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Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus): Biodiversity, Nutritional Contents, and Health

Authors:
  • Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidypeeth, Dapoli Dist Ratnagiri
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus):
Biodiversity, Nutritional Contents, and
Health
Shrikant Baslingappa Swami and Sandeep Baban Kalse
Contents
1 Introduction ................................................................................... 2
2 Biodiversity ................................................................................... 4
2.1 Genetic Diversity .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 5
3 Nutritional Characteristics of Jackfruit ....................................................... 7
3.1 Jackfruit Bulbs .. ........................................................................ 7
3.2 Jackfruit Seed .. . ........................................................................ 9
4 Physicochemical Properties .. . . . ............................................................. 10
5 Phytochemical Analysis .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.1 Primary Metabolites in Jackfruit Seed .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 11
6 Health Benets ................................................................................ 13
6.1 Anticancer .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.2 Diabetics .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ................................................................ 15
6.3 Immune System ......................................................................... 16
6.4 Improve Digestion .. . ................................................................... 16
6.5 Cardiovascular Health .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.6 Fast-Dissolving Tablets ................................................................. 17
6.7 Dental Health........... ................................................ ................ 18
7 Conclusion .. .................................................................................. 19
References .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 19
Abstract
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is an ancient fruit and is consumed
either raw or processed into different value-added products. Jackfruit seeds are
normally discarded or steamed and eaten as a snack or used in some local dishes;
seed our is used in some biscuit factories in various bakery products, etc. The
use of jackfruit bulbs, seeds, and its other parts has also been reported since
S. B. Swami (*) · S. B. Kalse
Department of Post Harvest Engineering, Post Graduate Institute of Post Harvest Management,
Killa Roha, MS, India
e-mail: swami_shrikant1975@yahoo.co.in;sandeep.kalse@gmail.com
#Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018
J.-M. Mérillon, K. G. Ramawat (eds.), Bioactive Molecules in Food, Reference Series in
Phytochemistry, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54528-8_87-1
1
ancient times for their therapeutic qualities. The health benets of jackfruit have
been attributed to its wide range of physicochemical applications. It contains high
levels of carbohydrates, protein, starch, calcium, vitamins, free sugar (sucrose),
fatty acids, ellagic acid, and amino acids like arginine, cystine, histidine, leucine,
lysine, methionine, theanine, and tryptophan. The jackfruit has diverse medicinal
uses especially antioxidant, anti-inammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, and
antifungal activity. This chapter describes an overview of the functional, medic-
inal, nutritional, and health aspects of jackfruit.
Keywords
Jackfruit · Antioxidant · Jacalin
Abbreviations
Caf-A Caffeic acid
FA Ferulic acid
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FDT Fast-dissolving tablets
GA Gallic acid
GL Glycemic load
HbA1c Hemoglobin A1c
HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
IAUC Incremental area under curve
LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
NO Nitric oxide
NSS Normal serving size
TA Tannic acid
UDL Under detection limit
1 Introduction
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) belongs to the Moraceae family, native to India
and seen abundant in Western Ghats, a biodiversity spot of India [15]. Besides
India, jackfruit is commonly grown in home gardens of tropical and subtropical
countries especially in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Thai-
land, Malaysia, and Brazil [2,610]. In India, it is widely distributed in the states of
Assam, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karna-
taka [5] and considered to be the poor mans food[1,4]. It is a medium-size tree
typically reaching 2880 ft. in height that is easily accessible for its fruit. The fruit is
borne on side branches and main branches of the tree. The average weight of a fruit is
3.510 kg, and sometimes a fruit may reach up to 25 kg. The ripe jackfruits consisted
29% pulp, 12% seeds, and 54% rind [11]. Figure 1shows the various parts of a
jackfruit. The jackfruit seed is 23 cm long and 12 cm in diameter, and each fruit
contains 100500 seeds.
2 S. B. Swami and S. B. Kalse
There are two varieties of jackfruit in India: one is small, brous, soft, and mushy,
with sweet carpels and a texture like that of raw oysters, and is called Barka, and the
other variety is crisp and crunchy, but not very sweet, and is called Kapa [12]. In
Bangladesh, Khaja,Gala, and Durasha are the main varieties [13]. Khaja is
characterized by its hard and crispy bulb; Gala is soft and juicy and mostly melting
bulb. On the other hand, Durasha is an intermediate between Khaja and Gala [14].
Jackfruit is reported to possess many medicinal properties. The phenolic com-
pounds isolated from jackfruit are reported to exhibit anti-inammatory effect [4].
The prenylavonoids present in jackfruit had shown strong antioxidant properties
[43] and is expected to act against lipid peroxidation of biological membranes [15].
The hot water extract of mature leaves are utilized in Ayurvedic treatment for
hyperglycemia and diabetes [4]. The avonoids present in the extract have been
identied to be responsible for the nontoxic hypoglycemic action [16]. Lectins
present in the seeds have shown antifungal properties, while the crude methanolic
Jackfruit rind Cut section of Jackfruit
Bulbs Seed
Core
Rags
Arils
Seed
Latex
Bulbs
Fig. 1 Different parts of jackfruit
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus): Biodiversity, Nutritional... 3
extracts from root bark and stems have shown broad-spectrum antibacterial activity
[17].
Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene, RES) is one of the polyphenols nat-
urally present in jackfruit [18,19] and is well-known for its health-promoting
activities of antioxidant, cardioprotect, and anti-inammatory [19]. Compounds
that can inhibit angiogenesis have great potential for cancer treatment [20]. Jackfruit
seeds contain secondary metabolites that display anticancer effects, especially anti-
angiogenesis, and belong to the avonoid group [21]. The jackfruit seed starch as
superdisintegrant is suitable for the preparation of fast-dissolving tablets [22].
Extracts of jackfruit pulp show considerable anti-inammatory activity by
suppressing the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)
[23], its leaf extracts also give remarkable antioxidant activity [43] and exhibit
attenuation on hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia [24]. Its wood was reported to
be used as antioxidant, antiaging, anti-inammatory, and skin care agents [25]. The
leaf, root, bark, and fresh fruit of this plant have been certied to contain various
compounds like avonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, carotenoids, stilbenes,
triterpenes, and sterols, especially prenylavonoids [2,26,27].
Jackfruit is also used for further processing. For instance, jackfruit leather and
jackfruit chips can be made from dried jackfruit pulp [28]. Pureed jackfruit is also
manufactured into baby food, juice, jam, jelly, and base for cordials [29]. Jackfruits
are made into candies, fruit-rolls, marmalades, and ice cream [80]. Other than
canning, advances in processing technologies too have pushed toward more new
products [30]. Freeze-dried, vacuum-fried, and cryogenic processing are new pres-
ervation methods for modern jackfruit-based products. Various parts of the jackfruit
tree have been used in medicine, and its wood is an important source in timber
industries [29].
