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Effect of rotation speed on mechanical properties and microstructure of friction stir spot welding (FSSW) Al 5052 - Steel SS400

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Abstract

In this study, the effect of welding parameter such as rotational speed on the mechanical properties and microstructure of friction stir spot welded Al 5052 and SS400 sheet have been investigated. The rotation speed of 1250, 1600, 2000 rpm and the dwell time of 10, were applied to fabricate the friction stir spot welded joint. The microstructure of the joint was observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tensile shear load was measured using by universal testing machine. Base on the microstructure observation showed that the thickness of IMC increases due to the increase of rotational speed. The Maximum thickness of IMCs reached 7.15 µm at 2000 rpm. The result of the tensile shear test showed that the rotational speed is affecting the mechanical properties. The increase of tool rotation speed from 1250 up to 1600 rpm caused the increase of tensile shear load, however further increase up to at 2000 rpm resulted in the decrease of the shear tensile load. The highest shear tensile load reaches 2810.07 N at 1600 rpm.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering
PAPER • OPEN ACCESS
Effect of rotation speed on mechanical properties and microstructure of
friction stir spot welding (FSSW) Al 5052 - Steel SS400
To cite this article: Setiyo Rojikin et al 2018 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 420 012023
View the article online for updates and enhancements.
This content was downloaded from IP address 191.96.87.67 on 01/10/2018 at 20:48
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2nd Nommensen International Conference on Technology and Engineering IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 420 (2018) 012023 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/420/1/012023
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IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 420 (2018) 012023 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/420/1/012023
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2nd Nommensen International Conference on Technology and Engineering IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 420 (2018) 012023 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/420/1/012023
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2nd Nommensen International Conference on Technology and Engineering IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 420 (2018) 012023 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/420/1/012023
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2nd Nommensen International Conference on Technology and Engineering IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 420 (2018) 012023 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/420/1/012023
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2nd Nommensen International Conference on Technology and Engineering IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 420 (2018) 012023 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/420/1/012023
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2nd Nommensen International Conference on Technology and Engineering IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 420 (2018) 012023 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/420/1/012023
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... When the rotation speed is 2500 r·min −1 , the surface finish is poorer than that at 700 r·min −1 , and the amount of flash increases because more metal is squeezed out. The fracture of the joint is considered mode II, which is similar to table 4 under AC and FAC [33]. Figure 12 shows the SEM morphology at 2500 r·min −1 under WC. ...
Article
Full-text available
Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a clean, environmentally-friendly and cost-effective welding technology. To weld joints with improved mechanical properties, an FSSW experiment with a 2 mm-thick 2524 aluminum alloy sheet was performed to explore the influence of ambient cooling (AC), forced air cooling (FAC), waterflow cooling (WC), and an increasing rotational speed under WC, and to evaluate the welding method with regard to the resulting structural and tensile properties of the joint. The results showed that cooling-assisted welding reduced the width of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and marginally increased the microhardness of the welding nugget zone (WNZ). The maximum tensile shear load (L) and effective width (W) values were 4673 N and 1958 μm at FAC, respectively, which were higher than the values of 4296 N and 1763 μm found with AC, respectively; in addition, the minimum values were 2946 N and 948 μm with WC, respectively. These results are not consistent with the idea that the joint strength can typically be improved with WC, because water absorbs a large amount of welding heat and reduces the plastic deformation capacity of the structure, thereby decreasing the W and L of the joint. Increasing the rotation speed of the welding tool can increase the heat input, which requires increasing the rotation speed along with WC. L and W reach their maximum values of 7652 N and 3320 μm, respectively, at 2500 r·min⁻¹. As the rotation speed increases, L and W decrease. All joints underwent ductile fracturing, and the dispersion distribution of the second-phase particles at the bottom of the dimple exhibited good performance.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study was executed to evaluate how the process parameters, namely rotational speed, feed rate, plunge depth and dwell time, affect the mechanical performances of friction stir spot welded (FSSWed) AA6082-T6 sheets. The mechanical performances of the joints were evaluated using tensile shear tests and correlations between process parameters and joint performances were established. The optimum welding parameters for tensile shear load (7.89 kN) were obtained as tool rotational speed of 1000 rpm, feed rate of 50 mm/min, plunge depth of 5 mm and dwell time of 7 s. The experimental results showed that tensile shear load increased almost linearly with increasing plunge depth and dwell time, and the tensile shear load decreased almost linearly with increasing rotational speed and feed rate. The most effective parameter was found as dwell time. The tensile shear load of the FSSWed joints increased roughly 44% when the dwell time increased from 2 s to 7 s.
Article
Full-text available
Friction stir welding (FSW) has produced a great impact in several industries due to the advantages that this process presents. In particular, the automotive industry has developed a variant of the original process, called Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW), which has a strong interest related to the welding of aluminum alloys and dissimilar materials in thin sheets. Aluminum-steel welding is an actual challenge, being FSSW an alternative to produce these joints. However, the information available related to the influence of process parameters on the characteristics of aluminum-steel joints is scarce. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the pin length of the welding tool and its penetration depth, during friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of overlaps joints of AA6063 with galvanized low carbon steel. FSSW was done by changing the pins length between 0.65 and 1.5 mm, and also by modifying the tool penetration depth in the welded joints. On the welded spots macro and microstructural characterization was performed, Vickers microhardness profiles were determined and Peel and Cross Tension Tests were also done. The maximum loads increased when the tool penetration depth goes up and the pin length decreased. The fracture mode was, at first, interfacial meanwhile it changed to a circumferential mode when the tool penetration depth increased and the pins length was reduced.
