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The 360-Degree Experience of Workplace Microaggressions: Who Commits Them? How Do Individuals Respond? What Are the Consequences?: Influence and Implications



This chapter explores how microaggressions manifest in the workplace. It then examines the types of microaggressions that occur, when microaggressions are likely to occur in the employment cycle, who is likely to commit them, and how individuals respond to these microaggressions. Qualitative studies have shown that People of Color and women endure microaggressions as a "360‐degree" experience, contributed to by supervisors, subordinates, and coworkers. The chapter also explores the negative consequences of contending with microaggressions for both individuals and organizations. It addresses what organizations can do to mitigate these negative effects. One way that microaggressions occur in the workplace is in the pre‐employment process through a discrepancy in interview callback rates for job candidates with similar credentials but racially different sounding names. Perceptions of racial microaggressions have also been found to affect the target's work outcomes such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job‐related stress.
Part III
Manifestation of Microaggressions
The -Degree Experience of Workplace
Microaggressions: Who Commits Them? How Do
Individuals Respond? What Are the Consequences?
Jennifer Young-Jin Kim, Duoc Nguyen, and Caryn Block
In this chapter, we explore how microaggressions manifest in the workplace.
We examine the types of microaggressions that occur, when microaggressions
are likely to occur in the employment cycle, who is likely to commit them, how
individuals respond to these microaggressions, and the negative consequences
of contending with microaggressions for both individuals and organizations.
Finally,we address what organizations can do to mitigate these negative eects.
While there has been much research on microaggressions, less is known about
the specic types of microaggressions that manifest in the workplace. And the
workplace is unique in a number of important ways. When microaggressions
occur during leisure activities, such as going to dinner, people can choose to
walk away from those who are committing the microaggressions. The work-
place is dierent. People cannot stop working without dire consequences. Fur-
thermore, during the work week, employees spend a majority of their wak-
ing hours at their jobs (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2017). Thus, a substantial
amount of an individual’s time as an adult is spent with people at work, be it
coworkers, supervisors, or subordinates.
Moreover, for many people who are White, the workplace is the rst time
that they will interact closely with People of Color. In fact, there is an entire
industry on diversity and inclusion training to help organizations gure out
how to support people from dierent backgrounds to work more productively
together. In addition, overt forms of discrimination in the workplace are
illegal. Yet, despite these diversity and inclusion eorts and despite legal
mandates, organizations still struggle to include People of Color and women,
discrimination is still occurring, but in more subtle forms (e.g., Cortina, 2008;
Microaggression Theory: Inuence and Implications, First Edition. Edited by Gina C. Torino,
David P. Rivera, Christina M. Capodilupo, Kevin L. Nadal, and Derald Wing Sue.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 Microaggression Theory
Jones, Peddie, Gilrane, King, & Gray, 2016). Subtle discrimination has been
dened as “actions that are ambiguous in intent to harm, dicult to detect,
low in intensity, and often unintentional but nevertheless deleterious to target
employees” (Jones et al., 2016, p. 1589). And the eects of subtle discrimina-
tion can be quite detrimental to employees, having a negative impact on their
work-related stress, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and performance. In
fact, a recent meta-analysis by Jones et al. (2016) found that the experience
of subtle discrimination had similar deleterious eects on individuals and has
the experience of overt discrimination. Additionally, subtle discrimination
is likely to be a much more common experience for women and People of
Color than overt discrimination (Cortina, 2008). Yet, the vast majority of the
research on discrimination in the workplace has focused on understanding and
preventing overt forms of discrimination. Surprisingly, we are only beginning
to understand the subtle forms that discrimination can take in the workplace.
The Theory of Microaggressions can provide a useful framework for advanc-
ing our understanding of how subtle forms of discrimination may manifest
at work.
Racial microaggressions are dened as verbal or behavioral treatment that
conveys hostility toward members of various racial groups that manifest in
three dierent forms: microassaults, microinsults, and microinvalidations (Sue,
Capodilupo, et al., 2007). Microassaults are explicit verbal or nonverbal mes-
sages meant to hurt the intended victim through behaviors such as name-
calling, avoidant behavior, or purposeful discrimination. Microinsults express
rudeness, insensitivity, or demean a person’s heritage or identity. Microinvali-
dations exclude or invalidate the psychological feelings, or the experiential real-
ity of a person.
More recently, microaggression research has been extended to include
women (Capodilupo et al., 2010) and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT)
people (Nadal, 2013). This research has revealed that while People of Color,
women, and LGBT individuals experience some of the same types of microag-
gressions, they also experience microaggressions that are unique based on
stereotypes held about a particular group. Thus, another way to categorize
types of microaggressions is whether they are general microaggressions or
stereotype-based microaggressions (Kim, Yu, Drinka, Nguyen, & Block, 2015).
General microaggressions are verbal or behavioral treatment that occurs regard-
less of social identity group membership. An example of a general microaggres-
sion is Denial of experiential reality suggesting that Asians, Blacks, Latina/os,
LGBT people, or women all share similar experiences within their respective
groups (Johnston & Nadal, 2010; Nadal, 2013; Rivera, Forquer, & Rangel, 2010;
Sue, Bucceri, Lin, Nadal, & Torino, 2007; Sue, Capodilupo, & Holder, 2008). On
the other hand, stereotype-based microaggressions are specic types of verbal
or behavioral treatment based on the content of stereotypes perceivers hold
about specic groups of people regarding their race, gender, or identity. Some
10 The 360-Degree Experience of Workplace Microaggressions 
examples of stereotype-based microaggressions include Alieninownland,
suggesting that Asians and Latina/os are foreigners (Rivera et al., 2010; Sue,
Bucceri, et al., 2007); Assumption of criminality,suggestingthatBlacks(Sue,
Nadal, et al., 2008) and Latina/os (Rivera et al., 2010) are potential criminals,
prone to violent behavior; and Assumptions of traditional gender roles, suggest-
ing that women should occupy roles that are in accordance to traditional gender
roles (e.g., stay-at-home mom).
