ArticlePDF Available

The Visual Elements Strength in Visual Novel Game Development as the Main Appeal

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Currently, visual novel games can be downloaded easily via android-based smartphones or played on the computer. The ease of access is certainly needed to be supported by visual appeal, so that users are interested to play it continuously. In visual novel games, the visual elements that build the game consist of visual characters, visual narration, and visual styles. This study analyzes these three visual elements to know which elements have dominant visual strength and become the main appeal. The discussion of this study using mix method, that is qualitative and quantitative with visual perception and semiotic approach. Qualitatively, the analysis of the three elements of the game’s appeal shows the existence of visual signs that can build perception such as visual character, visual narration, and visual style. While quantitatively, the analysis shows that visual styles and visual characters have a more dominant visual strength as the main appeal. The results of this study are expected to be a reference for local game developers. The three visual elements that appeal to the visual novel games must match the needs of the market. Visual novel games that can attract attention and meet the needs of its users potentially become more competitive in the global market. Saat ini, permainan visual novel dapat diunduh dengan mudah melalui telepon pintar berbasis android atau dimainkan lewat komputer. Kemudahan akses tersebut tentunya perlu didukung oleh daya tarik visual, agar para pengguna tertarik untuk memainkannya secara terus-menerus. Dalam game visual novel, unsur-unsur visual yang membangun permainan di dalamnya terdiri dari karakter visual, narasi visual, dan gaya visual. Studi ini menganalisis ketiga unsur visual tersebut untuk mengetahui unsur-unsur yang memiliki kekuatan visual dominan dan menjadi daya tarik utama. Pembahasan studi ini menggunakan metode kombinasi, yaitu kualitatif dan kuantitatif dengan pendekatan persepsi visual dan semiotika. Secara kualitatif, analisis terhadap ketiga unsur daya tarik game tersebut menunjukkan adanya tanda-tanda visual yang dapat membangun persepsi, seperti karakter visual, narasi visual, dan gaya visual. Sedangkan secara kuantitatif, analisis menunjukkan bahwa gaya visual dan karakter visual memiliki kekuatan visual yang lebih dominan sebagai daya tarik utama. Hasil studi ini diharapkan dapat menjadi referensi bagi para pengembang game lokal, sehingga ketiga unsur visual yang menjadi kekuatan daya tarik game visual novel dapat disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan pasar. Game visual novel yang dapat menarik perhatian dan memenuhi kebutuhan para penggunanya berpotensi menjadi lebih kompetitif di pasar global.
Content may be subject to copyright.
326
P- ISSN 0854-3461, E-ISSN 2541-0407
MUDRA Journal of Art and Culture Vol. 33, No. 3, September 2018
p 326 - 333
The Visual Elements Strength in Visual Novel Game Development
as the Main Appeal
Dendi Pratama1, Winny Gunarti Widya Wardani2, dan Tauq Akbar3
1,2,3 Visual Communication Design, Faculty of Language and Art, Universitas Indraprasta PGRI
Jl. Nangka No. 58, Tanjung Barat, Jakarta Selatan 12530, Indonesia
dendi.pratama@unindra.ac.id
Currently, visual novel games can be downloaded easily via android-based smartphones or played on the
computer. The ease of access is certainly needed to be supported by visual appeal, so that users are interest-
ed to play it continuously. In visual novel games, the visual elements that build the game consist of visual
characters, visual narration, and visual styles. This study analyzes these three visual elements to know which
elements have dominant visual strength and become the main appeal. The discussion of this study using mix
method, that is qualitative and quantitative with visual perception and semiotic approach. Qualitatively, the
analysis of the three elements of the game’s appeal shows the existence of visual signs that can build percep-
tion such as visual character, visual narration, and visual style. While quantitatively, the analysis shows that
visual styles and visual characters have a more dominant visual strength as the main appeal. The results of this
study are expected to be a reference for local game developers. The three visual elements that appeal to the
visual novel games must match the needs of the market. Visual novel games that can attract attention and meet
the needs of its users potentially become more competitive in the global market.
Keywords : Visual elements strength, visual novel, game, main appeal
Kekuatan Unsur Visual Dalam Penciptaan Game Visual Novel
Sebagai Daya Tarik Utama
Saat ini, permainan visual novel dapat diunduh dengan mudah melalui telepon pintar berbasis android atau
dimainkan lewat komputer. Kemudahan akses tersebut tentunya perlu didukung oleh daya tarik visual, agar
para pengguna tertarik untuk memainkannya secara terus-menerus. Dalam game visual novel, unsur-unsur
visual yang membangun permainan di dalamnya terdiri dari karakter visual, narasi visual, dan gaya visual.
Studi ini menganalisis ketiga unsur visual tersebut untuk mengetahui unsur-unsur yang memiliki kekuatan
visual dominan dan menjadi daya tarik utama. Pembahasan studi ini menggunakan metode kombinasi, yaitu
kualitatif dan kuantitatif dengan pendekatan persepsi visual dan semiotika. Secara kualitatif, analisis terhadap
ketiga unsur daya tarik game tersebut menunjukkan adanya tanda-tanda visual yang dapat membangun persep-
si, seperti karakter visual, narasi visual, dan gaya visual. Sedangkan secara kuantitatif, analisis menunjukkan
bahwa gaya visual dan karakter visual memiliki kekuatan visual yang lebih dominan sebagai daya tarik utama.
Hasil studi ini diharapkan dapat menjadi referensi bagi para pengembang game lokal, sehingga ketiga unsur
visual yang menjadi kekuatan daya tarik game visual novel dapat disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan pasar. Game
visual novel yang dapat menarik perhatian dan memenuhi kebutuhan para penggunanya berpotensi menjadi
lebih kompetitif di pasar global.
Kata kunci : Kekuatan unsur visual, visual novel, game, daya tarik
Peer review : 9 - 23 Agust 2018, Accepted : 3 September 2018
327
Volume 33, Nomor 2, Mei 2018 MUDRA Jurnal Seni Budaya
INTRODUCTION
The development of digital games in Indonesia is now ac-
celerating and opening up competitive opportunities for
local game developers in global market. The potential of
this creative industry is also supported by the advances in
mobile telecommunication technology or smart phones.
