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The state of Mato Grosso is the 3 rd largest Brazilian state, is covered with three major Brazilian biomes, including the Pantanal, Cerrado, and Amazonia. To date, 449 ant species are recorded in literature for the state. In the present work, we documented the ants sampled along a fragmented landscape, in the municipality of Juara, in the Cerrado-Amazon transition zone in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The ant species were captured with Pitfall traps installed in 20 trails with 10 traps in each (totaling 200). Our results show 151 species, belonging to 43 genera and eight subfamilies, of which 28 species were recorded for the first time in the state and five species recorded for the first time in Brazil. Most genera collected were Pheidole Westwood, 1839 (45 species) followed by Crematogaster Lund, 1831 (11 species). By highlighting species recorded for the first time in state of Mato Grosso and Brazil, we hope to encourage new discoveries and increase the general knowledge of the ant fauna of different biomes in the region.
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Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from an
Amazonian fragmented landscape, Juara,
Mato Grosso, Brazil, with new records
ofant species
Ricardo Eduardo Vicente¹²⁶, Alexandre Casadei Ferreira³, Rogério Conceição Lima dos Santos⁴ & Lívia Pires do Prado⁵
¹ Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso (UNEMAT), Centro de Tecnologia na Amazônia (CETAM),
Laboratório de Biologia Vegetal. Alta Floresta, MT, Brasil.
² Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Instituto de Biociências (IB), Centro de Biodiversidade,
Laboratório de Ecologia de Comunidades. Cuiabá, MT, Brasil.
³ Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Departamento de Zoologia (DZOO), Laboratório de Sistemática e Biologia de Formigas (LSBF).
Curitiba, PR, Brasil. ORCID: 0000-0002-2977-8348. E-mail: alexandrefrreira@gmail.com
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Instituto de Biociências (IB), Centro de Biodiversidade, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia
e Conservação da Biodiversidade (PPG-ECB). Cuiabá, MT, Brasil. ORCID: 0000-0002-5772-8188. E-mail: roger.c.l.santos@gmail.com
Museu Paraense “Emílio Goeldi” (MPEG), Coordenação de Ciências da Terra e Ecologia (CCTE), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia
(PPGZOOL), Laboratório de Morfologia e Ecologia Funcional de Formigas. Belém, PA, Brasil. ORCID: 0000-0003-1819-8767.
E-mail: livia.pires7@gmail.com
ORCID: 0000-0003-2640-2537. E-mail: ricardomyrmex@gmail.com
Abstract. The state of Mato Grosso is the 3rd largest Brazilian state, is covered with three major Brazilian biomes, including
the Pantanal, Cerrado, and Amazonia. To date, 449 ant species are recorded in literature for the state. In the present work, we
documented the ants sampled along a fragmented landscape, in the municipality of Juara, in the Cerrado-Amazon transition
zone in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The ant species were captured with Pitfall traps installed in 20 trails with 10 traps in
each (totaling 200). Our results show 151 species, belonging to 43 genera and eight subfamilies, of which 28 species were
recorded for the first time in the state and five species recorded for the first time in Brazil. Most genera collected were Pheidole
Westwood, 1839 (45 species) followed by Crematogaster Lund, 1831 (11 species). By highlighting species recorded for the first
time in state of Mato Grosso and Brazil, we hope to encourage new discoveries and increase the general knowledge of the ant
fauna of different biomes in the region.
Key-Words. Distibution; Neotropical fauna; Pitfall trap; Sampling method; Species inventories.
INTRODUCTION
The state of Mato Grosso is the 3rd largest
Brazilian state (IBGE, 2017) and as well as the
Amazon and Cerrado, there is still the Pantanal
in its political-geographic limits (Silva etal., 2013;
Mateus etal., 2016; Vicente etal., 2016). In the re-
gion of Meridional Amazon present in the north
of the state of Mato Grosso, there is a great ex-
tension of Forest of transition between Amazonia
and Cerrado (Paolucci et al., 2016; Vicente et al.,
2016). The biodiversity of southern Amazonia is
sparsely known (Santos-Silva etal., 2016; Vicente
et al., 2016) especially in these transition areas
(Paolucci etal., 2016; Vicente etal., 2016).
