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Abstract

Gobiid fishes are one of the dominant and cryptic taxa in tropical coral reefs. Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India consist of fringing and barrier reefs which harbour huge fish diversity. Due to morphological ambiguity and cryptic life styles, identification and delimitation of gobiids is difficult. In the present study, we report the occurrence of Amblygobius phalaena (Valenciennes, 1837) for the first time in the Indian waters using morphology and DNA barcoding approach. A. phalaena from Indian waters showed divergence values within the range of 0.00 to 0.047 with the reported conspecific individuals.
116
Indian J. Fish., 65(3): 116-121, 2018
DOI: 10.21077/ijf.2018.65.3.75145-16
Note
First record of whitebarred goby Amblygobius phalaena (Valenciennes,
1837) from Indian waters
N. DANIEL1, A. PAVAN-KUMAR1, KIRUBA-SANKAR2, PRAVEENRAJA2, A. KATHIRVEL
PANDIAN33, S. DAM ROY2 AND A. CHAUDHARI1
1ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Yari road, Versova, Mumbai - 400 061, Maharashtra, India
2ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair - 744 101, Andaman and Nicobari Island, India
3Peninsular and Marine Fish Genetic Resources Centre of ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources,
Kochi - 682 018, Kerala, India
e-mail: pavanannam@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Gobiid shes are one of the dominant and cryptic taxa in tropical coral reefs. Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India consist
of fringing and barrier reefs which harbour huge sh diversity. Due to morphological ambiguity and cryptic life styles,
identication and delimitation of gobiids is dicult. In the present study, we report the occurrence of Amblygobius phalaena
(Valenciennes, 1837) for the rst time in the Indian waters using morphology and DNA barcoding approach. A. phalaena
from Indian waters showed divergence values within the range of 0.00 to 0.047 with the reported conspecic individuals.
Keywords: Amblygobius phalaena, Coral reefs, DNA barcoding, Gobiids, India
Whitebarred goby Amblygobius phalaena
(Valenciennes, 1837) (Order: Perciformes; Family:
Gobiidae) is a marine, reef associated sh which inhabits
sand burrows. It is a commercially important aquarium
sh and has signicant role in ecology (Myers, 1991).
This species is distributed across Indo-Pacic region
and is native of South Africa, Australia, Japan, Thailand,
Malaysia and Indonesia (Myers, 1999). Valid synonymised
names for this species are Gobius annulatus De Vis, 1884
and G. phalaena Valenciennes, 1837. Due to the cryptic
morphological characteristics, A. phalaena has been
erroneously synonymised as Amblygobius albimaculatus
(Ruppell, 1830) ( Bauchot et al., 1991). The coral reefs
of India are rich with diverse nsh and shellsh species.
However, due to the morphological ambiguity among
sh species, the ichthyofauna of coral reefs has not been
completely documented. In the present paper, we report
the occurrence of A. phalaena for the rst time in Indian
waters using morphology and DNA barcoding approach.
Two numbers of A. phalaena were caught from
coral reefs (11041’4.69”N; 92047’2.77’E), Ross Island,
South Andaman District, Andaman Islands, India on
2nd April 2017 using hand net from a depth of 2 m. The
specimens were morphologically identied as per Smith
et al. (1986). Later, n clips were taken aseptically and
preserved in absolute alcohol for molecular work. Total
genomic DNA was extracted from these samples using
standard phenol-chloroform method (Sambrook et al.,
2001). The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I
partial gene (650 bp) was amplied as per Ward et al.
(2005). The PCR amplied products were visualised on
2% agarose gel and puried using Qiaquick gel extraction
kit (Qiagen, Germany) following manufacture’s
protocol. The puried PCR products were sequenced
bi-directionally at the sequencing facility of M/s SciGenom
Pvt. Ltd., Kochi, India. Sequences were analysed using
MEGA7 software for species delimitation (Kumar et al.,
2016). For estimating the genetic divergence value and
species delimitation, 39 reported COI gene sequences
of the genus Amblygobius were downloaded from NCBI
GenBank (Table 1).
The collected shes measured 10.0 and 10.50 cm
in total length. The diagnostic features include seven
dorsal spines with 15 branched rays; rst dorsal spine
longer than second; anal n with one spine and 14
branched rays; rounded caudal n; longitudinal scale
series 55; ocellus on the rst dorsal n and a black spot at
the upper caudal n base (Fig. 1).
