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Utricularia sunilii (Lentibulariaceae), a striking new species from southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India

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Utricularia sunilii, a new species of Utricularia Sect. Oligocista from Kerala state of Western Ghats is described here. The new species shows similarities with U. graminifolia in having 3-nerved foliar organs and thickened capsule wall along the margin of dehiscence but differs by deeply 3-lobed lower lip of corolla.
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Phytotaxa 371 (2): 140–144
http://www.mapress.com/j/pt/
Copyright © 2018 Magnolia Press Correspondence PHYTOTAXA
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)
140 Accepted by Andreas Fleischmann: 31 Aug. 2018; published: 27 Sept. 2018
https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.371.2.9
Utricularia sunilii (Lentibulariaceae), a striking new species from southern
Western Ghats, Kerala, India
VANNARATTA VEETTIL NAVEEN KUMAR1, KONICKAL MAMBETTA PRABHUKUMAR2*, RAVEENDRAN
JAGADEESAN2, CHERUPPOYILATH MANA HARINARAYANAN2, MAYA C. NAIR3, MALAPATI K.
JANARTHANAM4 & INDIRA BALACHANDRAN2
1Post Graduate & Research Department of Botany, S.N.M. College, Maliankara, Ernakulam, Kerala, India
2Centre for Medicinal Plants Research (CMPR), Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal, Malappuram-676 503, Kerala, India;
email: prabhumkrishna@gmail.com
3Post Graduate and Research Department of Botany, Govt. Victoria College, Palakkad-678001, Kerala, India
4Department of Botany, Goa University, Goa-403206, India
Utricularia sunilii, a new species of Utricularia Sect. Oligocista from Kerala state of Western Ghats is described here. The
new species shows similarities with U. graminifolia in having 3-nerved foliar organs and thickened capsule wall along the
margin of dehiscence but differs by deeply 3-lobed lower lip of corolla.
Key words: Nelliyampathy, New taxon, Palakkad, Utricularia.
Introduction
The genus Utricularia L. (1753: 18), commonly known as bladderworts, belongs to the family Lentibulariaceae (Taylor 1989).
Taylor (1989) recognized a total of 214 species for Utricularia in the world in his monograph and later, 24 taxonomically
distinct species of Utricularia were published from various parts of the world (Fleischmann 2012). Janarthanam & Henry
(1992) revised the genus Utricularia for India and reported 35 species. After that, only three species were described from
different parts of India (Yadav et al. 2000; Yadav et al. 2005). In Kerala, the genus is represented by 24 species (Nayar et
al. 2006).
During an extensive floristic exploration in Nelliyampathy hills of Palakkad district, Kerala, authors collected an
interesting specimen of Utricularia Sect. Oligocista with deeply tri-lobed corolla lip which is evident from the field itself.
After a critical study with all available literature, herbarium specimens and opinions of experts, it is considered as new
species and is described here.
Taxonomy
Utricularia sunilii Naveen Kum. & K.M.P.Kumar, sp.nov. (Figs. 1–3)
Type:—INDIA. Kerala: Palakkad district, Nelliyampathy, Hill top, ca. 1400 m, 30 October 2016, K.M. Prabhukumar, R. Jagadeesan &
C.M. Harinarayanan 9730 (holotype CMPR; isotypes MH, SNMH, CATH).
FIGURE 1. Typical Habit of Utricularia sunilii sp. nov. (Photo: K.M. Prabhu).
UTRICULARIA SUNILII Phytotaxa 371 (2) © 2018 Magnolia Press 141
FIGURE 2. Utricularia sunilii sp. nov. A. & B. Habit; C. Single flower; D. Rhizoids with traps; E. Foliar organ; F. Bract; G. Bracteole;
H. Calyx upper lobe ; I. Calyx lower lobe; J. Lower petals; K. Dorsal petal; L. Spur; M. Fruit.
KUMAR ET AL.