Nowadays, it is widely accepted that the benecial health effects of fruits and
vegetables in the prevention of disease are due to the bioactive compounds they
contain [31]. In recent years, there has seen increased interest on the part of
consumers, researchers, and the food industries into how food products can help
maintain health; and the role that diet plays in the prevention and treatment of many
illnesses has become widely accepted. This chapter describes an overview of the
biodiversity of the tree and functional, medicinal, nutritional, and health aspects of
jackfruit and its various parts.
2 Biodiversity
Jackfruit is an important crop of India, Burma, China, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indone-
sia, Thailand, and the Philippines. It is also grown in parts of Africa, Brazil,
Suriname, the Caribbean, Florida, and Australia. Jackfruit has been cultivated
since prehistoric times and has been introduced to many Pacic islands since post-
European contact and is of particular importance in Fiji [32].
Despite numerous advantages, the popularity of jackfruit as a commercial crop is
very poor owing to wide variations in fruit quality, the long seed dormancy, and the
4 S. B. Swami and S. B. Kalse
widespread belief that excessive consumption of jackfruit bulbs leads to certain
digestive ailments [33].
The jackfruit has innumerable types in the Western Ghats with varying fruit
characteristics. The types differ among themselves in the shape and density of spikes
on the rind, bearing, size, shape, latex, ake size, ake color, quality, and period of
maturity. Innumerable variations in bulb sweetness, acidity, avor, and taste are
observed in jackfruit growing areas. Such a wide diversity among jackfruit types in
Western Ghats offers tremendous scope for improvement of this crop by selection
[33,34]. Due to crosspollination and predominance of seed propagation over a long
period of time, there is high degree of variability within the species.
Jagadeesh and others [1] selected 95 jackfruit types from the hilly (65 types) and
coastal (30 types) zones of Karnataka situated in Western Ghats, a biodiversity spot
of India. The Western Ghats falling in two agroclimatic regions of the state, viz.,
hilly and coastal, studied the physicochemical characters at edible ripe stage. It was
apparent that the majority of selections (19), irrespective of their agroclimatic zone,
were grouped in cluster A,whereas clusters B,”“C,”“D,and Ewere mono-
tree type. It was found that the genetic drift and natural selection under different
environmental conditions could cause considerable diversity than geographical
distance. Highest values for TSS (34.33
B), carotenoids (0.857 mg/100 g), total
sugar (31.33%), and reducing sugars (13.37%) were observed in cluster B,while
cluster Dexhibited highest values for TSS/acid ratio (123.29). Single-bulb mass
(26.42 g) was the highest in cluster Awith the majority of selections, whereas the
solitary cluster Cshowed the highest edible portion (37.81%). With regard to fruit
mass (14.86 kg) and ake mass (5.62 kg), cluster Cexhibited the highest value,
while titratable acidity (0.768%) was found highest in cluster E.They conclude
that jackfruit, being indigenous and a highly cross-pollinated crop, displays vast
diversity in the Western Ghats of India. This wide range of variation existing in
nature aids in the selection of superior desirable types.
2.1 Genetic Diversity
Jackfruit is a tetraploid; its somatic chromosome number is (4n) 56. Therefore, the
basic chromosome number is 14 [35]. Only one study until now by Schnell and
others [36] looked at the genetic diversity of 26 accessions from different parts of the
world, using amplied fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, and pro-
vided an actual picture of diversity and genetic relatedness in jackfruit. This study
included only two accessions from India, and they scored a small number of markers
(87), of which 92 (49.2%) were found to be polymorphic. The most recent study by
Azad and others [37] looked at isozyme variation in jackfruit in Bangladesh. A total
of 50 accessions were evaluated for four enzyme systems, and isozyme patterns were
determined on the basis of number and position of bands. They discovered that
morphological traits such as weight, length, girth of the fruits, and percentage of pulp
correlated poorly with environmental factors, suggesting that these characters are
more likely genetically controlled. However, isozyme markers are also known to be
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus): Biodiversity, Nutritional... 5
affected by both environment and posttranslation modication, and their practical
use is limited [38].
Jackfruit shows a considerable range of variation in morpho-agronomic charac-
ters, and this may be because jackfruit trees are cross-pollinated and are mostly
propagated by seed. A considerable variation between trees has been observed for
the traits such as growth habit, canopy structure, leaf size, fruit shape, size, color,
fruit bearing (age and seasonality), and maturity (Table 1). The International Plant
Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI; now Biodiversity International) in 2000 issued a
Table 1 Variation in morpho-agronomic characters [40]
Characteristic Range of variation
Tree habit Open, spreading, low spreading, sparse upright
Tree growth rate Fast, moderate, slow
Canopy Dense, mostly dome-shaped, slightly pyramidal, or at-toped. It ranges
from 3.5 to 6.7 m
Leaf shape Elliptic, elliptic-obovate, obovate, oblong, lanceolate, oval
Leaf size 425 cm in length; 212 cm in width
Leaf petiole 1.24.0 cm long
Fruit maturity Variable
Fruiting seasons Variable
Fruit shape Oblong, ellipsoid, triangular, spheroid, claviform, round
Number of fruits/
tree
151450
Fruit weight (kg) 1.222.0
Fruit thickness Thin, medium, thick
Fruit texture Fibrous, rm, coarse, melting, crisp
Seed shape Oblong, ellipsoid, irregular, reniform, elongated, spheroid
100 seed weight
(g)
2501230
Flakes aroma Mild, strong
Flakes color Creamy white, light yellow, deep yellow, yellow, reddish, red golden
Flakes texture Crisp, coarse, brous/coarse, brous, smooth
Quantity of ber Scarce, medium, abundant
Juiciness of pulp Very juicy, juicy, medium juicy, less juicy, dry
Fruit weight (kg) 1.222.0
Fruit length (cm) 20.560.6
Fruit diameter
(cm)
16.429.5
Fruit girth (cm) 50.595.8
No. of bulbs/fruit 24.2580.2
Pulp (%) 18.360.9
Seed (%) 2.623.1
Rachis (%) 1.521.4
Rind (%) 20.672.0
TSS Brix () 13.825.3
6 S. B. Swami and S. B. Kalse
list of descriptor and descriptor states both for characterization of germplasm and for
further evaluation. Variation also exists in density, size, and shape of spines on rind,
fruit-bearing sensory quality, esh types, sweetness, avor, and taste [39].
3 Nutritional Characteristics of Jackfruit
Studies have proved that the nutritional and phytochemical composition among
jackfruit varies depending on the cultivar as well as region [2,30,3941]. It is a
good source of vitamins (A, C, thiamine, riboavin, niacin) and minerals (calcium,
potassium, iron, sodium, zinc) (Swami and others) [12,30,3941]. Protein and
carbohydrate concentration also varied in seeds across India were some varieties
contain 6.8% of protein in seeds [2]. The nutritional characteristics of jackfruit bulb,
seed, and other part are discussed below.