Microaggressions in the workplace take both of these forms. While some of
the microaggressions identied in the workplace represent general mistreat-
ment, others are based on stereotypes about dierent social identity groups,
particularly as they relate to workplace performance. Both types of microag-
gressions manifest in dierent phases of the employment cycle beginning with
the pre-employment phase.
Microaggressions in Pre-employment
The rst step in getting a job is applying for it. One way that microaggressions
occur in the workplace is in the pre-employment process through a discrep-
ancy in interview callback rates for job candidates with similar credentials but
racially dierent sounding names. Ideally, job candidates with similar creden-
tials on resumes should have an equal chance of getting a job interview. Despite
this ideal, not all resumes have similar chances of getting a callback for an inter-
view from recruiters or HR professionals. Racial information associated with
dierent names on resumes has been shown to have a signicant eect on call-
back rates. Audit studies use ctitious yet representative resumes in response
to real-job postings. These studies typically send out resumes with similar
credentials except for the variable of interest—name of the applicant. Audit
studies have shown that resumes with ethnic or racial names receive signi-
cantly lower callback rates for job interviews compared to resumes with white-
sounding names with similar credentials (Bertrand & Mullainathan, 2004;
Oreopoulos, 2011). For example, resumes with White-sounding rst names
(e.g., Emily or Greg) had a higher callback rate than resumes with African
American–sounding names (e.g., Jamal or Aisha; Bertrand & Mullainathan,
2004). In fact, resumes with White-sounding names were twice as likely to
receive a callback for a job than resumes with African American–sounding
names. Likewise, when resumes were manipulated with Asian versus White-
sounding forenames and surnames, resumes with White-sounding names (e.g.,
Greg Johnson) received a 39% higher callback rate than resumes with Asian-
sounding names (e.g., Hina Chaudhry; Oreopoulos, 2011). Similarly, resumes
with White-sounding names (e.g., John Martin) had a higher callback rate
even when compared to resumes with Asian-sounding surnames paired with
a White-sounding forename (e.g., Allen Wang; Oreopoulos, 2011).
 Microaggression Theory
Not only are resumes with racial and ethnic names disadvantaged in the
pre-employment stage, but so are resumes with female names (Moss-Racusin,
Dovidio, Brescoll, Graham, & Handelsman, 2012). In a randomized experimen-
tal design, faculty members from the biology, chemistry, and physics depart-
ments at several universities evaluated the resume of either a ctitious female
(Jennifer) or male (John) applicant for potential lab manager positions. The
results from this study revealed that both male and female professors evaluated
the resume with the female name lower on competency, hireability, mentoring,
and salary than the resume with the male name. The ndings of these audit
studies consistently demonstrate that having a racial, ethnic, or female name
disadvantaged individuals when applying for jobs.
Asian and African American job applicants seem to be aware of the lower
callback rates due to their racial or ethnic identity. In fact, research has spot-
lighted a technique used by Asians and African American job applicants to
make up for the discrepancy in callback rates—resume “whitening” (Kang,
DeCelles, Tilcsik, & Jun, 2016). Some of these “whitening” techniques include
changing a racial or ethnic name to a more neutral, “American-sounding” name
as well as omitting experiences that may signify minority status (e.g., leaving
out work experience in Chinatown or “toning down” experiences in Black Stu-
dents’ Association; Kang et al., 2016, study 1). These whitening techniques had
a substantial impact on callback rates. Asian and African Americans had higher
callback rates when they “whitened” their resumes, changed their names and
work experiences, (21% and 25%, respectively) compared to when they did not
“whiten” their resumes (12% and 10% respectively, Kang et al., 2016, study 3).
Even though recruiters or HR professionals may not see the people who have
submitted their resumes, subtle (and possibly unintentional mistreatment) can
still occur prior to the job interview. What is clear is that having an ethnic,
racial, or female name will result in a signicantly lower chance of being called
back for a job interview or being perceived as not competent or hirable. One
potential reason for lower callback rates is that recruiters and HR profession-
als do have stereotypes or biases toward people with racial, ethnic, or female
names, and these stereotypes or biases manifest when they select candidates
to be interviewed. This is an example of a stereotype-based microaggression.
Not only is it unfortunate that names can incite biases from recruiters and
HR professionals, but it is also unfortunate that organizations will miss out on
the opportunity to hire top talent because recruiters and HR professionals are
unaware of the biases that they are perpetuating.
Microaggressions in the Workplace
Beyond microaggressions at the pre-employment stage, People of Color and
women also have to contend with microaggressions at work once they are
10 The 360-Degree Experience of Workplace Microaggressions 
hired. The few studies that have directly examined microaggressions in the
workplace have mostly taken place in clinical (Constantine & Sue, 2007; Sue,
Capodilupo, et al., 2007) and academic settings (Cartwright, Washington, &
McConnell, 2009; Pittman, 2012; Sharp-Grier, 2015). Two qualitative studies
shed light on the types of microaggressions that individuals contend with in
the workplace. One qualitative study on the experiences of executive Black
women found that they experienced ve types of microaggressions (Holder,
Jackson, &, Ponterotto, 2015). Environmental microaggressions were reected
in the underrepresentation of Black women in an organization that employed
nearly a thousand people, yet only a few Black women were in senior manage-
ment positions. Stereotypes of Black women were microaggressions based on
the stereotype of Black women as aggressive employees whose credentials were
consistently challenged. Universal experience comprised microaggressions that
reduced Black women to employees who know “all” other Black people within
the organization or have similar experience of the “typical” Black person. Invis-
ibility highlighted that when speaking during meetings Black women receive
unexpected body language from coworkers (e.g., head facing down and writing)
or simply little to no eye contact. Exclusion revealed when Black women were
not invited to social gatherings where appointments and opportunities were
discussed, leading to fewer ways for them to move up within the organization.
