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Abstract

Abstract: The present paper describes a research that, based on the evolutionary data of the urban settlement over a period of half a century, shows the changes undergone by the various landscape categories of Southern Italy. The regions involved are four (Campania, Basilicata, Puglia and Calabria) and share renowned urban, economic and social issues such as unauthorized development, low income per capita and organized crime. All this has produced profound transformations on some of the most important and rare Italian landscapes, such as coastal plains and coastal carbonate slabs. Uncontrolled urban sprawl has further provoked an environmental crisis and eco-friendly insularization of the yet numerous and valuable protected areas of this geographical area, thus leading to a high density of buildings and infrastructures even in national parks, breaking European records in this respect. Through finalized indicators, the characteristics of the evolution occurred have been analytically highlighted, and by using the latest generation satellite data, it is shown how such phenomena have continued to take place with significant energy over the last few years. The result is a picture of environmental threats still very prominent in this southern extremity of the peninsula, above all towards those naturalistic qualities and landscapes that are the main attractions of an intense national and international tourism whose income, however, has not been conveyed in a correct and inclusive way to allow high-level socio-economic conditions of the resident population. Keywords: urban growth; land take, landscape loss; urban sprinkling; South Italy.

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... As a novel contribution to land-use science, the present work delineates the prevalent mode of urban expansion in Rome (Italy) considering both socioeconomic functions (whose changes are reflected in the sequential stages of the city life cycle) and morphological shifts (e.g., compact vs. dispersed). The Rome metropolitan area is a typical semi-compact and dense city in southern Europe experiencing different waves of settlement expansion and represents an example of metropolitan transformations in the Mediterranean [60][61][62]. The empirical results of this study allow for the discussion of the (supposed) unsustainability of current urban expansion compared with past settlement structures as far as land fragmentation and loss of relict habitats and traditional crops at the fringe are concerned. ...
... Following earlier studies [26], a database reporting the surface area of several landuse classes was derived from elaboration of 3 compatible maps with a land nomenclature based on a simplified Corine Land Cover classification system [57][58][59]61,62]: (i) the Italian Istituto Geografico Militare topographic map (1:25,000 scale) produced in 1949, (ii) a land-use map (1:25,000) produced by the Cartographical Service of the Rome's province authority derived from field surveys and in-house photo-interpretation of digital ortho-photographs taken for cadastral purposes, and (iii) land-use maps (1:25,000) realized by the Cartographical Service of Latium regional authority from photointerpretation of digital ortho-images released from the Italian National Geoportal. In addition, a first map was originally produced for 1999 and subsequently updated for 2008 and 2016 with new images referring to the same years. ...
... Following earlier studies [26], a database reporting the surface area of several land-use classes was derived from elaboration of 3 compatible maps with a land nomenclature based on a simplified Corine Land Cover classification system [57][58][59]61,62]: (i) the Italian Istituto Geografico Militare topographic map (1:25,000 scale) produced in 1949, (ii) a land-use map (1:25,000) produced by the Cartographical Service of the Rome's province authority derived from field surveys and in-house photo-interpretation of digital ortho-photographs taken for cadastral purposes, and (iii) land-use maps (1:25,000) realized by the Cartographical Service of Latium regional authority from photo-interpretation of digital ortho-images released from the Italian National Geoportal. In addition, a first map was originally produced for 1999 and subsequently updated for 2008 and 2016 with new images referring to the same years. ...
Article
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The spatial mismatch between population growth and settlement expansion is at the base of current models of urban growth. Empirical evidence is increasingly required to inform planning measures promoting urban containment in the context of a stable (or declining) population. In these regards, per-capita indicators of land-use change can be adopted with the aim at evaluating long-term sustainability of urbanization processes. The present study assesses spatial variations in per-capita indicators of land-use change in Rome, Central Italy, at five years (1949, 1974, 1999, 2008, and 2016) with the final objective of quantifying the mismatch between urban expansion and population growth. Originally specialized in agricultural productions, Rome’s metropolitan area is a paradigmatic example of dispersed urban expansion in the Mediterranean basin. By considering multiple land-use dynamics, per-capita indicators of landscape change delineated three distinctive waves of growth corresponding with urbanization, suburbanization, and a more mixed stage with counter-urbanization and re-urbanization impulses. By reflecting different socioeconomic contexts on a local scale, urban fabric and forests were identified as the ‘winner’ classes, expanding homogeneously over time at the expense of cropland. Agricultural landscapes experienced a more heterogeneous trend with arable land and pastures declining systematically and more fragmented land classes (e.g., vineyards and olive groves) displaying stable (or slightly increasing) trends. The continuous reduction of per-capita surface area of cropland that’s supports a reduced production base, which is now insufficient to satisfy the rising demand for fresh food at the metropolitan scale, indicates the unsustainability of the current development in Rome and more generally in the whole Mediterranean basin, a region specialized traditionally in (proximity) agricultural productions.
... The eco-mosaic fragmentation and the related increase in urbanization have, as their first repercussions, the consumption of land, which changes its intended use and its ecological properties irreversibly [28,[45][46][47][48]. The multitemporal analysis using the Corine Land Cover allowed us to verify which land uses were most affected by urban expansion in 28 years (Figure 4). ...
... It was therefore characterized by a higher level of biodiversity than large-scale intensive agriculture, which leads to a flattening of biodiversity [6,50]. The decrease of these areas represents a problem for the loss of landscape, social and cultural value, and in terms of ecological connectivity and biodiversity [6,45,[50][51][52]. Agricultural areas in which nonintensive activities are carried out represent a key component in the ecological connectivity of the landscape [6,50,53,54]. ...
... Agricultural areas in which nonintensive activities are carried out represent a key component in the ecological connectivity of the landscape [6,50,53,54]. The 28-year loss of a vast surface of this land type has certainly undermined the integrity of the MCN's ecological network, reducing the resilience of habitats and increasing their fragility [6,29,45,55]. The other land-use categories that have undergone erosion were minimally represented compared to agricultural areas, but a decrease was recorded for urban green areas, forests, and habitats linked to water bodies ( Table 2). ...