Body greenish brown in colour, with ve dark brown
to blackish bars; a pale dark stripe through the eye and
another across cheek; head with white streaks; small white
spots in 3-4 horizontal rows on the body.
Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences were
trimmed and the quality of the sequence (600 bp) was
veried by Phred score of each nucleotide and lack of
117
stop codons conrms absence of NUMTs. The sequences
were submitted to NCBI with GenBank Accession nos.
MF537264-265. Out of 600 nucleotides, the number
of conserved and variable nucleotides was 523 and 77
respectively. Analysis using MEGA7 software revealed
the average intra-specic genetic distance value for
A. phalaena as 0.012±0.004 with a range of 0.000 to
0.051 (Table 2.). A. phalaena from Indian waters showed
divergence values within the range of 0.00 to 0.047 and
authenticated the species identication. The average
interspecic divergence value between A. phalaena and
A. albimaculatus is 0.102±0.009 which is 10x more than
the average within species distance values of A. phalaena
(Table 3). Further, Neighbor Joining tree constructed with
Table 1. List of species along with COI gene sequence accession numbers
Species Location details GenBank Accession No.
Amblygobius albimaculatus Mozambique: Pomene JF492825
Mozambique: Pomene GU805111
Saudi Arabia KY676051
Saudi Arabia KY675893
Saudi Arabia KY675830
Saudi Arabia KY675639
Saudi Arabia KY675434
Saudi Arabia KX139519
Amblygobius decussates Australia: Queensland, Lizard Island KP194955
Australia: Queensland, Lizard Island KP194244
Philippines: Manila FJ582719-23
Amblygobius phalaena Australia: Queensland, Lizard Island KP194896
Australia: Queensland, Lizard Island KP194792
Australia: Queensland, Lizard Island KP194751
Australia: Queensland, Lizard Island KP194685
Australia: Queensland, Lizard Island KP194499
Australia: Queensland, Lizard Island KP194353
Australia: Queensland, Lizard Island KP194327
Australia: Queensland, Lizard Island KP194153
Australia: Queensland, Lizard Island KP194021
French Polynesia, Society Islands JQ431409
Philippines: Manila FJ582724-25
Ross Island, Andaman* MF537264-265*
Amblygobius sphnyx Madagascar: Antananarivo, Ouest, Nosy Be,
Ambanoro bay
JQ349688-95
Amblygobius hectori Madagascar: Antananarivo, Ouest, Nosy Be,
Ambanoro bay
JQ349683-87
*Present study
Fig.1. Amblygobius phalaena, 90 mm SL from Ross Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands
N. Daniel et al.
118
Table 2. Genetic divergence values (Kimura 2 Parameter) of COI gene within Amblygobius phalaena collected from dierent locations
Species Ap1 Ap2 Ap3 Ap4 Ap5 Ap6 Ap7 Ap8 Ap9 Ap10 Ap11 Ap12 Ap13 Ap14
A. phalaena (Ap1) 0.002 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.009
A. phalaena (Ap2) 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.000 0.009
A. phalaena (Ap3) 0.012 0.009 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.004 0.004 0.009
A. phalaena (Ap4) 0.011 0.007 0.005 0.003 0.004 0.002 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.009
A. phalaena (Ap5) 0.014 0.011 0.005 0.007 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.009
A. phalaena (Ap6) 0.005 0.002 0.011 0.009 0.012 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.009
A. phalaena (Ap7) 0.011 0.007 0.002 0.004 0.004 0.009 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.003 0.009
A. phalaena (Ap8) 0.012 0.009 0.000 0.005 0.005 0.011 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.000 0.004 0.004 0.009
A. phalaena (Ap9) 0.011 0.007 0.002 0.004 0.004 0.009 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.003 0.009
A. phalaena (Ap10) 0.011 0.007 0.002 0.004 0.004 0.009 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.003 0.009
A. phalaena (Ap11) 0.012 0.009 0.000 0.005 0.005 0.011 0.002 0.000 0.002 0.002 0.004 0.004 0.009
A. phalaena (Ap12) 0.007 0.004 0.012 0.011 0.011 0.005 0.011 0.012 0.011 0.011 0.012 0.002 0.009
A. phalaena (Ap13) 0.004 0.000 0.009 0.007 0.011 0.002 0.007 0.009 0.007 0.007 0.009 0.004 0.009
A. phalaena (Ap14) 0.047 0.044 0.049 0.051 0.047 0.046 0.047 0.049 0.047 0.047 0.049 0.044 0.044
Ap1-Ap2: Present study; Ap3-Ap11: Lizard Island, Australia; Ap12-13: Philippines, Manila; Ap14: French Polynesia, Society Islands, Morea.