In relation to regional ant fauna, 449 species
were recorded for the Mato Grosso state, belong-
ing to 78 genera and nine subfamilies (Janicki
etal., 2016). In recent years the number of inven-
tories published in the region has increased (e.g.,
Battirola et al., 2005; Rocha et al., 2015; Vicente
etal., 2016). This scenario has been reversed due
to Formicidae characteristics such as ease of sam-
pling because of its high abundance, species rich-
ness and relatively well-known taxonomy, biology
and ecology, added to the role of biodiversity in
ecosystem functioning making ants an attractive
group to evaluate and monitor environmental
attributes (Agosti et al., 2000; Ribas et al., 2012).
In addition, online tools are available for species
identification and distribution (e.g., Antweb.org,
AntMaps.org [Janicki et al., 2016], AntWiki and
others) increasing the number of taxonomists and
consolidating working groups.
Considering that strategies for the conserva-
tion and knowledge of Brazilian biodiversity are
based mainly in species richness, the role of spe-
cies lists is central for knowledge of the ant fauna
ISSN On-Line: 1807-0205
ISSN Printed: 0031-1049
ISNI: 0000-0004-0384-1825
Pap. Avulsos Zool., 2018; v.58: e20185840
http://doi.org/10.11606/1807-0205/2018.58.40
www.revistas.usp.br/paz
www.scielo.br/paz
(Ulysséa et al., 2011; Suguituru etal., 2013). For this rea-
son, and due to the vegetation formations of the region,
this work aimed to describe the richness and composi-
tion of the ant fauna between an Amazon-Cerrado eco-
tone landscape in the city of Juara, MT, Brazil. We intend
to present a list of the ant species of the region with new
records for the state of Mato Grosso and to Brazil.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Study area
Samples were carried out on four fragments in a
whole fragmented Amazon landscape immersed in a
pasture matrix on the banks of the Arinos river, munici-
pality of Juara, north of Mato Grosso state, Brazil (09°28’S,
55°50’W). Juara has an area of 22,622km² with 34.87% of
its original area deforested (INPE, 2015; IBGE, 2017). The
vegetation of the region is characterized by the transi-
tion of Cerrado-Amazon areas (Ávila & Kawashita-Ribeiro,
2011) and by secondary forests, with the presence of
rocky outcrops and agricultural activities. The sampling
protocol used in this study is the RAPELD methodology
(Costa & Magnusson, 2010). Each Module has sets of five
trails of 250m in length at a minimum distance of 1km
from each other, totaling twenty trails (Fig.1). Module4 is
the nearest to the urban center, about 8.5km in distance,
and Module2and3, the farthest, at about 29.5km.
Data sampling
The ant inventory was conducted in February 2015 in
four areas (denominated here as a module). In each mod-
ule we collected in five trails, with a distance of 1,000 me-
ters between them (Fig.1), totalizing 20 sample units. Of
these 20 trails, four were planted on the islands of the Rio
Arinos. In each trail, we used two sampling methods, the
first consisting of ten solo pitfall traps, distributed with a
distance of 15m between them. The traps remained for
72 consecutive hours in each sampling area.
In addition to pitfall traps, we use a second method,
attractive baits of sardine and honey. The baits placed on
20cm×10cm paper napkin 10 meters distance from each
other in an intercalated manner on the ground and veg-
etation. We randomized the first stratum to be sampled.
We put about 5g of sardines on the ground and in under-
story trees we put a teaspoon of bee’s honey. Therefore,
we had 20 sub-sample baits in each trail that remained
exposed for approximately one hour. Unfortunately, the
information on the type of bait and the stratum in which
it was placed was not recovered.
Ant identification
To identify subfamilies and genera of sampled ants
we used the dichotomous key available in Baccaro etal.