Quoted from Samuel Henry of the International Game
Development Association (IGDA), data for the period of
2012 to 2013, shows the increment of local gaming studios
amount, both small, medium, and large, up to 100 percent,
(Pratama, et al., 2017: KOM - 45).
Based on the observations, game production made var-
ies, ranging from the type to its genre. But generally the
types of games offered now allow to be played through a
computer, using a console, or on mobile. While the genre,
ranging between the genre of action, ghting, role playing
game (RPG), sports, strategy, simulation, and adventure.
Among all the genres usually the players are presented a
narrative that arouse challenges and curiosity.
Visual novels or so called sound novels is included in
games that combine adventure genres with drama and
romance, and are presented through a series of framed
stories in addition to mystery. Visual novels are general-
ly played on the computer, but can also be downloaded
via android based phones. Through the Visual Novel (VN)
Project Indonesia community site, visual novelist’s fan can
download and select narrative themes from local game de-
velopers, from romance, fantasy, life romance to historical
action. Generally visual novels by local developers are still
inuenced by the Japanese anime style, where the origin
of the game genre is produced. Of many stories that are
raised, visual novel games with the theme of Indonesian
history are still very limited. Among those that are quite
popular are the visual novel titled Nusantara: Legend of
The Winged Ones, the work of SweetChiel developers,
which can be played with Windows, macOS, and Linux.
In its ofcial website at sweetchiel.itch.io, the visual novel
is claimed to have been downloaded up to 10,000 by its
users. This visual novel takes the background of historical
narratives of the kingdoms that ever existed in Nusantara
by displaying the characters according to history with dif-
ferent visual styles, also featuring ctitious fantasy char-
acters.
Visual novel example above is interesting to be a refer-
ence, because a production of visual novel local games
that are able to attract the attention of its users is certainly
not apart from the ease of access and visual appeal. The
power of visual appeal can encourage game enthusiasts to
access and play on an on going basis, such as changing
character expressions, storylines that contain mysteries,
plus sound effects. The power of visual appeal is also built
through its elements, and in the visual novel game, there
are three main elements that build the game, namely visual
Figure 1. Visual novel Nusantara: Legend of The Winged Ones
Source: (https://sweetchiel.itch.io/new-nusantara-legend-of-the-
winged-ones, accessed 18th September 2018)
character, visual narration, and visual style.
As a product of visual communications design, visual nov-
els integrate graphic design skills through a choice of vi-
sual styles, visual character designs, and visual narrative
designs through interactive communicative story construc-
tion. In this case, the visual elements of design are interre-
lated, such as lines, shapes, plane, colour, texture, space,
and motion, to produce beauty and appeal in its visual-
ization. The unity of the element must still consider the
elements of harmony, balance, and visual focus that going
to be the vocal point (Pratama, et al., 2017: 294).
The power of visual appeal in a spectacle product such
as a visual novel game can build the visual perception of
its users, because during the play there are visualizations
that drive the imagination through the sense of sight. One
that can build imagination, engage the mind, and evoke
players’ emotions is from the creation of the character’s
visualization presented in the game.
Theoretically, visual perception can be interpreted as the
result of interpreting the meaning of information obtained
through the senses. When associated with the genre of ad-
venture and mystery that is in the visual novel, then the
three elements contained in the visual novel, each poten-
tially stimulate the senses that can cause a certain visual
perception, such as facial expressions that build emotion
of the players or fashion styles that represents social class.
As is known, in the human subconscious mind, human vi-
sual perception is often referred to as social perception,
which selectivity is indirectly inuenced which is always
bound by social and cultural values (Wardani, et al., 2017:
95). In other words, one’s choice of a game is based on its
selectivity that is inuenced by the sensory stimuli of the
visual elements as a visual sensation. That’s why every vi-
sual element in the game needs to be designed with visual
appeal.
As a product of visual culture, the role of games in the
community is now increasingly widespread. This encour-
ages the creation of a more well-planned game design of
its visual elements. The goal is to design the game in ac-
Dendi Pratama (The Visual Elements Strength...) Volume 33, Nomor 2, Mei 2018
328
cordance with the needs of a heterogeneous market. The
elements presented in a game are visual images that carry
messages, so in the perspective of visual studies, as James
Elkins (2003: 83) mentioned that any visual image can
give interpretation meaning and connect with the attention
and memory of human as user.
Then the visual elements in the visual novel is very possi-
ble to build a certain meaning, in accordance with what is
seen and described, as caught by the sense of sight. There-
fore, among the three elements of the visual constructive
of the novel there may be a more dominant one, for exam-
ple the character’s role with his appearance. But one an-
other remains mutually supportive and visually intercon-
nected, because the role of the character does not become
attractive without a storyline. In the context of semiotic
visual sign reading, each element can be perceived in a
denotative way (meaning directly seen) and connotative
(meaning indirect or gurative meaning).
The interesting issue to be addressed in this study is, what
are the dominant visual forces of the three constructive
visual elements in visual novel? This study analyses the
perceptions of elements of visual characters, visual nar-
ratives, and visual styles, which are constructive elements
in visual novels based on the denotative and connotative
meanings of students’ design perceptions, as users of in-
formation technology closely with the creation of design
work. This is due to visual elements that are able to build
the perception potential to be visual strength, as well as the
attraction of a game.
This study is important considering the limited production
of visual novel games by local developers. Production lim-
itations can be caused by many factors, including lack of
understanding of visual novel games in the community.
This study can be a scientic reference to maximize the
potential of these three elements in the creation of novel
visuals to suit the needs of its users, thus becoming more
competitive in the global marketplace. In addition, by
knowing the perception of the visual strength of each ele-
ment, Indonesian’s visual novel can be processed into an
interesting educational media alternative, especially when
using the context of Indonesian history and culture in each
constructive element.