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Nowadays, anthropic pressures are continuously transforming the landscape mosaic, leading to issues related to habitat fragmentation and the loss of ecosystem functions. In this study, a landscape-change analysis over the 1990–2018 timeframe of the case study area of Metropolitan City of Naples (MCN) (southern Italy) was performed to evaluate trends, causes, and results of the landscape transformations. We preliminary performed a spatial–temporal fragmentation-expansion analysis in the MCN through the landscape expansion index (LEI), and subsequently determined the impacts on the eco-mosaic. The multitemporal analysis (1990–2018) highlighted an urban expansion in the MCN. The LEI analysis depicted a dual tendency in the increased fragmenting of the MCN’s eco-mosaic. The urban landscape has compacted in the hollow areas, and in the meantime there has been a sprawling expansion of the urban fabric. The most impacted land-use category was “Agricultural areas”, of which 57.42 km2 have been lost in 28 years, with negative impacts on ecological connectivity. Finally, we investigated the relationship between the increase and type of landscape fragmentation and the demographic flows over time. We found that the areas affected by demographic growth were the same ones characterized by an edge expansion of the urban patterns. Conversely, where there has been a demographic decrease, an infilling behavior of urban fabric has been noted. This study highlights a possible correlation between the expansion type of the urban fabric and the demographic flows in a region as a main driver. The outcome of 30-year transformations is the actual ecological network in which Core Areas, Buffer Zones, and Primary Connections covered 35.3%, 11.1%, and 39.6%, respectively, of the total surface of the MCN, covering an overall area of 1008.4 km2.
... Coastal areas are particularly attractive for tourism development and they are primary tourism space of the Mediterranean, including Croatia (Krstinić Nižić, Drpić, 2013;Cerović et al., 2014;Magarotto et al., 2017;Fiorini et al., 2018). Human activity has been shaping the Mediterranean coastal landscape for thousands of years, while tourism has been one of the strongest factors of transformation of this space since the 1950s (Atik et al., 2010). ...
... Within the context of tourism development, primarily of coastal areas, the research especially relates to: a) morphological transformations of urban green spaces due to tourism development (Cunha, Delgado Cravidao, 1997;Beriatos, 2008;Atik et al., 2010;Zhou et al. 2014;Hrdalo et al. 2015;Robert et al., 2015;Magarotto et al., 2017;Botequilha-Leitao, Diaz-Varela, 2018;Fiorini et al., 2018); b) the relationship between the transformation of urban green spaces and the socio-economic changes due to tourism development (Pineira Mantinan, Santos Solla, 2010; Hetrick et al. 2013;Romano, Zullo, 2014;Da Silveira, Rodrigues, 2015); c) tourism potentials of urban green spaces (Cianga, Popescu, 2013); d) the level of satisfaction with urban green spaces within the total satisfaction with a tourism destination (Smolčić Jurdana, Sušilović, 2006;Cerović et al., 2014;Blažević, Krstinić Nižić, 2015), and e) urban green spaces within the context of tourism sustainability indicators (Kožić, Mikulić, 2011;Aguilar-Becerra et al. 2017). ...
... Istaknuta su (zadebljano) istraživanja UZP-a u kontekstu turističkog razvoja / Highlighted sources (bold) refer to research of UGS within the context of tourism development aesthetic) within the urban context or by basic differentiation between built-up and unbuilt ('nongreen', 'green'). Some authors differentiate between individual urban green space entities according to the level of naturalness (entirely anthropogenic, semi-natural, authentically natural) (Teimouri, Yigitcanlar, 2018), type of land-cover (bare soil, herbaceous cover, shrubs, tree canopy) (Hetrick et al., 2013) or according to ownership (public green space and private green space) (Magarotto et al., 2017;Fiorini et al., 2018). ...
Article
Urban green spaces, especially those in the coastal areas, are of great and multiple importance for sustainable urban and tourism development. At the same time, they are endangered by excessive construction caused by the urbanisation process. Increased urbanisation occurs as the consequence of spatial expansion of the built-up land of coastal towns due to strong littoralisation processes, but also as a consequence of an increasing coastal tourism development. Scientific research on the connection between urbanisation and tourism is conducted in various scientific areas and disciplines, representing urban green spaces mainly in a wider context, rarely as immediate objects of research. Understanding and comparison of research results are made difficult due to non-standardised methodology and terminology applied in research. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of methods applied in research of urban green spaces and, on its grounds, to select methodological approaches applicable for geographic research on urban green spaces within the context of coastal tourism development. The meaning of “urban green space” and its relationship with tourism were defined. The subject of research, terminology and classification of urban green spaces, spatial and temporal context of research, applied methodology and interpretation of results were analysed. Two most frequent methodological approaches in urban green spaces research in the context of coastal tourism development were identified: a) Comparative spatio-temporal research of transformation of urban green space due to tourism development and b) Research on attitudes and perception of urban green space users within the context of tourism development. The identified approaches are applicable in geographic research of urban green spaces, and they are based on methodological background of the positivist and humanistic- behavioural approach in contemporary geography.
... Especially on the local scale, the impact of human activity on the landscape is directly felt, perceived, and evaluated by local communities [3]. In many parts of the world, the changes are so strong that they cause a complete change in the character of the landscape or degradation of its values [4][5][6]. Anthropogenic changes, determined mainly by technological, social, cultural, political, and spatial processes, are mentioned as the main drivers of landscape changes on a global scale [7]. from research on ecosystem services, may soon become a new direction in research on the dynamics of landscape changes. ...
... (B) Landscape parks in highland areas (5) Książański Landscape Park: The observed changes relate to transformations within both forest landscapes and non-forest landscapes. A noticeable phenomenon is the abandonment of arable land, which gradually became overgrown and was transformed into meadows. ...
