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A Mobile Application for School Children Controlled by External Bluetooth Devices

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span>The didactic method of digital, game-based learning includes integrating educational content or learning standards into video games with the objective to engage pupils. The method combines instructional content with computer or video games and can be used with all subjects and at all ability levels. Exponents of digital game-based learning argue that it provides learning opportunities which involve learners in interactive teaching and encourages them to take part in the technological society of the 21st century. The necessity of digital, game-based learning arose in the last decades of the 20th century as world-wide improvements in innovation took place. Today's learners live their lives with easy access to technology. This paper discusses the need for, motivation for and adjustment of digital, game-based learning to meet the needs of contemporary and the future generations of learners. Specifically, a game prototype for pupils of 9 to 10 years of age was implemented and evaluated. A simple mathematical game was created to help children practice mathematical skills in a fun, logical, thoughtful, enjoyable, amusing and light-hearted way. The results of the evaluation showed that children were interested in using mobile devices to learn mathematics, and especially the multiplication table. During the study, children tried both to achieve positive results and enjoyed the game. Our findings indicate that using mobile-based games encourages a positive mental outlook in pupils toward mathematics, ensures their dynamic, noteworthy participation and supports the acquisition of mathematical knowledge.</span
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PaperA Mobile Application for School Children Controlled by External Bluetooth Devices
A Mobile Application for School Children Controlled by
External Bluetooth Devices
https://doi.org/10.3991/ijim.v12i5.8961
Valdrin Maloku!!", Markus Ebner, Martin Ebner
Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
v.maloku@student.tugraz.at
AbstractThe didactic method of digital, game-based learning includes in-
tegrating educational content or learning standards into video games with the
objective to engage pupils. The method combines instructional content with
computer or video games and can be used with all subjects and at all ability lev-
els. Exponents of digital game-based learning argue that it provides learning
opportunities which involve learners in interactive teaching and encourages
them to take part in the technological society of the 21st century. The necessity
of digital, game-based learning arose in the last decades of the 20th century as
world- wide improvements in innovation took place. Today's learners live their
lives with easy access to technology. This paper discusses the need for, motiva-
tion for and adjustment of digital, game-based learning to meet the needs of
contemporary and the future generations of learners. Specifically, a game proto-
type for pupils of 9 to 10 years of age was implemented and evaluated. A sim-
ple mathematical game was created to help children practice mathematical
skills in a fun, logical, thoughtful, enjoyable, amusing and light-hearted way.
The results of the evaluation showed that children were interested in using mo-
bile devices to learn mathematics, and especially the multiplication table. Dur-
ing the study, children tried both to achieve positive results and enjoyed the
game. Our findings indicate that using mobile-based games encourages a posi-
tive mental outlook in pupils toward mathematics, ensures their dynamic, note-
worthy participation and supports the acquisition of mathematical knowledge.
Keywordsdigital learning, game-based learning, video games, mobile devic-
es, degree of competence, flic buttons
1 Introduction
Video games have existed for more than forty years. They have influenced an ex-
traordinary number of individuals as their sales have surpassed those of movies. They
incorporate film, graphics, text and sound to convey stories and objectives to the
player. As a new form of media, video games can communicate information to a wide
audience in unique ways [1]. Technology and computer games can be used to expand
students’ knowledge, lead them to draw more associations between subjects and ena-
ble them to form individual relationships with the subjects they study [2]. Computer
and video games [3] are extremely powerful learning tools, which can create effective
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new learning opportunities for children at an early age. As a popular approach, video
games demonstrate that a large number of children are able to share social experienc-
es that were not possible for the older generation in this form [4]. Learning from vid-
eo games or technology has caused many dilemmas in the sense that this learning
creates new, positive potentials for learning or simply creating dependencies. In gen-
eral, video games are considered a good opportunity to improve memory and develop
thinking skills [5]. Since many studies have examined the positive and negative ef-
fects of video games, this issue was also raised by Neil Postman [5], who listed sever-
al questions about what we really get from technology and asked whether it is benefi-
cial to learning or the opposite. These days, children charry carry examples of mobile
technology in their pockets. With contemporary technology, they can use digital cam-
eras, smartphones, or iPods; they can take pictures or record sounds; they can tag
these artistic creations with comments and other personal details and then share them
to Facebook or another social website [6]. The main intention of the paper is to sup-
port and motivate children to learn the multiplication table to new ways. The follow-
ing two research questions were addressed in this study:
How can seamless learning be effective when using innovative devices to learn
mathematics?