3.1 Jackfruit Bulbs
Jackfruit is heavy and bulky, and actual recovery of bulbs or edible portion varies
from 20 to 25% which is easily digestible. A 100 g portion of edible raw jackfruit
provides about 95 calories and is a good source of the antioxidants and vitamin C,
providing about 13.7 mg. The fruit is also rich in vitamin B
6
, potassium, calcium,
and iron.
The bulb of ripe jackfruit is eaten fresh and used in fruit salads. It possesses high
nutritional value; every 100 g of ripe fruit pulp contains 18.9 g carbohydrate, 1.9 g
protein, 0.1 g fat, 77% moisture, 1.1 g ber, 0.8 g total mineral matter, 20 mg calcium,
30 mg phosphorus, 500 mg iron, 540 IU vitamin A, 30 mg thiamin, and 84 calories
[33]. The jackfruit also contains useful antioxidant compounds [15]. Table 2shows the
composition of jackfruit edible portion of young fruit and ripe fruit. Figure 2shows the
nutraceutical characteristics of jackfruit bulb (pulp) and its effects on various diseases.
Figure 3shows principal functional and medicinal effects of jackfruit. The jackfruit
could be considered a functional food because it has valuable compounds in different
parts of the fruit that display functional and medicinal effects.
3.1.1 Carotenoid Composition
The jackfruit bulb consists of 107.98 total carotenoids [27]. Jackfruit consists all-
trans-β-carotene which is an important antioxidant for human health [40]. Jackfruit
contains carotenoids that are important for prevention of several chronic degenera-
tive diseases, such as cancer, inammation, cardiovascular disease, cataract, and
age-related macular degeneration [44,45]. The total carotenoids present in jackfruit
are shown in Table 3.
The main carotenoids in jackfruit were all-trans-lutein (2444%), all-trans-β-
carotene (2430%), all-trans-neoxanthin (419%), 9-cis-neoxanthin (49%), and
9-cis-violaxanthin (410%). Jackfruit is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids,
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus): Biodiversity, Nutritional... 7
Table 2 Composition of jackfruit bulb (100 g edible portion) [30,41,42]
Sr.No Composition Young fruit Ripe fruit
A Proximate analysis
1 Water (g) 76.285.2 72.094.0
2 Protein (g) 2.02.6 1.21.9
3 Fat (g) 0.10.6 0.10.4
4 Carbohydrate (g) 9.411.5 16.025.4
5 Fiber (g) 2.63.6 1.01.5
6 Total sugars (g) 20.6
B Minerals and vitamins
1 Total minerals (g) 0.9 0.870.9
2 Calcium (mg) 30.073.2 20.037.0
3 Magnesium (mg) 27.0
4 Phosphorus (mg) 20.057.2 38.041.0
5 Potassium (mg) 287323 191407
6 Sodium (mg) 3.035.0 2.041.0
7 Iron (mg) 0.41.9 0.51.1
8 Vitamin A (IU) 30 175540
9 Thiamine (mg) 0.050.15 0.030.09
10 Riboavin (mg) 0.050.2 0.050.4
11 Vitamin C (mg) 12.014.0 7.010.0
Phytonutrients:lignans,
isolavones, saponins& niacin-
Effective: Cancer, Hypertensive,
Ulcer, Aging, Nerve function,
Asthma.
Antioxidants:Vit E, Vit C, Vit A,
β-carotene, selenium, α-lipoic
acid and glutathione.
Effective: Myocardial infarction,
Coronary heart disease,
Hypertension, Lung & Prostate
cancer.
Phenolic Compounds:
Effective: chronic
disease, hyperglycemia,
Carotenoid:all-trans-β, α, lutein,
neoxanthin, 9-cis-violaxanthin
carotene.
Effective: Cancer, inlammation,
cardiovascular disease, cataract,
age-related macular degeneration
Antiviral Properties: Jackfruit
lectin Effective: HIV-1
Fig. 2 Nutraceutical characteristics of jackfruit bulb (pulp) and its effect on various diseases
8 S. B. Swami and S. B. Kalse
though not as good as papaya [46]. Thus increased consumption of ripe jackfruit
could be advocated as part of a strategy to prevent and control vitamin A deciency.
3.2 Jackfruit Seed
The jackfruit seeds are around 1015% of the total fruit weight and have high
carbohydrate and protein contents [47]. There are 100500 seeds in a single fruit.
Seeds are normally discarded or steamed and eaten as a snack or used in some local
dishes. The fresh seeds cannot be kept for a long time, seed our can be an
alternative product, which can be used in some food products.
The jackfruit seeds are a good source of starch (22%) and dietary ber (3.19%)
[48]. Jackfruit seeds contain lignans, isoavones, and saponins that are called
phytonutrients, and their health benets are wide-ranging from anticancer to antihy-
pertensive, antiaging, antioxidant, antiulcer, etc. [49].
Improve Oral Health
Cardiovascular
Dieses
Antioxidant
Anticancer
Properties
Antiulscer
Properties
Skin Dieses
Anti-ageing
Improve Digestion
Fig. 3 Principal functional
and medicinal effects of
jackfruit
Table 3 Concentration (μg/100 g fresh weight) of different carotenoids in jackfruit [27]
Carotenoids Values Carotenoids Values
All-trans-neoxanthin 8.85 5.73 All-trans-zeinoxanthin 1.72 1.20
9-cis-Neoxanthin 6.87 4.25 9-cis-Zeinoxanthin 0.90 1.12
All-trans-neochrome 0.88 1.11 All-trans-α-cryptoxanthin 0.35 0.60
All-trans-luteoxanthin 2.06 0.90 All-trans-β-cryptoxanthin 1.21 0.45
cis-Antheraxanthin 1.12 0.36 15-cis-β-carotene 0.18 0.31
9-cis-Violaxanthin 7.05 5.97 13-cis-β-carotene 2.45 1.40
cis-Luteoxanthin 0.34 0.42 All-trans-α-carotene 1.24 0.93
All-trans-lutein 37.02 20.34 All-trans-β-carotene 29.55 15.46
All-trans-zeaxanthin 0.96 1.20 9-cis-β-carotene 0.79 0.30
Total carotenoids 107.98 651.46
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus): Biodiversity, Nutritional... 9
The jackfruit seeds have medicinal properties. The oval, oblong, or oblong
ellipsoid or rounded-shape, light brown color jackfruit seeds are nutritious and rich
in potassium, fat, carbohydrates, and minerals. Manganese and magnesium elements
have also been detected in seed powder [50]. Table 4shows the composition of
jackfruit seed. Seeds contain two lectins, namely, jacalin and artocarpin. Jacalin has
been proved to be useful for the evaluation of the immune status of patients infected
with human immunodeciency virus-1 [40].