(2015). Thereafter, we used several taxonomic keys
(Brandão, 1990; Fernández, 2003; Longino, 2003; Wilson,
2003; Mackay & Mackay, 2010; Fernandes etal., 2014) to
identify to a specific level or to separate into morphos-
pecies. We also made comparisons with specimens de-
posited at the Entomological collections of the Museu
Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG) and Padre Jesus Santiago
Moure of the Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade
Federal do Paraná (DZUP) and consulted specialists to
confirm species identification (see Acknowledgements).
Repositories
The ant vouchers were deposited at the Laboratório
de Ecologia de Comunidades of the Centro de
Biodiversidade da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso
(UFMT), Entomological Collection of the Museu Paraense
Emílio Goeldi (MPEG) and Coleção Entomológica Padre
Jesus Santiago Moure of the Departamento de Zoologia
da Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP).
RESULTS
We recorded a total of 151 species and morphospe-
cies of ants belonging to 43 genera and eight subfam-
ilies (Table 1). The most specious genus was Pheidole
with 45 species (30% of Mirmicinae), of which 27 species
are unidentified. Other representative genera regarding
the number of species were Crematogaster with 11 spe-
cies and posteriorly Camponotus, Gnamptogenys, and
Figure1. Map indicating the Modules (M) where the samples were collected
in the municipality of Juara, north of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The four points
on the Arinos River represent samples taken on islands.
Vicente, R.E. etal.: Amazon ant-fauna from Juara, MT, BrazilPap. Avulsos Zool., 2018; v.58: e20185840
2/6
Subfamily/Species
Number of taxa and method of sample
DORYLINAE
1 genus and 2 species
Eciton
2 species
Eciton burchellii
(Westwood, 1842)
Pitfall
Eciton aff. burchellii
Pitfall
DOLICHODERINAE
4 genera and 8 species
Dolichoderus
4 species
Dolichoderus attelaboides
(Fabricius, 1775)
Pitfall and bait
Dolichoderus bidens
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Pitfall
Dolichoderus bispinosus (Olivier, 1792)
Pitfall
Dolichoderus imitator
Emery, 1894
Pitfall
Dorymyrmex
1 species
Dorymyrmex insanus (Buckley, 1866)
Pitfall and bait
Linepithema
2 species
Linepithema cerradense Wild, 2007*
Pitfall and bait
Linepithema neotropicum
Wild, 2007
Bait
Tapinoma
1 species
Tapinoma ramulorum Emery, 1896
Bait
ECTATOMMINAE
2 genera and 12 species
Ectatomma
4 species
Ectatomma brunneum
Smith, 1858
Pitfall
Ectatomma lugens
Emery, 1894
Pitfall
Ectatomma muticum Mayr, 1870*
Pitfall and bait
Ectatomma tuberculatum
(Olivier, 1792)
Pitfall and bait
Gnamptogenys
8 species
Gnamptogenys acuminata
(Emery, 1896)
Pitfall
Gnamptogenys concinna
(Smith, 1858)
Pitfall
Gnamptogenys horni (Santschi, 1929)
Pitfall
Gnamptogenys mina
(Brown, 1956)*
Pitfall
Gnamptogenys moelleri
(Forel, 1912)
Pitfall and bait
Gnamptogenys relicta
(Mann, 1916)
Pitfall
Gnamptogenys vriesi
Brandão & Lattke, 1990
Pitfall
Gnamptogenys aff. lanei
Pitfall
FORMICINAE
4 genera and 19 species
Brachymyrmex
2 species
Brachymyrmexsp.1
Pitfall and bait
Brachymyrmex
sp.2
Bait
Camponotus
8 species
Camponotus atriceps
(Smith, 1858)
Pitfall
Camponotus femoratus
(Fabricius, 1804)
Pitfall and bait
Camponotus leydigi Forel, 1886