What can be concluded from the evaluation of a learning activity performed in a
third-grade, elementary school class?
To answer these questions, a simple prototype of a math game was implemented,
which combines several motivating elements, such as enjoyment, pleasure, engage-
ment, challenge, intense and passionate involvement and emotion.
2 Related Work
Several authors have conducted research on digital, game-based learning. M. Pren-
sky [7] explained that computer and video games are extremely powerful learning
tools, which can create effective, new learning opportunities for children at early ages.
Combining games and learning has the potential to strongly motivate the pupils to
learn and increase their engagement in the learning process. During their interactions
with digital technologies, most children begin the learning process, which makes them
feel comfortable using this technology and allows them to gladly invest effort. Craw-
ford [8] stated, "Children are expected to play because we recognize the fundamental
utility of games as an educational tool". The benefits of game-based learning have
never been systematically demonstrated, although many studies [9] have investigated
the effects of this learning on learning process and motivation. Green and Bavelier
[10] conducted some experiments in which they compared the visual abilities of sub-
jects who had played few or no games for a period of six months. Four of the experi-
ments yielded results that indicated improvements in different indices of visual atten-
tion for the players compared to control individuals, while the fifth study results
showed improvements in visual abilities among neophyte players, compared to their
pre-playing abilities. Another important aspect that has been studied by different
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authors is that of mobile-based learning. Mobile devices such as laptops, tablets, e-
book readers, mobile phones and personal digital assistants have been turned into
learning tools that have enormous amounts of potential in both classrooms and out-
door learning spaces [11]. Some authors have suggested that school programs that
incorporate laptops into school positively promote the students’ learning abilities [12].
Mobile technology has been shown to help children by providing them with new ways
to relate their physical experiences to abstract knowledge. Experts have progressively
become convinced that handheld computers are the ideal technology for classrooms,
since they enable students to move from the periodic, supplemental use of computer
labs to the continuous, necessary use of portable computational technology [13]. In
general, games help people bring together and help them to practice and enhance their
skills, challenge their intellect and enhance their capacity to solve problems [14].
3 Methodology
The 1x1 Trainer Flic application was implemented in Java as part of the integrated
development Android Studio, Version 3.0.1. The minimum API Level that can be
used is Android 4.4 'KitKat' (API level 19). Additionally, basic libraries created dur-
ing the project are described below:
Flic Library - can be used to create custom functionality for flic buttons. The play-
er can use flic buttons to control his or her apps without having to fumble with the
mobile each time he or she wants to do something. Basically, Flic operates as a
remote tool that provides the player the control to execute actions through the
smartphone, without actually using his or her smartphone.
KSOAP2-Android Library - provides a lightweight and efficient SOAP client li-
brary for the Android platform.
3.1 Algorithm
The algorithm that was used in the application was developed by [15], and the mo-
tive of the algorithm chosen was a selection of adequate questions as well as a classi-
fication of the given answers (the algorithm flow diagram is visualized in Fig. 1).
Based on these aspects, two components were considered essential:
Difficulty of the exercise. Every learning activity possesses levels of difficulty,
and these levels were described as values which lie between 0 and 1. An easy ques-
tion high success probability value (close to 1), and a more difficult one was assigned
a low success probability value (close to 0).
Degree of competence. The degree of competence was computed (0 ... 1) to moni-
tor the learning improvement of a user (learning rate), where the computation of this
value relied upon the efficiency of learning demonstrated by each learner and was
computed instantly.