Amylose content of jackfruit seed starch was 32% [51]. Jackfruit seed extract was
found to inhibit the proteolytic activities of different animal pancreatic preparations
effectively [52]. The fresh seed contains crude proteins (606 g), fat (0.4 g), carbo-
hydrates (38.4 g), ber (1.5 g), ash (1.251.50 g), and moisture (51.657.77 g),
respectively [53].
4 Physicochemical Properties
There have been few studies on physicochemical properties of jackfruit seeds. The
physicochemical properties of jackfruit seed is shown in Table 5. Jackfruit seeds are
fairly rich in starch [54]. The pasting properties of the jackfruit seed starch against
corn and potato starch were studied, and it is reported that the pasting temperature of
jackfruit seed starch was higher than those of corn starch and potato starch. The
jackfruit seed starch has lower swelling properties because of high amylose content.
Jackfruit seed starch was more resistant to heat and mechanical shear and hence less
prone to loss viscosity upon holding and shearing. Mukprasirt and Sajjaanantakul
[55] also reported that the breakdown viscosity of jackfruit seed starch was lower
than that of the commercial starch.
Fat absorption is an important property in food formulations because fats improve
the avor and mouthfeel of foods [57]. The jackfruit our has 2.8 g/ml fat absorption
Table 4 Composition of jackfruit seed (100 g edible portion) [30,39,41,42]
Sr. no. Composition Value Sr. no. Composition Value
A Proximate analysis B Minerals and vitamins
1 Water (g) 51.064.5 1 Total minerals (g) 0.91.2
2 Protein (g) 6.67.04 2 Calcium (mg) 50.0
3 Fat (g) 0.400.43 3 Magnesium (mg) 54.0
4 Carbohydrate (g) 25.838.4 4 Phosphorus (mg) 38.097.0
5 Fiber (g) 1.01.5 5 Potassium (mg) 246
6 Total sugars (g) 6 Sodium (mg) 63.2
7 Iron (mg) 1.5
8 Vitamin A (IU) 1017
9 Thiamine (mg) 0.25
10 Riboavin (mg) 0.110.3
11 Vitamin C (mg) 11.0
10 S. B. Swami and S. B. Kalse
characteristic. Jackfruit seed our has a lot of potential in the food industry, espe-
cially its uses as thickener and binding agent in the food systems.
Kumar and others [58] studied the proximate compositions of two varieties of
jackfruit seeds and reported considerable biochemical difference between the two
varieties. The starch content of the seed increases with maturity [59].
5 Phytochemical Analysis
Gupta and others [60] analyzed phytochemical content of jackfruit seeds found high
quantity of saponins (6.32 0.098 g/100 g). Saponins have been known for their
medicinal uses, including antispasmodic activity and toxicity to cancer cells. Some
alkaloids function as spasmolytic, anticholinergic, and anesthetic agents. The alka-
loid content in jackfruit seeds was found to be 1.16 0.09 g/100 g. Polyphenolics
are known to function as antioxidants through a number of mechanisms including
radical scavenging by H-donation, prevention of chain initiation by donating elec-
trons, or binding of transition metal ion catalysts. Flavonoids prevent platelet
stickiness and hence platelet aggregation.
5.1 Primary Metabolites in Jackfruit Seed
Organic acids control acetic-alkali equilibrium, which affects human health and all
the reactions in the body. Table 6shows the various organic acid content of jackfruit
Table 5 Some physicochemical and functional properties of jackfruit seed our [56]
Sr. no. Particular Value (% dry matter)
Physicochemical properties
1. Moisture 6.09 0.01
2. Crude fat 1.27 0.01
3. Ash 2.70 0.02
4. Protein 13.50 0.06
5. Fiber 3.19 0.01
6. Carbohydrate 79.34 0.06
7. Energy (Kcal/100 g) 382.79 1.20
8. pH 5.78 0.01
Functional properties
9. Titratable acidity (as, lactic acid) 1.12 0.03
10. Water absorption capacity (%) 25.00 1.67
11 Fat absorption capacity (%) 17.00 1.37
12. Bulk density (g/cm
3
) 0.80 0.02
13. Foaming capacity (%) 25.34 0.02
14. Foam stability (%) 33.00 0.01
15. Swelling power (g/g) 4.77 0.10
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus): Biodiversity, Nutritional... 11
seed kernel (SK) and seed coating membrane (SCM). In addition, they have a
disinfecting function, and affect metabolism, etc. By interacting with other sub-
stances, organic acids affect the acetic-alkali balance, alkalizing the whole body. As
a result, the persons health improves. Also the organic acids are involved in
digestion, stimulate the stomach and pancreas, and increase intestine motor function.
Oxalic acid that is a normal element in the blood has been reported to have a mean
value of 288 mcg of anhydrous oxalic acid/100 ml of blood. Oxalic acid must be
available for the immune system to ght the diseases such as cancer and viral,
bacterial, and vascular conditions. When oxalic acid falls below an effective level,
the immune system can no longer protect the body from various diseases. When the
immune system can no longer eliminate abnormal cells, radical cells are allowed to
develop and give rise to a detectable tumor.
Amino acids build proteins, and proteins are life-sustaining macronutrients. Table 7
shows the amino acid content in jackfruit seed kernel and seed coating membrane
(SCM). When cells need protein, they follow instructions from DNA that dene the
specic amino acids and the order in which they must connect to build the protein.
DNA depends on another macromolecule RNA to make the protein. RNA takes a
copy of the code from your DNA, leaves the cell, nds the amino acids, and brings
them back to the cell, where they bind into a chain. Each amino acid must be available
at the time its needed or the protein wont be synthesized. When the chain is complete,
it twists and folds into a specialized shape. The chemical structure of each amino acid
controls the nal shape, and the shape determines the function of the protein. Several
amino acids produce neurotransmitters, but two well-known examples are the amino
acids tryptophan and tyrosine. Tryptophan is available in jackfruit seed in fair quantity
which produces serotonin, regulates your moods, and makes the hormone melatonin.
Food proteins vary depending on their amino acid content and contain varying
concentrations of essential and nonessential amino acids [61].
Fernandes and others [61] identied 67 compounds and reported for the rst time
in jackfruit seed. Table 8shows fatty acid content in jackfruit seed kernel (SK) and
seed coating membrane (SCM).
Table 6 Organic acid content in jackfruit seed kernel (SK) and seed coating membrane (SCM)
[61]
Sr. no. Compounds (mg/kg dry matter) SK SCM
1 Oxalic 649.45 26.38 122.38 12.36
2 Aconitic 650.51 6.93 96.52 6.53
3 Citric 8086.95 807.60 1745.72 120.31
4 Pyruvic 59.32 6.25
5 Malic 3539.64 335.53 877.97 137.97
6 Quinic 460.84 10.50 230.38 44.69
7 Shikimic 12.95 0.30
8 Acetic 84.28 5.82
9 Fumaric 535.88 1.37 26.33 1.47
Total 13923.26 1188.30 3255.85 335.70
12 S. B. Swami and S. B. Kalse
The seed kernel is signicantly richer in all metabolites. As expected, the
accumulation of primary metabolites was higher, organic and amino acids being
predominant in jackfruit seed kernel and seed coating material. Phenolic compounds
allowed a more clear distinction of the two materials, being mainly accumulated in
the seed kernel. Seed kernel and seed coating membrane showed antioxidant
capacity.