Pitfall and bait
Camponotus novogranadensis
Mayr, 1870
Pitfall and bait
Camponotus planatus Roger, 1863
Pitfall and bait
Camponotus substitutus
Emery, 1894
Pitfall and bait
Camponotus
sp.1
Pitfall
Camponotussp.2
Pitfall
Gigantiops
1 species
Gigantiops destructor
(Fabricius, 1804)
Pitfall
Nylanderia
8 species
Nylanderia fulva
(Mayr, 1862)
Pitfall and bait
Nylanderia steinheili (Forel, 1893)
Pitfall and bait
Nylanderia
aff. caeciliae
Pitfall
Nylanderia
sp.1
Bait
Nylanderia
sp.2
Pitfall and bait
Nylanderia
sp.3
Pitfall
Nylanderiasp.6
Pitfall
Nylanderia
sp.7
Pitfall and bait
MYRMICINAE
21 genera and 90 species
Acromyrmex
1 species
Acromyrmex
sp.1
Pitfall
Subfamily/Species
Number of taxa and method of sample
Apterostigma
3 species
Apterostigma megacephala
Lattke, 1999
Pitfall
Apterostigma urichii
Forel, 1893
Pitfall
Apterostigmasp.2
Pitfall and bait
Atta
2 species
Atta sexdens
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Pitfall
Atta
aff. bisphaerica
Pitfall and bait
Blepharidatta
1 species
Blepharidatta brasiliensis Wheeler, 1915
Pitfall and bait
Cardiocondyla
1 species
Cardiocondyla obscurior
Wheeler, 1929
Pitfall
Carebara
1 species
Carebara brevipilosa
Fernández, 2004
Pitfall
Cephalotes
1 species
Cephalotes atratus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Pitfall and bait
Crematogaster
11 species
Crematogaster brasiliensis Mayr, 1878
Pitfall and bait
Crematogaster carinata
Mayr, 1862
Pitfall and bait
Crematogaster erecta Mayr, 1866
Pitfall and bait
Crematogaster evallans
Forel, 1907*
Pitfall
Crematogaster flavosensitiva
Longino, 2003*
Pitfall
Crematogaster levior Longino, 2003
Pitfall and bait
Crematogaster limata
Smith, 1858
Pitfall and bait
Crematogaster nigropilosa
Mayr, 1870
Pitfall and bait
Crematogaster sotobosque
Longino, 2003*
Bait
Crematogaster tenuicula
Forel, 1904
Pitfall and bait
Crematogastersp.1
Pitfall
Cyphomyrmex
4 species
Cyphomyrmex laevigatus
Weber, 1938
Pitfall and bait
Cyphomyrmex vorticis
Weber, 1940*
Pitfall
Cyphomyrmex
aff. minutus
Pitfall
Cyphomyrmex aff. rimosus
Pitfall
Megalomyrmex
1 species
Megalomyrmex
sp.1
Pitfall and bait
Mycetophylax
1 species
Mycetophylax
sp.1
Pitfall and bait
Mycocepurus
1 species
Mycocepurus smithii
(Forel, 1893)
Pitfall
Nesomyrmex
1 species
Nesomyrmexsp.1
Pitfall
Ochetomyrmex
1 species
Ochetomyrmex neopolitus Fernández, 2003
Pitfall and bait
Octostruma
1 species
Octostruma balzani
(Emery, 1894)
Pitfall
Pheidole
45 species
Pheidole biconstricta
Mayr, 1870
Pitfall and bait
Pheidole bufo
Wilson, 2003
Pitfall and bait
Pheidole cataractae
Wheeler, 1916*
Pitfall and bait
Pheidole coffeicola
Borgmeier, 1934*
Pitfall
Pheidole deima Wilson, 2003*
Pitfall
Pheidole germaini
Emery, 1896
Bait
Pheidole leonina
Wilson, 2003*
Pitfall
Pheidole lovejoyi
Wilson, 2003*
Pitfall
Pheidole microps
Wilson, 2003**
Pitfall
Pheidole oxyops Forel, 1908
Pitfall
Pheidole paraensis
Wilson, 2003*
Pitfall
Pheidole scolioceps
Wilson, 2003*
Bait
Pheidole sculptior Forel, 1893**
Bait
Pheidole sensitiva
Borgmeier, 1959*
Pitfall and bait
Table1. List of ant species recorded at an Amazonian fragmented landscape, municipality of Juara, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Twenty four ants species were sampled
for the first time in Mato Grosso state* and four ant species sampled for the first time in Brazil**.