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Full-text available
One of the most problematic forms of nature protection in Poland relates to landscape parks. They include the most valuable landscapes, but the areas within the landscape park still have economic uses. Therefore, the monitoring of landscape changes within landscape parks is necessary in order to properly manage these forms of protection. The main objective of the study was to monitor the scale and nature of landscape transformations within the boundaries of landscape parks in Poland during the period 2000–2018 and to assess the possibility of using the landscape change index (LCI) to monitor the intensity of landscape transformations within this type of protected area. Preliminary analyses of the transformations within all landscape parks in Poland showed an upward trend, both in terms of the number of types of identified landscape changes as well as their area. In spite of the large diversity and degree of transformation in landscape parks, several dominant processes can be observed. The largest number and area of changes during each of the analyzed periods were found in transformations within forest landscapes (temporary and permanent deforestation and forest maturation), which constitute the dominant type of land cover within most of the landscape parks. In open landscapes, changes mainly relate to afforestation and natural succession in meadows, pastures, and arable land, as well as the transformation of arable land into mining areas. Twelve case studies, covering all landscape parks in Lower Silesia, have shown that the LCI is an excellent tool for monitoring the intensity of landscape changes, but it is dependent on the accuracy of the source data. The analyses confirmed that, during the study periods, the changes in all 12 Lower Silesian landscape parks were at a low level, but their particular intensification took place in the years from 2012 to 2018. The highest LCI was found in the area where a natural disaster had occurred (air tornado), which destroyed huge areas of forest in landscape parks. After changes in the forest landscape, the most frequently identified type of change in 2006–2012 was the transformation of non-forest landscapes into forest landscapes. The main reason for such changes was the expansion of forest into abandoned arable land, meadows, and pastures. The use of the Corine Land Cover database to calculate the LCI and monitor the intensity of landscape change revealed a low usability of the database for the year 2000 and a high usability for data from 2006 to 2018.
... In Italy, land take has never been governed strictly at any level, as evidenced by various papers [1][2][3], but merely recorded in terms of its magnitude over time. ...
... Geographical indication of urbanization rates calculated for the different periods analyzed.The application of equations[1] and[2] helps map urbanization density per time period and provincial district (NUTS 3) shown inFigure 5, as well as mean urbanization rates in the different periods analyzed. ...
Article
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The research presented in the paper intends to overcome an information gap on the evolution of urbanized surfaces in Italy which in the studies carried out so far have never been available. The only historical data on this form of land use date back to the 1950s, and were extracted from a national cartography created by the Military Geographic Institute. The next chronological section available was then that of the noughties, already digital. However, much more frequent data were processed by the ten-year censuses by the National Institute of Statistics, but concerning buildings and not urbanized areas. By processing building census data, this study has put together some novel information on land take dynamics between the end of World War II and the year 2000, highlighting the more intensive processes that occurred at an extraordinary rate in the ’70’s and ’80’s, obtaining unprecedented information on the speed of transformation of the territory in these decades of economic boom. Through this method, we were able to obtain numerous geographical indications previously lacking on a national scale, highlight the yet significant vigor of this phenomenon and develop an inferential scenario.
... These can help mitigate environmental stressors by using impervious surfaces i) that are usually unemployed (e.g., gravel or bitumen roofs) and ii) that could even exacerbate the challenges due to their physical characteristics (e.g., thermal emittance, reduced infiltration capacity) [95]. This option can also contribute to mitigating the negative effects related to soil sealing, which is a remarkable issue in the EU [96,97], enhancing the values of interstitial and leftover spaces [87]. However, the technical feasibility and costs related to these I-NBS and their widespread implementation must be evaluated according to the specific local conditions [73]. ...
Article
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The European Union is significantly investing in the Green Deal that introduces measures to guide Member States to face sustainability and health challenges, especially employing Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) in urban contexts. National governments need to develop appropriate strategies to coordinate local projects, face multiple challenges, and maximize NBS effectiveness. This paper aims to introduce a replicable methodology to integrate NBS into a multi-scale planning process to maximize their cost–benefits. Using Italy as a case study, we mapped three environmental challenges nationwide related to climate change and air pollution, identifying spatial groups of their co-occurrences. These groups serve as functional areas where 24 NBS were ranked for their ecosystem services supply and land cover. The results show eight different spatial groups, with 6% of the national territory showing no challenge, with 42% showing multiple challenges combined simultaneously. Seven NBS were high-performing in all groups: five implementable in permeable land covers (urban forests, infiltration basins, green corridors, large parks, heritage gardens), and two in impervious ones (intensive, semi-intensive green roofs). This work provides a strategic vision at the national scale to quantify and orient budget allocation, while on a municipal scale, the NBS ranking acts as a guideline for specific planning activities based on local issues.
... As can be seen, the study area is characterized by a low population density and a growth of buildings that has occurred mainly along the road network according to the classic dynamics of sprawl [15]. ...
Chapter
From the beginning of the 21st century, following major global and European initiatives such as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) and The Economics of Ecosystem and Biodiversity (2010), the idea that ecosystem services could be used as a decision support tool, gained considerable importance in several fields: from economy to public policy, from territorial planning to environmental assessment. Defined as the set of goods and services provided by ecosystems for the benefit of humans life quality, they express the potential to overcome traditional and not sufficiently effective approaches of policies and interventions undertaken so far for biodiversity conservation purposes. In urban and territorial planning disciplines, it is therefore necessary testing new tools capable of spatially explaining territorial components that constitute biodiversity hotspots or, specularly, threats to biological diversity persistence and resilience. Taking part to this methodological framework, this work assesses changes in habitat quality, considered as a proxy for biodiversity, in Tomar (Portugal), a study area particularly affected by forest fires-driven degradation phenomena. Results highlight the potential of such tools in explicating the role of different territorial threats on biodiversity conservation and points out the importance of proper natural and semi-natural environments’ management.
... Especially on the local scale, the impact of human activity on the landscape is directly felt, perceived and evaluated by local communities [3]. In many parts of the world, the changes are so strong that they cause a complete change in the character of the landscape or degradation of its values [4][5][6]. Anthropogenic changes, determined mainly by technological, social, cultural, political and spatial processes, are mentioned as the main drivers of landscape changes on the global scale [7]. On the regional or local scale, differences in economic development, urbanization processes and awareness of the need to protect these most valuable landscapes cause the significant disproportions on the level of landscape transformations to continue to exist and even to be deepened ...