The jackfruit leaves and stem show the presence of sapogenins, cycloartenone,
cycloartenol, β-sitosterol, and tannins; they show estrogenic activity. A root contains
β-sitosterol, ursolic acid, betulinic acid, and cycloartenone [62].
6 Health Benefits
The health benets of jackfruit are still underway. The jackfruit bulb and jackfruit
seeds are good sources of protein, starch, and minerals. Jackfruits also contain
phytonutrients, i.e., lignans, isoavones, and saponins, and they have numerous
Table 7 Amino acid content in jackfruit seed kernel (SK) and seed coating membrane (SCM) (mg/
kg dry matter) [61]
Amino acids SK SCM
A. Essential
1 Threonine 387.00 1.40 48.20 0.11
2 Valine 290.54 3.62 37.43 0.44
3 Isoleucine 157.01 0.79 11.82 0.29
4 Leucine 396.43 7.61 71.39 0.60
5 Tryptophan 94.69 0.91 8.30 0.14
6 Phenylalanine 210.92 2.56 29.51 0.10
7 Lysine 242.59 0.63 29.04 0.24
8 Histidine 104.90 0.04 32.08 0.25
Total 1884.08 (17.56) 267.76 2.18
B. Nonessential
1 Aspartic acid 247.64 20.35 25.83 0.02
2 Glutamic acid 703.31 30.18 20.39 6.03
3 Asparagine 759.79 14.07 158.01 0.16
4 Glutamine 2670.13 4.00 338.52 0.73
5 Serine 309.86 2.83 26.60 0.13
6 Glycine 154.17 4.81 18.46 0.11
7 Alanine 241.32 2.23 32.08 0.07
8 Proline 2585.93 10.58 194.38 0.52
9 Arginine 1250.50 3.64 63.36 1.26
10 Cysteine 395.73 0.64 147.36 0.28
11 Ornithine 27.74 0.67 9.18 0.02
12 Tyrosine 504.10 2.07 42.70 0.14
Total 9850.21 96.07 1076.87 9.47
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus): Biodiversity, Nutritional... 13
health benets such as anticancer, antiaging, and antioxidant. Fig. 2shows the
nutraceutical characteristics of jackfruit bulb and its effect on various diseases.
6.1 Anticancer
Angiogenesis is the outgrowth of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels. It
commonly occurs during the normal physiological process of blood vessel formation
and during cancer growth [63].
The recent studies show all phytonutrients in jackfruit bulb shave anticancer
benets. The main role of these nutrients is to help prevent the harmful free radicals
that have been known to develop cancer and many other chronic diseases. The
phytonutrients prevent the very initial stage of cancer cell formation. Saponins are
also strong anticancer agents. According to a study, saponins show colon cancer
preventative properties. These phytonutrients have been found to induce mitotic
arrest in the case of leukemia cells. The study also found that it helped in some cases
to cause remission. Saponins were found to react to the outer layers of cancer cells.
They bound the cells and prevented their further growth [64]. Swastika and others
[21] reported that the effective dose of jackfruit seed methanolic extract for angio-
genesis inhibition is 35.00 mg/ml.
Table 8 Fatty acid content in jackfruit seed kernel (SK) and seed coating membrane (SCM) (mg/
kg dry matter) [61]
Sr. no. Fatty acids SK SCM
1 Dodecanoic (C12:0) 12.69 0.27
2 Tridecanoic (C13:0) 1.70 0.06
3 Tetradecanoic (C14:0) 20.17 0.22 53.38 0.48
4cis-10-Pentadecenoic (C15:1n-5c) 3.43 0.10
5 Pentadecanoic (C15:0) 24.55 0.26 31.93 0.94
6cis-9-Hexadecenoic (C16:1n-7c) 21.57 0.41 40.41 0.85
7 Hexadecanoic (C16:0) 836.70 11.94 864.79 15.42
8cis-10-Heptadecenoic (C17:1 n-7c) 9.29 0.08 11.17 0.27
9 Heptadecanoic (C17:0) 23.42 0.28 24.14 0.33
10 cis-9,12-Octadecadienoic (C18:2n-6c)) 801.19 10.44 147.59 1.02
11 cis-9-Octadecenoic (C18:1n-9c) 109.81 2.48 189.42 1.55
12 trans-9-Octadecenoic (C18:1n-9 t) 17.62 1.92 23.31 0.51
13 Octadecanoic (C18:0) 181.62 4.52 254.75 1.80
14 cis-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic (C18:3n-3c) 2.17 0.33 3.91 0.11
15 Eicosanoic (C20:0) 74.71 3.79 78.52 1.03
16 Heneicosanoic (C21:0) 24.13 0.68 20.79 0.60
17 Docosanoic (C22:0) 112.41 4.96 91.12 1.58
18 Tricosanoic (C23:0) 20.65 1.06 25.60 0.07
19 Tetracosanoic (C24:0) 64.62 4.30 85.98 0.63
TOTAL 2348.06 47.77 1961.20 27.52
14 S. B. Swami and S. B. Kalse
Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring polycyclic phenols found in certain plants
that may, when ingested and metabolized, have weak estrogenic effects. Two
important groups of phytoestrogens that are present in jackfruit pulp are isoavones
and lignans (Swami and others) [12]. According to studies, these nutrients help in
reducing the risk of endometrial cancer.
Jackfruit is rich in ber. It also has a unique sticky form. Both these properties
combine together to work as a great colon cleanser. It helps in removing toxins from
your digestive tract. This further helps in reducing the risk of colon cancer. Three
phenolic anticancer compounds of jackfruit were characterized as artocarpesin
[5,7,20,40-tetrahydroxy-6-βmethylbut-3-enyl) avones] [65], norartocarpetin
(5,7,20,40-tetrahydroxyavone), and oxyresveratrol [trans-
2,4,30,50tetrahydroxystilbene] [66]. Gowri and others [66] also reported that the
reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a common feature of tumor promotion.
The Cressa critica aqueous extract (CCAE) showed higher antioxidant activity than
single plant extracts of P. zeylanica (45%) [67], L. acidissima (19%) [68], and A.
heterophyllus (36%) [69].