Article
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The effect of the rotational speed and dwell time on the joint interface microstructure and tensile-shear strength of friction stir spot welded Al-5083 aluminum/St-12 steel alloy sheets was investigated. Joining of the sheets was performed using an alternative friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process in which the welding tool tip did not penetrate into the lower steel sheet. Rotational speeds of 900 and 1100 rpm were applied in association with the dwell times of 5 to 15 s to weld the samples. Thermal history was recorded during the joining process. Interfacial microstructure, formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the joint interface and the fracture locations were studied using stereo, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The used alternative process was successful to join the sheets. For both of the applied rotational speeds, there were optimum dwell times (10 and 12 s for the rotational speeds of 1100 and 900 rpm, respectively) to reach the maximum failure loads. The increasing trend of the strength as a function of the dwell time was related to the formation of a thin intermetallic (IM) layer at the joint interface. The decreasing trend was attributed to the formation of a relatively thick IM layer at the joint interface as well as the grain growth of aluminum at the exit-hole periphery where the final fracture occurred. The IM reaction layer thickness of 2.3 μm was found to be a critical thickness. Compared to the rotational speed of 1100 rpm, stronger joints were achieved by application of 900 rpm rotational speed.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of tool geometry and properties on friction stir spot welding properties of polypropylene sheets were studied. Four different tool pin geometries, with varying pin angles, pin lengths, shoulder diameters and shoulder angles were used for friction stir spot welding. All the welding operations were done at the room temperature. Lap-shear tensile tests were carried out to find the weld static strength. Weld cross section appearance observations were also done. From the experiments the effect of tool geometry on friction stir spot weld formation and weld strength were determined. The optimum tool geometry for 4 mm thick polypropylene sheets were determined. The tapered cylindrical pin gave the biggest and the straight cylindrical pin gave the lowest lap-shear fracture load.
Article
With the addition of a thin Zn interlayer, 2.4 mm thick Mg-3Al-1Zn alloy sheets were friction stir spot welded (FSSW) using a pinless tool with flat, convex and concave shoulder shapes. The results showed that an alloying reaction took place between the Mg substrate and Zn interlayer during FSSW, forming a discontinuous intermetallics layer composed of dispersive (α-Mg + MgZn) eutectic structure underneath the shoulder and a Mg-Zn intermetallics bonding zone at the outside of the joints. This alloying reaction increased the bonded area and eliminated the hook defects, thereby producing sound FSSW joints with a shallow keyhole without hook defects. The increase of plunge depth was beneficial to the Mg-Zn diffusion, thereby increasing the tensile-shear load of the joints. However, excessive plunge depths resulted in a decrease of the effective sheet thickness, reducing the strength of the joints. At a small plunge depth, the convex and concave shoulders were more beneficial to the interface reaction than the flat shoulder. The maximum joint load of 6.6 kN was achieved by using the concave shoulder at a plunge depth of 1.0 mm. A post-welding heat treatment promoted the dissolution of the discontinuous reaction layer in the joints; however, it led to the occurrence of void defects, influencing the bonding strength.
Article
The flow behavior and strength of joints created using three stirring tools, with right-handed threads at different locations on their cylindrical pins, were investigated. The threading locations on the tools significantly influenced the evolution of the stir zone in the welds and caused material intermixture in various degrees at varying plunging depths. Failure joints were observed in the welds without tool rotation. Force measurements indicated that the highest torque was found in the welds at 900 rpm. Not much difference was observed in the axial force variation between the welds. The peak temperature was obtained at the measured point nearest to the tool shoulder. The maximum joint strength of over 6.5 kN was obtained in the 900 rpm weld with a 9 s dwell time.
Chapter
For any manufacturing process, understanding its fundamental process mechanisms is vital for its long-term growth. In this chapter, we will outline the essential characteristics of friction stir process. As pointed out in Chap. 1, unlike fusion-based joining processes, there is no perceptible melting during friction stir welding (FSW). From the operational viewpoint, a friction stir welding run can be divided into three sub-procedures or phases:
Article
Hook defect (HD) seriously decreases the mechanical properties of friction stir spot welded (FSSW) joints. In this study, two methods were therefore used to eliminate the HD in pinless FSSW joints. The one is changing welding parameters such as rotating speed and dwell time. The other one is FSSW plus subsequent friction stir welding (FSSW-FSW), which is an innovative method proposed in this study. Experimental results showed that the HD in pinless FSSWed AA2024 joints was successfully eliminated by using FSSW-FSW, not by changing process parameters. The joints without HD exhibited a tensile–shear load of as much as 12 kN, which was higher than that of 6.9 kN in the joints with HD. Furthermore, it was proved that the tensile–shear load is not greatly improved only by increasing the nugget zone when HD still existed in the FSSW joints. In addition, the fracture morphology analysis demonstrated that the shear fracture of the FSSW-FSW joints took place along the boundary between the upper and lower sheets through the weld nugget, and the faying surface between the two sheets was completely sheared off.
Article
Mechanical properties and material mixing patterns of friction stir spot welded (FSSW) joints of dissimilar aluminum alloys were investigated. Two aluminum alloys typically used in automotive applications, 5052-H32 and 6061-T6, were selected. During the experiment, the process parameters including the z-axis force and torque histories were measured as a function of the tool displacement. The mechanical properties were investigated by microhardness measurements of the joint, and the material mixing in the stir zone was investigated by EPMA. The experimental results illustrate different process parameter histories, material mixing in the stir zone and material properties including microhardness distributions for FSSW joints of dissimilar aluminum alloys, likely due to different mechanical behaviors of the selected aluminum alloys in the FSSW process temperature range.