenon to which both methods are relevant. We use the triangulation approach to explore the relationship between physiological and psychological/self-reported data. Using this approach, we argue that both kinds of data tap into different aspects of technostress and that, together, they can yield a more complete or holistic understanding of the impact of technostress on a theoretically-related outcome, rendering them complements. Then, we test this proposition empirically by probing the correlation between a psychological and a physiological measure of technostress in combination with an examination of their incremental validity in explaining performance on a computer-based task. The results show that the physiological stress measure (salivary alpha-amylase) explains and predicts variance in performance on the computer-based task over and above the prediction afforded by the self-reported stress measure. We conclude that NeuroIS is a critical complement to IS research. © 2014, Association for Information Systems. All rights reserved.
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High work stress has been consistently associated with disturbed autonomic balance, specifically, lowered vagal cardiac control and increased sympathetic activity, which may lead to increased cardiovascular risk. Stress management procedures have been proposed to reduce autonomic dysfunctions related to work stress in different categories of workers exposed to heightened work demands, while a limited number of studies addressed this issue in managers. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) biofeedback (BF) intervention on psychological and physiological outcomes, in managers with high-level work responsibilities. Thirty-one managers leading outstanding private or public companies were randomly assigned to either a RSA-BF training (RSA-BF; N = 16) or a control group (N = 15). The RSA-BF training consisted of five weekly 45 min sessions, designed to increase RSA, whereas controls had to provide a daily stress diary once a week. After the training, managers in both groups reported reduced heart rate at rest, lower anxiety levels and improvement in health-related quality of life. More importantly, managers in the RSA-BF group showed increased vagal control (as indexed by increased RSA), decreased sympathetic arousal (as indexed by reduced skin conductance and systolic blood pressure) and lower emotional interferences, compared to managers in the control group. Results from this study showed that RSA-BF training was effective in improving cardiac autonomic balance at rest. Moreover, findings from this study underline the effectiveness of biofeedback in reducing psychophysiological negative outcomes associated with stress in managers.
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This authored volume presents the fundamentals of NeuroIS, which is an emerging subfield within the Information Systems discipline that makes use of neuroscience and neurophysiological tools and knowledge to better understand the development, use, and impact of information and communication technologies. This book is an initial guide to this new research domain. The target audience primarily comprises PhD students and researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students and practitioners.
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MoodLight is an interactive ambient lighting system that responds to biosensor input related to an individual's current level of arousal. Changes in levels of arousal correspond to fluctuations in the color of light provided by the system, altering the immediate environment in ways intimately related to the user's private internal state. We use this intervention to explore personal and social implications of the ambient display of biosensor data. This study provides greater understanding of the ways in which the representations of personal informatics, with a focus on ambient feedback, influence our perceptions of ourselves and those around us.
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In most biofeedback interfaces, the user learns his/her biometric reading, but does not need it to guide consequent motor control. Here we demonstrate a game that requires the user to actively adjust his/her play in response to his/her heartbeat. The game is based on Jenga, where players take turns removing a wooden block from a tower of blocks and putting it on the top without causing the tower to collapse. Heartbeat Jenga’s added biofeedback component changes the difficulty of the game based on real time monitoring of the player’s heart rate during the player’s turn. If heart rate increases (indicating that the player is not calm), the platform holding the blocks shakes and the room lights dim, making the game harder to play. Through such manipulation, the player actively prompts him/herself to calm down, while improving coordination.
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An increase in world population along with a significant aging portion is forcing rapid rises in healthcare costs. The healthcare system is going through a transformation in which continuous monitoring of inhabitants is possible even without hospitalization. The advancement of sensing technologies, embedded systems, wireless communication technologies, nano technologies, and miniaturization makes it possible to develop smart systems to monitor activities of human beings continuously. Wearable sensors detect abnormal and/or unforeseen situations by monitoring physiological parameters along with other symptoms. Therefore, necessary help can be provided in times of dire need. This paper reviews the latest reported systems on activity monitoring of humans based on wearable sensors and issues to be addressed to tackle the challenges.
