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The Effect of Shell Coating and Storage on Angel Cake Volume

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Abstract

Egg can be defined as the female reproductive cell in many animals. It is the oval or round thin-shelled reproductive body of a bird especially that of a hen, used as food, fertilized or unfertilized. Egg is classified as one of the first class proteins or complete protein source. First class proteins or complete proteins are of animal sources such as meat, fish, milk and eggs and their products. They have a good balance of the essential amino acids and are in similar proportions to those found in human tissues, muscles and organs. It is generally agreed that coating within a few hours of lay is best for optimal preservation of eggs. Angel food cake or angel cake is a type of sponge cake made with egg whites, flour, sugar and cream of tartar. Angel food cake differs from other cakes because it uses no fat. Angel food cake originated in United States. The texture of the finished cake depends chiefly upon the manipulation of egg white. Angel food cake gained its unique reputation along with its name due to its light and fluffy texture, said to resemble the "food of the angels". It contains high amount of proteins, fiber, carbohydrates, sodium and is cholesterol and fat free, therefore it is a right diet for watching body weight. This research was designed to study the effect of forty-day storage of shell coated hen's egg on the volume of angel cake.
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The Effect of Shell Coating and Storage on Angel Cake Volume
Nwadi, O. M. M., Ezike, U. E. and Okonkwo, T. M.
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Correspondence: margaretnwadi@yahoo.com
Introduction
Egg can be defined as the female reproductive cell in many animals. It is the oval or round
thin-shelled reproductive body of a bird especially that of a hen, used as food, fertilized or
unfertilized. Egg is classified as one of the first class proteins or complete protein source.
First class proteins or complete proteins are of animal sources such as meat, fish, milk and
eggs and their products. They have a good balance of the essential amino acids and are in
similar proportions to those found in human tissues, muscles and organs. It is generally
agreed that coating within a few hours of lay is best for optimal preservation of eggs1. Angel
food cake or angel cake is a type of sponge cake made with egg whites, flour, sugar and
cream of tartar. Angel food cake differs from other cakes because it uses no fat. Angel food
cake originated in United States. The texture of the finished cake depends chiefly upon the
manipulation of egg white. Angel food cake gained its unique reputation along with its name
due to its light and fluffy texture, said to resemble the "food of the angels". It contains high
amount of proteins, fiber, carbohydrates, sodium and is cholesterol and fat free, therefore it is
a right diet for watching body weight. This research is designed to study the effect of forty-
day storage of shell coated hen's egg on the volume of angel cake.
Materials and Methods
The eggs used for this study were hen’s egg purchased from University of Nigeria, Nsukka,
Faculty of Agriculture farm within twelve hours of lay. A total of 170 eggs were used for this
study. The initial quality of eggs was determined with ten (10) eggs selected at random. The
remaining eggs were divided into four (4) to correspond to four treatments of A (untreated), B
(ash coated), C (oil coated) and D (oil coated followed by ash). Each treatment comprised of
40 eggs. The eggs were stored in egg crates with small end down at ambient room conditions
for a 40-day storage period. Six (6) eggs from each treatment were randomly picked at 10-
day interval for Angel food cake production and evaluation of the volume. Production of
angel food cake was by the method adopted from American Egg Board2 following the
standard ingredients formulation by Phillips (2000)3. The Angel cake volume was determined
using the seed displacement method of AACCI4. Regression analysis was performed on the
data collected.
Result and discussion
Figure 1 shows that the volume of the cake made from the egg white of each sample reduced
as storage progressed. This suggests that the foaming ability of the egg white (which is the
major functional property desired in cakes) reduced with increase in storage time. This is
similar to the findings of Nwadi5 who noted that the foaming capacity of hen’s egg white
reduced with storage. The decrease in angel cake volume (Fig. 1) was as a result of decrease
in the foaming capacity of egg white which shows decline in quality of the stored eggs, this
followed a quadratic relationship in each treatment. This notwithstanding, egg coated with oil
alone impacted higher volume in the Angel cakes by the end of the 40th day of storage. This
shows that shell coating with oil can preserve the functional properties, particularly foaming
capacity in shell eggs compared with uncoated eggs, this could be attributed to the open pores
in the egg shell of the uncoated eggs which allows for faster deterioration such as
carbondioxide and moisture loss, this leads to increase in pH (from between 7.6 and 8.5 for
freshly laid egg to 9.7) of the albumen and consequent decline in quality.
2
Figure 1: Change in Angel cake volume made with eggs stored after shell coating
References
1. Otles, S. and Hisil, Y. (2004). The vitamin B2 contents of fresh and stored
hen’s eggs. Food Science and Technology Electronic Journal of Polish
Agricultural Universities. 7(2)
http://www.ejpau.media.pl/series/volume7/issue2/food/art-05.http. Accessed
14th January 2017.
2. American Egg Board (2017). Recipes: Angel Food Cake. www.
Incredibleeggs.org/recipe/angel-food-cake/. Accessed 14th January 2017.
3. Phillips, S. (2000). Basic Cake Ingredients.
www.craftybaking.com/learn/baked-goods/cakes/ingredients. Accessed 14th
January 2017.
4. American Association of Cereal Chemists International, AACCI (2000)
Method 10-05.01. Guidelines for measurement of volume by rapeseed
displacement. Approved Methods of Analysis, 11th edition. St. Paul, MN:
AACC International. http://methods.aaccnet.org/summaries/10-05-01.aspx.
Accessed 14th January 2017.
5. Nwadi, O. M. M. (2006). The effect of oil and lime water (Ca(OH)2) treatment
on shelf life and some selected functional properties of shell eggs. B.Sc
Thesis, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria,
Nsukka.
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