6.2 Diabetics
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting
from defects in insulin action, insulin secretion, or both. The most common type of
diabetes mellitus is type 2 diabetes mellitus, which accounts for 8595% of all cases
and constitutes a major public health problem [70]. Hot water extract of mature jack
leaves is recommended by Ayurvedic and traditional medical practitioners as a
treatment for diabetes mellitus (Fernando et al. 1991 [71]. It is already indicated
that an extract of jackfruit improves the glucose tolerance in normal human subjects
and diabetic patients [72]. The leaves and stem show the presence of sapogenins,
cycloartenone, ß-sitosterol, and tannins [73]. Jackfruit contains vitamin A, vitamin
C, thiamin, riboavin, niacin, calcium, potassium, iron, manganese, and magnesium
among many other nutrients. It is good for diabetes as they improve insulin
resistance.
Ajaiya Kumar and others [74] reported that consuming 100 g of the jackfruit meal
per day for 4 months leads to quantitative reduction in fasting blood glucose (FBG),
postprandial blood glucose (PBG), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) compared with
the baseline. The HbA1c decreased by 13.59%, FBG by 22.68%, and PBG by
25.69%. They have concluded that the dietary supplementation of the jackfruit raw
fruit meal preparation has an impact in reducing type 2 diabetes.
Hettiaratchi and others [75] studied Nutritional assessment of a jackfruit meal.
The total energy contribution of the jackfruit meal is 1370 kJ. Jackfruit meal
provides 20% of daily energy requirement of a moderately active individual. Jack-
fruit seeds contained high amount of resistant starch (RS) (undigestible starch).
Resistant starch is categorized into four types (RS
1
RS
4
)[76], and jackfruit seeds
may contain RS
1
type. The undigestible starch escapes digestion in the small
intestine, passes into the colon, and is reported to act like dietary ber (Hettiaratchi
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus): Biodiversity, Nutritional... 15
and others) [75]. The postprandial glycemic response and glycemic index (GI) of the
jackfruit meal were determined. Jackfruit meal elicited a low GI (Table 9). This is the
rst reported data on GI of a jackfruit meal in spite of having 2487 data on GI of
different foods in the recent International Tables of Glycaemic Indices and
Glycaemic Load Values[77]. Jackfruit has benecial nutritional parameters and a
low GI. This could be due to the collective contributions of dietary ber, slowly
available glucose, intact starch granules in seeds, and inuence of different sources
of carbohydrates. Table 10 shows phenolic acids in different parts of jackfruit.
6.3 Immune System
Jacalin, the major protein from the Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds, is a tetrameric
two-chain lectin combining a heavy chain of 133 amino acid residues with a light β
chain of 2021 amino acid residues [78]. Jacalins uniqueness in being strongly
mitogenic for human CD4 + T lymphocytes has made it a useful tool for the
evaluation of the immune status of patients infected with human immunodeciency
virus HIV-1 [79].
6.4 Improve Digestion
The presence of high ber (3.6 g/100 g) in the jackfruit prevents constipation and
helps in smooth bowel movements. These bers also offer protection against colon
mucous membrane by removing or driving away the carcinogenic.
Table 9 Nutritional parameters of jackfruit esh, seed, meal, and the standard [75]
Parameter Jackfruit esh Jackfruit seeds Jackfruit meal Standard
Carbohydrate 10.0 0.3 21.9 0.8 50 g 50 g
Insoluble dietary ber 1.5 0.1 7.9 0.5 13.5 0.8
Soluble dietary ber 1.1 0.1 3.2 0.3 6.5 2.4
Total dietary ber 2.6 11.1 20.0 3.2
Protein 0.9 4.7 6.8 8.2
Fat 0.8 0.1 1.3 0.3 11.5 3.2
Resistant starch 0.3 8.0 5.2 0.7
Slowly available glucose % 17% 33% 30% 16%
Amylose 29 54 31 15
Glycemic index (SEM) –– 75 11 100
IAUC (SEM) –– 132 19 181 18
GL (NSS) –– 13 20
16 S. B. Swami and S. B. Kalse
6.5 Cardiovascular Health
One of the major risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease is
dyslipidemia, which is mainly characterized by elevated levels of low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
(HDL-C) [81].
Epidemiological studies have shown that high concentrations of serum total
cholesterol and LDL-C are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease [82]
and could produce atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, a major degenerative disease of
the arteries, involves a series of inammatory and oxidative modications within the
arterial wall [83]. Oxidative excess in the vasculature reduces levels of the vasodi-
lator nitric oxide, causes tissue injury, promotes protein oxidation and DNA damage,
and induces proinammatory responses [84]. Oxidative stress induces inammation
by acting on the pathways that generate inammatory mediators like adhesion
molecules and proinammatory cytokines [85].
6.6 Fast-Dissolving Tablets
The major storage carbohydrate in plants is starch. The annual worldwide production
of starch is 66.5 million tons (FAOSTAT) [86]. Growing demand for starches in the
industry has created interest in new sources of this polysaccharide, such as leaves,
legume seeds, and fruits [87]. It has immense industrial use in the manufacture of
products such as food, textile, paper, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Starch can also
serve as a thickening, gelling, and lm-forming properties [88,89].
Jackfruit seed cotyledons are fairly rich in starch and protein. The recent inves-
tigation shows that the jackfruit seed starch has potential in pharmaceutical indus-
tries. The starches extracted from jackfruit seeds are used as superdisintegrants for
the formulation of fast-dissolving tablets (FDT).
The FDT technology makes tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth without
additional water intake. The FDT formulation is dened by the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) as A solid dosage form containing medical substances whish
Table 10 HPLC analysis of various phenolic acids in different parts of jackfruit [54]
Plant parts Phenolic acids (μg/g fresh wt.)
TA GA FA Caf A
Raw fruit skin 6.70 0.05 22.73 2.04 4.64 0.02 UDL
Ripe fruit skin 5.73 0.04 12.08 1.03 13.41 1.2 UDL
Raw fruit esh 4.87 0.05 9.70 0.09 8.04 0.07 UDL
Ripe fruit esh 5.24 0.06 19.31 1.8 2.66 0.06 UDL
Raw fruit pulp of seed 2.29 0.01 11.05 1.02 2.16 0.05 UDL
Ripe fruit pulp of seed UDL 6.26 0.04 2.56 0.02 UDL
Raw fruit seed 6.59 0.07 11.3 1.6 2.38 0.01 2.84 0.02
Ripe fruit seed 2.21 0.01 11.30 1.07 2.71 0.01 UDL
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus): Biodiversity, Nutritional... 17
disintegrates rapidly, usually within a seconds, when placed upon the tongue.Fast-
dissolving tablets are also called mouth-dissolving tablets, melt-in-mouth tablets,
orodispersible tablets, rapidmelts, porous tablets, quick dissolving, etc. [90]. The
basic approach in the development of FDT is the use of superdisintegrants, which
provide instantaneous disintegration of tablet after putting on tongue, thereby releas-
ing the drug in saliva [91]. The fast-dissolving tablets are rapidly dissolved or
disintegrate by the use of superdisintegrants.