Vicente, R.E. etal.: Amazon ant-fauna from Juara, MT, Brazil Pap. Avulsos Zool., 2018; v.58: e20185840
3/6
Nylanderia with eight species each. In contrast, 51% of
the genera sampled were represented by only one spe-
cies.
Of these 151 sampled ant species, 23 species were
collected for the first time in Mato Grosso state. Of these
23 species, three species were sampled for the first time
in Brazil (Table1). The subfamily with the largest number
of species sampled for the first time in the locality was
Myrmicinae, with 17 new records, 12 of which were only
of the Pheidole genus. In relation to sampling methods,
of these 151 ant species, 83 species were sampled exclu-
sively in pitfall (55%), twelve species using baits (8%) and
56 with both methods (37%). As regards the 28 species
that are new records, 16 species were sampled exclusive-
ly with pitfall and four only in baits and eight ant species
in both methods.
DISCUSSION
Our results expand the current knowledge about ant
species in the state of Mato Grosso, focusing in the re-
gion of Juara – in the Cerrado-Amazon transition zone. In
the Neotropics, the ecotonal zones are present in many
landscapes and can influence in different ways, such as
faunal movement, flow of energy and nutrients, popula-
tion dynamics, species interactions and changes in veg-
etation structure (Spector & Ayzama, 2003). In addition,
the areas of transition in terrestrial ecosystems can pres-
ent high species diversity and may be revealing indica-
tors of the consequences of global climate changes (Zhu
etal., 2011, Malanson etal., 2017).
Despite the importance of these areas for biodiversity
little is known about the ant fauna in these formations
Subfamily/Species
Number of taxa and method of sample
Pheidole strigosa
Wilson, 2003*
Pitfall
Pheidole triconstricta
Forel, 1886
Pitfall and bait
Pheidole vallifica
Forel, 1901*
Pitfall
Pheidole vorax
(Fabricius, 1804)
Pitfall
Pheidolesp.1
Pitfall and bait
Pheidole
sp.2
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.3
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.4
Pitfall and bait
Pheidole
sp.5
Bait
Pheidole
sp.6
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.7
Pitfall
Pheidolesp.8
Bait
Pheidole
sp.9
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.10
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.11
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.12
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.13
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.14
Pitfall
Pheidolesp.15
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.16
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.17
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.18
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.19
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.20
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.21
Pitfall
Pheidolesp.22
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.23
Bait
Pheidole
sp.24
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.25
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.26
Pitfall
Pheidole
sp.27
Bait
Sericomyrmex
2 species
Sericomyrmex saussurei Emery, 1894
Pitfall and bait
Sericomyrmex
sp.3
Pitfall and bait
Solenopsis
5 species
Solenopsis invicta
Buren, 1972
Pitfall and bait
Solenopsis
sp.1
Pitfall and bait
Solenopsis
sp.2
Pitfall
Solenopsis
sp.4
Pitfall and bait
Solenopsissp.7
Pitfall
Strumigenys
2 species
Strumigenys denticulata
Mayr, 1887
Pitfall
Subfamily/Species
Number of taxa and method of sample
Strumigenys zeteki
(Brown, 1959)*
Pitfall
Trachymyrmex
4 species
Trachymyrmex
sp.1
Pitfall and bait
Trachymyrmex
sp.3
Pitfall
Trachymyrmexsp.4
Pitfall
Trachymyrmex
sp.5
Pitfall
Wasmannia
1 species
Wasmannia auropunctata
(Roger, 1863)
Pitfall and bait
PARAPONERINAE
1 genus and 1 species
Paraponera
1 species
Paraponera clavata
(Fabricius, 1775)
Pitfall and bait
PONERINAE
9 genera and 16 species
Anochetus
1 species
Anochetus targionii
Emery, 1894
Pitfall
Dinoponera
1 species
Dinoponera mutica
Emery, 1901
Pitfall
Hypoponera
1 species
Hypoponera
sp.3
Pitfall
Leptogenys
1 species
Leptogenys
aff. gaigei
Pitfall
Mayaponera
1 species
Mayaponera constricta
(Mayr, 1884)
Pitfall and bait
Neoponera
5 species
Neoponera apicalis
