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Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the newborn sibling and the other factors’ contribution on previous sibling’s behaviors. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we interviewed with 312 mothers who had children under the age of one, between February-July 2012, in the well-child outpatient clinics of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics. A structured questionnaire was conducted, interviewing face to face with the mothers. Scores of jealousy behaviors questionnaire could range from 0-13. The cut-off score is accepted as 8 points and scores between 0-7 points were evaluated as normal or acceptable, whereas the scores of 8 points or more was evaluated as pathological jealousy behaviors. The numerical values of dependent and independent variables asked in the questionnaire were shown as number and percentage. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and Likelihood test were used to examine the effect of independent variables on jealousy behavior. The Spearman Rho correlation coefficient was calculated to examine the correlation between the age of the focus child and the jealousy score. Variables determined to affect jealousy behavior were examined by logistic regression model (enter method). With the model established, it was tried to determine the risk factors that could affect the jealousy of the firstborn child. In the Enter method, the probability of entry into the logistic regression model at each step was 0.05 and the probability of being extracted from the model was 0.10. Confidence intervals of 95% were determined for the Odds Ratio (OR) value obtained by logistic regression. For statistical analysis, SPSS for Win. Ver. 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, ILL, USA) and for jealousy score calculation, tables and graphs MS-Excel 2016 programs were used. Significance level of p≤0.05 was accepted in statistical decisions. Results: Mothers who participated in the study were found to have a median age of 30 (min: 20, max: 44, IQR: 6). Age of the previous children was 48 months (IQR: 24 months). The most common negative behaviors in the previous brothers were regression (77.74%), sleep changes (47.76%), violent behaviors (46.28%), changes in toilet habits (32%) and decrease in appetite (% 31). Children's jealousy behaviors decreased as age increased (Rho = -0.302; p <0.001). It was seen that the most important risk factors for jealousy were having a non-worker mother (OR: 0.19), decrease in time that is spent with father (OR: 4.43), and being at the risky age group (2-4 years) of the firstborn child (OR: 8.16). Conclusion: A newly joined baby causes some negative behavior patterns on the previous sibling. Attitudes of parents to their children can affect this situation. It is important in terms of primary care medicine to question how the previous children of the families who have or have plans to have a new baby responded to this situation and how to control the child's jealousy behavior by resolving the concerns of the family.
AnkaraMedJ,2018;(3):28699
DOI:10.17098/amj.461653
DağcıoğluAnkaraMedJ,Vol.18,Num.3,2018
286
TheEffectsoftheNewBabyontheOlderSibling
AileyeYeniKatılanBebeğinBirÖncekiKardeşÜzerineEtkisi
BasriFurkanDağcıoğlu1
1AnkaraYıldırımBeyazıtUniversity,FacultyofMedicine,DepartmentofFamilyMedicine
Abstract
Objectives:Theaimofthisstudyistoinvestigatetheeffectsofthenewbornsiblingandtheother
factors’contributiononprevioussibling’sbehaviors.
MaterialsandMethods:Inthiscrosssectionalstudy,weinterviewedwith312motherswhohad
childrenundertheageofone,betweenFebruaryJuly2012,inthewellchildoutpatientclinicsofGazi
UniversityFacultyofMedicine,DepartmentofPediatrics.Astructuredquestionnairewasconducted,
interviewingfacetofacewiththemothers.Scoresofjealousybehaviorsquestionnairecouldrangefrom
013.Thecutoffscoreisacceptedas8pointsandscoresbetween07pointswereevaluatedasnormalor
acceptable,whereasthescoresof8pointsormorewasevaluatedaspathologicaljealousybehaviors.The
numericalvaluesofdependentandindependentvariablesaskedinthequestionnairewereshownas
numberandpercentage.Chisquaretest,Fisher'sexacttestandLikelihoodtestwereusedtoexamine
theeffectofindependentvariablesonjealousybehavior.TheSpearmanRhocorrelationcoefficientwas
calculatedtoexaminethecorrelationbetweentheageofthefocuschildandthejealousyscore.
Variablesdeterminedtoaffectjealousybehaviorwereexaminedbylogisticregressionmodel(enter
method).Withthemodelestablished,itwastriedtodeterminetheriskfactorsthatcouldaffectthe
jealousyofthefirstbornchild.IntheEntermethod,theprobabilityofentryintothelogisticregression
modelateachstepwas0.05andtheprobabilityofbeingextractedfromthemodelwas0.10.Confidence
intervalsof95%weredeterminedfortheOddsRatio(OR)valueobtainedbylogisticregression.
Forstatisticalanalysis,SPSSforWin.Ver.15.0(SPSSInc.,Chicago,ILL,USA)andforjealousyscore
calculation,tablesandgraphsMSExcel2016programswereused.Significancelevelofp0.05was
acceptedinstatisticaldecisions.