142 Phytotaxa 371 (2) © 2018 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 3. Illustration of Utricularia sunilii sp. nov. A. Habit; B. Foliar organ; C. Trap; D. Scale; E. Bract; F. Calyx upper lobe ; G. Calyx
lower lobe; H. Single flower; I. Dorsal petal; J. Fruit.
UTRICULARIA SUNILII Phytotaxa 371 (2) © 2018 Magnolia Press 143
Diagnosis:Utricularia sunilii is similar to U. graminifolia Vahl but differs mainly in deeply 3-lobed lower lip of corolla.
Herb, rhizoids up to 4 cm long, ca. 0.1 mm thick, branched, branches slender, capillary, eglandular, glabrous. Foliar
organs produced on stolons, 1.5–2.5 × 0.4–0.9 mm, linear or linear–oblanceolate, obtuse or round at apex, glabrous, obscurely
3–nerved. Traps on stolons, rhizoids and foliar organs, 1.2 –1.8 × 0.7–0.9 mm, globose to sub-orbicular; stalk stout, ca. 0.4
mm long, sparsely glandular pubescent; mouth basal; appendages 2, simple, 0.4–0.7 mm long, slender, glandular hairy.
Scape grooved towards apex, racemes up to 20 cm long, ca. 1 mm thick, glabrous, green, 2–6-flowered; scales 3–4, ca. 2 ×
1 mm, ovate-lanceolate to triangular, acute to acuminate at apex, glabrous, basifixed; fertile bract 1.8–2 × 0.8–1 mm, ovate–
lanceolate, acuminate at apex, green, glabrous, shortly amplexicaul; bracteoles 1–1.5× 0.2–0.4 mm, lanceolate–subulate,
acuminate at apex, basifixed, faintly 1–nerved, reticulate. Flowers 0.8–1.5 cm long; pedicels 4–6 mm long, erect, not winged
at anthesis, slightly grooved, pale brown, distinctly winged in fruit. Calyx lobes unequal; upper lobe 3.8–4.2 × 1.7–3 mm,
broadly ovate, apex acuminate–emarginate, 10–12 nerved, reticulate; lower lobes 4–4.5 ×2.2–2.7 mm, lanceolate to oblong–
lanceolate, irregularly bi or tri–dentate at apex, 12-nerved. Corolla pink to violet, upper lip 5–6 × 2–2.5 mm, oblong to
oblong–lanceolate, truncate–obtuse, notched at apex, white, constricted near middle, gibbous at base dorsally, pale blue with
8–12 blue coloured striations, glabrous; lower lip 5–7 × 6–8 mm, broadly obovate, deeply 3-lobed, lobes free up to base,
side lobes 4.5–5× 1.8–2 mm, oblanceolate, 4–5 veined, blue; mid lobe 5–5.2 × 4–4.2 mm, hemispherical, gibbous, reticulate
veined, hairy at throat, constricted in the middle; spur 5–6 × 1.5–2 mm, conical. Stamens 2; filaments 1.3–1.5 mm long,
white, glabrous; anther 0.5–0.6 × 0.4–0.5 mm. Ovary 1.8–2 × 1–1.2 mm, with numerous ovules, green; style thick; stigma
2–fid. Fruit 2.8–3 × 2.4–2.6 mm, enclosed within the calyx lobe, elliptic-oblong, thickened along dehisced margin. Seeds
0.28–0.35 x 0.25–0.32 mm, sub-globose to globose; testa cells reticulate with slightly elongate cells.
Phenology:—Flowering and fruiting occurs from September to January.
Etymology:—The specific epithet is named to honor Dr. C.N. Sunil, Associate Professor, S.N.M. College, Maliankara
for his immense contributions to the field of angiosperm taxonomy.