(Latreille, 1802)
Pitfall and bait
Neoponera magnifica
(Borgmeier, 1929)*
Pitfall
Neoponera verenae Forel, 1922
Pitfall
Neoponera villosa
(Fabricius, 1804)
Pitfall and bait
Neoponera commutata
(Roger, 1860)
Pitfall and bait
Odontomachus
3 species
Odontomachus chelifer
(Latreille, 1802)
Pitfall
Odontomachus haematodus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Pitfall and bait
Odontomachus meinerti
Forel, 1905
Pitfall
Pachycondyla
2 species
Pachycondyla crassinoda
(Latreille, 1802)
Pitfall and bait
Pachycondyla harpax
(Fabricius, 1804)
Pitfall and bait
Simopelta
1 species
Simopelta jeckylli
(Mann, 1916)
Pitfall
PSEUDOMYRMEX
1 genera and 3 species
Pseudomyrmex
3 species
Pseudomyrmex gracilis (Fabricius, 1804)
Pitfall and bait
Pseudomyrmex peruvianus
(Wheeler, 1925)**
Pitfall and bait
Pseudomyrmex tenuis
(Fabricius, 1804)
Pitfall and bait
Vicente, R.E. etal.: Amazon ant-fauna from Juara, MT, BrazilPap. Avulsos Zool., 2018; v.58: e20185840
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since 23 species of one inventory in an ecotone area are
recorded for the first time in Mato Grosso. This number is
very representative considering that it represents 15% of
the sampled ant species. Including these species, three
species had not been sampled so far in Brazil, which were
Pheidole microps Wilson, 2003, Pheidole sculptior Forel,
1893 and Pseudomyrmex peruvianus (Wheeler, 1925).
Among these species that were sampled for the first time
in the State of Mato Grosso, 12 species were of the genus
Pheidole (41.4%). This genus represents the second larg-
est among ants, with 1.004 known species (Bolton, 2018)
(7% of all Formicidae diversity) and the largest for the
Neotropical region with over 600 species (AntWiki, 2018),
which represents more than 14% of all known species for
the same region. No other biogeographical region has
such Pheidole species, apart from the Afrotropical and
Indo-Autralian regions which have just over 150 species
(AntWiki, 2018). Due to this large number of species, it is
expected that most of the work involving fauna inven-
tory lacks identifications for this genus. This results in a
disjunctive distribution of Pheidole species, mainly in the
southern Neotropical and consequently presenting an
impressive amount of new records (12 only for the pres-
ent paper). In addition to the richness, Pheidole lacks an
efficient method of identification, since the most recent
dichotomous key (Wilson, 2003) was designed only for
major workers, who are relatively little sampled in pas-
sive methods (pitfall and Winkler) and the correct associ-
ation with the minor workers is extremely difficult.
At the same time, the genus has an interactive key
developed on the Lucid platform by Pheidole Working
group and was updated by Longino (2009). However, this
key is not appropriate for finding an exact identification
but is restricted to a list of names that needs to be con-
sulted in the descriptions and images available. The lack
of studies involving the Pheidole taxonomy for the New
World has been added to these problems, with the most
recent and comprehensive publications being those of
Wilson (2003) for the New World, Longino (2009) focused
on Central America, and a few new species described
posteriorly (e.g., Pheidole protaxi Oliveira & Lacau, 2015 in
Oliveira etal., 2015). The necessity of studies focused on
Pheidole for these regions has already been pointed out
by Longino (2009) and is one of the limits reguarding our
knowledge for the genus.
Nevertheless, although not being a new record for
Mato Grosso state, some species sampled are rarely col-
lected, with several gaps in the distribution. Dorymyrmex
insanus (Buckley, 1866) has records from the northern
United States (Wheeler & Wheeler, 1988) to Paraguay
(Brandão, 1991; Fernández & Sendoya, 2004) with several
gaps in the Neotropic. However, its real distribution is un-
known, since the last revisions of Dorymyrmex are secto-
ralized and almost absent with focus on Neotropical spe-
cies (Johnson, 1989; Snelling, 1995; Cuezzo & Guerrero,
2011). For this reason, a complete review of the group
focusing on tropical species is necessary and can greatly
clarify and broaden the distribution of many species.