Below diagonal - Divergence values; Above diagonal: Standard error values
Species Ap1 Ap2 Ap3 Aa1 Aa2 Aa3 Ad1 Ad2 Ad3 As1 As2 As3 Ah1 Ah2 Ah3
A. phalaena (Ap1) 0.002 0.005 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.022 0.022 0.023 0.021 0.021 0.021
A.phalaena (Ap2) 0.004 0.004 0.014 0.014 0.015 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.022 0.022 0.023 0.021 0.021 0.021
A. phalaena (Ap3) 0.012 0.009 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.023 0.023 0.023 0.021 0.021 0.021
A.albimaculatus (Aa1) 0.103 0.099 0.103 0.000 0.002 0.017 0.017 0.018 0.021 0.021 0.022 0.019 0.019 0.019
A. albimaculatus (Aa2) 0.103 0.099 0.103 0.000 0.002 0.017 0.017 0.018 0.021 0.021 0.022 0.019 0.019 0.019
A. albimaculatus (Aa3) 0.105 0.101 0.105 0.002 0.002 0.017 0.017 0.017 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.019 0.019 0.019
A. decussates (Ad1) 0.205 0.201 0.205 0.163 0.163 0.160 0.000 0.002 0.021 0.021 0.022 0.021 0.021 0.021
A. decussates (Ad2) 0.205 0.201 0.205 0.163 0.163 0.160 0.000 0.002 0.021 0.021 0.022 0.021 0.021 0.021
A. decussates (Ad3) 0.208 0.203 0.208 0.165 0.165 0.163 0.002 0.002 0.021 0.022 0.022 0.021 0.021 0.021
A. sphinx (As1) 0.232 0.227 0.237 0.205 0.205 0.203 0.210 0.210 0.212 0.002 0.004 0.023 0.023 0.023
A. sphinx (As2) 0.234 0.229 0.239 0.207 0.207 0.205 0.212 0.212 0.215 0.002 0.003 0.023 0.023 0.023
A. sphinx(As3) 0.244 0.239 0.249 0.217 0.217 0.214 0.222 0.222 0.224 0.009 0.007 0.024 0.024 0.024
A. hectori (Ah1) 0.213 0.208 0.203 0.177 0.177 0.175 0.217 0.217 0.220 0.235 0.237 0.247 0.002 0.000
A. hectori (Ah2) 0.210 0.206 0.201 0.180 0.180 0.177 0.220 0.220 0.222 0.232 0.234 0.244 0.002 0.002
A. hectori (Ah3) 0.213 0.208 0.203 0.177 0.177 0.175 0.217 0.217 0.220 0.235 0.237 0.247 0.000 0.002
Below diagonal - Divergence values; Above diagonal - Standard error values
Table 3. Genetic divergence values (Kimura 2 Parameter) of COI gene within the genus Amblygobius collected from dierent locations
First record of whitebarred goby from Indian waters
COI divergence values showed distinct clusters shared by
conspecic individuals with signicant bootstrap value
(Fig. 2). Within A. phalaena cluster, specimen from French
Polynesia and Australia formed dierent branches, while
specimen from India clustered with samples of Philippines.
Gobiidae is one of the most speciose families with
more than 1700 described sh species (Eschmeyer and
Fong, 2013). A total of 174 species of gobiid shes have
been reported from Indian waters (Chatterjee and Mishra,
2012). Globally, these shes form one of the dominant
taxa in tropical coral reef and coastal sh diversity.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands located in Bay of Bengal
consist of 352 islands and the shelf topography of these
islands is characterised by fringing and barrier reefs.
These ecosystems are habitat to a total of 1434 sh species
including gobies (Rajan et al., 2013). Due to their small
size and cryptic life styles, identication and delimitation
of gobiids using morphological characters is dicult.
Because of this reason, gobiids have been under-represented
in ichthyofaunal survey of dierent ecosystems (Close and
Gouws, 2007; Thacker, 2011). DNA barcoding approach
along with morphological characters has been successfully
used to delineate shes including gobiids (Ward et al.,
2005; Viswambaran et al.,
2013; Knebelsberger and Thiel,
2014)
119
Fig.2. Neighbour joining tree of COI gene sequences of Amblygobius species
synonymisation and reported Amblygobius phalaena as a
valid species (Allen and Swainston, 1988).