METHOD
This research uses mixed methods, which is combination
of qualitative and quantitative method. The purpose of the
combination method is to supplement data that cannot be
obtained qualitatively, especially about the perception of
the visual element’s appeal on the visual novel. Qualita-
tively the data is traced to understand the function and
meaning of visual elements and to describe them theoret-
ically. Qualitative data are obtained through literature and
interviews. While to describe data about perceptions of
players, especially the perception of design students, this
research used data collection techniques through question-
naires. This is because the phenomenon of impression or
perception cannot be obtained qualitatively. Combined
methods can complement each other’s needs for analysis
of visual element strengths in visual novels that can be
stated as a main appeal.
Data collection through questionnaires was conducted
on 250 students of visual communication design, as cre-
ators at Indraprasta PGRI University who all lived in Ja-
karta and were heterogeneous, that is, with a variety of
backgrounds in social status, ethnicity, and religion. The
questionnaire contains a short question about the visual
elements contained in the visual novel that is visual char-
acters, visual narratives, and visual styles. The technique
of lling the questionnaire is using Likert scale. According
Sugiyono (2011), Likert scale commonly used to measure
opinions or perceptions of a person or a group, especial-
ly about social phenomena that have been established as
research variables. The measurement of student’s opinion
or perception is using four gradations of answers, namely:
strongly agree, agree, do not know, and disagree.
This research uses interdisciplinary approach to obtain
concepts, thinking, and analysis, which includes the study
of visual perception and semiotics. The perception prin-
ciple used in this study is selective perception. This is
because game players generally do selectivity in choos-
ing the game. Translation of the factors that inuence the
selectivity can be described as follows (Mulyana, 2005:
2010-2011): a) Internal factors, including physiological
factors (such as body characteristics, physical condition),
biological factors (such as the need to eat, to drink), so-
cio-cultural factors (such as education, employment, so-
cial status), psychological factors (such as motivation,
hope, desire, emotion). b) External factors, including
motion factor (such as moving objects are more attractive
than unmoving), intensity factor (such as objects appear
Figure 2. Chart Analysis
329
Volume 33, Nomor 2, Mei 2018 MUDRA Jurnal Seni Budaya
more prominent than other objects), novelty factor (such
as new things, contrast, or unique), object loop factor (like
a message that is described repeatedly).
Furthermore, the meaning interpretation of the visual ele-
ment’s appeal in the visual novel implements the reading
of the denotation sign, a relation between the signied and
the signier whose meaning is direct and describes the
“what” is described. And the reading of connotation marks
whose meaning is indirect because it is related to the emo-
tions and cultural values of its users, and describes more
the “how” to describe it. How to understand connotatively
is also often associated with myth (Barthes in Fiske, 2007:
117-122). In general, the description of the analysis meth-
od in this study can be seen in the following gure:
DATA RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
Based on the results of quantitative data using question-
naires as data gathering tools, statistical data about design
student perceptions of visual strength elements in visual
characters, visual narration, and visual styles in visual
novels are obtained. Questionnaires included questions
about the main attraction of the game, the choice of the
character’s gender as the main visual character, and the
type of narration displayed. Respondents given the choice
of answers consisted of strongly agreeing, agreeing, dis-
agreeing and not knowing.
This research is disseminated to the major respondents,
namely respondents as design students who do understand
and know about novel visual games, so the sample refers
to the stratied random sampling. The minor respondents,
who are considered not very familiar with novel visuals
are not included to avoid visual perceptions that is not
closely pointed to the objectives to be achieved from this
research. Of the 250 questionnaires distributed, the re-
searchers managed to collect questionnaire’s answer that is
signicant from 235 design students as major respondents.
While on the results of qualitative data, the discussion
describes the inuence of internal factors and external
factors that affect the principle of selectivity in the user’s
visual perception, especially in relation to denotative and
connotative signication. Here are the results of quantita-
tive and qualitative data that identify the visual strength of
the three visual elements in the visual novel.
Perception on Visual Character
Respondent’s visual perception to visual characters in vi-
sual novel as the strength that gives main appeal shows
that as many as 112 people (48%) stated strongly agree,
108 people (46%) agreed, 14 people (6%) stated do not
know, and only 1 person (0%) who stated disagree. The
following is presented in gure 2.
Perception on Visual Narration
Respondent’s visual perception to visual narration in visu-
al novels as the strength that gives main appeal indicates
that as many as 52 people (22%) stated strongly agree, 141
people (60%) agreed, 37 people (16%) stated do not know,
and 5 people (2%) who disagree. The following is present-
ed in gure 3.
Perception on Visual Style
Respondent’s visual perception to visual style in visual
novels as the strength that gives main appeal shows that as
many as 94 people (55%) stated strongly agree, 128 people
Figure 3. Percentage of Visual Character
Appeal in Visual Novel
Figure 4. Percentage of Visual Narration
Appeal in Visual Novel
Figure 5. Percentage of Visual Style Appeal
in Visual Novel
Figure 6. Percentage of Main Appeal in
Visual Novel
Dendi Pratama (The Visual Elements Strength...) Volume 33, Nomor 2, Mei 2018
330
(40%) agreed, 12 people (5%) stated not know, and only
1 person (0%) who stated disagree. The following is pre-
sented in gure 4.
Data Results of Visual Elements Strength in Visual Novels
as Main Appeal
Based on the three visual perception results above on the
elements of visual character, visual narration, and visual
style, the data number can be calculated as a whole. The
main appeal of visual novels can be seen based on the
amount of number that indicate the data strongly agree and
agree on the perception of the visual elements strength.
The results of the data show as follows: 220 design stu-
dents or 35 percent said the visual element strength of the
visual character is the main appeal. Similarly, 222 people
(35%) considered the visual element strength of the visu-
al style to be no less a major appeal. And only 193 peo-
ple (30%) who consider visual narratives can also be the
strength of the visual element that gives rise to appeal. The
following is presented in gure 5.
The data above shows that both visual and visual styles
have a balanced power, while the visual narrative power
is only ve percent lower than the other two, so it can be
said to have visual strength, although not too dominant.
By making these three visual elements a part of the basic
concept of visual novel design, then the creator needs to
really pay attention to the design elements that inuence it.
In the design of visual characters, game players often
feel psychologically involved with the game’s characters.