Results:Motherswhoparticipatedinthestudywerefoundtohaveamedianageof30(min:20,max:
44,IQR:6).Ageofthepreviouschildrenwas48months(IQR:24months).Themostcommonnegative
behaviorsinthepreviousbrotherswereregression(77.74%),sleepchanges(47.76%),violentbehaviors
(46.28%),changesintoilethabits(32%)anddecreaseinappetite(%31).Children'sjealousybehaviors
decreasedasageincreased(Rho=‐0.302;p<0.001).Itwasseenthatthemostimportantriskfactorsfor
jealousywerehavinganonworkermother(OR:0.19),decreaseintimethatisspentwithfather(OR:
4.43),andbeingattheriskyagegroup(24years)ofthefirstbornchild(OR:8.16).
Conclusion:Anewlyjoinedbabycausessomenegativebehaviorpatternsontheprevioussibling.
Attitudesofparentstotheirchildrencanaffectthissituation.Itisimportantintermsofprimarycare
medicinetoquestionhowthepreviouschildrenofthefamilieswhohaveorhaveplanstohaveanew
babyrespondedtothissituationandhowtocontrolthechild'sjealousybehaviorbyresolvingthe
concernsofthefamily.
Keywords:Siblingjealousy,newbornbabyandjealousy,siblingrivalry
Öz
Amaç:Çalışmamızınamacı,aileyeyenikatılanbebeğin,biröncekikardeş üzerindekietkilerininve
kardeşkıskançlığınaetkiedenfaktörlerinbelirlenmesinekatkıdabulunabilmektir.
MateryalveMetot:Kesitseltiptekibuçalışmada,GaziÜniversitesiTıpFakültesiÇocukHastalıkları
AnabilimDalıSağlamÇocukPolikliniği’neŞubat2012Temmuz2012tarihleriarasındabaşvuran,son
çocuğu1yaşınıgeçmemiş olanvebiröncekiçocuğubiryaşındanbüyükolan312anneileyüzyüze
görüşülerek,yapılandırılmış biranketuygulandı.Anketteyeralanvekıskançlıkdavranışınıyansıtan
sorulardaverilebilecekherbircevappuanlanarak,toplamkıskançlıkpuanıbelirlendi.Puanlama013
arasındadeğişebilmekteydi.Değerlendirmede07puanalançocuklarnormalyadakabuledilebilir
tutumasahip,8vedahayüksekpuanalançocuklarisepatolojikkıskançlıkgösterenolarak
sınıflandırıldı.KategorikdeğişkenlerileçocuğunkıskançlıkdurumuarasındakiilişkilerKikaretestiile
araştırıldı.KıskançlıkpuanıileodakçocuğunyaşıarasındakiilişkiyibelirleyebilmekamacıileSpearman
Rhokorelasyonkatsayısıhesaplandı.Puanlamasonuçlarıilekıskançlıkdavranışınaetkiettiğisaptanan
TheEffectsoftheNewBabyontheOlderSibling
DağcıoğluAnkaraMedJ,Vol.18,Num.3,2018
287
değişkenlerlojistikregresyonmodeliyleanalizedildi.İstatistikselanalizleriçinSPSSforWin.Ver.15.0
(SPSSInc.,Chicago,ILL,USA),kıskançlıkpuanhesabı,tablovegrafikleriçiniseMSExcel2016
programlarıkullanıldı.İstatistikselkararlardaanlamlılıkdüzeyip0,05olarakkabuledildi.
Bulgular:Çalışmayakatılanannelerinyaş ortancası30(min:20,maks:44;ÇAG:6)olarakbulundu.
Sondanbiröncekiçocuklarınyaşortancası48ay(ÇAG:24ay)idi.Yenikardeşindoğumuyla,birönceki
kardeşteensıkgörülenolumsuzdavranışlarınregresyon(%77,74),uykudeğişikliği(%47,76),şiddet
davranışları(%46,28),tuvaletalışkanlıklarındadeğişiklikler(%32)veiştahtaazalma(%31)olduğu
görüldü.Çocuklardakikıskançlıkdavranışlarıyaş arttıkçaazalmaktaydı(Rho=0,302;p<0,001).
Kıskançlıkiçinenönemliriskfaktörlerininanneninçalışmıyorolması(OR:0,19),babailegeçirilen
zamanınazalması(OR:4,43)vesondanbiröncekiçocuğun24yaşaralığındaolması(OR:8,16)olduğu
görüldü.