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Fig. 1. Algorithm flow diagram
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3.2 Degree of competence
The degree of competence is one of the most important parameters included in the
algorithm [15]. The essential objective of the algorithm is to demonstrate which ques-
tions are "difficult" and which questions are "not difficult" with regard to the user's
knowledge. The degree of competence was determined as a value between 0 and 1,
whereby the questions were constantly generated and selected according to their diffi-
culty. If the algorithm requires a question to be generated, then this question should
neither be too difficult nor too easy. Initially, the algorithm generates a random ques-
tion. As illustrated in the Fig. 2, the whole learning process can be separated into two
subareas: the learning area (what the learner knows) and the extended learning are
(what the learner does not know). In the extended learning area, the learners receive
new questions. The difficulty level of these questions is defined as being 25% above
the learner's degree of competence. This parameter is relative and based on the teach-
er's selection. That means, if the learners display low degrees of competence, then the
teacher must reduce the extended degree of competence; this will correspondingly be
increased when the learners display success.
Fig. 2. Visualization of the range of the degree of competence [15]
3.3 Pretest
A pretesting process was used to estimate the learning aptitude of the users. Initial-
ly, a moderate question was generated, which had a difficulty level that fell between
0.54 and 0.47. If an incorrect answer was provided, an easy question was generated,
the difficulty level of which fell between 0.20 and 0.13. Otherwise, a hard question
was generated, the difficulty level of which fell between 0.78 and 0.69. In the next
phase, the learning aptitude (DOC) was estimated. If a difficult question was an-
swered correctly during the initial phase, then the user achieved a degree of compe-
tence of up to 0.75. Otherwise, the user achieved one of 0.50. If the easy question
asking during the initial phase was answered correctly, then the user achieved a de-
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gree of competence of up to 0.25 and, otherwise, one of 0.00. The whole pretesting
process is depicted in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Visualization of the pretest (estimated degree of competence) [15]
3.4 Classification of answers
An important issue that the algorithm takes into consideration is the classification
of well-known learning problems. The answers provided by the learners were marked
with 0 (if the answer was incorrect), 1 (if the user knew the correct answer once), or 2
(if the user gave two correct answers one after another to well-known questions and,
during this process, if the user failed to answer the next question correctly, this pa-
rameter was set back to 0).
3.5 Selection of questions
After the degree of competence was calculated using the formulae described by
[15], the next question was selected. Based on the results, three categories were de-
termined from which the questions were generated: Extended and Actual Learning
Area (questions written with 0), Actual Learning Area (questions written with 1),
Actual Learning Area (questions written with 2). A random number was used that did
not fall in the interval [0,1] to determine the category. Based on the results, three
conditions were determined:
Condition 1: If the random number x <= 0.05, a well-known question (2) is select-
ed.
Condition 2: If the random number is 0.05 > x >= 0.15, a known question (1) is
selected.
Condition 3: If the random number is x > 0.15, an unknown question that is not in
the extended and actual learning area is selected.
According to these three conditions, all questions could be prepared pursuant to
their difficulty levels and were assigned corresponding ranks.
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4 Prototype
4.1 Main Concept
1x1 Trainer Flic was created as an educative application that can be used by chil-
dren, in which the player tries to learn the multiplication table by providing the cor-
rect answers. The interface of the app was created to be as simple as it has been pos-
sible, so that the children enjoy the learning phase. It was designed in an uncompli-
cated way to make it easier for children to navigation. The application was divided
into two modes: Play and Trainer.
In the Play mode, the player does not need to register and, instead, he or she can
freely choose the level (multiplication table) and provide the answers. In the Trainer
mode the player must register (to open a new account) and then the learning process
will be tracked.