Research conducted by James Newman (2004: 127-128)
mentions the characters in the videogame can be a cultural
icon. Videogames are capable of giving birth many mem-
orable characters of all times, including Super Mario and
Lara Croft. The increasing popularity of this videogame
play is a boost to the visibility of the characters featured,
which also gained recognition beyond its players.
In the design of visual characters, creators also need to
consider concerning the gender of the visual character. Re-
search conducted by Nieko Lungido Kumoro (2017: 3-4)
from the University of Muhammadiyah Surakarta men-
tions the tendency of female visual characters in games
that are only shown as a complement and companion of
the main characters. In his scientic article, Kumoro also
explained some of the female characters in the game are
often portrayed as very sexy and hypersexual. This can be
seen from the body appearance and fashion style that is
sexy and tight. In this case, female characters are func-
tioned more to add attraction and increase sales, since
most videogame players are male (Kumoro, 2017:3).
The research results on the characters in visual novel
games in reverse show a balanced strength between male
and female visual characters. Quantitatively, the results
of the data show that 221 people (94%) considered male
and female visual characters each to be the main attrac-
Figure 7. Example of Super Mario and Lara Croft as Mem-
orable Characters. Source: https://www.abebooks.co.uk/
SUPER-MARIO-LARA-CROFT-HISTORIA-MARTI-
NEZ/15474111606/bd#&gid=1&pid=1, accessed 18th Septem-
ber 2018
tion, and only 14 people (6%) said they did not know. Thus
each gender of the visual character has the potential to be
the main appeal. This can be attributed to the visual nov-
el gameplay characteristic that puts more of the mystery
in the series of framed stories, so the players’ attention is
more focused on solving the puzzle through the character
of his choice.
In addition, the appeal of the visual character is also in-
uenced by the visual style. The results of quantitative
data on the strength of visual styles as the character appeal
showed as many as 13 people (6%) chose facial and pos-
ture elements, 19 people (8%) chose on posture and fash-
ion elements, 18 people (8%) chose facial elements and
fashion style, 161 people (68%) chose on face element,
body posture and fashion style, while 24 people (10%) an-
swered did not know. Thus the visual style of the character
must pay attention to the elements of face, posture, and
fashion style in the design.
While the strength of the visual narrative element, though
not the dominant element, remains to have an effect on the
overall game. Narratives built as a series of stories in vi-
sual novel should be able to encourage the curiosity of the
players. Visual narratives are constructed through dialogue
text in writing. Each dialogue text gives continuity to the
subsequent dialogue text, until the player gets to the next
story option.
Figure 8. Example of Sexy Female Characters in Video
Games. Source: (Kumoro, 2017: 4)
331
Volume 33, Nomor 2, Mei 2018 MUDRA Jurnal Seni Budaya
Figure 9. Percentage of Visual Style
Strength that Become the Main Appeal
Narrative themes in novel visuals generally present the
journey and romance of the main character. Narratives
are designed to engage the players’ emotions, so players
feel they are in the narrative. The strength of the visual
narrative is highly dependent on the storyline being built.
Its appeal is also inuenced by visual character and visual
style. This is due to the visual character and visual style
being the rst two visual elements that give sensation in
the players’ sense of vision.
Data results on perception quantitatively above cannot be
separated from the meaning of denotation and connotation
of players inuenced by selectivity principle. As described
above, selectivity is also inuenced by internal factors
and external factors. Qualitatively, the analysis can be de-
scribed as follows:
Visual Perception on Visual Character
The principle of selectivity in the visual perception of the
character in denotation is based on internal factors, namely
the appearance of body characteristics and facial expres-
sions. While on external factors, selectivity is possible be-
cause of the view that attracts attention, the display shows
the novelty, and the display that presents the movement.
By reading the signs of denotation for example visual
signs that show facial expressions with wide-eyed eyes,
Figure 10. Example of Visual Narratives in Visual Novel
Nusantara: Legend of the Winged Ones
Source: (https://sweetchiel.itch.io/new-nusantara-legend-of-the-
winged-ones, accessed 18th September 2018)
ushed skin, tight and half-open clothing, plus gold jew-
elry accessories, then connotatively, the players can meet
his tastes, get motivated, inspiration, and instantly emotion
stirred. This is in accordance with what Toni White (2009:
239) said that the display of characters through body rep-
resentation can reect certain characters, which through
their activities at the same time shows the gure of the
character that the player wants to see. That is why design-
ers as visual novel game creators require the concept of
character design that covers the whole, ranging from facial
expressions, posture, fashion style, including the move-
ments of the characters.
Visual Perception on Visual Style
The principle of selectivity in visual perception of the vi-
sual style in denotation is based on internal factors, namely
the appearance of social or class status, hairstyle and fash-
ion style, physical condition, and character trait. For exam-
ple, characters are displayed in a royal style, complete with
gold jewelry to show high social status, a slim and sexy
body, a beautiful face, with an oval look commonly used to
describe soft characters.While on external factors, as well
as visual characters, a prominent display, offering novelty,
and movement that invites the desire to keep playing it,
can build a visual-style connotation that brings satisfac-
tion, brings new experiences, and builds the imagination
and fantasy of the players. For example, visualizing char-
acters with unique clothing, a combination of designs that
combine cultural motifs with contemporary models, such
as the example of the character Tribhuwana Tunggadewi,
a queen of Majapahit gure in the visual novel “Twist Ma-
japahit” by Kawamata Hiruma.
Visual Perception on Visual Narration
The principle of selectivity in the visual perception of the
visual narrative denotation is based on internal factors,
such as narratives describing the social and cultural envi-
ronment. It is said in the book Setiadi, et al. (2008: 48) that
the narrative that lifts the essence of human life’s purpose
is to convey the message of human value. From a cultur-
al point of view, man as a character is based on his three
functions, the creatures of God, the social beings, and the
Figure 11. Example of Character Visual Style in Visual Novel
“Twist Majapahit”
Source: (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8D34kyqMefY,
accessed 18th September 2018)
Dendi Pratama (The Visual Elements Strength...) Volume 33, Nomor 2, Mei 2018
332
cultural beings. On external factors, visual narratives can
be processed into dialogue texts that present novelty, rid-
dles, as well as background movement. The connotation of
visual narrative visualization can represent socio-cultural
life, build events, arouse curiosity, and promise new things
for players. For example, an overview of people’s lives in
the Majapahit kingdom, questions about important events
that took place at that time, plus special scenes such as bat-
tles or catastrophic events. Coupled with background visu-
alization that accompanies the narrative to build fantasy.