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One of the most problematic forms of nature protection in Poland relates to landscape parks. On the one hand, they include the most valuable landscapes; on the other hand, the areas within the landscape park still have economic uses. Therefore, the monitoring of landscape changes within landscape parks is necessary in order to properly manage these forms of protection. The main objective of the study was to monitor the scale and nature of landscape transformations within the boundaries of landscape parks in Poland during the period 2000–2018 and to assess the possibility of using the landscape change index (LCI) to monitor the intensity of landscape transformations within this type of protected area. Filling a gap in the research on landscape changes, I developed and verified the possibility of using LCI for monitoring the intensity of landscape changes using the example of 12 landscape parks in the Lower Silesia region. Preliminary analyses of the transformations within all landscape parks in Poland showed an upward trend, both in terms of the number of types of identified landscape changes as well as their area. In spite of the large diversity and degree of transformation in landscape parks, several dominant processes can be observed. The largest number and area of changes during each of the analyzed periods were found in transformations within forest landscapes (temporary and permanent deforestation and forest maturation), which constitute the dominant type of land cover within most of the landscape parks. In open landscapes, changes mainly relate to afforestation and natural succession in meadows, pastures and arable land, as well as the transformation of arable land into mining areas. Twelve case studies, covering all landscape parks of the Lower Silesia, have shown that the LCI is an excellent tool for monitoring the intensity of landscape changes, but it is dependent on the accuracy of the source data. The analyses confirmed that, during the study periods, the changes in all 12 Lower Silesian landscape parks were at a low level, but their particular intensification took place in the years 2012–2018. The highest LCI was found in the area where a natural disaster had occurred (air tornado), which destroyed huge areas of forest in landscape parks. After changes in the forest landscape, the most frequently identified type of change in 2006–2012 is the transformation of non-forest landscapes into forest landscapes. The main reason for such changes was the expansion of forest into abandoned arable land, meadows and pastures. The use of the Corine Land Cover database to calculate LCI and monitor the intensity of landscape change revealed a low usability of the database for the year 2000 and a high usability for data from 2006–2018.
... Despite its population density as of 2014, equal to 57,2 inhabitants per km 2 , is second only to that of Valle d'Aosta region, Basilicata is not exempt from land take phenomenon. Recent studies [26] confirm that it is among the regions of Southern Italy that show a greater correlation between the variation rates of urbanization and population trend and the highest urban development rates corresponding to the demographic variations. ...
Article
According to the United Nations, 68% of the world’s population is expected to live in urban areas by 2050. This makes urban growth one of the cornerstones of sustainable development policies that must be implemented from the outset. Well-managed urbanization is essential to minimize environmental degradation and land use, while maximizing the benefits of agglomeration and ensuring the expected well-being of all city dwellers. On the other hand, it is equally important that these growth dynamics interface systematically with ongoing climate change and its expected effects on the urban environment. Local climate regulation is a crucial urban ecosystem service as it directly affects the quality of urban life. Although its link with soil sealing and land-use change is theoretically known, it is worth explaining this relationship in terms of significant parameters of both altered surfaces and type of urban expansion.
... The data concerning quality and environmental protection were instead derived from documents of the Ministry of the Environment or, in the case of forests, from the European CORINE Land Cover 2012. Data from the urbanized areas came from the processing carried out by the University of L'Aquila for the 1950s [12,13], while data for the current period came from the digital land use maps developed by the regions until 2008 (LUM). ...
Article
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The purpose of this work is to synthesize, for an international audience, certain fundamental elements that characterize the Italian peninsular territory, through the use of a biogeographical model known as the "peninsula effect" (PE). Just as biodiversity in peninsulas tends to change, diverging from the continental margin, so do some socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, for which it is possible to detect a progressive and indisputable variation depending on the distance from the continental mass. Through the use of 14 indicators, a survey was conducted on the peninsular sensitivity (which in Italy is also latitudinal) of as many phenomena. It obtained confirmation results for some of them, well known as problematic for the country, but contradictory results for others, such as those related to urban development. In the final part, the work raises a series of questions, also showing how peninsular Italy, and in particular Central-Southern Italy, is not penalized so dramatically by its geography and morphology as many political and scientific opinions suggest. The result is a very ambiguous image of Italy, in which the country appears undoubtedly uniform in some aspects, while the PE is very evident in others; it is probably still necessary to investigate, without relying on simplistic and misleading equations, the profound reasons for some phenomena that could be at the basis of less ephemeral rebalancing policies than those practiced in the past.
... It is true that the percentages for urbanised areas are very low compared to regional and national areas (7%), but it is also true that such surfaces within the parks have increased fivefold in the past fifty years. This places these protected areas on par with the Italian regions with the highest rate of urban growth in the same period, such as Puglia and Tuscany (Romano and Zullo, 2012;Marchetti et al., 2013;Romano et al., 2017;Fiorini et al. 2018). This phenomenon can probably be attributed to the construction of second homes and high-altitude tourist facilities, which were densely constructed in the late 80 s and are found in many protected mountain areas. ...
Article
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After thirty years of the framework legislation for parks, their effect on the territories and social communities that created new national park institutes in 1991 was investigated. Some significant indicators were used, such as demography, the structure of records and income conditions, and it emerged that the National Parks did not lead to a clear separation from the dynamics that were already in effect after World War II, and which are typical of the disadvantaged areas in which they are established, in all of that time. There are undoubtedly many causes for this, and they also differ from park to park. In a country like Italy, these certainly depend on the geographic location, since significant socio-economic differences are found along its latitudinal line.