4.2 Focus
The main goal of the game is to provide a seamless interaction between the user
and the game, allowing them to learn multiplication. When using this application, the
user should have fun and, at the same time, can practice the multiplication table. Chil-
dren can check their progress; in the offline mode, they can see their performance
results in the table and, by reviewing their results, they can correct their mistakes to
improve their performance. In the online mode, their scores will be saved on the serv-
er, but they can also check their scores in the table the same way as they do in the
offline mode. This is important because the player will need time until they can solve
mathematical problems without making mistakes. This forces the player to use the
mobile/tablet application for a long time while trying to do their best. In this way, the
learning process will be easier and the player will become more relaxed when solving
mathematical problems. The use of the application is crucial for the development of
mathematical knowledge.
4.3 Flic Button
External Bluetooth devices provide the interactivity between a player and the game
with this application. It is possible to apply a smart button called Flic1, which can be
clicked to trigger over 40 applications and features using the smartphone: you can
order an Uber, t set an alarm and play music. Flic recently used open APIs2 to add
Wink3 Shortcuts to that list. The fliclib works with the Flic application so the user
does not need to worry about taking care of the Flics, scanning Flics, or checking the
communication with them. The user needs to download and install the Flic app, which
1 https://flic.io/ (last accessed on 9 April 2018)
2 https://partners.flic.io/partners/developers (last accessed on 9 April 2018)
3 https://www.wink.com/help/faq/ (last accessed on 9 April 2018)
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is free and can be found in the Google Play Store4. The user needs to connect all the
Flics to the application. After completing this step, the user can use the Flic Grabber
and get access to the Flics inside the application. As shown in Fig. 4, Flic button con-
tains three functionalities for triggering events: Single Click, Double Click and Hold.
4.4 Gameplay and Game Elements
As stated in [16], games are usually not described reasonably and comprehensive-
ly, way which makes it hard to distinguish game elements without receiving a detailed
explanation. For that reason, the visual aspects of the game are described. The follow-
ing questions were addressed: How was the game structured? How were the levels
organized and designed? How might the player try to solve problems? How does the
game end, and how the results are displayed? How do auxiliary clowns help the user
solve the problems?
4.5 Splash Screen and Main Menu
In the application created, the splash screen contains the main logo of the applica-
tion, the loading simulator and the version of the application. The main menu consists
of four buttons: Play, Trainer, Credits and Exit as depicted in Fig. 4. The first two
buttons contain the main structure of the game. This means that children can play the
game by solving mathematical problems (multiplication problems). The difference
between these modes is as follows:
Play Mode (Offline): the user can access this offline mode and practice the multi-
plication table as part of the game. The user's performance record will be saved in the
local database so that the user can always check his or her progress.
Trainer Mode (Online): in this mode, registration or authentication via
"https://schule.learninglab.tugraz.at/" is required. The user must then select one of the
levels and other features (Settings, Joker shop, Statistics), and these will be displayed
during the game. The user performance will be traced and saved in a local database so
that the user can view his or her performance.
The third button allows the user to read the credits of the application: who wrote
the code, who created the design, who managed the application and so on. The last
button is called Exit and its purpose is to close the application.
4 https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=io.flic.app (last accessed on 9 April 2018)
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Fig. 4. 1x1 Trainer Flic: Main Menu
Level Structure and Features (Joker, Settings, Statistics). When the user clicks
the Trainer Mode button, a window is displayed that contains the login screen. In this
window, the user can register his or her account or log in using the proper credentials.
This process is continued until the user reaches the game-levels activity (Fig. 5). The
levels are defined as buttons so that the user can select one of them. Each button has
an inscription (proper number) and a multiplication table associated with this number.
When the player clicks the button with number one, all the questions are related to the
[1 x ?] multiplication level (random generation of questions): [1 x 1, 1 x 2, 1 x 3, ... , 1
x 10]. In addition to the levels, this activity consists of other important features: Home
Button: when the user clicks the Home button, the main menu will be opened. Joker
(Shop) Button: there are different assistance items called Jokers, which provide the
user with guidance. Each Joker has a different property and different cost. Statistics
Button: There is a table in the statistics activity which consists of four columns
(name/level name, correct answers, incorrect answers and time). For each unique ID,
the user performance on the level is saved in table 1.