Sonuç:Aileyeyenikatılanbebek,biröncekikardeşüzerindebazıolumsuzdavranışkalıplarınınortaya
çıkmasınayolaçmaktadır.Annevebabanın,çocuklarıileilgilitutumları,budurumu
etkileyebilmektedir.Yenibebeksahibiolanyadaolmayıplanlayanailelerinbiröncekiçocuklarınınbu
durumanasıltepkiverdiğininsorgulanmasıvebukonudaailelerinkaygılarınıngiderilerek,çocuktaki
kıskançlıkdavranışınınnasılkontrolaltındatutulabileceğihakkındayolgösterilmesi,birincibasamak
hekimliğiısındanönemarzetmektedir.
Anahtarkelimeler:Kardeşkıskançlığı,yenibebekvekıskançlık,kardeşrekabeti
Correspondence/YazışmaAdresi:
Dr.BasriFurkanDağcıoğlu
AnkaraYildirimBeyazitUniversity,FacultyofMedicine,DepartmentofFamilyMedicine,
Bilkent/Ankara
email:bfurkan@gmail.com
Dateofsubmission:27.07.2018
Dateofadmission:09.09.2018
Introduction
Althoughthefirststudiesabouttheeffectofsiblingsonchilddevelopmentwere
conductedaroundthebeginningofthe20thcentury,siblingresearchesjustrecently
hasbeguntoevaluatemanyoftheissueswhichconcernfamilies.1Havingasiblinghas
manydirectandindirectcontributionstodevelopment,suchascognitive,language
andpsychosocialaspects.1
Thequalityofsiblingrelationshipalsoplaysanimportantroleinchildren’s
adjustment.Siblingrivalryislinkedtodeviantandantisocialbehavior,aswellasto
depressionandotherinternalizingproblems.Lookingonthebrightside,warmand
positiverelationshipsofsiblingsinchildhoodcanhelpcopingwithadjustment
problems.2
Jealousyandsiblingrivalryarecommonconditionsinsociety,whichisasoldas
humanhistoryandoftenconsideredasnormal.3,4Accordingtosomeexperts,these
feelingsareamongthatapersonfirstexperiencesandthusliesinthedeepestplacesin
thesoul.5Thereisalmostnobodyintheworldwhohasasiblingandneverhada
problemwithit.
Althoughtheconceptsofrivalry,conflict,jealousyandenvyareusuallyconfusedand
usedinsteadofeachother,thesearedistinctemotions.68Withatheoreticalapproach,
itcanbesaidthatthejealousindividual,belovedthingandrivalryexistinthecorners
ofthetriangleformingtheconceptofjealousy.9Theterm‘‘envy’’nearlyalwaysrefers
tothetwopersoncaseinwhichaperson(havingsimilarorequivalentcharacteristics)
lacksadesiredthing.Intheconceptofrivalry,thereisacompetitionwithanother(e.g.
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newbabysibling)fortheinterestandloveofthechild'slovedone.Conflictisa
conditionthatdependsentirelyoninterpersonaldynamicsandcanbeinfluencedby
jealousy,butitisaseparateconcept.9
Whenpeoplehavetoshareconceptssuchasinterest,compassion,loveortimethat
arepresentedtothemwithsomeonewithouttheirownwill,jealousyrises.According
toFreud,whostudiestheplaceofjealousyinhumannature,jealousyconsistsof:3,10
1)Grief,thepainofthinkingoflosingalovedone
2)Thepainthatwerealizethatwecannotgeteverythingwewant
3)Hostilityforasuccessfulrival
4)Selfcriticizeforourloss,moreorless
Themosteffectiveonesthatcausefeelingsofsiblingrivalryareemotionsofanger,self
pityandsadness.Itisarguedthattheinfantshavebeeninteractingwiththeirbrothers
after6monthsofage.11Thefirstprimitivejealousybehaviorsarebeginningtobe
observedaround910months.12However,thecomplexfeelingofjealousybeginstobe
feltinfacialexpressionsaftertheindividualis18monthsold.12Fortheoldersibling,
thisinteractionstartswhenthenewbabyisborn.Newlyjoinedsiblingsoftencause
jealousyinthepreviouschild.Surprisingly,sometimesthiscanevenbeobservedin
elderlypeoplelikegrandparents.13
Thefearthat,bythearrivalofnewbaby,oldersiblingwillnotbelovedasmuchasold
timesmaystartduringthepregnancyofthemother.14Manyfamiliesbegintryingto
familiarizetheirchildrenfortheideaofhavingasiblingbeforebirth.Ithasalsobeen
mentionedinthegeneticbaseofjealousy.Someexpertshavearguedthatthis
sensationfirststartedaroundtheageoftwo.15
Decreaseinthetimethatspentforthepreviouschildbythebirthofthenewsibling;
canleadtothedevelopmentofemotionsinthechildsuchasangerand
disappointment,whichseemtobeagainstthebaby,butactuallyagainsttheparents.