Notes:—The species of Utricularia Sect. Oligocista are generally characterized by the entire or obscurely lobed lower
lip of the corolla. The new species superficially resembles U. babui Yadav et al. (2005: 71), but differs in having obscurely
3- nerved foliar organs (vs. 1- nerved foliar organs) and deeply 3- lobed lower lip of corolla (vs. entire lower lip). As per the
personal information shared by one of the authors of U. babui (Dr. Milind M. Sardesai, Department of Botany, Savitribai
Phule Pune University, Pune, India), it is confirmed that the proposed new species is distinct from U. babui (pers. com.).
Utricularia sunilii also shows some similarities with U. graminifolia Vahl (1804: 195) but differs in its obscurely 3- nerved
foliar organs (vs. 3- nerved foliar organs which are again branched) and deeply 3- lobed lower lip of corolla (vs. entire or
obscurely lobed lower lip of corolla). But, in U. sunilii, the deeply 3- lobed lower lip of the corolla is distinct and striking
and is easily observable in the field itself. In some individuals, very rarely obscurely 3-lobed lips are observed during early
morning, but later they cleave up to their base. A more detailed study is required on this species to reveal its taxonomic and
ecological significance.
Distribution and associated species:—The new species grows in moist places near temporary pools in open grasslands
and also in wetlands of high range areas in Hill top of Nelliyampathy forest and in close association with Eriocaulon
thwaitesii Koernicke. (1854: 627) (Eriocaulaceae).
Additional specimens examined (paratypes):INDIA. Kerala: Palakkad district, Nelliampathy, Hill top,± 1600 m,
29 December 2015, K.M. Prabhukumar & C.N. Sunil 8748 (CMPR!); 20 January 2018, K.M. Prabhukumar & V.V. Naveen
Kumar 11116 (CMPR!); 20 January 2018, M.K. Jabeena & Maya C. Nair 1182 (Herbarium, Govt. Victoria College!); Idukki
district, Devikulam, Ghat road, 27 September 2016, V.V. Naveen Kumar 9215 (SNMH!).
Acknowledgements
The authors express their sincere gratitude to the authorities of Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal for extending the facilities &
TATA trust Mumbai for the financial support. Thanks are also due to T.K. Nirmesh and N. Bhavadas for their help during
field visit. First author express his gratitude to the staff of dept. of Botany, S.N.M. College, Maliankara.
References
Janarthanam, M.K. & Henry, A.N. (1992) Bladderworts of India. Botanical Survey of India, Coimbatore.
Fleischmann, A. (2012) The New Utricularia Species Described since Peter Taylor’s Monograph. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 41 (2):
67–76.
Koernicke, F. (1854) Eriocaulacearum monographiae supplementum. Linnaea 27: 561–692.
KUMAR ET AL.
144 Phytotaxa 371 (2) © 2018 Magnolia Press
Linnaeus, C. (1753) Species Plantarum 1. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Stokholm, 560 pp.
Nayar, T.S., Rasiya Beegam, A., Mohanan, N., Rajkumar, G. & Sibi, M. (2006) Flowering Plants of Kerala-A Handbook. Tropical Botanic
Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, 1069 pp.
Taylor, P. (1989) The genus Utricularia - a taxonomic monograph. Kew Bulletin Addition Series XIV. London: Royal Botanic Garden,
Kew, 724 pp.
Vahl, M. (1804) Enumeratio Plantarum vel ab aliis, vel ab ipso observatarum, cum earum differentiis specificis, synonymis selectis et
descriptionibus succinctis 1. N.Moller, Copenhagen, 381 pp.
Yadav, S.R., Sardesai, M.M. & Gaikwad, S.P. (2000) Two new species of Utricularia L. (Lentibulariaceae) from Peninsular India. Rheedea
10 (2): 107–112.
Yadav, S.R., Sardesai, M.M. & Gaikwad, S.P. (2005) A new species of Utricularia L. (Lentibulariaceae) from the Western Ghats, India.
Rheedea 15 (1): 71–73.
