Article

The effect of 2.45 GHz non-ionizing radiation on the structure and ultrastructure of the testis in juvenile rats

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Abstract

Background: Nowadays, mobile devices that emit non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) are predominantly used by juveniles and pubescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of whole body pulsed EMR on the juvenile Wistar albino rat testis at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm². Methods: The investigated animals (n=24) were divided into two control and two EMR groups (5 and 6 week old rats; 6 rats per group). Both EMR groups were irradiated continually for 3 weeks (2h/day) from postnatal days 14 and 21, respectively. Results: EMR caused an irregular shape of seminiferous tubules with desquamated immature germ cells in the lumen, a large number of empty spaces along the seminiferous epithelium and dilated and congested blood vessels in the interstitial tissue of the testis. The cytoplasm of Sertoli cells showed strong vacuolization and damaged organelles, with the cytoplasm full of different heterophagic and lipid vacuoles or the cytoplasm of spermatocytes with swollen mitochondria in both irradiated groups. A significant increase in the total tubular area of seminiferous tubules was observed in both EMR groups compared with controls (P<0.001). A significant increase in the TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei (P<0.01) was accompanied by a significant rise in both Cu-Zn-SOD (P<0.01) and Mn-SOD (P<0.001) positive cells in the 6 week old experimental rats compared to control animals. Conclusion: Our results confirmed a harmful effect of non-ionizing radiation on the structure and ultrastructure of the juvenile rat testis.

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... Most of the studies defined control or sham group as the group that received no exposure of RF-EMR as the generator was switched off and only received cage restriction stress (Kesari and Behari 2010;Saygin et al. 2011Saygin et al. , 2016Kumar et al. 2011;Atasoy et al. 2013;Ozorak et al. 2013;Almasiova et al. 2014Almasiova et al. , 2018Oksay et al. 2014;Shahin et al. 2014;Shokri et al. 2015;Akdag et al. 2016;Bilgici et al. 2018;Jonwal et al. 2018;Simaiova et al. 2018). On the other hand, the sham group in the study done by Mahmoudi et al. (2015) and Delavarifar et al. (2018) were exposed to non-energizing Wi-Fi router which refers to a switched on Wi-Fi router without any data exchange between the linked devices. ...
... Most of the literature consistently demonstrated various degrees of degenerative changes on testes histomorphometry with a parallel appearance of apoptotic cells (Kesari and Behari 2010;Kumar et al. 2011;Saygin et al. 2011;Almasiova et al. 2014Almasiova et al. , 2018Shahin et al. 2014;Dasdag et al. 2015;Shokri et al. 2015;Delavarifar et al. 2018;Jonwal et al. 2018;Simaiova et al. 2018) and more prominent DNA damage compared to other organs following RF-EMR exposure (Akdag et al. 2016). Moreover, oxidative stress developed in the testes after RF-EMR exposure as evidenced by increased ROS level, decreased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels and increased lipid and nucleic acid peroxidation products in the testes (Kesari and Behari 2010;Atasoy et al. 2013;Ozorak et al. 2013;Oksay et al. 2014;Shahin et al. 2014;Saygin et al. 2016;Almasiova et al. 2018;Simaiova et al. 2018). ...
... Most of the literature consistently demonstrated various degrees of degenerative changes on testes histomorphometry with a parallel appearance of apoptotic cells (Kesari and Behari 2010;Kumar et al. 2011;Saygin et al. 2011;Almasiova et al. 2014Almasiova et al. , 2018Shahin et al. 2014;Dasdag et al. 2015;Shokri et al. 2015;Delavarifar et al. 2018;Jonwal et al. 2018;Simaiova et al. 2018) and more prominent DNA damage compared to other organs following RF-EMR exposure (Akdag et al. 2016). Moreover, oxidative stress developed in the testes after RF-EMR exposure as evidenced by increased ROS level, decreased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels and increased lipid and nucleic acid peroxidation products in the testes (Kesari and Behari 2010;Atasoy et al. 2013;Ozorak et al. 2013;Oksay et al. 2014;Shahin et al. 2014;Saygin et al. 2016;Almasiova et al. 2018;Simaiova et al. 2018). ...
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