Amongthemostcommonpresentationsofregressivebehaviors,hittingtobaby,
harmingtheobjects,bitingpeoplecanbeseenaswellastoavoidtoiletingforalong
time,speakinglikeababy,drinkingfromababy’sbottle,bedwetting,naileatingand
fingersucking.16,17
Whenparentsvisitdoctors,theyusuallydonottalkaboutjealousyamongtheir
children.However,whenthesubjectisbroughtintoquestionbythedoctor,itappears
thattheyarewillingtotalkaboutsomeofthedifficultiestheyencounterandtoseek
constructiveadvicefromthedoctor.Thisproblem,whichisoftennotaddressed
spontaneously,sometimesleavesfamilieshelpless,andevenmoreimportantly,itcan
leavepermanenttracesthatwilllastalifetimebyaffectingchildren'spsychological
developmentnegatively.
Consideringtheprinciplesofholisticandcomprehensiveapproachoffamilymedicine,
itisveryimportanttoquestionsuchproblemsthatfamiliesdonotexpressby
themselves.Forthisreason,knowingtheprevalenceofsiblingjealousy,determining
thefactorsthattriggerthiscondition,andexplaininghowfamiliescancopewiththis
problemshouldbeconsideredasanimportantcomponentofprimaryhealthcare.
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Inthisstudy,itisaimedtomakeanassessmentofsiblingjealousyonachosen
populationaswellastoattracttheattentionofourcolleaguestothissubjectwhichis
underestimatedindailypractice.
MaterialsandMethods
Inthiscrosssectionalstudy,weinterviewedwith312motherswhohadchildrenunder
theageofoneandhadasecondchildolderthanoneyear,betweenFebruaryJuly2012,
inthewellchildoutpatientclinicsofGaziUniversityFacultyofMedicine,department
ofPediatrics.Choosingthenewbabiesunderage1ispreferredtominimizethe
memoryfactoronrememberingthebehaviorsofprevious(focused)child.Astructured
questionnairewasconducted,whichisformedbysearchingrelevantliteratureabout
thebehaviorsthatmaybeassociatedwithsiblingjealousy,interviewingfacetoface
withthemothers.
Variables
Asindependentvariables,thesociodemographicandeconomiccharacteristicsofthe
families(parents’ages,parents’educationalstatus,mothers’workingstatus,families’
totalmonthlyincome,familytype,children'sages,children'sgender)andfactorsthat
couldaffectsiblingjealousy(thetimewhenthechildwastold,thepersonwhogave
thenewsofthenewbaby,wherethefirstbornchildbegantospendtimeafterthenew
sibling,thechangeofthetimethatfirstbornchildspentwiththeparents)wereasked
inthequestionnaire.
Asdependentvariables,thebehaviorsofthefirstbornchildthatcouldbeattributedto
jealousywereaskedtomothersandtotaljealousybehaviorscorewascalculatedby
scoringeachquestion.Inthiscontext,somequestionswereaskedaboutchangesin
sleepingpatterns,deteriorationineatinghabits,clingingbehaviors,regressive
behaviorssuchasspeakinglikeababyordesireforbreastfeeding,avoidinggoingto
toilet,urinaryincontinence,violencetoparents,toobjectsortonewsibling,refusing
tohelpbabycare,whichcanallbeconsideredasjealousyassociatedbehaviors.
Scoring
Scoresofjealousybehaviorsquestionnaire,whichisformedbyscanningrelevantdata
intheliterature,couldrangefrom013.Thedistributionofthescoreswasexamined
andthecutoffscoreisacceptedas8points,whichwasunder2standarddeviations
(90thpercentile)frommaximumscore,andscoresbetween07pointswereevaluated
asnormaloracceptable,whereasthescoresof8pointsormorewasevaluatedas
pathologicaljealousybehaviors.
Statisticalanalysis
Thenumericalvaluesofdependentandindependentvariablesaskedinthe
questionnairewereshownasnumberandpercentage.Chisquaretest,Fisher'sexact
testandLikelihoodtestwereusedtoexaminetheeffectofindependentvariableson
jealousybehavior.TheSpearmanRhocorrelationcoefficientwascalculatedtoexamine
thecorrelationbetweentheageofthefocuschildandthejealousyscore.Variables
determinedtoaffectjealousybehaviorwereexaminedbylogisticregressionmodel
(entermethod).Withthemodelestablished,itwastriedtodeterminetheriskfactors
thatcouldaffectthejealousyofthefirstbornchild.IntheEntermethod,the
probabilityofentryintothelogisticregressionmodelateachstepwas0.05andthe
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290
probabilityofbeingextractedfromthemodelwas0.10.Confidenceintervalsof95%
weredeterminedfortheOddsRatio(OR)valueobtainedbylogisticregression.