... Without floral diversity our life is not possible on this planet and this provides resources for life in the form of food, shelter, clothing and, more essentially, atmospheric oxygen for breathing (Kumar et al., 2018). World's population was nearly 7.6 billion as of mid-2017, and it was projected that 70 % of the world's population increase would be concentrated in urban areas. ...
... Though urbanization is increasing rapidly, we are still as dependent on Nature as before (Bolund and Hunhammar 1999). So that it is also necessary to examine the plant species, traditional knowledge and the use of these plants, not only in rural or tribal areas but even in urban and semi-urban areas (Kumar et al., 2018;Guo et al., 2018). The value and importance of traditional knowledge are now being increasingly acknowledge all over the world and the pharmaceutical industry continues to investigate and confirm the efficacy of many medicines and toxins used by traditional communities (Posey and Dutfield 1996). ...
... In India the insectivorous and carnivorous plants are recognized by five genera: Aldrovanda and Drosera (family Droseraceae), Nepenthes (family Nepenthaceae), Pinguicula and Utricularia L. (family Lentibulariaceae) (Taylor 1989;Suksathan Parnell 2010;Verma et al., 2014;). In world, about 274 species of Utricularia is reported (Kumar et al., 2018;Mishra and Kumar 2019;Cheng et al., 2021;. In India, about 40 species are reported and 16 species are from North-Eastern regions of the country (Oliver 1859;Subramanyam (1979); Bhowmik and Datta 2012 ;Arya et al., 2020). ...
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As the human population has gradually increased in recent years, human elephant conflict concerns have become increasingly serious. For space and resources, many animals are increasingly competing with humans. These problems arise as a result of human encroachment on natural habitats for the sake of agriculture or poaching. The agonizing death of an elephant in Kerala was recently caused by a culture of mistreatment. The death of a pregnant wild elephant in Kerala after allegedly consuming a tainted natural product has prompted outpourings of grief on social media, as well as analysis and shock from people throughout the country. The tale has taken several forms, from net distorting to providing a common tone to the incident. In any event, it has pushed the issue of animal mistreatment in India to the forefront. Thousands of elephants are killed each year in India when their paths cross those of humans, but the image of a critically injured elephant standing emotionlessly in a Palakkad canal while life ebbed out of it will be etched in the mind. It makes no difference if the bomb-caught pineapple that lost its life was intended for elephants or other animals, for similar traps litter the disrupted sceneries that encircle timberlands across the country. In any event, the tragic fate that befell this animal is an unwelcome sign of the growing conflicts between people and animals that are unavoidably going to arise as commercial pressures eat away at essentially reduced living area. The present literature condenses the review of the behavior, ecology, threats to the Asian Elephants and the current scenario of Human elephant conflict and different aspects of mitigation and conservation strategies.
... Without floral diversity our life is not possible on this planet and this provides resources for life in the form of food, shelter, clothing and, more essentially, atmospheric oxygen for breathing (Kumar et al., 2018). World's population was nearly 7.6 billion as of mid-2017, and it was projected that 70 % of the world's population increase would be concentrated in urban areas. ...
... Though urbanization is increasing rapidly, we are still as dependent on Nature as before (Bolund and Hunhammar 1999). So that it is also necessary to examine the plant species, traditional knowledge and the use of these plants, not only in rural or tribal areas but even in urban and semi-urban areas (Kumar et al., 2018;Guo et al., 2018). The value and importance of traditional knowledge are now being increasingly acknowledge all over the world and the pharmaceutical industry continues to investigate and confirm the efficacy of many medicines and toxins used by traditional communities (Posey and Dutfield 1996). ...
... In India the insectivorous and carnivorous plants are recognized by five genera: Aldrovanda and Drosera (family Droseraceae), Nepenthes (family Nepenthaceae), Pinguicula and Utricularia L. (family Lentibulariaceae) (Taylor 1989;Suksathan Parnell 2010;Verma et al., 2014;). In world, about 274 species of Utricularia is reported (Kumar et al., 2018;Mishra and Kumar 2019;Cheng et al., 2021;. In India, about 40 species are reported and 16 species are from North-Eastern regions of the country (Oliver 1859;Subramanyam (1979); Bhowmik and Datta 2012 ;Arya et al., 2020). ...