... Especially on the local scale, the impact of human activity on the landscape is directly felt, perceived and evaluated by local communities [3]. In many parts of the world, the changes are so strong that they cause a complete change in the character of the landscape or degradation of its values [4][5][6]. This often has negative effects on biodiversity and may cause a significant reduction in the well-being of the people living both in areas of high value as well as those of land use transformations [39]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
One of the most problematic forms of nature protection in Poland relates to landscape parks. On the one hand, they include the most valuable landscapes; on the other hand, the areas within the landscape park still have economic uses. Therefore, the monitoring of landscape changes within landscape parks is necessary in order to properly manage these forms of protection. The main objective of the study was to monitor the scale and nature of landscape transformations within the boundaries of landscape parks in Poland during the period 2000–2018 and to assess the possibility of using the landscape change index (LCI) to monitor the intensity of landscape transformations within this type of protected area. Filling a gap in the research on landscape changes, I developed and verified the possibility of using LCI for monitoring the intensity of landscape changes using the example of 12 landscape parks in the Lower Silesia region. Preliminary analyses of the transformations within all landscape parks in Poland showed an upward trend, both in terms of the number of types of identified landscape changes as well as their area. In spite of the large diversity and degree of transformation in landscape parks, several dominant processes can be observed. The largest number and area of changes during each of the analyzed periods were found in transformations within forest landscapes (temporary and permanent deforestation and forest maturation), which constitute the dominant type of land cover within most of the landscape parks. In open landscapes, changes mainly relate to afforestation and natural succession in meadows, pastures and arable land, as well as the transformation of arable land into mining areas. Twelve case studies, covering all landscape parks of the Lower Silesia, have shown that the LCI is an excellent tool for monitoring the intensity of landscape changes, but it is dependent on the accuracy of the source data. The analyses confirmed that, during the study periods, the changes in all 12 Lower Silesian landscape parks were at a low level, but their particular intensification took place in the years 2012–2018. The highest LCI was found in the area where a natural disaster had occurred (air tornado), which destroyed huge areas of forest in landscape parks. After changes in the forest landscape, the most frequently identified type of change in 2006–2012 is the transformation of non-forest landscapes into forest landscapes. The main reason for such changes was the expansion of forest into abandoned arable land, meadows and pastures. The use of the Corine Land Cover database to calculate LCI and monitor the intensity of landscape change revealed a low usability of the database for the year 2000 and a high usability for data from 2006–2018.
... It has to be noticed that in literature, the land take analysis is generally employed for calculating synthetic indicators at regional and provincial scales [7,18], for exploring uncontrolled urbanization of systems of regions [19]; investigating the quantification of housing needs in relation to the municipal planning and people dynamics [20,21] analyzing peri-urban and urban systems [22,23]; evaluating the land cover changes in terrestrial protected areas [24,25]. ...
Chapter
The paper considers the procedure for the development of the land take evaluation for a recreative park located in Northern Italy. The paper gives a normative overview at European, national and regional levels, highlighting the need to define a common glossary on land take to lead the spatial planning to more sustainable actions, according to the Global Agenda targets. The analysis investigates the land cover changes over time, as basis for the calculation of a synthetic index of Land Take (LTI). Moreover, the research experiments the use of this synthetic index as parameter of a mathematical model to simulate the possible dynamical evolutions over time in terms of ecological quality. The coupling of the land take analysis and the mathematical model may help the actors and stakeholders to investigate the possible effects of future transformations, as well as to aid the decision-making process to identify suitable compensatory actions, according to the sustainable development paradigm.
... The region consists of a mix of agriculture activity with cultural heritage, attractive clime and natural resources that recommend the area for ecotourism. Also, the gastronomy and the production of wines (Fabio, et al., 2019) support ecotourism and determine tourists to choose this destination for authentic experiences (Fiorini, et al., 2019). The tourism stakeholders focus the developing strategy in Puglia on the regional advantages, having as main objective to mitigate the seasonality and promote the less popular areas through modern marketing (Flavia & Davide, 2015). ...
Article
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Italy is one of the most attractive destinations in the world and represents a reference point for international tourism. The impressive number of tourists flows concentrated, especially in the northern part of the country has caused many issues among the local population. In this context, rethinking tourism activity and make it more sustainable becomes essential. A first solution can come from the Puglia region, which is one of the main ecotourism destinations of the country. This article describes the image of Puglia in the online environment and investigates whether tourists also perceive this region as an ecotourism one. Based on the experience of the stakeholders in the region regarding ecotourism activity, and taking into account the actual context caused by the COVID-19 health crisis, Puglia can take momentum and consolidate its brand on the international market
... Knowing the changes in land use and land cover from natural to artificial is essential to understanding the interactions between human activities and the environment. The characteristics and consequences of land take are well known in the scientific literature [5][6][7]. In the European Union (EU), most of the population lives in cities, towns, and suburbs, and further urbanization is expected [8]. ...
Article
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Land use is one of the drivers of land-cover change (LCC) and represents the conversion of natural to artificial land cover. This work aims to describe the land-take-monitoring activities and analyze the development trend in test areas of the Basilicata region. Remote sensing is the primary technique for extracting land-use/land-cover (LULC) data. In this study, a new methodology of classification of Landsat data (TM–OLI) is proposed to detect land-cover information automatically and identify land take to perform a multi-temporal analysis. Moreover, within the defined model, it is crucial to use the territorial information layers of geotopographic database (GTDB) for the detailed definition of the land take. All stages of the classification process were developed using the supervised classification algorithm support vector machine (SVM) change-detection analysis, thus integrating the geographic information system (GIS) remote sensing data and adopting free and open-source software and data. The application of the proposed method allowed us to quickly extract detailed land-take maps with an overall accuracy greater than 90%, reducing the cost and processing time.
... Land cover changes (whether natural or occurring by anthropogenically affected development) are a continuous process worldwide [1][2][3][4][5], especially in developing countries of Asia and South America, but also in the ("post-socialist") countries of Central and Eastern Europe, including Slovakia. Socio-political reforms occurred after 1989, and subsequent transformations that began after 2004, when Slovakia joined the European Union, can be considered as the leading causes of land cover changes in this region. ...