Forstatisticalanalysis,SPSSforWin.Ver.15.0(SPSSInc.,Chicago,ILL,USA)andfor
jealousyscorecalculation,tablesandgraphsMSExcel2016programswereused.
Significancelevelofp0.05wasacceptedinstatisticaldecisions.
Ethicalconsiderations
Forthestudy,ethicalapprovalwasobtainedbythedecisionoftheethicsBoardofthe
noninterventionalclinicalresearchesEthicalCommitteeofGaziUniversityon
18.01.2012withthedecisionnumberof013.
Results
Thestudywasconductedwith312motherswhoappliedtoSocialPediatricsPoliclinic
ofGaziUniversityMedicalFacultyandagreedtoparticipateinthestudy.Theagesof
theparticipatedmotherswerebetween2044yearsandmedianagewas30year
(IQR=6).Oftheindividualsparticipatinginthestudy,131(41.98%)wereyoung
mothers,while178(57.05%)weremiddleagedmothers.Themedianageoffirstborn
childrenwasfoundtobe48(IQR=24)months.InTable1,somedescriptive
characteristicsaboutthefamiliesparticipatinginthestudy,andinTable2,descriptive
characteristicsaboutthefactorsthatcouldaffectthesiblingjealousyweregiven.
Thedistributionoftheanswersgiventothequestionsaboutthebehaviorthatmaybe
relatedtothejealousyoffirstbornchildrenisgiveninTable3.
Statisticalanalyzesshowingtherelationshipofthequestionedvariableswiththe
jealousystatusofthefirstbornchildrenaregiveninTable4.
Asignificantnegativecorrelationwasfoundbetweentheageofthefirstbornchildand
thetotaljealousyscore,despitethecorrelationwaslow(Rho=0.302;p<0.001).Itwas
seenthatasthechild'sageincreased,thejealousyscoredecreased.Figure1showsthe
distributionofjealousyscorewiththeageoffirstbornchildren.
Logisticregressionanalysiswasperformedforvariablesthatinfluencedjealousy.The
pathologicaljealousybehaviorgroupwasselectedasdependentvariable,maternal
workingstatus,timespentwithfather,andagegroupoffirstbornchildrenas
independentvariables.Logisticregressionmodelwascompletedwith306subjects
(98.1%)as6deficiencieswerefoundinthedata.Thelogisticregressionmodel
establishedwasstatisticallysignificant(NagelkerkeR2=0.190)inordertodetermine
thesignificantfactorsonthefirstbornchild'spathologicaljealousyscore.
Itisfoundthat,havinganonworkermother(OR:0.19),decreaseoftimespentwith
father(OR:4.43)andbeingattheriskyagegroupofthefirstbornchild(OR=8.16)
increasedtheriskofhavingpathologicalattitudeofthefirstbornchild.
Theriskeffects(OR)resultingfromtheindependentvariablesinthemodelresulting
fromthelogisticregressionandtheconfidenceintervalsofthiseffectareshownin
Table5.
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Table1.Somedescriptivecharacteristicsaboutthefamiliesincludedinthestudy
Theageofthefirstbornn=310
24monthsoryounger24(7.74%)
2559months175(56.45%)
6083months94(30.32%)
84monthsorolder17(5.48%)
Firstbornchild’sgendern=309
Girl155(50.16%)
Boy154(49.84%)
Newbaby’sgendern=280
Girl142(50.71%)
Boy138(49.29%)
Educationalstatusofmothersn=312
Noneprimaryschool62(19.87%)
Middleschoolhighschool128(41.03%)
Universitypostdoc.122(39.10%)
Mothers'workstatusn=310
Working70(22.58%)
Notworkingoroffduty240(77.42%)
Familyincomen=303
Lessthan150067(22.11%)
15003500161(53.14%)
3501andabove75(24.75%)
Familytypen=312
Core229(73.40%)
Extended83(26.60%)
Theplacethatfirstbornspendstimen=309
Home187(60.51%)
Nursery109(35.28%)
Withrelatives13(%4.21)
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Table2.Descriptivecharacteristicsaboutthefactorsthatcouldaffectthesibling
jealousy
Whenwasthenewsiblingtoldn=312
Beforepregnancy20(6.41%)
Duringpregnancy279(89.42%)
Afterbirth13(4.16%)
Whogavethenewsofnewsiblingn=292
Mother177(60.61%)
Father7(2.39%)
Parentstogether108(36.99%)
Firstreactiontosiblingnewsn=302
Rejoicing192(63.57%)
Anger/Sorrow24(7.95%)
Surprised/Nonreacting86(28.48%)
Thetimethatfirstbornspentwithmothern=309
Increased28(9.06%)
Decreased198(64.07%)
Hasnotchanged83(26.86%)
Thetimethatfirstbornspentwithfathern=310
Increased112(36.12%)
Decreased28(9.03%)
Hasnotchanged170(54.84%)
Discussion
Interestingresultshavebeenachievedinthisstudy,inwhichweareinvestigatingthe
effectofthenewbornbabyonthebehavioroftheoldersibling.