Broadly speaking, the discussion about the meaning of de-
notation and connotation in visual perceptions based on
the principle of selectivity can be seen in the following
table:
Table 1. The Meaning of Denotation and Connotation in Visual
Perception
Visualisation Visual
Perception
Denotation Connotation
Visual
Character
Internal Factor - Body char-
acteristic
display
- Facial char-
acteristic
display
The visual character
satises the tastes,
motivates, inspires,
and evoke the players’
emotions
External Factor - Display
attracts
attention
- Display
shows
novelty
- Display
shows
movement
Visual Style Internal Factor - Social or
class status
display
- Hairstyle
and fashion
style display
- Physical
condition
display
- Character
trait display
The visual style gives
satisfaction, brings
new experiences, and
builds the imagination
and fantasy of the
players.
External Factor - Display
attracts
attention
- Display
shows
novelty
- Display
shows
movement
Visual
Narration
Internal Factor - Narrative
describes
social and
cultural en-
vironment
Visual narratives
represent socio-cultur-
al life, build events,
arouse curiosity, and
promise new things to
playersExternal Factor - Narrative
presents text
that contains
puzzle
- Narrative
brings a
repetition
- Narratives
brings
background
movement
CONCLUSION
This study has succeed in concluded that visual character
and visual style become the dominant element strength to
serve as the main appeal in visual novel creation. This is
due to the main visual character, both men and women are
always present in each frame to attract the attention of the
players as characters who try to solve the mystery in the
storyline. In addition, the visual style of the characters also
has a signicant inuence, especially in terms of costume
appearance, and body proportions. Therefore, creators
need to pay more attention to the design of visual charac-
ters and visual styles, especially in the design of facial ele-
ments, posture, and fashion styles. Selection of the gender
of the visual character is less signicant, as novel visual
game players generally focus more on the series of mys-
teries conveyed through framed and puzzle-plotted stories.
Visual elements strength on the visual character and visual
styles are inseparable from the sensations that rst appear
through the player’s visual senses. Although the visual
narrative is not the visual element dominant strength, the
theme selection within the narrative can also inuence the
player’s emotional involvement when choosing the char-
acter he wants. Basically, the advantages of each visual
element can build a visual perception that brings together
the overall appeal of gaming. The study of novel visual
gameplay is important and it is suggested to the next re-
searchers, due to the rapid growing creative industries and
the limited Indonesian’s visual novel. This study can be
a scientic reference to maximize the potential of visual
elements strength in the creation of novel visual games in
order to meet and satisfy the needs of its heterogeneous
players, and be more competitive with foreign gaming
products, especially games from Japan. It is hoped that
local visual novel developers will also prioritize the cre-
ation of visual character and visual styles that prioritize
the characteristics of Indonesian society, as well as lift the
narrative of Indonesian history, such as the characters of
the Majapahit kingdom gures, so that novel visual games
can be utilized into educational media that attract teenag-
ers.
333
Volume 33, Nomor 2, Mei 2018 MUDRA Jurnal Seni Budaya
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Appreciation and gratitude to the Directorate of Research
and Community Service, Director General of Research and
Development Strengthening, Ministry of Research, Tech-
nology and Higher Education (DIKTI) which has funded
the Institutional National Strategic Research (PSNI) activ-
ities in 2018 with the title “Mendesain Model Visual Novel
Indonesia Berlatar Sejarah: Studi Kasus “Twist Majapa-
hit” Sebagai Produk Akulturasi Budaya”. Thanks also to
LLDIKTI Region III Jakarta and the Institute of Research
and Community Service (LPPM) at Universitas Indrapra-
sta PGRI Jakarta for helping with this research activity
through Research Contracts: 032 / K3 / PNT / 2018, dated
March 6, 2018. And UNINDRA Research Contract / Con-
tract Number 0281 /SKP.LT/LPPM/UNINDRA/III/2018,
dated March 12, 2018.
REFERENCE
Elkins, James. (2003). Visual Studies, A Skeptical Intro-
duction, Routledge, New York and London.
Fiske, John. (2007). Cultural and Communication Studies,
Sebuah Pengantar Paling Komprehensif, Cet. IV, Jala-
sutra, Yogyakarta: Jalasutra.
Hiruma, Kawamata. (2015). Twist - 00 Majapahit - Ep-
isode 06 - Tribhuwana, Hayam Wuruk. Diunduh dari
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8D34kyqMefY
Kumoro, Nieko Lungido. (2017). Representasi Sensual-
itas Karakter Perempuan Dalam Game Online (Analisis
Semiotika Tentang Sensualitas Pada Karakter Heroes
Perempuan Dalam Game Online DOTA2), Skripsi, Uni-
versitas Muhammadyah Surakarta. Diunduh 20 April 2018
dari http://eprints.ums.ac.id/58128/4/Jurnal%20Repre-
sentasi%20Sensualitas%20Karakter%20Perempuan%20
Dalam%20Game%20Online%20cek%20all%20e.pdf
Mulyana, Ph.D., M.A., Prof. Deddy. (2007). Ilmu Komuni-
kasi, Suatu Pengantar, PT. Remaja Rosdakarya, Bandung.
Newman, James. (2004). Videogames. Routledge, London
and New York.
Pratama, Dendi, Wardani, Winny Gunarti Widya, dan Ak-
bar, Tauq (22 April 2017). “Game Visual Novel Sebagai
Produk Industri Kreatif: Digital: Analisis Simbolik Twist
Majapahit”, dalam Seminar Nasional Multidisiplin Ilmu
(Senmi) 2017, Universitas Budiluhur, Jakarta.