Article
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At present, the protection of nature and landscape in the high mountains of the Western Carpathians, protected as national parks, is becoming increasingly at the forefront of society’s interests in connection with the development of their economic use and the development of mass tourism. Our research was focused on analyzing the extent and character of land cover changes in the Low Tatras National Park in Slovakia over the last 30 years (1990–2018) using CORINE land cover (CLC) data. The period captures almost the entire existence of the Slovak Republic. Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the landscape changes in the protected area and to identify barriers and possibilities of its long-term sustainable development. Based on computer modeling, the main areas of the land cover changes were identified, and on the basis of historical-geographical and field research, land cover flows were determined and justified in the studied landscape of the national park. Changes were monitored using three methods: by comparing CLC maps over the years, by analyzing land cover flows, and by comparing landscape metrics obtained through the PatchAnalyst. Land cover changes occurred on up to 20% of the national park area in the given period. The most significant change was observed in the CLC class coniferous forests, with almost a 12% decrease. Conversely, there was an increase of more than 11% in the CLC class transitional woodland-shrub.
... In comparison with northern and western European regions [14,16,[73][74][75], typified by polycentric modes of urban development, Mediterranean cities have experienced a partial failure of this model due to their specific socio-economic features [18,76,77]. Recently, in fact, significant changes in morphology and socio-economic structures have been found in many Mediterranean cities as a result of incoming sprawling phenomena [78][79][80] following a more dispersed (and not polycentric) pattern [42,81,82]. In the specific case of the city of Rome, thanks to morphological analysis, how the landscape changed its structure following different waves of expansion of various intensities occurring in recent decades was demonstrated. ...
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... In the last two decades, smart city initiatives have been strongly evolving and the development of the smart city is considered a useful solution to achieve sustainability (Quijano-S anchez et al., 2020). However, the fact shows that the rapid growth of population and uncontrolled urbanization are significant burdens for urban environments (Fiorini et al., 2019). Furthermore, air pollution and unsafe environments caused by the poor management of sources lead to difficulties and challenges to the developing strategies of smart cities (Appio et al., 2019). ...
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Land consumption still represents a real threat to the landscape of some Italian regions, like Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG), that are without specific national and regional laws to limit land take. Regional landscape plans are essential planning tools for landscape protection and management and, among their objectives, pursue the enhancement of landscape quality and the containment of land consumption, also in areas with no outstanding landscape. In this context, the strategic component of the Regional Landscape Plan of FVG, among its various planning documents, provides for the drawing up of Guidelines to Limit Land Consumption (GLLC). This non-statutory planning document, embraces the concept of green infrastructure to promote a proactive approach for limiting land take. Hence, the GLLC envisages a Green Infrastructure Strategic Framework (GISF) that encompasses the entire regional territory and aims at providing a reference frame where green infrastructure can be identified and prioritized with targeted strategies. The GISF, once approved, is intended to support both the implementation of the regional landscape plan and of spatial and sector plans at different territorial levels, with particular regard for municipal master plans.
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The aim of this study was to provide a contribution to seismic hazard assessment of the Salento Peninsula (Apulia, southern Italy). It is well known that this area was struck by the February 20, 1743, earthquake (I0 = IX and Mw = 7.1), the strongest seismic event of Salento, that caused the most severe damage in the towns of Nardò (Lecce) and Francavilla Fontana (Brindisi), in the Ionian Islands (Greece) and in the western coast of Albania. It was also widely felt in the western coast of Greece, in Malta Islands, in southern Italy and in some localities of central and northern Italy. Moreover, the area of the Salento Peninsula has also been hit by several low-energy and a few high-energy earthquakes over the last centuries; the instrumental recent seismicity is mainly concentrated in the western sector of the peninsula and in the Otranto Channel. The Salento area has also experienced destructive seismicity of neighboring regions in Italy (the Gargano Promontory in northern Apulia, the Southern Apennines chain, the Calabrian Arc) and in the Balkan Peninsula (Greece and Albania). Accordingly, a critical analysis of several documentary and historical sources, as well as of the geologic–geomorphologic ground effects due to the strong 1743 Salento earthquake, has been carried out by the authors in this paper; the final purpose has been to re-evaluate the 1743 MCS macroseismic intensities and to provide a list of newly classified localities according to the ESI-07 scale on the base of recognized Earthquake Environmental Effects. The result is a quite different damage scenario due to this earthquake that could raise the seismic potential currently recognized for the Salento area, and consequently upgrade the seismic hazard classification of the Salento. Indeed it is important to remind that currently, despite the intense earthquake activity recorded not only in the Otranto Channel, but especially in Greece and Albania, this area is classified in the least dangerous category of the Seismic Classification of the Italian territory (IV category).
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Urban-rural equalized development (URED) is recognized as strongly contributing to the narrowing of societal, economic, life, and environmental gaps between urban and rural areas and is also an effective way to solve the "three rural issues" of rapid industrialization and urbanization in China. This paper explores the spatio-temporal patterns of URED in the state-designated experimental zone of Chengdu at a county level by using quantitative survey data from 2004 to 2013. The major findings are as follows: (1) the regions that are closer to the central city of Chengdu had a more optimistic urban-rural equalized development outlook (i.e., the three-tier geographical distribution phenomenon); (2) this distribution characteristic was gradually broken up in the process of urban and rural integration, and the differences between the three tiers has been narrowing; and (3) the gap between urban and rural areas has been significantly improved and exhibited a higher dynamic degree in the second and third tiers than in the first tier, which suggests a new development mode that exhibits better quality and higher sustainability. Given these results, the development orientation and strategy of each tier are discussed according to the characteristics of urban and rural equalized development.
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The increasingly fast pace in urban conversion of land over the past fifty years in Italy is a phenomenon that is still difficult to quantify reliably owing to the chronic lack of knowledge at every territorial level, from national to municipal. This paper describes the results of a study on the features of urbanization in the fifties in the peninsular regions of Central Italy, based on uniform historical maps of the entire country. The historical data were compared from a qualitative and quantitative viewpoint with the present-day geography of settlements. Interesting information has emerged on possible significant thresholds in the relationship between demography and urban use of land, in addition to data on landscape effects to be construed as signs of specific trends underway today and scarcely taken into account by land management tools.