In another qualitative study, Asians reported experiencing seven types of
microaggressions in the workplace (Kim et al., 2015). Ascription of math
competency characterized microaggressions that treated Asians as employees
who only excel at math, statistics, or data analyses. Submissive/subservience
described the tendency to characterize Asians as passive or docile and there-
fore not having what it takes to be a leader. Invalidation of individual dierences
consigns Asian individuals to a broad set of homogenous people. Invisibility
described the experience of Asians who have been overlooked by non-Asians
in meetings or during one-on-one interactions. Inferiority describes how work
produced by Asian employees was viewed as substandard or not taken seri-
ously compared to work produced by their White counterparts (Kim et al.,
2015). Being singled out describes situations when an individual was singled
out because of his or her race. Demeaning cultural values and communications
style conveys that Asians cultural values and communication styles have been
viewed as less desirable than the dominant cultural values and communication
styles in the workplace.
These qualitative studies demonstrate that some of the microaggressions
that manifest in the workplace can be categorized as general microaggressions
emerging for both Black women and Asian employees (e.g., invisibility, univer-
sal experiences, and invalidation of individual dierences). Other microaggres-
sions were unique to employees based on their racial and gender identity and
the stereotypes held about that group, and can be categorized as stereotype-
based microaggressions (e.g., stereotypes of Black women, ascription of math
 Microaggression Theory
competency, and submissive/subservient). In addition, ndings from these stud-
ies suggest that microaggressions are a “360-degree experience” as they can
arise in all interactions that surround the employee: interactions from above
(supervisors), interactions from below (subordinates), and interactions from
the side (from peers and colleagues).
Microaggressions from above: supervisors
Qualitative research has shown that supervisors can be a primary source
of microaggressions in clinical settings (Constantine & Sue, 2007), academia
(Cartwright et al., 2009), and the workplace (Kim et al., 2015). In clinical set-
tings, supervisors oversee the cases that clinicians have taken on and help
clinicians to develop and rene their counseling skills through supervision
feedback. However, some types of feedback can be detrimental when laced
with microaggressions (Constantine & Sue, 2007). Qualitative interviews have
revealed that Black clinicians felt that White supervisors made stereotypical
remarks toward Black clinicians when the supervisors told the clinicians to “be
on time” for supervision because of the stereotype that Black people tend to be
on a dierent time orientation. In other instances, supervisors told Black clin-
icians that they were gifted at “multicultural stu.” These microaggressions by
supervisors reduced Black clinicians to the stereotype of people who are per-
petually late or selectively “gifted.
Receiving recognition from supervisors is an important aspect of work as it
highlights the contributions of workers within an organization. Ideally, recog-
nition should be consistently provided to employees within the workplace.
However, if recognition is inconsistent when People of Color achieve similar
milestones as their White counterparts, this inconsistency can be viewed as a
microaggression. For example, one African American faculty member recalled
that the dean sent out recognition e-mails whenever awards were given or fac-
ulty articles were published (Cartwright et al., 2009). She recalled her antici-
pation of the dean’s e-mail when achieving these milestones, “She sends out
everyone else’s, but forgot to send mine out.” (Cartwright et al., 2009, p. 175).
Inconsistent recognition by supervisors may lead to employees to feel that
they have been snubbed, perceived as unimportant, or treated as invisible
at work.
Supervisors may also commit microaggressions by asking seemingly innocu-
ous questions. For example, inquiring of an Asian employee “Why are you so
quiet?” during a top-level meeting was perceived as a microaggression (Kim
et al., 2015). When people are quiet during meetings, it does not necessarily
mean that they are not engaged. Rather, listening to people who are experts in
their eld rather than speaking up or asking questions immediately could be
a sign of respect (Kim et al., 2015). These communication styles were some-
times viewed as decits or looked down upon. While supervisors may explic-
itly say that they are tolerant of other cultures, questions such as, “Why are you
10 The 360-Degree Experience of Workplace Microaggressions 
so quiet?” may implicitly indicate that adhering to one’s culture is viewed as a
decit or is not tolerated by supervisors within the organization.
Microaggressions from below: subordinates
In the workplace, people must also contend with microaggressions from those
who are in junior roles. In academic settings, faculty members interact fre-
quently with students, who are also a source of microaggressions. Research
has shown that Black faculty members sometimes get mistaken for clerical or
administrative sta, often being asked by White students to make copies for
them (Pittman, 2012). White students also tended to address Black female fac-
ulty members as “Miss,” rather than “Doctor” (Cartwright et al., 2009). Sim-
ilarly, some Faculty of Color reported having their credentials challenged by
White students in the classroom. Snubs by students can also take the form of
course evaluation feedback. One professor, with almost two decades of expe-
rience in her eld, got feedback from a student regarding her intellect, “She
was more intelligent than I thought she’d be.” (Sharp-Grier, 2015, p. 29). This
remark incited feelings of powerlessness and anger in this faculty member, in
line with previous research that has found strong negative emotions such as
anger and resentment associated with experiencing microaggressions (Wang,
Leu, & Shoda, 2011).
Microaggressions from the side: coworkers
Coworkers and colleagues who are of a similar rank within the organization
have also been demonstrated to be a source of microaggressions. For example,
research has shown that Faculty of Color felt that they were limited by their race
within their department at the university due to treatment by their colleagues
(Cartwright et al., 2009). Faculty of Color felt that they had to consistently prove
their worth to their peers. For example, when one Faculty of Color wanted to
teach other courses beyond the topic of diversity, her peers asked whether she
was stepping outside her realm of “expertise.” Faculty of Color felt they were
treated by their peers as if they were the “diversity specialists,” rather than com-
plete faculty members with broader expertise (Cartwright et al., 2009).