Vidyadhara and others [22] reported as Irbesartan (IRB), which is anangiotensin
II type, receptor antagonist, is selected as a model drug. IRB and FDT formulations
that contained various concentrations of jackfruit starch extracts and CCS
(croscarmellose sodium) were prepared by wet granulation technique using IPA
(Isopropyl alcohol) as granulating uid. The evaluated pre-compression parameters
indicated that the granules exhibited good ow properties. In vitro dissolution
studies were performed on all prepared matrix tablets using the USP apparatus II
with 900 mL of 0.1 N HCl. From the results of dissolution studies, it was observed
that the type of starch as superdisintegrant and the proportion of superdisintegrant
have considerably inuenced the dissolution parameters of various formulations.
The tablets prepared from jackfruit seed starch as superdisintegrant were found to be
suitable for preparation of fast-dissolving tablets.
Jackfruit is well known to have antibacterial property against 24 species of
bacteria [92]. A jackfruit lectin, i.e., jacalin, inhibits DNA viruses such as herpes
simplex virus type II (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus
(CMV) [93].
The jackfruit could be considered a functional food because it has valuable
compounds in different parts of the fruit that display functional and medicinal effects
(Fig. 2).
Functional foodsare those that provide more than simple nutrition; they supply
additional physiological benet to the consumer. Because dietary habits are specic
to populations and vary widely, it is necessary to study the disease-preventive
potential of functional micronutrients in the regional diets.
6.7 Dental Health
In jackfruit tree, latex or resin are found on the trunk of tree as well as the fruit. All
parts of jackfruit tree contain sticky white latex which produced from special
secretory cells called laticifers. Latex is an aqueous emulsion containing many
ingredients, for instance, lipids, rubbers, resins, sugars, and proteins including
proteolytic enzymes [94].
Rao and others [95] reported that the jackfruit latex extract which is rich in
avonoids and alkaloids was checked for antibacterial and antifungal properties
which shows fairly well and signicant comparison with standard antibacterial and
antifungal drugs. They concluded that this information gives about the several
important uses of jackfruit latex or resin, or both can be utilized as the cementing
medium, irrigation solution (washing of a body cavity or wound by a stream of
18 S. B. Swami and S. B. Kalse
uid), denture cleaning solution, resin, and other future dental lling material in
terms of cost-effectiveness.
7 Conclusion
There is a need for commercial utilization of the jackfruit in developing countries
and can serve as a possible alternative of many vitamins in the body. An activity of
certain phytochemicals along with their antioxidant properties further supports the
cause of commercial utilization of the fruit. The antioxidant constituents present in
the fruits play important role in scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species
which are responsible for a number of human disorders. The jackfruits and fruit
products hold potential in the diet as they possess not only pleasant taste but also
source of naturally and readily available source of instant energy.
In Ayurveda the jackfruit is used as a cooling tonic and pectorial, roots in diarrhea
and fever, leaves to activate milk in women and animals, as a source to treat
antisyphilic and vermifuge, leaf ash applied to ulcers wounds and the warmed leaves
have healing properties if pasted on the wounds. The richness of jackfruit in
bioactive natural metabolites encourages their consumption. Furthermore, the aque-
ous extracts activity suggests that it may be useful for food and pharmaceutical
industries. The valued jackfruit material, which nowadays is largely discarded by the
population, might have an important economic impact for the producers.
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Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus): Biodiversity, Nutritional... 23
... (Moraceae), is widely cultivated throughout tropical regions of the world, including Laos (Khan et al. 2010). In addition to being eaten raw (both ripe and unripe fruits), the fruits and seeds are processed to produce a variety of value-added products (Swami & Kalse 2018). Several insects from different orders have been identified as pests of jackfruit, including Glyphodes caesalis Walker, 1859 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Ochyromera artocarpi Marshall, 1926 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Rajkumar et al. 2018). ...
... Jackfruit is the presumed primary host plant of the new species. It is an economically important crop in the tropics, the fruits and seeds of which are highly prized (Swami & Kalse 2018). Although there have currently been no reports to indicate that Alloiothucha artocarpi damages jackfruit, the incidence of this species in jackfruit plantations should be monitored to assess the potential for any detrimental effects. ...
Article
The lace bug genus Alloiothucha Drake, 1927 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tingidae) is recorded from Laos for the first time with the redescription of Alloiothucha artocarpi (Horváth, 1926), which has been originally described from Indonesia (Java Island) in Latin. This species was collected on jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae) in Laos, and may represent a pest of potential future concern. An identification key to all described species of Alloiothucha and arguments for a junior synonymy of Cetiothucha is presented: Alloiothucha Drake, 1927 = Cetiothucha Drake & Ruhoff, 1965, syn. nov. Two new combinations are proposed: Alloiothucha constanti (Guilbert, Pham & Soulier-Perkins, 2018), comb. nov. and Alloiothucha physalia (Drake & Ruhoff, 1965), comb. nov. from Cetiothucha.
... Approximately, 2 Megajoule energy per kg/wet weight of ripe perianth. Besides, the fruit can supply at [13]. Phytonutrients contain in jackfruit such as lignans, flavones and saponins have the properties of anticancer, antiulcer, antihypertensive and antiaging [14]. ...
... Alves et al. [36] observed that the fruit contains lignins, flavones and saponins which have the properties of anti-cancer, anti-ulcer, anti-hypertensive and anti-aging. It contains immense medicinal values and also considered a rich source of carbohydrates, minerals, carboxylic acids, dietary fiber and vitamins such as ascorbic acid and thiamine [13]. Manganese and magnesium [32], potassium, calcium and iron [37] elements are found in seed. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) is well-known as "poor man's food" fruit in Bangladesh. It is widely consumed by most of the rural people and it is the national fruit of Bangladesh. The main aim of this review is to document the medicinal significance of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.), major parts and uses of the jackfruit in Bangladesh. This article was based on mostly a literature review. All parts of the fruit and plant are used as human food, animal feed and wood source for furniture. Although jack-fruit is the main fruit of the tree, it is used as furniture for its beautiful texture and wood color. Jackfruit contains anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-helminthic properties. The fruit is rich in carbohydrates, minerals, carboxylic acids, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. The seed is rich in manganese, magnesium, potassium, calcium iron and lectins and thus meets up nutritional requirements for the rural people. The present study attempted to review the medicinal importance, health-promoting effects of jackfruit and seeds with special emphasis on their applications in the food.
... Approximately, 2 Megajoule energy per kg/wet weight of ripe perianth. Besides, the fruit can supply at [13]. Phytonutrients contain in jackfruit such as lignans, flavones and saponins have the properties of anticancer, antiulcer, antihypertensive and antiaging [14]. ...
... Alves et al. [36] observed that the fruit contains lignins, flavones and saponins which have the properties of anti-cancer, anti-ulcer, anti-hypertensive and anti-aging. It contains immense medicinal values and also considered a rich source of carbohydrates, minerals, carboxylic acids, dietary fiber and vitamins such as ascorbic acid and thiamine [13]. Manganese and magnesium [32], potassium, calcium and iron [37] elements are found in seed. ...