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Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.
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The phenomenon of urban sprawl has been already recognized as one of the major anthropic threats to natural ecosystems. This study investigates the effects of urban transformations in two Italian Islands, Sicily and Sardinia from post-war to the noughties. The two cities represent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean basin, thanks to their landscapes and climatic conditions. The analysis showed a series of interesting results as the average annual speed of transformation of the coastal strip or the size and modalities adopted of urban development, which were then correlated with demographic and morphological parameters. The focus then was shifted to the urban transformations that have affected regional systems of protected areas. The final part of the work is fully dedicated to the policies and techniques that should be adopted in the remaining coastal stretches, i.e. those not yet affected by urban transformation and thus of extreme importance for policies focused on the preservation of community habitats and protection of ecological connections with relevant consequences in the national biodiversity conservation. This last statement is reflected in the processed data which allowed us to draw a map of management responsibilities at the municipal and regional levels for the revision of future urban planning trends in terms of sustainable governance.
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China has experienced rapid urban expansion and agricultural land loss, and the land conversion has accelerated in central provinces since the mid-1990s. The goal of this paper is to examine the relative importance of socioeconomic and policy factors on the urban conversion of agricultural land in Henan Province, China. Using panel econometric models, we examine how socioeconomic and policy factors affect agricultural land conversion at the county level across three time periods, 1995-2000, 2000-2005, and 2005-2010. The results show that both urban land rent and urban wages are essential factors that positively contribute to the conversion of agricultural land. It is also found that per capita GDP is correlated with more urban development and agricultural land loss. Consistent with expectations, agricultural financial support is negatively correlated with agricultural land conversion, suggesting a policy success. Finally, the decomposition analysis illustrates that urban wages are the most influential positive factor and agricultural financial support is the most influential negative factor affecting the urban conversion of agricultural land.
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Detailed analysis of continuous time-series data from regions undergoing rapid urbanization can accurately reveal spatial variations on short time scales. This study used the city of Changchun in Jilin Province, China, as a case study to analyze total and annual changes in area-especially decreases in rural settlement area-as well as regional differences in these changes and driving forces of rural settlement evolution. Quantitative analytical techniques include a dynamic percentage of rural settlements, the distribution index of rural settlements, the regression correlation analysis, and other spatial analysis methods. Data were derived from a variety of sources, including land-use databases and social and economic statistics. The results show that the area of rural settlements decreased between 2009 and 2014, with the urban construction land expansion and decreases in cultivated lands. Rural settlements also became increasingly fragmented after 2009. Most of the rural settlements were located close to the urban construction land, and changes in rural settlement area were more pronounced with decreasing distance to the closest urban construction land, illustrating the effect of urban sprawl on rural settlement changes. The analysis also shows that the decreasing area of rural settlements between 2009 and 2014 is directly caused by urban sprawl. Regional development strategies and urban planning indirectly contribute to changes in the scale and spatial distribution of rural settlements by guiding urban development. The geographical environment and strict cultivated-land-protection policies also indirectly restrict changes in rural settlements by determining the restrictive area of urban expansion. No significant changes were found in the influence of population change on changing areas of rural settlements. In conclusion, the interaction of strategy for social-economic development, natural geography environments, and human demand jointly caused changes in rural settlements.
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This paper presents the results of the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in managing information on the effects of earthquakes in historical times on the island of Ischia. The unpublished sources on the Casamicciola earthquake of 28 July 1883 and the extensive bibliography documenting the island's seismicity from 1228 showed the need to proceed towards a type of data storage that would also allow management of the same data. Application of GIS techniques allowed us to insert, extract, handle, manage and analyse the data for the zoning of seismic damage on the island of Ischia. The end-product consists of information layers, such as maps of isoseismals, the damage, and hazard involved, as well as numerical tables associated to maps. The study was developed using GIS Arc-View 3.2 software (ESRI) and is structured in thematic vectorial levels and rasters. The overlapping themes constitute a cartographic data base of the island. The damaged sites are located on a map at a scale of 1: 10,000, with all the information on the 1883 earthquake (total number of houses, number of collapsed houses, collapsed or damaged rooms, photographs, plans of buildings, etc.) being associated to each site. The GIS is structured in such a way as to be able to be integrated with further georeferenced data and with other databases. It is thus able to provide support both for in-depth analyses of the dynamic processes on the island and extend the assessment to other natural risks (volcanic, landslides, flooding, etc.).
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This work analyzes urban growth, in terms of quality and quantity, in one of the vastest lowlands in southern Europe, the Po valley (PV). Research on the PV is part of a wider project dealing with the whole of Italy and, to allow a comparison with the other national geographic realities, it was carried out using municipal data. The main objective is to analyze the dynamics of the phenomenon of land take from the post-war period to the noughties, highlighting some territorial and environmental effects, and to prepare a future risk scenario for this area which is the cornerstone of the European economy. In this geographical district, urban conversion of land is a territorial “disease” resulting from complex economic dynamism and ongoing population growth. These scenarios may seem justified by the fact that the PV is the most productive territory in the country, but the PV is one of the most heavily polluted areas in Europe with a very deteriorated environmental matrix. The PV extends over five Italian regions with different settlement histories and different urbanization models, models which are evaluated and compared even with some European cases in the study. They are, however, always urban forms that are spread sparingly over the territory. This is why, in its conclusions, the research proposes criteria of compacting and reducing sprinkling, and improving the quality of the environmental matrix.
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This study returns to the topic of unauthorised development in the south of Italy. It starts by assessing the main positions that have informed the debate since the 1960s and evaluates the consequences of the condono edilizio (building amnesty) policy, in the light of the impact that illegal construction has had on the landscape, both urban, rural and coastal. A close observation of three case studies, unplanned settlements in Lazio, Campania and Sicily, suggests that the original energies and expectations behind their development have long since lost their momentum. Rather, the emergence of new evolutionary trends—hitherto underrepresented within the political debate—demand a different interpretative framework. Three design scenarios are outlined, based on recycling existing social and physical material: they translate into a future-oriented discourse those symptoms of change that are already appearing in an embryonic form throughout Italy’s Mezzogiorno.