In sum, microaggressions can occur in the process of screening resumes for
interview callbacks in pre-employment. Audit research has shown that hav-
ing an ethnic, racial, or female name results in less favorable callback rates and
perceptions prior to entering the workforce. Unfortunately, microaggressions
continue once People of Color and women enter the workforce. Qualitative
studies have shown that People of Color and women endure microaggressions
as a “360-degree” experience, contributed to by supervisors, subordinates, and
coworkers. These microaggressions include but are not limited to reducing tar-
gets to stereotypes such as being selectively “gifted,” quiet, or being mistaken as
the “help.” While acts of microaggressions can be eeting, they can have lasting
harmful eects on the targets in the short- and long-term.
 Microaggression Theory
Responding to Microaggressions in the Workplace
Experiencing microaggressions has been associated with a wide range of nega-
tive responses for the target. Some of the responses that are elicited are proxi-
mal, occurring immediately in the moment, while other responses are more dis-
tal, occurring sometime after the microaggression has occurred (Holder et al.,
2015; Wang et al., 2011). These responses can impact a number of dierent
domains, including the individual’s emotional and cognitive well-being, per-
formance ability, and social capital within the workplace (Ibarra, Ely, & Kolb,
2013; Steele, 1997; Wang et al., 2011). Left unchecked, these responses can lead
to harmful individual and organizational consequences, manifested as negative
individual job attitudes, and eventually suboptimal organizational outcomes.
In this section, we will discuss how seemingly innocuous microaggressions
can have a detrimental impact within organizations by focusing on individual
responses to microaggressions and the negative consequences associated with
these responses.
Proximal Responses: Cognitive and Emotional Labor
When a person experiences a microaggression, he or she can respond in several
ways. A typical proximal, or immediate, response to a microaggression involves
the aective and cognitive labor that is exercised by an individual to make sense
of the microaggression. Dealing with microaggressions can take up the target’s
cognitive and emotional resources because he or she must rst stop to think
and determine if the slight is, in fact, a microaggression. This process is made
even harder due to the subtle and oftentimes ambiguous nature of microag-
gressions (Louis et al., 2016; Sue, Capodilupo, et al., 2007). Qualitative studies
have shed light on the thought processes that occur for individuals navigating
the aftermath of a workplace microaggression (Holder et al., 2015; Louis et al.,
2016). For example, Holder et al. (2015) documented an anecdote illustrating
the internal thought process of an individual grappling with how to handle a
racial microaggression:
I tend to play the scene over and over again, so before really coming to a
conclusion you start to do the process of elimination. Is it that I’m new
here?Isitthattheyreallfriends?Then you start to really begin to
isolate. Then once you get right down to it, this has to be an issue of
race. (p. 172)
This process is referred to as hypothesis testing through which the target
tries to determine the intent and meaning behind the microaggression (Holder
et al., 2015). Additionally, targets must also contend with the aftermath should
they choose to confront the behavior, wondering if their response would be
10 The 360-Degree Experience of Workplace Microaggressions 
interpreted by others as being overly sensitive, that is, playing the “race card”
(Endo, 2015; Louis et al., 2016). Thus, experiencing a microaggression entails
navigating how to not only interpret the slight but also deal with whether to
respond and how that may be received by others. All of these thought pro-
cesses require cognitive labor and can be draining for the target who could
use that cognitive energy elsewhere (Lewis, Mendenhall, Harwood, & Huntt,
2013), such as performing work-related tasks. In fact, one study that examined
the negative eects of microaggressions on the target revealed that individu-
als perceived more negative proximal work outcomes for the target, such as
less ability to concentrate on the job and maintain strong relationships with the
perpetrator, as the severity of the microaggression increased (Kim et al., 2015).
This suggests that microaggressions do elicit proximal responses, which may
negatively impact one’s ability to perform on the job.
The constant pressure of negotiating microaggressions can also take a toll on
the person’s emotional state. In fact, when individuals feel that they have been
mistreated based on factors such as their race, they experience greater neg-
ative emotions, including anger, contempt, anxiety, and shame (Wang et al.,
2011). Unsurprisingly, individuals who are regular targets of microaggressions
reported experiencing stronger negative emotions: not only must they deal with
regular job-related stressors, but they also must contend with additional stres-
sors related to workplace microaggressions (Louis et al., 2016).
Distal Responses: Performance Domain
So far, we have focused on examples of proximal responses that occur imme-
diately following a microaggression. Some responses, however, can occur dis-
tally over time, and aect one’s ability to perform at an optimal level long-
term. When faced with a stereotype-based microaggression specic to one’s
group, individuals are likely to be reminded of negative stereotypes related to
their group, and consequently may experience stereotype threat, a known hin-
drance to performance (Bergeron, Block, & Echtenkamp, 2006; Steele & Aron-
son, 1995).
As a response to this threat, some individuals may choose to overcompensate
in one way or another, going above and beyond what they would normally do
in their job to defy or live up to the stereotype (Block, Koch, Liberman, Merri-
weather, & Roberson, 2011). One way of defying a stereotype may take the form
of an African American college professor who feels the need to appear near per-
fect and produce impeccable work for fear that anything less would conrm the
negative stereotypes associated with African Americans as being lazy or intel-
lectually inferior, and perpetuate microaggressions against that group (Holder
et al., 2015; Louis et al., 2016).
Others, however, may choose to live up to the stereotype associated with
one’s group. For example, many East Asian cultures, including China, Korea,
 Microaggression Theory
and Japan, are known for their hard work ethic, epitomized by long workweeks
wherein professionals clock signicantly more hours than the average Ameri-
can (McCurry, 2015). Given this stereotype, Asian professionals may overcom-
pensate to fulll the perception of their hardworking ethic, thereby living up to
the high demands placed on Asians (Kim et al., 2015). This process can be cog-
nitively taxing as individuals constantly remain on high alert, taking on more
work, and expending additional energy to try and live up to the stereotype about
them. In fact, engaging in this “proving process” has been reported to diminish
self-condence and work performance for those who experience microaggres-
sions (Grin, Pifer, Humphrey, & Hazelwood, 2011), illustrating the detrimen-
tal eects associated with expending extra energy to meet or defy stereotypes
elicited by microaggressions.