Pratama, D., Gunarti, W., and Akbar, T. (2017). Understand-
ing Visual Novel as Arwork of Visual Communication Design,
MUDRA Journal of Art and Culture, Vol. 32 No. 3, September
2017, 292-298. Diunduh 15 April 2018 dari http://jurnal.isi-dps.
ac.id/index.php/mudra/article/viewFile/177/98
Setiadi, M., Dra. Elly., M.Si., A. Hakam, Dra. H. Kama,
M.Pd., dan Drs. Ridwan Effendi, M.Ed. (2008). Ilmu So-
sial dan Budaya Dasar, Edisi Kedua, Kencana Prenada
Media Group, Jakarta.
Wardani, W.G.W., Listya, A., and Winarni, R. W. (2017). Po-
litical Campaign’s Music Video As A Strategy For Forming
Perceptions. International Journal of Scientic & Technol-
ogy Research, Volume 6, Issue 11, November 2017, 95-
98. Diunduh 15 April 2018 dari http://www.ijstr.org/nal-print/
nov2017/Political-Campaigns-Music-Video-As-A-Strate-
gy-For-Forming-Perceptions.pdf
White, Tony. (2009). How To Make Animated Films, Tony
White’s Complete Masterclass on The Traditional Princi-
ples of Animation, Focal Press, Imprint of Elsevier.
... One way to increase students' enthusiasm for learning is by using learning media (Andriyani & Suniasih, 2021;Priantini, 2020). Learning media that can be used by teachers are game media (Partovi & Razavi, 2019;Pratama et al., 2018). Currently students really like playing games so that learning innovation by playing games will increase students' enthusiasm for learning (Arifudin et al., 2019;Hwang et al., 2012). ...
... Learning media can create an exciting and fun learning atmosphere in the classroom (Chu et al., 2021;Hermawan et al., 2018). Game media is one media that is highly favored by students today (Partovi & Razavi, 2019;Pratama et al., 2018). Games are exciting for students to motivate students in learning (Arifudin et al., 2019;Hwang et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
When explaining the material, the teacher only uses blackboard learning media and is monotonous. This has an impact on student learning outcomes are low. This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of the Quizizz Game learning media in increasing enthusiasm and learning outcomes. This type of research is classroom action research. The research subjects were fourth-grade students with 23 students. The data in this study were obtained through pretest, post-test questions contained in the Quizizz Game application from observations and documentation. The instruments used to collect data are questionnaires and tests. The technique used to analyze the data is descriptive qualitative and quantitative analysis. The results of the study were that students obtained a percentage of learning completeness of 43.47%. After being given action I, the average score was 72, with a learning completeness percentage of 60.86% in Cycle I. In Cycle II, the average score increased to 85 with a learning completeness percentage of 95.65%. From the analysis above, it can be concluded that the application of the Quizizz Game learning media can increase students' interest and learning achievement. This research implies that teachers can use the application of the Quizizz Game learning media to increase student interest and learning outcomes.
... ng materials that are packaged very attractively will increase students' enthusiasm in learning (Linda et al., 2018;Yulando, Sutopo, & Franklin Chi, 2019). This is because students have a visual learning style so that something interesting for students will be able to increase enthusiasm and motivate students to learn (Nena, Wiyasa, & Ganing, 2013;D. Pratama, Wardani, & Akbar, 2018;Zhao & Wu, 2021). Teachers who prepare learning media or fun learning models will increase students' enthusiasm for learning Partovi & Razavi, 2019;Sadeghi & Sadeghi, 2012). Good learning will make it easier for students to understand the learning material. Digital teaching materials will make it easier for students to learn independentl ...
Article
Online learning materials prepared by teachers are less attractive and unclear to students, so interesting materials and teaching materials are needed in the online learning process. This study aims to develop Google Classroom-based teaching materials suitable for Indonesian language learning in theme 3 sub-theme 1 for grade IV in elementary school. This type of research is development research that employs a modified ADDIE model with steps of analysis, design, and development. The level of validity of teaching materials is measured based on assessments by design experts, linguists, and learning experts. Meanwhile, the practicality of teaching materials was measured based on assessments by grade IV students and teachers of Public Elementary School. The design expert validation results present an average number of 4.6, which is categorized as very valid; meanwhile, the instructional video experts' validation results show an average of 4.75, which is also classified as very valid. Furthermore, the linguist and expert study video's validation results also showed very valid results at a mean of 4.35 and 4.65, respectively. In addition, the results of expert validation on e-book learning and instructional videos obtained an average score of 4.6 and 4.55, and these two numbers are classified as very valid. Finally, the teacher's practicality assessment of teaching materials obtained an average of 3.45 and is classified as very practical.
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of this research was to examine the effectiveness of the simultaneous prompting method on teaching Floor Curling to special education class students with mild intellectual disability. In order to reach the aim of the research, a multiple probe model with intersubject probe phase, which is one of the single-subject research methods, was used. The research was carried out with 9 normally developing students accompanying 2 male and 1 female students who were selected in accordance with the characteristics of the study and were affected by intellectual disability, who were studying at Şehit Necdet Orhan Regional Boarding Secondary School in Bartın. In this research, the dependent variable was the ability to play Floor Curling. The independent variable was the simultaneous prompting on teaching the skill of playing Floor Curling. Collective probe, daily probe, teaching, maintaining and generalization sessions were planned to examine the effectiveness of simultaneous prompting on teaching floor curling skills to students with intellectual disability and to normally developing students. In all sessions, one-on-one instruction was given to the students. In the study, application reliability and inter-observer reliability data were collected. The findings of the research indicated that simultaneous prompting was effective on teaching Floor Curling skill and all normally developing students participated as observational learner in the teaching process and all students with intellectual disability learned the skill of playing Floor Curling with simultaneous prompting. In addition, it was concluded that the students were able to generalize their skills of playing Floor Curling to different environments and practitioners. As a result of the analysis, it was determined that the skill of playing Floor Curling maintained its permanence on the first, third and fifth weeks after the end of the education.