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Medicinal plants are described in most of historcal literatures. We are using them from the initial of human civilization in different modes and traditional ways. The practices and raw meterials are wealth of our modern civilization and need to conserve them for future. The pandemic COVID-19 again bring attention towards the medcinal plants and their traditional therapeutic systems. Ambka Prasad Research Foundation (APRF) has taken an initiative to gather the information on medicinal values of plants nationally in the form of a series of the edited book entitled "Medico-Biowealth of India". This is the fourth volume of the series and here authors discussed about the ethnomedicinal plants used against diarrhea; aerial parasitic plants; plants used in diabetes; medicinal values of some common mangrove plants etc. The content of the book is very useful and wish a grand sucess. I congrutulate to all authors and my co-editors.
... In India the insectivorous and carnivorous plants are recognized by five genera: Aldrovanda and Drosera (family Droseraceae), Nepenthes (family Nepenthaceae), Pinguicula and Utricularia L. (family Lentibulariaceae) (Taylor 1989;Suksathan Parnell 2010;Verma et al., 2014;). In world, about 274 species of Utricularia is reported (Kumar et al., 2018;Mishra and Kumar 2019;Cheng et al., 2021;. In India, about 40 species are reported and 16 species are from North-Eastern regions of the country (Oliver 1859;Subramanyam (1979); Bhowmik and Datta 2012 ;Kumar et al., 2017;Arya et al., 2020). ...
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... Since then, some sixty species of Utricularia have been published from different parts of the world. Currently, about 274 species of Utricularia have been described (Fleischmann 2012(Fleischmann , 2015Delprete 2014;Kumar et al. 2018;Hong et al. 2021). ...
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In his elaborate monograph of the genus Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae), Peter Taylor recognized 214 species of bladderworts. For this comprehensive revision of that large genus, which took him 41 years of passionate work, he studied the plants in their natural habitats and such cultivated in the greenhouses of Kew Gardens, but mainly his work is based on the thousands of herbarium specimens from all over the world that he thoroughly examined. As the bladderworts are a large and species-rich genus, and many species are often difficult to distinguish (several only with the aid of a magnifying glass by minute seed and trap details), a lot of different species and names have been published for over 200 years since Linnaeus put up the genus in 1753. Peter Taylor took the Sisyphean task to work through the more than 900 names for taxa of Utricularia that had been published. He studied and compared type specimens and descriptions, and finally was able to recognize that more than 3/4 of the names were actually representing synonyms of already described taxa, or invalid names. His all-encompassing monograph left nothing more to add!
Flowering Plants of Kerala-A Handbook
  • T S Nayar
  • A Beegam
  • N Mohanan
  • G Rajkumar
  • M Sibi
Nayar, T.S., Rasiya Beegam, A., Mohanan, N., Rajkumar, G. & Sibi, M. (2006) Flowering Plants of Kerala-A Handbook. Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, 1069 pp.
Enumeratio Plantarum vel ab aliis, vel ab ipso observatarum, cum earum differentiis specificis, synonymis selectis et descriptionibus succinctis 1
  • M Vahl
Vahl, M. (1804) Enumeratio Plantarum vel ab aliis, vel ab ipso observatarum, cum earum differentiis specificis, synonymis selectis et descriptionibus succinctis 1. N.Moller, Copenhagen, 381 pp.
Bladderworts of India. Botanical Survey of India
  • M K Janarthanam
  • A N Henry
Janarthanam, M.K. & Henry, A.N. (1992) Bladderworts of India. Botanical Survey of India, Coimbatore.
1854) Eriocaulacearum monographiae supplementum
  • F Koernicke
Koernicke, F. (1854) Eriocaulacearum monographiae supplementum. linnaea 27: 561-692.