If the player chooses one of the levels and get the results from the guessed answers,
then these results (correct answers, incorrect answers, time) will be stored in the data-
base and displayed in the table. There are 25 questions, and the time depends on the
difficulty selected by the user. If the difficulty chosen is "Beginner", then the time
always will be 30", and otherwise the time will be different for every level. Settings
Button: the control panel allows the user to configure actions in the application (also
called preferences, tools and options). There are three options the user can control:
turning the music on/off, configuring the appearance of the Joker (on/off) and chang-
ing the difficulty level to/from beginner or advanced.
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Fig. 5. 1x1 Trainer Flic: Levels Activity
Table 1. Jokes modes
Magic Cap
This joker differs from all other jokers by its color; it is a default one and is free. That
means that the joker helps the user by providing the correct/incorrect answer with the
percentage of 50%.
Magic Star
This joker helps the user by telling them the correct answer five times. To unlock this
joker, one needs to collect 150 coins by guessing the correct answer (one correct
answer corresponds to one coin). Once they have exceeded this limit, the user cannot
use the joker anymore.
Magic Bomb
This joker helps the player by increasing the number of coins (+10) after providing
five correct answers in a row [#correct_answers % 5 == 0]. After this, an animation
called Ripple Animation appears, which warns the player to press the joker button. If
the player does not press the joker button, then the user will lose the bonus coins. As
a precondition to unlock this joker, the user needs to collect 350 coins.
Magic Heart
This joker helps the user by resetting the time back to the beginning. To unlock this
joker, the player needs to collect 550 coins.
4.6 Game Activity - Gameplay
The game activity is the core of the application. By completing this activity, the
user can practice the multiplication table. This window is separated into three layouts
as shown in Fig. 6. The first layout appears in the upper part of the window, the se-
cond layout is in the middle and the third layout is in the bottom part.
First layout. In this layout, there are two buttons (Back button, Sound button) and
three widgets (time per question, the number of collected coins and the total number
of questions). There are 25 strictly defined questions for each level regardless of the
choice of difficulty level in the application. When the user clicks on the back button,
then the user will return to the Level menu. By clicking the sound button, the user can
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turn on/off the sound of the application. The time per question can be set in the Set-
ting mode. This depends on the difficulty mode; when the player changes the difficul-
ty to "Advanced", the time will change. For every correct answer, the user will collect
a certain number of coins, and these coins can be used to buy new Joker modes.
Fig. 6. 1x1 Trainer Flic: Game Activity
Second layout. In the second layout, the user is shown a question. The question is
given along with the answer, but this does not mean that the answer is correct (the
answer is generated randomly).
Third layout. The third layout encompasses three buttons: Right button, Wrong
but ton, and Joker button. When the user thinks that an answer is correct, he or she
can click on the "right" button or, if the answer is wrong, on the "wrong" one. The
user can click the third button (Joker) to get help. The buttons can also be pressed by
using Flic buttons. As mentioned in "Flic Button" section 4.3, the button contains
three functionalities: Single Click (dedicated for the right button), Double Click (ded-
icated for the wrong button) and Hold (dedicated for Joker button).
4.7 SOAP-Requests
The Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is an Extensible Markup Language
(XML)-based messaging protocol. It characterizes a set of rules that can be applied to
organize messages. It can be used for basic one-way messaging but is especially help-
ful for performing Remote Procedure Call (RPC)-style, request-response dialogues, as
shown in table 2.
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Table 2. Classes and Methods used to communicate with servers
LoginService:
login ()
As input data, this method takes the username and a password and returns
the ID of the user.
QuestionService:
getNewQuestion()
This method takes the ID of the user as input data and returns the ID of the
new question, the label of the question and the answer to the question.