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Detecting interpersonal and emotional aspects of behaviour is a growing area of research within HCI. However, this work primarily processes data from individuals, rather than drawing on the dynamics of an interaction between people. Literature in social psychology and neuroscience suggests that the synchronisation of peoples' biosignals, in particular skin conductance (EDA), can be indicative of complex interper-sonal aspects such as empathy. This paper reports on an exploratory , mixed methods study to test the potential of EDA synchronisation to indicate qualities of interpersonal interaction in real-world relationships and contexts. We show that EDA synchrony can indicate meaningful social aspects in everyday settings, linking it to the mutual emotional engagement of those interacting. This connects to earlier work on empathy in psychotherapy, and suggests new interpretations of EDA sychronisation in other social contexts. We then outline how these findings open opportunities for novel HCI and ubicomp applications, supporting training of social skills such as empathy for doctors, and more generally to explore shared experiences such as multiplayer games.
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People often engage in physical activity with others, yet wearable technologies like heart rate monitors typically focus on individual usage. In response, we discuss the potential of heart rate displays in a social context, by means of an augmented cycling helmet that displays heart rate data. We studied how pairs of cyclists engaged with this setup and found that access to another person's heart rate data can result in social interplay which in turn supports engagement with the exertion activity. Through our design process and study, we reveal key dimensions of designing for social uses of heart rate data and wearable displays: temporal and spatial accessibility of data, technology support for its interpretation, and influences on heart rate. We also articulate a set of insights for designers that aim to support social exertion activities with heart rate data. As such, our work expands our understanding of wearable technologies' unique interaction opportunities.
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THE ELECTRODERMAL SYSTEM Overview Electrodermal activity (EDA), formerly called the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), has been one of the most widely used response systems in the history of psychophysiology. Research involving EDA has been reported in practically all areas of psychology, psychiatry, and psychophysiology. EDA measures have been applied to a wide variety of topics ranging from basic research examining attention, information processing, and emotion, to more applied clinical research examining predictors and/or correlates of normal and abnormal behavior. The application of EDA measures to a wide variety of issues is due in large part to its low cost, relative ease of measurement and quantification, combined with its sensitivity to psychological states and processes. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a tutorial overview of EDA for interested students, researchers, and practitioners who are not specialists in this particular system. We begin with a historical description of different methods of measuring EDA, and then discuss the physical, inferential, psychological, and social aspects of EDA. Historical Background and Measurement of EDA Exosomatic method There are two fundamentally different methods of measuring EDA: (1) the “exosomatic method” which relies on the application of a small external electrical current across the skin and (2) the “endosomatic method” which measures internally generated electrical skin potentials without application of an external event. Both types of measure were first found to be sensitive to psychological changes in the later part of the nineteenth century. The effect of psychological variables on the exosomatic measure of human EDA was demonstrated in the laboratory of Jean Charcot, the French neurologist famous for his work on hysteria and hypnosis (for interesting details see Neumann & Blanton, 1970; Bloch, 1993). Vigouroux (1879, 1888), a collaborator of Charcot, measured tonic skin resistance levels as a clinical diagnostic sign in patients with hysteria by passing a small electrical current across two electrodes placed on the surface of the skin. He reported that the skin resistance level changed from side to side of the body with changes in the side of the hysterical anesthesia. In the same laboratory, Féré (1888) found that skin resistance would momentarily decrease in response to a variety of discrete sensory stimuli (visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, etc.).