Itwasseenthatmostofthefamiliesgavethenewsofthenewsiblingthatwilljointhe
familytothepreviouschildduringthepregnancyandespeciallyinthefirsttrimester.
Manymotherssharedthiswiththeirchildrenshortlyafterlearningthattheywere
pregnant.Insomestudies,itisassertedthatfamiliarizationoftheoldersiblingtothis
situationbeforethebirthofthenewbabymakesapositivecontributiontothe
behaviorofthechild.18Oneofthecommonpracticesinourcountryisthatafterthe
birthofthenewbaby,parentsgiveagifttoolderchildandtellhimthatthebabyhas
broughtittohim.However,suchapproachesarenotrecommendedbysomeexperts,
foritmaycausechildrenfeeldeceived.
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Table3.Thedistributionoftheanswersgiventothequestionsaboutthebehaviorthat
mayberelatedtothejealousyoffirstbornchildren
Sleepingpatternofthefirstbornafternewbabyn=312
Hasnotchanged163(52.24)
Negativelyaffected149(47.76%)
Eatingappetiteofthefirstbornafternewbabyn=310
Increased18(5.81%)
Decreased97(31.29%)
Hasnotchanged195(62.90%)
Regressivebehaviorsofthefirstbornafternew
babyn=310
Regressionpresent241(77.74%)
Regressionabsent69(22.26%)
Toiletbehaviorsofthefirstbornafternewbabyn=309
Negativelychanged100(32.36%)
Hasnotchanged209(67.64%)
Violencebehaviorsofthefirstbornafternew
babyn=309*
None166(53.72%)
Toparents83(26.86%)
Tosibling128(41.42%)
Toobjects55(17.80%)
Firstbornchild’swillingnesstohelpbabycaren=308
Yes235(76.30%)
No22(7.14%)
Sometimes51(16.56%)
*Morethanoneanswerswerepossible
Thebirthofanewbabyoftencauseslessormorechangesinthepreviouschild.19Only
25(8.01%)ofthechildrenwhodidnotshowanyjealousybehaviorwerefoundinour
study.Ontheotherhand,theenvyofthenewbabybytheoldersiblingisoftena
concernforthefamily.However,only9.90%(n=31)ofchildrenshowedpathologically
negativebehaviorstowardsnewsiblingandbehaviorsofmorethan90%ofthe
childrencouldbeconsideredasnormal.AccordingtoastudyintheUnitedStates,the
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4
concernsofparentsaboutthejealousyofthepreviouschildagainstthenewbabywere
foundtobegreaterthanthebehaviorthatcouldberelatedtojealousyinthechild.20
Thismayindicatethatfamiliesareworryingmorethannecessaryonthesubjectof
siblingjealousy.
Table4.Relationshipofthequestionedvariableswiththejealousystatusofthe
firstbornchildren
Totaljealousyscore
Normalor
acceptable
attitude
(07points)
n(%)
Pathological
attitude
(8pointsor
over)
n(%)
2p
Mother’seducationalstatus
Compulsoryeducationor
below85(90.43)9(9.57)
0.0400.980
Highschool86(89.58)10(10.42)
Universityorpostdoc110(90.16)12(9.84)
Father’seducationalstatus
Compulsoryeducationor
below51(92.73)4(7.27)
2.1060.349
Highschool70(85.37)12(14.63)
Universityorpostdoc111(90.24)12(9.76)
Mother’sworkingstatus
Working68(97.14)2(2.86)5.1260.024
Notworkingoroffduty211(87.92)29(12.08)
Familyincome
Lessthan150063(94.03)4(5.97)
2.2320.32815003500141(87.58)20(12.42)
3501andabove68(90.67)7(9.33)
Familytype
Core209(91.27)20(8.73)1.3900.238
Extended72(86.75)11(13.25)
Gender
Firstborn
child’s
gender
Newbaby’s
gender
GirlGirl67(87.01)10(12.99)0.054
0.816
Boy53(88.33)7(11.67)
BoyGirl59(90.77)6(9.23)0.003
0.958
Boy71(91.03)7(8.97)
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Firstborn’sgender
Girl138(89.03)17(10.97)0.3010.583
Boy140(90.91)14(9.09)
Totalchildnumberofthefamily
2238(90.49)25(9.51)0.3460.556
3ormore43(87.76)6(12.24)
Whenwasthenewsiblingtold
Beforepregnancy20(100.00)0(0.00)
7.3500.025
*
Duringpregnancy247(88.85)31(11.15)
Afterbirth13(100.00)0(0.00)
Firstreactiontosiblingnews
Rejoicing177(92.19)15(7.81)
3.5920.166Surprised/Nonreacting74(86.05)12(13.95)
Anger/Sorrow20(83.33)4(16.67)
Theplacethatfirstbornspendstime
Home164(85.42)28(14.58)
3.9530.139Withrelatives11(84.62)2(15.38)
Nursery103(94.50)6(5.50)
Thetimethatfirstbornspentwithmother
Increasedorhasnot
changed104(92.04)9(7.96)0.8440.358
Decreased174(88.78)22(11.22)
Thetimethatfirstbornspentwithfather
Increasedorhasnot
changed257(91.46)24(8.54)p=0.016
(Fischer’s
exacttest)
Decreased22(75.86)7(24.14)
Firstbornchild’sage(twogroups)
Under2yearsorover4
years120(97.56)3(2.44)12.95
2
<0.00
1
24years159(85.03)28(14.97)
*Clinicallynotsignificant,duetolackofenoughdatainsomeboxes
Themostcommonnegativeattitudewasregressivebehaviorswitharateof77.7%.