PretestService:
checkPretest()
As an input, this method takes the ID of the user and returns a Boolean
value: TRUE (the user has completed successfully the pretest) and FALSE
(the user has failed to complete the pretest).
SessionService:
createSession()
This method requires the ID of the user and the ID of the Platform (Web
app, Android or iOS) as input data. As a result, this method returns a session
ID, which allows all the questions to be generated and, thus, a more accurate
statistical evaluation.
AnswerService:
giveAnswer()
This method takes the answer given by the user, the ID of the session, the
time reaction and ID of the question as input data and returns a true/false
indicator (i.e., whether the answer is stored or not).
4.8 Database and Shared Preferences
Two basic tables are created in SQLite and SharedPreferences class is used in the
application. The database contains two tables called PlayTable and TrainerTable. The
first table is implemented in the Play mode (offline). For every user who has finished
a cycle of game, the userId (generated randomly), username (given by the user), the
correct answers, incorrect answers and total time taken to finish the game are saved.
This table do not have any connection with PlaySharedPreferences, in which the table
is based in the context of the activity. This state will be saved independently for eve-
ry user who plays the game on the smartphone/tablet and turns off the music. The
second table contains the userID, levelName, correct answers, incorrect answers and
the level time. The preferences of the user are associated with the ID (generated from
the server) and, based on this ID, this table is linked to the TrainerSharedPreferences
table.
5 Evaluation
The application created as part of this project was successfully released via the
Google Play Store and installed on four smartphones. Three of these smartphones
were Motorola Moto E (2nd generation) and one was a Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge. All
of these smartphones were equipped with Flic Buttons, and the same Flic account was
used for all of them. The evaluation of the application took place on the 23 March
2018 in a secondary school in Graz, Austria and lasted about one hour. Nine pupils
took part in the evaluation. They were split into two groups. The first group contained
five pupils, whereas the second group contained four pupils. The pupils were invited
into a separate room that contained a smartphone with a Flic Button. In the first
group, two pupils used the same smartphone and the same Flic Button. Both groups
received an explanation about how to play the game, how to use the buttons (three
different functionalities), how many questions were on each game stage and where
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they could find the game in the Google Play Store5. Each pupil understood the expla-
nation and were interested in playing the game. The pupils then began simultaneously
to play the game. They answered all twenty-five questions, one after the other. Each
pupil in the groups completed at least two cycles of the game and, in the end, saved
their results with different names in the database. Most students used the Flic Buttons
to play the game but some also wanted to use the User interface (UI) buttons. Five
different statements were given for the game evaluation. The pupils had to discuss
how to rate the statements as a group (not individually). To do so, they chose different
smileys (Fig. 8), cutting out smileys with scissors and sticking them on the selected
squares, based on the final decision that they had made as a group.
Fig. 7. The image shows the statements and smileys that were used by the students to evaluate
each statement.
5.1 Evaluation Results
After receiving an explanation of statements and the different meanings of the smi-
leys (1, 2, ..., 5) as shown in figure 7, the two groups rated the statements (the higher
the number, the better), and these values are given in Table 3. The German statements
from the document (see figure 7) have been translated to English for table 3.
Table 3. The rating values given by two different groups of secondary-school students
Statement
Group 1 rate
Group 2 rate
The game was simple to use.
3
1
The game was fun.
4
3
I felt excited to solve the tasks using Flic buttons.
5
2
The tasks in the game were easy for me.
1
4
I want to play the game again.
2
5
In general, the children were happy that they could use a mobile application to
practice mathematics and especially the multiplication table. They tried to achieve
5 https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.hyperion.a1x1trainer&hl=en (last accessed on 9
April 2018)
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positive results and, at the same time, they enjoyed the game. During the evaluation,
most of the children answered more than 85% of the questions correctly during the
first round. When they repeated the game stage for the second time, they improved
their scores still further. When they finished a game stage, they saved the results in a
table (Database) and compared their new results with the previous ones.