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In the NeuroIS field, experimental software needs to simultaneously present experimental stimuli to participants while recording, analyzing, or displaying neurophysiological measures. For example, a researcher might record a user’s heart beat (neurophysiological measure) as the user interacts with an e-commerce website (stimulus) to track changes in user arousal or show a user’s changing arousal levels during an exciting game. In this paper, we identify requirements for a NeuroIS experimental platform that we call Brownie and present its architecture and functionality. We then evaluate Brownie via a literature review and a case study that demonstrates Brownie’s capability to meet the requirements in a complex research context. We also verify Brownie’s usability via a quantitative study with prospective experimenters who implemented a test experiment in Brownie and an alternative software. We summarize the salient features of Brownie as follows: 1) it integrates neurophysiological measurements, 2) it incorporates real-time processing of neurophysiological data, 3) it facilitates research on individual and group behavior in the lab, 4) it offers a large variety of options for presenting experimental stimuli, and 5) it is open source and easily extensible with open source libraries. In summary, we conclude that Brownie is innovative in its potential to reduce barriers for IS researchers by fostering replicability and research collaboration and to support NeuroIS and interdisciplinary research in cognate areas, such as management, economics, or human-computer interaction.
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There has been a market surge in both provision of and demand for fitness applications and sport wearables. These wearables often come equipped with highly sophisticated biometric data (e.g. heart rate) functionalities that make the capture and sharing of such biometric data increasingly common practice. A few research studies have considered the effect that sharing biometric data has on those individuals sharing this data. However, little is known regarding the social impact of sharing this data in real-time and online. In this study, we investigate whether there is value in sharing heart rate data within social applications and whether sharing this data influences the behavior of those seeing this data. We do so by conducting a study where the heart rate data of runners competing in a 5-km road race is shared in real-time with 140 online spectators. We collect rich quantitative data of user interaction though server logs, and a qualitative data set through interviews and online users' comments. We then compare and contrast the behavior of online spectators who are presented with heart rate data together with contextual data, and those who are only presented with contextual data, for example, location. We also examine whether this difference is dependent on the social relation between the athletes and the spectators. Results indicate that spectators who are presented with the runners' heart rate data support the athletes more and rate the presented system more positively. These effects are dependent on the social tie between the athletes and spectators. This is one of the first studies to carry out an empirical investigation in the wild on the effects of sharing heart rate data in an online social context. In this light, in addition to supporting earlier literature, the outcomes present new insights and research directions within the sporting context.
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We explore the use of haptic feedback to deliver supportive information during social interactions in realtime. In an exploratory user study, we investigated perceptual limitations of vibration patterns during a conversation between peers. The results from this study have then been used to develop a system for providing users with realtime information regarding the quality of their nonverbal behaviour while engaged in a public speech.
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Wearable posture measurement units are capable of enabling real-time performance evaluation and providing feedback to end users. This paper presents a wearable feedback prototype designed for freestyle swimming with focus on trunk rotation measurement. The system consists of a nine-degree-of-freedom inertial sensor, which is built in a central data collection and processing unit, and two vibration motors for delivering real-time feedback. Theses devices form a fundamental body area network (BAN). In the experiment setup, four recreational swimmers were asked to do two sets of 4 x 25m freestyle swimming without and with feedback provided respectively. Results showed that real-time biofeedback mechanism improves swimmers kinematic performance by an average of 4.5% reduction in session time. Swimmers can gradually adapt to feedback signals, and the biofeedback control system can be employed in swimmers daily training for fitness maintenance.
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Current 3D digital film gives us a more realistic sensation. However there is still some problem that keeps us away from immersing the horror contents. In order to find an effective way to amplify horror emotion to viewers, we propose cross modal display system to enhance horror emotion. As a first step, we developed a pseudo heart beat feedback system to give vibrotactile feedback. We made a locker-type 3d movie watching environment while generating heart beat-like vibration on the sole of the foot. We conducted the experiment to view the horror movie with the system. In this experiment, we gave two types of pseudo heart beat vibration. One is to raise heart beat vibration by referring a user’s heart rate real time. Other is to raise heart beat vibration in a stepwise manner up to predetermined heart rate value. We evaluated which method is effective to raise viewer’s real heartbeat.