Further exacerbating this problem, experiencing stereotype threat has also
been linked to feedback discounting (Roberson, Deitch, Brief, & Block, 2003).
Individuals who suer microaggressions and experience stereotype threat may
be more likely to doubt the accuracy and motivation of the feedback source,
thereby dismissing the feedback that they receive. This behavior puts individ-
uals at a disadvantage since research has discovered that they are less com-
pliant with directions for performance improvement (Banks, Stitt, Curtis, &
McQuater, 1977), which can hinder a person’s performance.
Distal Responses: Social Domain
Experiencing microaggressions can also harm one’s social capital within the
workplace. To succeed at work requires more than being a high performer, it
also involves having a strong social connection with potential sponsors and
mentors within organizations who can provide the necessary groundwork for
gaining traction, visibility, and social support within organizations (Ibarra et al.,
2013). Thus, having a strong social network is integral for succeeding within
organizations (Brass, 1985; Burt, 1997). In fact, people who are part of a broad
network that extends beyond their work group tend to be much more powerful
within organizations than others (Blau & Alba, 1982; Brass, 1985). Establishing
such a network can be a challenge for women and minorities in organizations
as those who are in positions of power, White males, tend to mentor those who
are similar to them (Ibarra, 1993). Given that women and minorities usually
have a much smaller set of “similar others” with whom to develop professional
relationships, their network is constrained even further (Ibarra, 1993).
Ethnic minorities and women, thus, face an uphill battle. They are limited
due to there being fewer members of their group with whom they can network
(Ibarra, 1993). Moreover, individuals who experience workplace microaggres-
sions are penalized given that their responses can isolate them even more. Indi-
viduals may have a harder time trusting the perpetrator who has committed a
microaggression, with many choosing to avoid or limit their future interactions
10 The 360-Degree Experience of Workplace Microaggressions 
with the perpetrator, constricting their social network (Constantine, Smith,
Redington, & Owens, 2008; Holder et al., 2015; Louis et al., 2016). To illus-
trate, one academic mentioned how, wishing to avoid the constant onslaught
of racial microaggressions, he decided to avoid coming into the oce during
normal business hours:
It got to a point where I did not even want to be in the oce, because any
comment could come at any time I’d go to my oce at 9:00 p.m. after
class and stay till midnight or 1[o’clock] doing work in a quiet, serene and
not hostile environment.
(Louis et al., 2016, p. 467)
One reason for this type of avoidant behavior stems from feeling vulnera-
ble or hopeless in trying to confront the perpetrator, contributing to feelings
of pessimism, and learned helplessness in which the targets are resigned to the
fact that subtle forms of discrimination will always exist (Hall & Fields, 2015;
Louis et al., 2016). As a result, the target nds it easier to disconnect from
colleagues who exhibit or even condone microaggressions (DeCuir-Gunby &
Gunby, 2016). While this may alleviate the immediate problem by limiting the
target’s exposure to the perpetrator, it hinders the targets ability to develop a
strong social network, which could impede advancement opportunities (Ibarra,
1995; Mehra, Kildu, & Brass, 1998).
Consequences of Microaggressions
So far, we have discussed distal and proximal reactions to microaggressions in
the workplace. Left unchecked, these responses can lead to negative individ-
ual consequences that can eventually aect organizational outcomes. In fact,
experiencing microaggressions has been linked to lower job satisfaction as a
consequence of such responses such as detaching from the group or feeling
hopeless in confronting the aggressor as a way of dealing with microaggres-
sions (DeCuir-Gunby & Gunby, 2016). Perceptions of racial microaggressions
have also been found to aect the target’s work outcomes such as job satis-
faction, organizational commitment, and job-related stress (Kim, Nguyen, &
Block, 2017; Oermann, Basford, Graebner, DeGraaf, & Jaer, 2013).
In one of the rst studies to examine perceptions of microaggressions in
the workplace, Oermann and her colleagues (2013) looked at racial microag-
gressions committed by a White supervisor on a Black employee, varying the
severity level of the microaggression to examine how it inuenced observers’
perceptions of negative work-related outcomes experienced by the target.
Results showed that as the severity of the microaggression increased, so did the
perceptions of negative outcomes such as lowered motivation, job satisfaction,
 Microaggression Theory
organizational commitment, and higher intentions to quit (Oermann et al.,
2013), all of which constitute long-term consequences for the individual. This
study also found that as severity levels increased, so did the observers’ per-
ception of the intent of the perpetrator. Thus, as severity increased, partici-
pants viewed the supervisor as being more intentional and aware of his or her
In sum, dealing with microaggressions often leave minority group members
suspicious and distressed as they try and grapple with the intention behind
the microaggression (Sue, Capodilupo, et al., 2007; Sue, Nadal, et al., 2008).
Additionally, the added stress of experiencing and dealing with microaggres-
sions places undesirable constraints that interfere with or hinder an individ-
ual’s ability to achieve valued work outcomes, leading to job-searching behavior
and eventually, turnover (Cavanaugh, Boswell, Roehling, & Boudreau, 2000).
Therefore, workplace microaggression can be a key contributor to the loss of
top talent within an organization.
Moreover, microaggressions can extend their insidious eects beyond the
workplace. Experiencing microaggressions can take both a physical and psy-
chological toll on an individual (Sue, Capodilupo, et al., 2007). The constant
processing of and responding to microaggressions has been associated with
exhaustion, insomnia (Hall & Fields, 2015), binge-drinking (Blume, Lovato,
Thyken, & Denny, 2012), higher levels of stress (Smith, Hung, & Franklin, 2011),
negative emotions (Wang et al., 2011), and poorer mental health, including
higher anxiety and depression and lower self-esteem (Nadal, Grin, Wong,
Hamit, & Rasmus, 2014).