Article
Full-text available
ABK students are students who have different characteristics from students in general. One of the ABK is a slow learner. Slow learner students have a tendency to not be confident. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the “SI ECO” game to help slow learner students overcome the crisis of confidence. The purpose of this study to analyze the need for developing media of ethno-confidence “SI ECO” game for slow learner students. This research method is descriptive quantitative method. The subjects of this study were 2 teachers and 26 students. The data in this study are in the form of questionnaires and interviews with teachers and students. Data collection techniques using interviews, questionnaires and document studies. Data analysis was carried out descriptively by percentage. The results of the questionnaire of slow learner students have confidence in the criteria of lack of confidence. The results of the student needs questionnaire showed that there was a need for slow learner students for learning media in the form of games with ethno content that could foster self-confidence. The results of interviews with teachers show that the availability of learning media that incorporates cultural elements is still very limited so that the development of learning media in the form of the ethno-confidence game "Si Eco" is needed for slow learner students. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that it is necessary to develop the "SI ECO" ethno-confidence game for slow learner students.
Thesis
Full-text available
الملخص: يتناول البحث الدور الذي يلعبه الفنان المصور في صناعة الأفلام والألعاب الرقمية، حيث أن تجارب الفنانين الإبداعية تؤثر في الصورة والتفكير البصري، وبهذه التجارب تأسست القيم الجمالية والإيحائية لعناصر التكوين التي يستخدمها صانع الفيلم واللعبة في صياغة اللغة البصرية لهم، وتعتبر مدارس الفن الحديث مرجعية تشكيلية للصورة السينمائية، كما أن الفلاتر والأنماط البصرية لتطبيقات الهاتف الذكي مستوحاه من الفن الحديث؛ وجعلت التكنلوجيا الحديثة التعبير عن الفكرة بصرياً لنص السيناريو واللعبة الرقمية بأدوات أكثر دقة وسهولة ومرونة، وتكون قسم لفنانون متخصصون بتحديد النمط البصري للفيلم واللعبة في مرحلة تسبق إنتاج الأفلام والألعاب تسمى مرحلة ما قبل الإنتاج؛ يحمل البحث عنوان "دور المصور في صناعة الأفلام والألعاب الرقمية والهواتف الذكية" يتكون البحث من أربعة فصول. الفصل الأول بعنون: "التفكير والرؤية البصرية". وبدأ بتعريف ماهية الصورة والتفكير البصري، وتاريخ تطور الصورة وفقاً لنظرية "دوبرية" حيث تم تصنيف الصورة الى ثلاث تصنيفات (عصر الخطاب - عصر الكتابة - عصر الشاشة)، وأنواع الصورة حيث تم تصنيفها الى ستة عشر نوع، وتناول أهمية الصورة وسبب انتشارها وثقافتها في عصر ما بعد الحداثة، وطريقة التفكير بالصورة والتفكير البصري، وكيف تتكون الرؤية البصرية للصورة ويتم إدراكها، وتحديد العملية الإبداعية لفن التصوير وكيفية تكون الرؤية البصرية والفنية وتفاعل الفنان مع الطبيعة، ثم تناول أهمية الرسوم التحضرية والتخطيطات الأولية في تجسيد الفكرة الى صورة بصرية يستفيد منها صانع الفيلم واللعبة. أما الفصل الثاني فهو بعنوان: "التعبير عن الفكرة في الفن الحديث". ويتناول الدلالة الإيحائية والرمزية لعناصر التكوين حيث يعبر الفنان والمخرج ومصمم اللعبة عن الفكرة بصرياً برمزية التكوين ومبادئ التصميم الدلالية، ثم يتناول أسلوب التعبير في مدارس الفن الحديث وروداه وتأثيرها على صانع الفيلم، وقد بين الأسس التي اعتمد عليها الفنانون الحديثون بصفة عامة، وأسلوب كل اتجاه من اتجاهات الفن الحديث ورواده وطريقة اقتباس مخرجي الأفلام منها أو اعتبارها مرجعية تشكيلية لها. وأما الفصل الثالث فهو بعنوان: "التكنولوجيا الحديثة وتطور التفكير البصري". وقد تناول اثر التكنولوجيا الحديثة على الصورة، و معنى التكنولوجيا وانتقال الصور الى الصورة الرقمية، والأدوات الحديثة التقنية التي تُستخدم في التفكير والتصور البصري، وعلاقة الفوتوغرافيا بالفن والصورة السينمائية، وتناول استخدام الكمبيوتر والواقع الافتراضي كأدوات للتعبير عن الصورة السينمائية واللعبة الرقمية، ثم تناول الصورة السينمائية وعلاقتها بفن التصوير، وفن مرحلة ما قبل الإنتاج في صناعة الأفلام والألعاب الرقمية، ودور قسم الفن فيها، ثم تناول مفهوم الصورة في الألعاب الرقمية وفريق الفن فيها، وعلاقة اللعبة بالفيلم السينمائي، ثم تناول تعريف الهاتف الذكي وتعامل تطبيقاته بالصورة وتحويلها الى لوحات فنية عن طريق فلاتر وأنماط بتقنية الذكاء الصناعي، وتطبيقات للرسم والتلوين على الهاتف الذكي. أما الفصل الرابع فهو بعنوان "تجربة البحث" ويتناول تجربة الباحث التي تعتمد على استخدام الاسكتشات كوسيلة لتحويل الأفكار، وتفريغ النص اللوني لرواية "بنت الشيطان" للكاتب "محمود تيمور" وتصور مشاهد لها، ثم استخدام تطبيقات الهاتف الذكي في تحويل الصورة على شكل لوحات فنية. ويختتم البحث بالنتائج والتوصيات حول مساهمة الفنان في تدعيم التفكير بالصورة وصياغته لأسس التصميم والتكوين الجمالية واستغلال المخرجين لهذه الميزة، وتأثرهم بأسلوب مدارس الفن الحديث، وأثر التكنولوجيا في استحداث أدوات جديدة للتعبير عن الفكرة في السينما والألعاب، وكيفية الاستفادة من إمكانيات التصوير الرقمي وتدرسه كمقرر بقسم التصوير، واستخدام الهاتف الذكي لتكوين الأفكار والتصورات البصرية. إن فنون مرحلة ما قبل الإنتاج وفنون التصور البصري للفكرة تحتاج مزيد من الدراسة التقنية لها باستخدام التكنولوجيا الحديثة. Summary: Research deals with the role of the painter in the film industry and digital games, as the experiences of creative artists have an impact in the image and visual thinking, And with that experiences was created aesthetic values and suggestive of composition elements that are used by the filmmaker and Games designer to draft of the visual language for them, and the modern art schools were Consisted of as a reference film image, Also, filters and optical patterns of smartphone applications were inspired by modern art; New technology as made the visual expression of the scenario script and digital game with tools that are more accurate, easy and flexible, and has formed a section for artists specialized in determining the visual style of the film and the game in a stage that precedes the production of films and games called the pre-production stage; The research is entitled " The role of the painter in the film industry, digital games, and smartphones". The research consists of four chapters. The first chapter is entitled: “Thinking and Visual Vision”. he began to define what the image is and visual thinking, and the history of the development of the image