Table 4. Description of each statement according to results obtained from two groups of pupils
Statement 1
One of the main important points of the game's design was the simplicity of the material
components. The use of attractive game sprites made it easier to understand. The pupils
in group one found it easy to use and also understandable, while the second group con-
sidered it more difficult. One of the reasons for this was the control of the Flic buttons,
their control improved considerably over time.
Statement 2
The pupils considered the game really fun. During their discussion in the groups and at
the end of evaluation process, they emphasized that playing the game had been highly
entertaining.
Statement 3
During the development of the project, it was crucial to combine the factors of game
playing and learning. We wanted to motivate pupils to learn things more easily and
increase their degree of engagement in the learning process. As a result, the two groups
were highly motivated and considered it significant to interconnect some-thing complete-
ly external (Flic button) to the learning process.
Statement 4
The generation of the questions was random, including the questions about the multipli-
cation tables from one to ten. Both groups expressed different opinions about the ques-
tion generation. The first group thought that the generation of questions was more diffi-
cult than the second group. When the question was displayed together with the incorrect
answer, and this answer was close to the correct one, then the pupils needed more time to
analyse the question and solve it.
Statement 5
During the evaluation process, the pupils preferred repeating the game several times.
They also hide the Flic button under the table in order to test the buttons connectivity
from a larger distance. The second group gave this the maximal rating, whereas the first
group gave it a surprisingly low rating.
6 Discussion and Conclusion
The main goal of the project was to create a gaming prototype that could help stu-
dents learn the multiplication table. Therefore, we created a game called 1x1 Trainer
Flic. The game allowed the user to learn the multiplication table in an entertaining
way. Furthermore, the application used external Bluetooth devices, which enabled the
interaction between the player and the game. Smart buttons called Flic buttons were
used in the application. Key aspects described in [17] were implemented in the appli-
cation: a set of rules and constraints, a set of dynamic responses to the learner's ac-
tions, appropriate challenges that enabled the learners to experience a feeling of
achievement and gradually improve their ability to learn math. Our results indicate
that using a smartphone-based application to learn math can help students efficiently
and quickly reach educational goals at all levels of education. The mixture of factors
implemented in the project (pupil enjoyment, pleasure and concentration, as well as
the resulting outcomes, feedback, competition, challenges and problem-solving skills)
motivated the pupils to learn and increased their engagement in the learning process.
The results of the evaluation of the application indicated that the children were inter-
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PaperA Mobile Application for School Children Controlled by External Bluetooth Devices
ested in using mobile devices to learn mathematics and especially the multiplication
table. Using mobile-based games helps students develop a positive mental outlook
toward mathematics, improves their dynamic participation and helps them acquire
mathematical knowledge and aptitude. These kinds of learning games should become
indispensable factors of modern teaching methods- Their usage one of the objectives
of modern education.
7 References
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teaching and learning on students' learning performance: A meta-analysis and research
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[16] Vandercruysse, S. and Vandewaetere, M. and Clarebout, G. (2012). Game-based learning:
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Cunha. Handbook of research on serious games as educational, business and research.
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8 Authors
Valdrin Maloku is with the Graz University of Technology , Graz, Austria. (e-
mail: v.maloku@student.tugraz.at).
Markus Ebner is a Junior Researcher at the Social Learning Department at Graz
University of Technology, Graz, Austria. (e-mail: markus.ebner@tugraz.at)
Martin Ebner is with the Social Learning Department at Graz University of Tech-
nology, Graz, Austria. (e-mail: martin.ebner@tugraz.at). As head of the Department
he is responsible for all university wide e-learning activities. He holds an Adjunct
Prof. on media informatics and works also at the Institute of Interactive Systems and
Data Science as senior researcher. For publications as well as further research activi-
ties, please visit: http://martinebner.at
Article submitted 03 June 2018. Resubmitted 18 July 2018. Final acceptance 19 July 2018. Final ver-
sion published as submitted by the authors.
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