Furthermore, contending with microaggressions and its ensuing conse-
quences, including stereotype threat, can cause spillover. Specically, stereo-
type threat spillover refers to the situational predicament in which coping with
the ensuing stress leaves one in a depleted state, unable to engage in eortful
self-control in a variety of domains (Inzlicht & Kang, 2010). This phenomenon
is not surprising given how cognitively and emotionally exhausting it can be
to not only interpret the microaggression but also respond by trying to defy or
live up to the stereotype associated with one’s group (Grin et al., 2011; Holder
et al., 2015; Kim et al., 2015). According to the spillover theory, because one is
left depleted after dealing with the microaggression, one is less able to exert self-
control, resulting in more aggressive behavior when provoked, riskier decision
making, and poorer food choices (Inzlicht & Kang, 2010). It is clear that expe-
riencing microaggressions is anything but harmless to those on the receiving
end and that the negative impact stemming from microaggressions needs to be
acknowledged and addressed.
Why should practitioners be alarmed by all this? Within the context of the
organization, it is suggested that having employees who must endure such
inequities can lead to a number of negative outcomes, including lowered
motivation and morale, absenteeism, and turnover (Cocchiara & Quick, 2004).
10 The 360-Degree Experience of Workplace Microaggressions 
Having women and minority talent leave the organization can lead to a drain
in the diversity pipeline, leaving organizations with a shortage of qualied indi-
viduals to move up the ladder. This can be costly to organizations. For instance,
many individuals choose to leave organizations that perpetuate subtle forms of
discrimination. Annually, over two million people leave their jobs because of
subtle forms of discrimination (Level Playing Field Institute, 2006). This exo-
dus contributes to a massive nancial drain as the ensuing estimated cost of
recruiting, selecting, and training to replace two million employees is approxi-
mately $64 billion (Burns, 2012).
Targets of microaggressions are not the only ones aected. Bystanders
or witnesses of microaggressions can also be negatively impacted. Although
bystanders may not be the direct subject of a microaggression, similar to
the eects of second-hand smoke, witnessing workplace microaggressions can
have lasting negative repercussions on the occupational health for bystanders
(Chrobot-Mason, Ragins, & Linnehan, 2013). In fact, individuals who sim-
ply witnessed microaggressions reported less satisfaction with their colleagues
and supervisors, poorer health, and lower self-esteem (Low, Radhakrishnan,
Schneider, & Rounds, 2007). Thus, bearing witness to acts of microaggressions
can also be stressful for observers, illustrating the far-reaching negative conse-
quences of microaggressions and highlighting why practitioners must work to
reduce the occurrence of such incidents.
Retaining a diverse workforce can also help an organization become more
competitive. Research has shown that companies in the top quartile for gender
or racial diversity are more likely to enjoy nancial returns above the industry
median (Hunt, Layton, & Prince, 2015). In fact, ethnically diverse companies
are 35% more likely to outperform those in the bottom quartile, illustrating
the competitive advantage diverse companies have compared to those that are
less diverse. Thus, it would be in a company’s business interest to thoroughly
examine microaggressions experienced by its employees in an eort to reduce
the occurrence of such incidents.
Organizational Buffers against Microaggressions
What can organizations do to help reduce detrimental eects of workplace
microaggressions? Though this may seem like a considerable task, practi-
tioners can approach the challenge in a variety of ways. At the individual
level, practitioners can provide diversity training to reduce incidents of
microaggressions by raising people’s awareness of such incidents and trans-
mitting knowledge meant to increase participants’ multicultural competency
(Ferdman & Brody, 1996). Managers should be mindful to not only recognize
and reduce microaggressions among their direct reports but also check their
own tendency to ensure that they themselves are not the ones committing
 Microaggression Theory
microaggressions. Doing so, managers can create a safe climate for their team
in which people can also feel comfortable discussing microaggressions that
they may be experiencing.
It is integral that leadership also monitor employee sentiment by carefully
examining data from sources such as exit interviews, employee engagement
surveys, and focus groups to understand drivers of disengagement, particularly
around diversity and inclusion. Often, both quantitative and qualitative data
related to these dimensions will reect the perspectives of minority groups,
and can be a rich source of information for gauging the organization’s diver-
sity climate. To ensure that this happens, organizations should move toward
increasing the accountability of managers by including diversity management
into the manager’s competency model.
At the macrolevel, organizations should strive to create and maintain a pos-
itive diversity climate by establishing systemic equitable processes. One such
practice is resume blinding in which information from resumes such as gender
and race are removed. By blinding resumes, recruiters can bypass their biases
and hire more diverse candidates. Similarly, practitioners can reduce specic
stereotypes associated with certain jobs or roles. Stereotype-based microag-
gressions can induce stereotype threat when the stereotype is relevant to the
task (e.g., African Americans are good caretakers, Asians are good at math, or
women have good interpersonal skills). Research has shown that the eects of
stereotype-threat can be eliminated by refuting or diminishing the stereotype
relevance of the task (Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999) or underscoring similar-
ities shared by the stereotyped and nonstereotyped groups (Kray, Thompson,
& Galinsky, 2001). To do so, managers can emphasize characteristics necessary
for successful completion of a task or role that is not linked to group stereotypes
(Roberson & Kulik, 2007). For example, a manager could emphasize the orga-
nization’s holistic hiring practice by saying “Our function has a well-balanced
team thanks to our company’s hiring process” or highlight the skills necessary
for a job through statements such as “This project would benet from having
someone with your expertise in team building” rather than “You’d be great with
people because you’re a woman.
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diversity training aimed at helping people identify and reduce microaggres-
sions. For example, individuals who display colorblind attitudes, dened as the
denial or distortion of race and racism (Apfelbaum, Norton, & Sommers, 2012),
are less likely to recognize racial microaggressions in the workplace, perpetuat-
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such attitudes, practitioners should implement training that demonstrates the
importance of adopting a color aware attitude, helping people acknowledge the
role of racial dynamics, and how they manifest in the workplace (Block, 2015).