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Many women experience difficulty expressing milk using a breast pump. A negative influence upon their success is stress, hampering the milk ejection reflex. We explore biofeedback to enhance relaxation during milk expression. We discuss context, the principles of biofeedback and the design of an experiential prototype. The effect of biofeedback on milk expression shows promising trends towards increased relaxation, shorter time to milk ejection, and more milk production. Themes that emerged are: control, distraction, endorsement, setting of milk expression session, and pragmatism.
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The use of representations of physiological parameters to an athlete and coach during training is becoming increasingly common. Their utility is enhanced when the appropriate data are captured and communicated in real time for the athlete to make training adjustments immediately. The aim of this work was to develop a biofeedback tool for ergometer rowing by creating a data acquisition system, data analysis and interpretation that could be conducted in real time and a feedback system with appropriate cues to the athlete. This 14-year study resulted in a set of measured parameters with inferred correlations between the directly measured parameters acquired during the activity and performance and injury outcome measures. These parameters were represented through a customisable visual display in real time during ergometer training. An athlete and coach open survey was conducted to assess the utility of the biofeedback tool. This survey found that all parties valued the feedback system since it provided a common language to identify body motion and performance parameters in a way that was accessible and meaningful to all parties as well as available during training and coaching. Athletes noted that it helped them to understand body segment motion and its relation to performance, and both coaches and medical staff valued this in enhancing performance and monitoring injury and injury prediction. There was also speculation that the system helps to underpin coaching practice and its translation to the team. The biofeedback tool has been adopted by the British elite rowing squad.
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Emotion regulation is a topic that has considerable impact in our everyday lives, among others emotional biases that affect our decision making. A serious game that was built in order to be able to train emotion regulation is presented and evaluated here. The evaluation consisted of a usability testing and then an experiment that targeted the difficulty of the game. The results suggested adequate usability and a difficulty that requires the player to engage in managing their emotion in order to have a winning strategy.
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Sensory impairments decrease quality of life and can slow or hinder rehabilitation. Small, computationally powerful electronics have enabled the recent development of wearable systems aimed to improve function for individuals with sensory impairments. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current haptic wearable research for clinical applications involving sensory impairments. We define haptic wearables as untethered, ungrounded body worn devices that interact with skin directly or through clothing and can be used in natural environments outside a laboratory. Results of this review are categorized by degree of sensory impairment. Total impairment, such as in an amputee, blind, or deaf individual, involves haptics acting as sensory replacement; partial impairment, as is common in rehabilitation, involves haptics as sensory augmentation; and no impairment involves haptics as trainer. This review found that wearable haptic devices improved function for a variety of clinical applications including: rehabilitation, prosthetics, vestibular loss, osteoarthritis, vision loss and hearing loss. Future haptic wearables development should focus on clinical needs, intuitive and multimodal haptic displays, low energy demands, and biomechanical compliance for long-term usage.
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High rates of stress-related problems in college students and low utilization of treatment options demonstrate the need for effective stress-reducing interventions that can be self-regulated. This study compared the effect of brief paced-breathing with biofeedback and exercise interventions on heart rate variability, state anxiety and affect. Students (n = 32) with high levels of perceived stress completed three 10-minute interventions on separate days: paced-breathing with biofeedback (Biofeedback), a self-paced walk (Exercise), and an attention control condition of quiet studying (Quiet Study). Anxiety and affect were measured before (Pre), immediately after (Post0) and 15-minutes after (Post15) the intervention. Heart rate variability was measured pre- and post-intervention using electrocardiogram. Biofeedback reduced anxiety more than the exercise condition (Pre to Post0: Biofeedback d = -0.48, Exercise d = -0.13). Secondly, Exercise temporarily increased energy (Pre to Post0: d = 0.67), whereas Biofeedback temporarily increased calmness (Pre to Post0: d = 0.51). All conditions significantly increased total heart rate variability (p < .05). Biofeedback and Exercise interventions improved emotional states in high-stress college students, but the type of change observed (i.e. energizing, calming or anxiety reducing) depended upon the condition.