Preprint
The Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) is well-known as “poor man’s food” fruit in Bangladesh. It is widely consumed by most of the rural people and it is the national fruit of Bangladesh. The main aim of this review is to document the medicinal significance of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.), major parts and uses of the jackfruit in Bangladesh. This article was based on mostly a literature review. All parts of the fruit and plant are used as human food, animal feed and wood source for furniture. Although jackfruit is the main fruit of the tree, it is used as furniture for its beautiful texture and wood color. Jackfruit contains anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-helminthic properties. The fruit is rich in carbohydrates, minerals, carboxylic acids, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. The seed is rich in manganese, magnesium, potassium, calcium iron and lectins and thus meets up nutritional requirements for the rural people. The present study attempted to review the medicinal importance, health-promoting effects of jackfruit and seeds with special emphasis on their applications in the food.
Article
In the present work, drying of jackfruit seeds (with and without the endocarp) was carried out in an oven at temperatures of 60 and 70°C. The objective of this work is to apply two diffusive models to describe the drying of jackfruit seeds and use them to analyze the effects of temperature and endocarp presence on the thermo‐physical parameters of the process. For this, two numerical solutions were developed considering shrinkage and diffusivity as a function of the local moisture content. The two models applied in this study were obtained as follows: considering shrinkage and diffusivity variation (model 1); considering constant diffusivity and disregarding shrinkage (model 2). According to the statistical indicators obtained, with values for the coefficient of determination that varied between 0.9896 and 0.9994 and chi‐square that varied between 1.7764×10‐3 and 4.325×10‐2, the two models proposed adequately fitted to the experimental data. Furthermore, these indicators showed a better adequacy of model 1 for this type of process when compared to results reported in the literature. This article proposes a study with jackfruit seed that is usually discarded by the food industry. Two diffusive models are proposed to describe the drying of jackfruit seeds with and without endocarp. This proposal can contribute to a better understanding of the drying of this type of product, since there are few works in the literature that use more complex models for residues. A strong influence of the presence of the endocarp on the total drying time and on the thermo‐physical parameters of the process was observed.
Article
Full-text available
Background: In the present investigation, an attempt was made to isolate starch from jackfruit seed powder and utilize it as a superdisintegrant to design fast dissolving tablets of irbesartan. Methods: Starch was isolated from jackfruit seeds via aqueous and alkali extraction processes and evaluated for its physicochemical properties, for phytochemical tests, and for acute toxicity studies. Irbesartan fast dissolving formulations were prepared using the wet granulation technique. Results: Acute toxicity studies for the extract indicated that all rats were healthy with no physiological changes in their behavior. The prepared irbesartan tablet formulations were found to be stable according to the Indian Pharmacopoeia-specified limits for postcompression parameters. From in vitro dissolution studies, it was observed that formulations F5 and F8 containing 5% w/w of alkali extracted starch and 5% w/w of croscarmellose sodium showed faster disintegration and improved dissolution rate compared with the other formulations. Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopic and differential scanning colorimetric analysis performed on optimized formulations indicated that there were no major interactions between the drug and excipients. Accelerated stability studies carried out on optimized formulations showed all tablets to be stable. Conclusion: The tablets prepared from jackfruit seed starch as superdisintegrant were found to be suitable for preparation of fast dissolving tablets.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To examine the anti-angiogenic potential of Artocarpus heterophyllus (A. heterophyllus) seed extract in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Methods: This study used chicken CAM ex ovo culture to examine the potential anti-angiogenic activity of A. heterophyllus seed methanolic extract. Basic fibroblast growth factor was used to induce the ectopic formation of blood vessels on CAM treated with extract. Blood vessel number was assessed by macroscopic and microscopic observation, and compared and analyzed for all treatments and controls. Results: Macroscopic observation revealed that a dose of 35 μg/mL of methanolic extract of A. heterophyllus seeds could inhibit basic fibroblast growth factor-induced angiogenesis by 61% in chicken CAM ex ovo culture. This concurred with microscopic observations on the histological structure of blood vessels, which indicated that extract treatment repressed the formation of new blood vessels. Conclusions: This is the first study to report the anti-angiogenic effect of methanolic extract derived from A. heterophyllus seeds and its potential as a candidate for future anticancer therapy.
Article
Full-text available
In today’s world, search for natural medicines is increasing as a result of drug resistance of pathogens and also due to negative consequences of antibiotic. Presence of phytochemicals, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus was carried out in this study. Leaf of this plant was subjected to warm extraction with three different solvents namely methanol, aqueous methanol and ethyl acetate. Leaf extract showed the presence of coumarin, alkaloid, terpenoid in methanol solvent; tannin, coumarin, saponin in aqueous methanol extract and coumarin, terpenoids in ethyl acetate solvent. Further, antimicrobial activity was assessed through disc diffusion method with six pathological bacteria and two fungi strains in four different concentrations of plant extract. Largest ZOI of 16mm was obtained against B. subtilis in 200mg/ml concentration for ethyl acetate extract. Antioxidant potential was measured by DPPH (Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay. DPPH free radical Scavenging Activity was expressed in % inhibition with L Ascorbic acid as standard and leaf extract in methanol showed the best activity. Keywords: Phytochemical, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, IC50, ZOI (Zone of Inhibition)
Article
Studies involving jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) focus on its fruit. Nevertheless a considerable part of jackfruit weight is represented by its seeds. Despite being consumed in several countries, knowledge about the chemical composition of these seeds is scarce. In this work, the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites in jackfruit seed kernel and seed coating membrane was studied. Sixty seven compounds were identified, sixty of them being reported for the first time in jackfruit seed. Both tissues had a similar qualitative profile, but significant quantitative differences were found. The capacity of aqueous extracts from jackfruit seed kernel and seed coating membranes to scavenge nitric oxide radical was also evaluated for the first time, the extract prepared from the seed coating membrane being the most potent. This work increases the potential revenue from a food that is still largely wasted.
Article
An oral solid dosage form should ideally disperse into the primary particles from which it was prepared. Tablets and capsules which need rapid disintegration, the inclusion of the right disintegrant is a prerequisite for optimal bioavailability. Superdisintegrants are used to improve the efficacy of solid dosage forms. This is achieved by decreasing the disintegration time which in turn enhances drug dissolution rate. Disintegrants are substances or mixture of substances added the drug formulation that facilitates the breakup or disintegration of tablet or capsule content into smaller particles that dissolve more rapidly than in the absence of disintegrants. Superdisintegrants are generally used at a low level in the solid dosage form, typically 1- 10 % by weight relative to the total weight of the dosage unit. The present study comprises the various kinds of superdisintegrants which are being used in the formulation to provide the safer, effective drug delivery with patient's compliance.