according to the "Dupre" theory, where the image was classified into three categories (logosphere- graphosphere- videospher), and the types of the image where they were classified into sixteen types and dealt with the importance of the image and the reason for its spread, and image culture in The postmodern era, the way of thinking with the image and visual thinking, how the visual vision of the image was formed and perceived it, and defining the creative process of painting and how the visual and artistic vision and the artist’s interaction with nature are addressed, then he dealt the importance of preparatory drawings and preliminary layouts in embodying the idea into a visual image that Movie and game maker benefit. The second chapter is entitled: "Expressing the Idea in Modern Art". It deals with the suggestive and symbolic significance of the elements of composition, where the artist, director, and designer of the game express the idea visually with the symbolism of the composition and semantic design principles, then deals with the method of expression in schools of modern art , and its impact on the filmmaker, and has shown the foundations upon which modern artists in general relied, and the style of each direction of The trends of modern art and its pioneers, and how filmmakers can inspired from it or consider it as a fine reference for it. The third chapter is entitled: "Modern technology and the development of visual thinking." He examined the effect of New technology on the image, the meaning of technology and the convert of images to the digital image, the New technical tools which used in thinking and visual Visualization, and the relationship of photography to art and cinema image, and he dealt the use of computers and virtual reality as tools for expressing the cinematic image and the digital game, then took up The cinematic image and its relationship to the art of painting, and the art of pre-production in filmmaking and digital games, and the role of the art department in it, then dealt with the concept of the image in digital games and the art team in them, and the relationship of the game with the film, then dealt with the meaning of the smartphone, and dealt with its applications with the image and turn it into artistic paintings Using artificial intelligence filters and patterns, and applications for drawing and coloring on a smartphone. the fourth chapter, it is entitled "Research Experience". he examined the researcher’s experience that relies on using sketches as a way to transform ideas, and color script of the novel “Bent el Shaitan” by "Mahmoud Taymour" and visualize scenes of it, then using the smartphone applications In the transformation of the image in the form of art paintings. he research concludes with results and recommendations about the artist's contribution to supporting image thinking and formulating the foundations for aesthetic design and composition, and the exploitation of the directors for this feature, and the effect of the style of modern art schools for their, and the impact of technology in developing new tools for expressing the idea in cinema and games, and how to benefit from Digital painting and teaching it as a course in the painting department, and the use of a smartphone to form visual ideas and visualizations. Pre-production arts and the visual concept art of the idea need further technical study using modern technology.
Article
In his latest book, James Elkins offers a road map through the field of visual studies, describing its major concerns and its principal theoretical sources. Then, with the skill and insight that have marked his successful books on art and visuality, Elkins takes the reader down a side road where visual studies can become a more interesting place. Why look only at the same handful of theorists? Why exclude from one's field of vision non-Western art or the wealth of scientific images?.
Cultural and Communication Studies, Sebuah Pengantar Paling Komprehensif
  • John Fiske
Fiske, John. (2007). Cultural and Communication Studies, Sebuah Pengantar Paling Komprehensif, Cet. IV, Jalasutra, Yogyakarta: Jalasutra.
Twist-00 Majapahit-Episode 06-Tribhuwana, Hayam Wuruk
  • Kawamata Hiruma
Hiruma, Kawamata. (2015). Twist-00 Majapahit-Episode 06-Tribhuwana, Hayam Wuruk. Diunduh dari https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8D34kyqMefY
Representasi Sensualitas Karakter Perempuan Dalam Game Online (Analisis Semiotika Tentang Sensualitas Pada Karakter Heroes Perempuan Dalam Game Online DOTA2), Skripsi, Universitas Muhammadyah Surakarta
  • Nieko Kumoro
  • Lungido
Kumoro, Nieko Lungido. (2017). Representasi Sensualitas Karakter Perempuan Dalam Game Online (Analisis Semiotika Tentang Sensualitas Pada Karakter Heroes Perempuan Dalam Game Online DOTA2), Skripsi, Universitas Muhammadyah Surakarta. Diunduh 20 April 2018 dari http://eprints.ums.ac.id/58128/4/Jurnal%20Repre-sentasi%20Sensualitas%20Karakter%20Perempuan%20
Understanding Visual Novel as Arwork of Visual Communication Design
  • D Pratama
  • W Gunarti
Pratama, D., Gunarti, W., and Akbar, T. (2017). Understanding Visual Novel as Arwork of Visual Communication Design, MUDRA Journal of Art and Culture, Vol. 32 No. 3, September 2017, 292-298. Diunduh 15 April 2018 dari http://jurnal.isi-dps. ac.id/index.php/mudra/article/viewFile/177/98
Political Campaign's Music Video As A Strategy For Forming Perceptions
  • W G W Wardani
  • A Listya
  • R W Winarni
Wardani, W.G.W., Listya, A., and Winarni, R. W. (2017). Political Campaign's Music Video As A Strategy For Forming Perceptions. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, Volume 6, Issue 11, November 2017, 95-98. Diunduh 15 April 2018 dari http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/ nov2017/Political-Campaigns-Music-Video-As-A-Strategy-For-Forming-Perceptions.pdf
Twist -00 Majapahit -Episode 06 -Tribhuwana, Hayam Wuruk
  • Kawamata Hiruma
Hiruma, Kawamata. (2015). Twist -00 Majapahit -Episode 06 -Tribhuwana, Hayam Wuruk. Diunduh dari https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8D34kyqMefY