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The genesis of the Neuro-Information Systems (NeuroIS) field took place in 2007. Since then, a considerable number of IS scholars and academics from related disciplines have started to use theories, methods, and tools from neuroscience and psychophysiology to better understand human cognition, emotion, and behavior in IS contexts, and to develop neuro-adaptive information systems (i.e., systems that recognize the physiological state of the user and that adapt, based on that information, in real-time). However, because the NeuroIS field is still in a nascent stage, IS scholars need to become familiar with the methods, tools, and measurements that are used in neuroscience and psychophysiology. Against the background of the increased importance of methodological discussions in the NeuroIS field, the Journal of the Association for Information Systems published a special issue call for papers entitled “Methods, tools, and measurement in NeuroIS research” in 2012. We, the special issue’s guest editors, accepted three papers after a stringent review process, which appear in this special issue. In addition to these three papers, we hope to intensify the discussion on NeuroIS research methodology, and to this end we present the current paper. Importantly, our observations during the review process (particularly with respect to methodology) and our own reading of the literature and the scientific discourse during conferences served as input for this paper. Specifically, we argue that six factors, among others that will become evident in future discussions, are critical for a rigorous NeuroIS research methodology; namely, reliability, validity, sensitivity, diagnosticity, objectivity, and intrusiveness of a measurement instrument. NeuroIS researchers—independent from whether their role is editor, reviewer, or author—should carefully give thought to these factors. We hope that the discussion in this paper instigates future contributions to a growing understanding towards a NeuroIS research methodology.
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Touch receptors in the skin can relay various forms of abstract information, such as words (Braille), haptic feedback (cell phones, game controllers, feedback for prosthetic control), and basic visual information such as edges and shape (sensory substitution devices). The skin can support such applications with ease: They are all low bandwidth and do not require a fine temporal acuity. But what of high-throughput applications? We use sound-to-touch conversion as a motivating example, though others abound (e.g., vision, stock market data). In the past, vibrotactile hearing aids have demonstrated improvement in speech perceptions in the deaf. However, a sound-to-touch sensory substitution device that works with high efficacy and without the aid of lipreading has yet to be developed. Is this because skin simply does not have the capacity to effectively relay high-throughput streams such as sound? Or is this because the spatial and temporal properties of skin have not been leveraged to full advantage? Here, we begin to address these questions with two experiments. First, we seek to determine the best method of relaying information through the skin using an identification task on the lower back. We find that vibrotactile patterns encoding information in both space and time yield the best overall information transfer estimate. Patterns encoded in space and time or "intensity" (the coupled coding of vibration frequency and force) both far exceed performance of only spatially encoded patterns. Next, we determine the vibrotactile two-tacton resolution on the lower back-the distance necessary for resolving two vibrotactile patterns. We find that our vibratory motors conservatively require at least 6 cm of separation to resolve two independent tactile patterns (>80 % correct), regardless of stimulus type (e.g., spatiotemporal "sweeps" versus single vibratory pulses). Six centimeter is a greater distance than the inter-motor distances used in Experiment 1 (2.5 cm), which explains the poor identification performance of spatially encoded patterns. Hence, when using an array of vibrational motors, spatiotemporal sweeps can overcome the limitations of vibrotactile two-tacton resolution. The results provide the first steps toward obtaining a realistic estimate of the skin's achievable throughput, illustrating the best ways to encode data to the skin (using as many dimensions as possible) and how far such interfaces would need to be separated if using multiple arrays in parallel.