Amongthem,therewerebehaviorslikedemandinghelpfrommotherwhileeating,
demandingbreastfeeding,speakinglikeababyandclingingtomother.Accordingto
Volling,theregressionsignsmaydependonwhetheraskillisnewlyacquiredorfirmly
established,andmostofthetasksofselfhelpintoilet,weaninganddressingdepend
onthecomplexityofthechild'smaturationprocess.4Therefore,encouragingthechild
togainindependencemaybeaneffectivewaytopreparefirstbornsandparentsforthe
arrivalofanewbaby.4
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Table5.Logisticregressionmodel
Figure1.Thedistributionofjealousyscorewiththeageoffirstbornchildren.
Inourstudy,withthearrivalofanewbaby,itisseenthatthetimethatthefather
usuallyspentwiththepreviouschildrenusuallyincreased.Thismaybeanattitude
towardsclosingtheinterestdeficiencyofthemother,whonowhastodealwiththe
newbaby.Ithasalsobeenobservedthatthedecreaseinthetimespentbythefather
withthechild,increasestheriskofthechildshowingjealousyattitudes.Ithasbeen
reportedthatthepositiverelationshipbetweentheparentsandtherelationshipbased
pOdds
Ratio(OR)
95%C.I.forOR
LowerUpper
Havinganonworkermother0.0270.1860.0420.829
Decreaseoftimespentwithfather0.0054.4271.55312.620
Beingattheriskyagegroup(24
years)ofthefirstbornchild0.0018.1602.35728.251
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297
ontheloveandcompassionhelpsthechildtocopewithnegativefeelings
significantly.21Inthisrespect,itcanbesaidthatparentswhohaveanewbabywill
benefitfromhavingmorequalitytimewiththeirpreviouschildren.
Oneoftheremarkablefindingsinourstudyisthatsiblingjealousyismorecommonin
childrenofmotherswhodonotworkandspendtimeathome.Thisinteresting
conclusioncanbeinterpretedasthemother,whoisapopularandcompetingentityin
therivalrytriadisoutallday,andthismaydecreasethejealousyinstinct.Thus,the
elementsofjealousyisdefinedbyKolakandVolling,asthejealousindividual,the
thingthatislovedandtherivalry.9Ontheotherhand,consideringthattheinterviews
aremadewithmothers,itmayalsohavebeencausedbythefactthatthemotherswho
spendmoretimeathomecouldhavewatchedmorejealousybehavior.Thisdistinction
wasnotpossibleduetothedesignofourstudy.
Anegativecorrelationbetweentheageofthefirstbornchildandthejealousyscore
wasfound,andfurtheranalysisshowedthatchildrenaged24years(2459months)
weresignificantlymorejealousthanchildrenaged5years(60months)andolder.This
resultsupportstheresultsofmanyotherworkonthesubject,22despitesomestudies
advocatingthatjealousymayincreaseinlaterages.23Because,accordingtoexperts,
peoplearemorelikelytoenvyotherswhoaresimilartothemselvesinattributessuch
asgender,age,experience,andbackground.8Whatismore,accordingtoBowlby’s
attachmenttheory,theearlybondbetweeninfantsandtheirparentsiscriticalforthe
infant’ssurvival.However,withage,childrendependlessonparent’sphysical
proximityandmoreonasenseofconfidencethattheywillbeaccessibleintimesof
need.24Fromthisresult,itcanbesaidthatparentsandphysiciansshouldbemore
carefulaboutpossiblejealousbehaviorswhenthereisalittleagedifferencebetween
thetwosiblings.Insomestudiesithasbeenarguedthatthegenderfactormayalso
haveaneffectonjealousbehaviors.25,26Therearevariousassertionsintheliterature
thatsiblingswiththesamesextendtobemorejealouseachother,asgirlsshowmore
jealousy.2730However,inourdetailedanalysisofourstudy,itwasseenthatneitherthe
genderofthenewbornbabyandnorthefirstborn,hadanyeffectonjealousbehavior.