In the present study, the species status of A. phalaena
was conrmed using DNA barcodes and morphological
characters. Comparison of COI sequences generated
in the present study with 15 reported sequences from
Philippines, Australia and French Polynesia showed
high similarity (99%) and less genetic divergence value
against A. phalaena. Whereas higher genetic divergence
values i.e. 10 times more than the average within species
N. Daniel et al.
In the present study, two adult specimens of
A. phalaena were collected from Ross Islands, Andaman
and Nicobar Islands. Due to their cryptic life style, it
was dicult to collect adequate number of samples in
a single exploration. Initially, Valenciennes described
Gobius phalaena from Vanikoro Island, south-western
Pacic (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1837). Later valid
synonymisation of this species as Amblygobius
albimaculatus resulted in taxonomic instability (Bauchot
et al., 1991). However, several studies have disproved this
120
Kannan, K., Sureshkumar, K., Ranjith, L., Joshi, K. K., Madan,
M. S. and John, S. 2013. First record of the two stripe goby,
Valenciennea helsdingenii (Gobiidae, Gobiiformes) from
the south-east coast of India. Zookeys, 323: 91-97. Doi.
org/10.3897/zookeys.323.5440.
Knebelsberger, T. and Thiel, R. 2014. Identication of gobies
(Teleostei: Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the North and
Baltic Seas combining morphological analysis and DNA
barcoding. Zool. J. Linnean. Soc., 172: 831-845. doi.
org/10.1111/zoj.12189.
Kumar, A. T. T., Prakash, S., Rao, V. R. and Gunasundari, V.
2015. First record of two species of goby sh, Cryptocentrus
cyanotaenia Bleeker and Istigobius diadema Steindachner
(Perciformes: Gobiidae) in Indian waters. Indian. J. Mar.
Sci., 44(8): 1252-1256.
Kumar, S., Stecher, G. and Tamura, K. 2016: MEGA7: Molecular
Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger
datasets. Mol. Biol. Evol., 33(7): 1870-1874. doi: 10.1093/
molbev/msw054.
Myers, R. F. 1991. Micronesian reef shes. A comprehensive
guide to the coral reef shes of Micronesia, 2nd edn. Coral
Graphics, Barrigada, Guam, 298 pp.
Myers, R. F. 1999. Micronesian reef shes: a comprehensive
guide to the coral reef shes of Micronesia, 3rd edn. Coral
Graphics, Barrigada, Guam, 330 pp.
Rajan, P. T., Sreeraj, R. C. and Immanuel, T. 2013. Fishes of
Andaman and Nicobar Islands: a Checklist, J. Andaman
Sci. Ass., 18(1): 47-87.
Randall, J. E., Allen, G. R., and Steene, R. C. 1990. Fishes of the
Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Crawford House Press,
Bathurst, NSW, 541 pp.
Sambrook, S. J., Russel, D. W., Janssen, K. A. and Irwuin, N. J.
2001. Molecular cloning - A laboratory manual, 3rd edn.
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, 2100 pp.
Smith, J. L. B., Smith, M. M. and Heemstra, P. C. 1986. Smiths’
Sea shes, Macmillan, South Africa, 1047 pp.
Syms, C. and Jones, P. G. 2004. Habitat structure, disturbance
and the composition of sand - dwelling goby assemblages
in a coral reef lagoon. Mar. Ecol. Pro. Ser., 268: 221-230.
DOI: 10.3354/meps268221.
Thacker, C. E. 2011. Systematics of Gobiidae. In: Patzner, R. A.,
Van Tassell, J. L., Kovacic, M., Kapoor, B. G. (Eds.),
Biology of gobies. Science Publishers, Boca Raton,
p. 129-36.
Viswambharan, D., Pavan-Kumar, A., Singh, D. P., Jaiswar, A.
K., Chakraborty, S. K., Nair, J. R. and Lakra, W. S. 2013.
First record of whitebarred goby from Indian waters
divergence value of A. phalaena were observed between
congeners of Amblygobius. This high divergence value
conrms that A. phalaena and A. albimaculatus are two
distinct species. This observation is in congruence with
the previous studies that disproved synonymisation of
A. phalaena and A. albimaculatus (Randall et al., 1990).
Several previous studies have successfully used DNA
barcodes for accurately identifying gobiids (Viswambaran
et al., 2013; Knebelsberger and Thiel, 2014).