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Human emotions' role in phenomena related to information systems ( IS) is increasingly of interest to research and practice, and is now informed by a burgeoning literature in neuroscience. This study develops a nomological network with an overarching view of relationships among emotions and other constructs of interest in IS research. The resulting 3-emotion systems' nomological network includes three interacting emotion systems: language, physiology, and behavior. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to test the nomological network, with six online travel service Web pages used as stimuli. The first study used paper-based self-report measures and qualitative comments, whereas the second included both self-reports and electroencephalography (EEG) measures. An outcome measure of e-loyalty was included in each study. The results of both studies showed positive and negative emotion-inducing stimuli were related to positive and negative emotions when viewing the Web sites as indicated by both self-reports and EEG data. In turn, positive and negative emotions as measured by both self-reports and EEG measures were linked to e-loyalty to some degree. This research is novel and significant because it is possibly the first in-depth study to link the study of emotions in IS with a sound theory base and multiple measurement approaches, including neuroscience measures. It shows that an EEG measure has some predictive power for an outcome such as e-loyalty. Implications of the research are that IS studies should distinguish between the different emotion systems of language and physiology, choose emotion measures carefully, and also recognize the intertwining of the emotion systems and cognitive processing.
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With the elderly population growing around the world, falls increase the risk progressively with age. Those falls can origin injuries that may cause a great dependence and debilitation to the elderly, and even death in extreme cases. This paper reviews the related literature about this topic and introduces a mobile solution for falls prevention, detection, and biofeedback monitoring. The falls prevention system uses collected data from sensors in order to control and advice the patient or even to give instructions to treat an abnormal condition to reduce the falls risk. In cases of prolonged symptoms it can even detect a possible disease. The signal processing algorithms play a key role in a fall prevention system. In real time, based on biofeedback data collection, these algorithms analyses bio-signals to thereby warn the user, when needed. Monitoring and processing data from sensors is performed by a smartphone that will issue warnings to the user and, in gravity situations, send them to a caretaker. The proposed solution for falls prevention and detection is evaluated and validated through a prototype and it is ready for use.
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Zone of Impulse is a fast-paced multiplayer action game, playable on mobile devices. By wearing sensors on the chest and palm the player's emotional state is integrated into gameplay. The processed physiological signals provide the basis for adaptation of several game elements. This creates a more personalized gaming experience and provides additional input modalities to an otherwise "casual" game.
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Heart rate variability biofeedback provides a new technique for the evaluation of autonomic nervous system status and the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This paper presents a mobile and real-time monitoring healthcare application of heart rate variability biofeedback, referred to as uCoherence. It consists of an automated approach to help people to voluntarily regular the autonomic system via breath control, finding the harmony point in autonomic nervous system and the best resonant frequency in cardiopulmonary system.
Conference Paper
Stress has a wide range of negative impacts on people, ranging from declines in real-time task performance to development of chronic health conditions. Despite the increasing availability of sensors and methods for detecting stress, little work has focused on automated stress interventions and their effect. We present MoodWings: a wearable butterfly that mirrors a user's real-time stress state through actuated wing motion. We designed MoodWings to function both as an early-stress-warning system as well as a physical interface through which users could manipulate their affective state. Accordingly, we hypothesized that MoodWings would help users both calm down and perform better during stressful tasks. We tested our hypotheses on a common stressful task: driving. While users drove significantly more safely with MoodWings, they experienced higher stress levels (physiologically and self-perceived). Despite this, users were enthusiastic about MoodWings, expressing several alternative contexts in which they would find it useful. We discuss these results and future design implications for building externalized manifestations of real-time affective state.
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New sensor technologies, especially for body related activities, offer new opportunities for play, sparking research into new styles of game interactions. However, how this new sensor data can be utilized for engaging play experiences is not yet fully understood. In order to explore this opportunity, we designed Duel Reality, a novel sword-fighting game offering new gameplay experiences through intentionally hiding real-time body data. In order to articulate the opportunities afforded by novel sensing technology around the body, we identify two key concepts around this topic based on our design knowledge and articulate four challenges when creating novel gameplay using these sensors. With our work, we aim to support game designers who are interested in facilitating novel play experiences through the use of emerging sensing technologies that are concerned with the players' bodies.