By doing so, the organization can not only create an inclusive environment by
10 The 360-Degree Experience of Workplace Microaggressions 
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... Microaggression which initially started as a means of discrimination towards people of colour has now revitalized itself into a discourse; which structurally consists of verbal, behavioural and environmental manifestations of explicit or subtle remarks that target certain groups or disseminate stereotypical generic statements and actions that either intends to malign an individual or unconsciously ends up harming the individual. Microaggression researches have recently included the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) people (Nadal, 2013), the women gender (Capodilupo et al., 2010) and have also theorized frameworks for understanding workplace microaggressions (Kim Nguyen & Block, 2018). ...
... Workplace microaggressions is rapidly becoming an emerging discursive field, as corporate organizations, Human Resource managers and researchers are beginning to also find subtle forms of discrimination in the workplace (Kim Nguyen & Block, 2018) suggests that workplace microaggressions can exist in two-fold forms: "While some of the microaggressions identified in the workplace represent general mistreatment, others are based on stereotypes about different social identity groups, particularly as they relate to workplace performance" (161). Given that individuals spend a vast majority of their time in their workplace (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2017) and communications and behaviour in such a space lead to developing their identity, physical-emotional well-being and individual productivity, identifying the tropes of workplace microaggressions becomes necessary to provide a healthy work environment and also to ensure good Quality of life to the employees and managers working there. ...
... Categorised as "Distal Response", the process is long-term and can affect the individual's performance in the workplace and also harm one's social identity within the workplace. The person gets conscious and reminded of the stereotype he/she carries and engages in a "proving process" to re-construct his/her image which often leads to a negative impact and hinders their workplace socio-economic performance (Kim, Nguyen & Block, 2018). ...
Full-text available
The 21st century work environment is a diverse workplace, incorporating human capital from different race, cultures, geographical locations differing in age, gender and sexual identities. While this workforce diversity promotes a globalized outlook to organizations and ensures varied perspectives that foster growth, it also becomes detrimental to the workplace environment due to the vast number of differences between them which leads to microaggressions. The study analyses the popular American televised mockumentary, The Office to situate the frequency and different types of such workplace microaggressions that are manifested consciously and unconsciously in the office space. 310 instances of workplace microaggressions were identified across the sitcoms 54 episodes analysed. Furthermore, 7 domains of workplace microaggressions emerged through the study of these episodes, they were – age centric microaggressions, gender centric microaggressions, sexuality centric microaggressions, racial-ethnical centric microaggressions, appearance centric microaggressions, behaviour centric microaggressions and environmental centric microaggressions. The paper also focuses on the after effects of workplace microaggressions on the employees of the fictional office Dunder Mifflin and also proposes measures to combat microaggressions from its analysis of the show. The research undertakes a mixed method quantitative and qualitative study to strengthen the discourse of microaggressions and provide audiences a structure of how they can identify and minimize discriminations and negative prejudicial remarks in the workplace to ensure maximized profitability and a healthy work environment.
... Microaggressions also become a barrier to effective mental health care when committed by therapists, as illustrated in the case of Devon, and have been implicated as a significant contributor to mental health disparities (Dovidio and Casados, 2019;Sue et al., 2007;Williams and Halstead, 2019). Likewise, microaggressions can create a hostile environment in the workplace, leading to stress, lost productivity and employee turnover (Kim et al., 2018;Pitcan et al., 2018). ...
Efforts to understand racial microaggressions have focused on the impact on targets, but few studies have examined the motivations and characteristics of offenders, and none has examined microaggressions committed by members of racialized groups. The purpose of this study is to determine if racial microaggressions should be conceptualized as a form of aggression when committed by racialized individuals by examining the relationship between propensity to commit microaggressions and aggressive tendencies to help inform interventions. This nationwide survey recruited 356 Asian, Black and Hispanic American adults. Participants completed measures of likelihood of committing anti-Black microaggressions, aggression, negative affect, and ethnic identity. There was a significant negative correlation between ratings by diversity experts of microaggressive interactions being racist and participants’ likelihood of engaging in those same interactions. For each ethnoracial group, likelihood of committing anti-Black microaggressions was significantly positively correlated with all measures of aggression examined. The correlation between microaggressions and aggression was strongest for non-White Hispanic participants and weakest among Asian participants. A linear regression showed that aggression uniquely predicted microaggression likelihood, after controlling for respective co-variates within groups. Among non-White Hispanic participants, there was a significant positive correlation between negative affect and propensity to commit microaggressions, but this association disappeared in the regression analysis after accounting for aggression. A positive ethnic identity was not correlated with microaggression likelihood among Black participants. Findings indicate that microaggressions represent aggression on the part of offenders and constitute a form of behaviour that is generally socially unacceptable. Implications and cognitive behavioural treatment approaches are discussed. Key learning aims (1) People of colour generally recognize that racial microaggressions are unacceptable. (2) People of colour may commit microaggressions against other people of colour. (3) Anti-Black microaggressions are correlated to aggression in perpetrators. (4) Microaggressions are not solely attributable to negative affect or low ethnic identity. (5) Therapists should address microaggressions, even when committed by people of colour.
Scholarship on workplace diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) is voluminous. Nevertheless, there is relatively little work that examines DEI from an organization development and change (ODC) or systems perspective. As a result, there is no unified framework ODC practitioners can use for DEI diagnosis and intervention. The purpose of this chapter is to review the ODC literature with respect to DEI and propose a diagnostic Context-Levels-Culture (CLC) framework for understanding and addressing diversity-related challenges in organizations. We also present a case example of how this framework can be used in DEI consulting, including implications for future research and practice.