Larvae/juvenile dispersal through sea currents could
be responsible for extended distribution of this species
in Indian waters. The distribution and abundance of
A. phalaena has been reported to be positively correlated
with topography and grain size and negatively correlated
with depth and disturbance (Syms and Jones, 2004).
Several previous studies have also reported new
distributional records of gobiid shes such as two stripe
goby, Valenciennea helsdingenii and Cryptocentrus
cyanotaenia from Gulf of Mannar, India (Kannan
et al., 2013; Kumar et al., 2015). Further, extensive
ichthyological surveys employing morphological and
molecular tools would be required to study its population
status. The present study would enrich the present
ichthyofaunal diversity database of India and help in sh
resource management.
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Coral reef lagoons and back reef areas are composed more of sand than hard reef habitat. They support a diverse mix of fishes, including species restricted to sandy habitats and those dependent on both hard and soft substrata. However the resident assemblages associated with sand and the factors affecting their distribution and abundance are poorly understood. Here we examine spatial co-variation in the abundance of burrowing goby assemblages and habitat characteristics in the lagoon at Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef). The aim was to identify which key habitat-variables should be incorporated into models to predict the structure of sand-dwelling fish communities. We focused on 10 common sand goby species from 7 genera: Amblyeleotris, Cryptocentrus, Ctenogoblops and Vanderhorstia (associated with burrows constructed by alpheid shrimps), and Amblygobius, Oplopomus and Valenciennea (free-living, burrowing species). Spatial patterns were examined by stratifying the lagoon into 6 recognizable habitat zones, and conducting visual transects in replicate sites within each zone. The abundance of all goby species encountered and habitat variables (depth, distance from reef, topography, disturbance of different types, sediment composition) were recorded in each transect. Habitat characteristics and fish abundance, diversity and species composition differed markedly among habitat types and sites within habitats. There was a strong association between sites grouped according to habitat characteristics and goby assemblage. These changes reflected species-specific responses to different combinations of habitat variables and their interactions. All habitat variables measured were at least partially correlated, either positively or negatively, with the abundance of some of the species. Depth, distance from consolidated reef, sediment composition and the level of disturbance were particularly important. Our study indicates that sandy habitats, although superficially uniform, support highly structured fish communities influenced by a wide range of factors.
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Dr. D. S. Henderson, Chairman of the 1. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology and Vice Chancellor of Rhodes University This book is a unique, international collaborative effort ranging all of the colour plates for the book. For the past of 76 scientists, representing 15 countries. Several skilled eight years, she has been assisted in the research, writing artists and photographers have also contributed to the and editing of the book by Dr. P. C. Heemstra. numerous and beautiful illustrations. Research done in It is essential for the proper management of the marine South Africa was supported by the Council for Scientific fish resources of southern Africa that we know what species and Industrial Research. Work on the book at the J.L.B. we are dealing with. This book will greatly facilitate the Smith Institute was also funded by the Department of identification of our fishes. It will thus be of vital import­ National Education and The Trustees of the Sea Fishes of ance to the understanding and wise use of our tremendously Southern Africa Book Fund. Expenses of visits by ichthy­ diverse and valuable fish fauna. ologists from overseas were defrayed by a grant from the We are proud of the affiliation of the J.L.B. Smith Insti­ John S. Schlesinger Foundation. tute with Rhodes University and happy to see the successful Although this book is an impressive contribution to the completion of this long-awaited work.
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Allozyme electrophoresis was used to identify cryptic larvae of potentially four sympatric south-western Australian estuarine gobiid species: Afurcagobius suppositus, Arenigobius bifrenatus, Favonigobius lateralis and Pseudogobius olorum. Genotypes of six diagnostic loci expressed in 46 unidentified larval gobiids indicated that they were unambiguously P. olorum.
Identification of gobies (Teleostei: Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the North and Baltic Seas combining morphological analysis and DNA barcoding
  • T Knebelsberger
  • R Thiel
Knebelsberger, T. and Thiel, R. 2014. Identification of gobies (Teleostei: Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the North and Baltic Seas combining morphological analysis and DNA barcoding. Zool. J. Linnean. Soc., 172: 831-845. doi. org/10.1111/zoj.12189.