Inseveralstudies,itwasdefinedthat,therearethreemainsiblingrelationship
patterns:aconflictualcluster(lowonwarmth,highonconflict),anaffectintense
cluster(aboveaverageonwarmthandconflict),andaharmoniouscluster(highon
warmth,lowonconflict).31Theserelationalclustersmayhelpustocomprehendthe
natureofsiblingdynamics.
Arecentresearchsuggeststhat,someyoungpeoplewithobsessivecompulsive
disorder(OCD),canpresentwithanacutefearofasiblingasaritualofOCD.32In
thesecases,itcaneasilybemisdiagnosedasasiblingrivalrywhichleadstoadelayon
appropriatetreatment.
Toourknowledge,thereisnotanycommonusedinventoryinTurkishlanguageto
measuresiblingjealousyinearlychildhood.Developinganinventoryfromthe
questionslikeinourquestionnaire,withitsvalidityandreliabilitystudies,may
contributetoliterature.
Approximately80%ofchildrenintheUnitedStateshaveatleastonesibling,which
indicatesthatthebirthofababysiblingisanormativeecologicaltransitionformost
children.4Forrecentdecadesnow,siblingrelationshipsandtheirimpactonfamilylife
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298
andindividualdevelopmenthaveattractedtheinterestofscientists,resultinginahuge
evidencebasedliteratureaboutsiblingrelationships.2Jealousy,whichisunlikebasic
feelingssuchasanger,fear,sadnessandjoy,definedasacomplexsocialfeelingby
Volling,hasbecomeatopicthathasbeenincreasinglyaddressedinthelastcenturyto
reachasocietywithmoretroublefreeandconflictfreepersonalities.21,33Further
researchesaboutthissubject,especiallyfromtheperspectiveofsearchinga
relationshipbetweenthejealousyofadulthood,wouldrevealthemysteriesofsibling
interactionswhichisalreadyunderstoodtobesubstantial.Apathologicjealousyof
siblingsmaybeanearlyindicatorofanarcissisticpersonality,whichneedstobe
investigatedaswell.Afamilyphysicianwhocansufficientlyunderstandthedynamics
ofsiblingrivalrywillbeabletohelpparentsforthemanifestationofthis
developmentalperiodonthechild.34Theexplanationoftheappropriateparenting
approach,whichstartsbeforethechild'sbirthandcontinuesintheprocessof
cohabitationwiththechild,shouldbeacceptedamongthemainpurposesoffamily
medicine.
Acknowledgements
IwouldliketoappreciateProf.Dr.UfukBeyazovaforhervaluablesupportandthanktoDr.Ebru
Yurdakul,Dr.ZahideErdemandallmyfriendswhomadeeffortandremarkablecontributionstothis
research.
Disclosurestatement
Nopotentialconflictofinterestwasreportedbytheauthor.
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... Researchers have found that girls' siblings are more jealous than boys' (22)(23)(24), and the age of the first child is negatively correlated with jealousy (25). As far as siblings are concerned, different gender combinations and age differences provide a unique family background for children's social adaptation process in China (5) and are also an important factor for siblings to compete for the limited resources of their parents (26). ...
... Major results showed that, for first-born children between the ages of 1.17 and 7, the older they are and the greater the age difference between them and the second children, the lower their sibling jealousy. There were no significant main effects for the sex difference in sibling jealousy, which is consistent with previous studies (5,25,27). The sibling jealousy of male second-born children was significantly higher than that of females, which was inconsistent with the results of previous studies (22)(23)(24). ...
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Although it is rarely contemplated, our sisters and brothers are often the longest lasting relationship partners in our lives. Siblings are present before friendships or romantic relationships, and they usually outlive our parents. Until about three decades ago, the importance of siblings was neglected by psychologists, despite the fact that around 80% of children still grow up with siblings (e.g., U.S. Census Bureau, 2008). Research before the 1980s almost exclusively concentrated on birth order and the impact of particular gender compositions (boy-boy, girl-boy, etc.) for siblings. Most of this literature, however, was either not based on empirical studies at all, or on research with serious methodological limitations. For three decades now, sibling relationships and their impact on family life and individual development have attracted the interest of developmental and clinical psychologists, resulting in a substantial body of evidence-based literature about sibling relationships.
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