Despite the extensive literature about the pervasiveness and impact of microaggressions in the workplace, little is known about what specific workplace interventions have been adopted to mitigate them and, for those adopted, whether the efforts are effective. Given the nature of this special journal issue, we originally sought to answer this call by focusing solely on workplace interventions targeting microaggressions. However, it became clear that the relative paucity of such interventions (as documented in the literature) necessitated that we cast a broader net. We therefore present the results of a systematic review of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of workplace interventions focused on subtle bias and/or its behavioral manifestations. The review identified only six papers that met the inclusion criteria of: 1) reporting a real-world workplace intervention with a goal of reducing subtle bias and/or behavioral manifestations and 2) including a systematic evaluation of attitude, awareness, and/or behavioral change. Multiple themes across the identified studies are summarized. The discussion addresses the dearth of well-documented interventions and examines lessons learned from existing interventions to inform the development of future training focused on microaggressions in order to contribute to long-lasting change.
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Due to the globalization of the airline industry, global airlines are focusing human resource management on diversity strategies and employing flight attendants of various races. Multinational flight attendants have brought many positive results; conversely, discrimination has led to negative phenomena such as racism. Nevertheless, research focusing on global airline racism in tourism studies is unprecedented. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a modern racism scale rating the discrimination perceived by Asian female flight attendants on global airlines. It was developed following Churchill’s eight steps (1979). This study derived measurement items through a literature review, in-depth interviews, first and second expert surveys, and a preliminary survey. These items were developed on a scale through a validity and reliability assessment and were finally confirmed as six dimensions and 24 measurement items. Lastly, research implications were discussed.
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The study examined perceptions of racial workplace microaggressions against Asians. Microaggressions signal that the target's racial group is highly visible to the perpetrator. In this study, we examined the perceived negative effects associated with this type of heightened racial visibility, and whether these effects are equally discernable to all based on one's race and color-blindness. Asian and White participants were given a series of vignettes depicting different types of microaggressions, consisting of both blatant (microassault) and subtle forms (microinsult and microinvalidation). In addition, we examined a new form of subtle microaggression (overvalidation) that occurs when the perpetrator treats Asians in a seemingly positive way based on stereotypes about Asians (e.g. assigning predominantly quantitative tasks to Asians because they are perceived to be good at math). Results revealed that compared to Whites, Asians saw a smaller difference in negative effects between the blatant microassault and subtle overvalidation and microinsult conditions. Additionally, participants lower on color-blindness perceived a smaller difference in negative effects on the target between the microassault and all forms of subtle microaggressions. Finally, we found that color-blindness played a stronger role among Whites than Asians such that compared to Whites higher on color-blindness, Whites lower on color-blindness perceived a smaller difference in negative effects on the target between the microassault and subtle microaggressions. No such difference existed among Asians. Implications for raising awareness of the negative effects of subtle microaggressions that render Asians (in)visible in the workplace are discussed.
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The authors examined how gender stereotypes affect negotiation performance. Men outperformed women when the negotiation was perceived as diagnostic of ability (Experiment 1) or the negotiation was linked to gender-specific traits (Experiment 2), suggesting the threat of negative stereotype confirmation hurt women's performance relative to men. The authors hypothesized that men and women confirm gender stereotypes when they are activated implicitly, but when stereotypes are explicitly activated, people exhibit stereotype reactance, or the tendency to behave in a manner inconsistent with a stereotype. Experiment 3 confirmed this hypothesis. In Experiment 4, the authors examined the cognitive processes involved in stereotype reactance and the conditions under which cooperative behaviors between men and women can be promoted at the bargaining table (by activating a shared identity that transcends gender).
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Using interviews, a laboratory experiment, and a résumé audit study, we examine racial minorities’ attempts to avoid anticipated discrimination in labor markets by concealing or downplaying racial cues in job applications, a practice known as “résumé whitening.” Interviews with racial minority university students reveal that while some minority job seekers reject this practice, others view it as essential and use a variety of whitening techniques. Building on the qualitative findings, we conduct a lab study to examine how racial minority job seekers change their résumés in response to different job postings. Results show that when targeting an employer that presents itself as valuing diversity, minority job applicants engage in relatively little résumé whitening and thus submit more racially transparent résumés. Yet our audit study of how employers respond to whitened and unwhitened résumés shows that organizational diversity statements are not actually associated with reduced discrimination against unwhitened résumés. Taken together, these findings suggest a paradox: minorities may be particularly likely to experience disadvantage when they apply to ostensibly pro-diversity employers. These findings illuminate the role of racial concealment and transparency in modern labor markets and point to an important interplay between the self-presentation of employers and the self-presentation of job seekers in shaping economic inequality.
Even when CEOs make gender diversity a priority by setting aspirational goals for the proportion of women in leadership roles, insisting on diverse slates of candidates for senior positions, and developing mentoring and training programs they are often frustrated by a lack of results. That's because they haven't addressed the fundamental identity shift involved in coming to see oneself, and to be seen by others, as a leader. Research shows, the authors write, that the subtle "second generation" gender bias still present in organizations and in society disrupts the learning cycle at the heart of becoming a leader. Women must establish credibility in a culture that is deeply conflicted about whether, when, and how they should exercise authority. Practices that equate leadership with behaviors considered more common in men suggest that women are simply not cut out to be leaders. Furthermore, the human tendency to gravitate to people who are like oneself leads powerful men to sponsor and advocate for other men when leadership opportunities arise. The authors suggest three actions to support and advance gender diversity: Educate women and men about second-generation gender bias; create safe "identity workspaces" to support transitions to bigger roles; and anchor women's development efforts in their sense of leadership purpose rather than in how they are perceived.
Academia is a microcosm of its larger socio-cultural realm and reflects the normalized hegemonic structures and interactions inherent therein. These formations serve to reinforce and recreate racial, sexed, and gendered stratifications and stigma despite the perception that the academy is a bastion of diversity and meritocracy. Unfortunately, women, minority, and queer faculty – many of whom enter into academia with the belief that their ascribed statuses will not serve to discredit or further brand them – are subject to stereotyping and stigmatization by both their students and colleagues, often to the detriment of their careers. I discuss stigma within the academy from a narrative autoethnographic standpoint, using my experience to illustrate the effect – personal and professional – that stigma and microaggressions have on marginalized faculty.