Of the 151 species sampled, 83 species were sam-
pled exclusively in pitfall (54.97%), 12 species using baits
(7.95%) and 56 with both methods (37.09%). Although
bait is an attractive method, pitfall sampled more species.
Ryder-Wilkie etal. (2010) also found this pattern compar-
ing several methods of collecting ants in the Peruvian
Amazon. This pattern can be explained by some factors.
First, the attractive baits remain in the field for one hour
and then the attracted ants are collected, while the pit-
fall, although not attracting, intercepts the ants that are
foraging on the ground. In addition, ants are known for
their aggressiveness and territoriality (Hölldobler, 1979;
Vicente etal., 2014; Dejean etal., 2015), and by coloniz-
ing a resource, prevent other ants from accessing it by
controlling the diversity of species in the bait while in the
pitfall there is no such intervention of dominant species.
In summary, our work lists the ant diversity in a poor-
ly known Meridional Amazon region, contributing to the
knowledge of the Amazonia-Cerrado transition biomes.
This work extends the distribution of 23 species for Mato
Grosso state. Nevertheless, more intensive sampling at
diverse locations in the region using different methods
of sampling is necessary to get a more comprehensive
idea about ant fauna.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank the researchers Lorhaine Santos-Silva for as-
sistance in the laboratory and Gabriela Camacho [DZUP],
Mayron Escárraga [DZUP], Rodrigo Feitosa [DZUP],
Thiago Sanches Ranzani da Silva [DZUP], Lina Hernández
[IAVH], Emília Z. Albuquerque [MPEG] and Rony Peterson
Almeida [MPEG] for their help with the identification/
confirmation of the ant species. REV thanks Fundação de
Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Mato Grosso, Conselho
Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico
(FAPEMAT/CNPq № 003/2016 – DCR), Museu Paraense
Emilio Goeldi and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia,
Inovações e Comunicações (PCI–MPEG/MCTIC
№301081/2017-4) for your research fellowship. LPP was
financed by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de
Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code
001 and by Programa de Capacitação Institucional do
CNPq (MPEG/MCTI, CNPq/PCI-DC 313168/2016-4). ACF
was financed by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento
Científico e Tecnológico [CNPq 140260/2016-1]
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Edited by: Helena Carolina Onodi • Received: 09/03/2018 • Accepted: 30/08/2018 • Published: 02/10/2018
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Documentation is developed for Conomyrma insana (Buckley) and C. flava (McCook) as valid names for two abundant species of ants in the United States. Taxonomic history, synonymies, diagnostic criteria, distribution and natural history for both species are reviewed. The intraspecific variability, particularly important for C. flava, is summarized. Neotype and lectotype specimens are designated for C. insana and C. flava respectively, and a key provided for all known Conomyrma species in the United States.
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Density-dependent dynamics have considerable effects in many ecological processes and patterns that characterize natural populations. In the present study, we aim at evaluating the effect of density on the diet width and between-individual variability in nine different pike cichlid Crenicichla lepidota populations dwelling in floodplain lagoons. Our results indicated that low-density populations exhibit small diet breadth as well as small between-individual variability in their diet. In addition, these populations were characterized by a nested diet pattern, where the diet of specialist individuals represented a subset of the food items consumed by generalist individuals. Populations with intermediate densities had a larger populational diet breadth while the individual diet breadth remained unchanged. This pattern was due to an increase in between-individual variability in diet, which consequently decreases the diet overlap among individuals and thus lower diet nestedness. Finally, under high densities, the niche width at the population level decreased because of lower between-individual variability and higher diet overlap. Together, these results showed that niche width exhibits a non-linear function with density. At first, an increase in density increased the niche width because of greater between-individual diet variability. However, after a threshold density value, the effect was reversed, and the niche width decreased because of a higher diet overlap among individuals.