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tThe study regards the processing of data on urban land conversion along the Italian Adriatic coast inthe last 50 years. The results obtained show different aspects of the phenomenon: values were obtainedfor the average annual speed of transformation of the coastal strip; clustering, dispersion and statisti-cal concentration of the data obtained were studied, which has made it possible to show unparalleledthreshold values in the present levels of urbanization; geostatistical surveys were conducted to deter-mine the distribution changes of urban concentration over time; analyses were developed to point outwhat landscape and morphological elements have emerged, and are tendentially confirming greatersensitivity to land artificialization; a number of comparisons based on specific indicators were producedthat show the typological and geographic variations of development taking place in the time periodstudied; important information has emerged on the different territorial policies implemented by theregions over the long-term. This research has made it possible to investigate one of the largest and mostintense land transformation phenomena in Italy which has led to the construction of an urban organismextending along more than 1470 km of coast with very few breaks which, together with railroad andmotorway infrastructural elements, forms the longest urban stretch in southern Europe and one of themost extensive in the entire continent. A further result of the work carried out concerned the extractionof data on the remaining coastal stretches, i.e. those not yet affected by urban transformation and thus ofextreme importance for policies focused on the preservation of community habitats and the preservationof coastal landscape. In conclusion, it has been possible to draw a map of management responsibilities atthe municipal and regional levels for the revision of future urban planning trends in terms of sustainablegovernance.
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Soil sealing has been regarded as a key environmental problem since sealed soils lose several of their functions determining a reduction in land productivity and quality. Unfortunately, the analysis of changes in land-use carried out through the use of traditional data sources allows a relatively rough estimation of this phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to illustrate a procedure quantifying over time the soil sealing rate at the country scale. Italy was chosen as the study area due to its spatially-complex urbanization patterns. The procedure was based on the visual interpretation of aerial photographs and high-resolution topographic maps taken at four points in time (1956, 1994, 1999, 2006) in a random sample of field plots homogeneously distributed across the country. Results indicate that soil sealing continuously increased in Italy over the investigated period with the highest absolute and per-capita growth rate of sealed areas being observed respectively in northern and southern Italy. Compared to past, per-capita soil sealing was higher in the most recent period (1999–2006).
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This article contributes to the issue of urban sprawl in the Mediterranean region. The hypothesis illustrated here is that urban sprawl impacts directly on rural lands by triggering land cover changes (LCCs) and indirectly by fragmenting cropland and woodland patches and creating a mixed rural non farm landscape. This is mainly due to the diffusion of low-density settlements located progressively further away from the inner city. To verify this hypothesis we investigated the long-term LCCs (1960–2000) and the variation in density of buildings (1961–2001) in a large Mediterranean urban region (Rome, central Italy). The choice of our case study derives from the fact that Rome represents a paradigmatic example of semi-compact city evolving towards a dispersed urban form. A multidimensional approach was used to (i) identify the trajectories of LCCs, (ii) quantify diachronically the spatial distribution of low-density settlements, and (iii) evaluate the increase of building density within twelve basic land cover classes. We identified two axes of urban development: the former describes the urban-rural gradient determined by the traditionally compact and mono-centric spatial organization observed in the early 1960s in Rome; the latter illustrates the polycentric, dispersed urban expansion observed in the early 2000s. Taken together, our results point out the emergence of a sprawl process where low-density settlements impact on specific land uses (arable lands, olive groves, and woodlands). Finally, the article discusses the environmental implications of the polycentric model to the ‘shrinking’ Mediterranean cities.
Article
The impact of different land use types on soil quality was evaluated by measuring several soil properties that are sensitive to stress or disturbance and by using two synthetic approaches, i.e. a numerical quality index and multivariate analysis. A Minimum Data Set of soil indicators was selected including physical (texture, bulk density and water holding capacity), chemical (pH, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total and mineral nitrogen, available K, Ca, Mg, P contents and total Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn contents) and biological (microbial biomass, fungal mycelium, soil potential respiration and potentially mineralizable nitrogen) parameters. These parameters were assayed on soil samples collected with seasonal frequency (except for physical parameters, determined only in autumn) in an area of Southern Italy under different land use types (i.e. permanent crops, grazing lands, shrublands, coniferous and mixed forests). Moreover, formost of the land use types, a further distinction on the basis of topographic position (hill, middle-hill and plain) was carried out. Annualmeans of the data (except for texture) were used to calculate a soil quality index (SQI) and elaborated by multivariate analyses (Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis, PCA) in order to distinguish among different soil quality classes. Data indicated a clear difference in soil quality among the studied areas: low soil quality (SQI < 0.55) in almost all permanent crops; intermediate soil quality (0.55 < SQI < 0.70) in shrublands, grazing lands, coniferous forest and middle-hill olive grove (the only crop with an herb layer on the soil surface); high soil quality (SQI > 0.70) in mixed forests. Results suggested that the permanent crop management had generally a strong negative impact on soil quality, while the moderate grazing activity and the crop management that leaves an herb cover on the soil had a lower negative impact. Nevertheless, the abandonment of cultivated lands, with consequent development of shrublands, produced an improvement of soil quality suggesting a good recovery capacity in the studied soil.
Article
Rapid increase of urban sprawl in many countries worldwide has become a major concern because of its detrimental effects on the environment. Existing measures of urban sprawl suffer from a confusing variety of differing, and sometimes contradictory, interpretations of the term “urban sprawl”. Therefore, results from different studies cannot usually be compared to each other and are difficult to interpret consistently. Every meaningful method to measure the degree of urban sprawl needs to be based on a clear definition of “urban sprawl” disentangling causes and consequences of urban sprawl from the phenomenon of urban sprawl itself, as urban sprawl has differing causes and consequences in different regions and regulatory contexts. This paper contributes to the development of more reliable measures of urban sprawl by providing clarifications to the definition of “urban sprawl” and by developing a set of 13 suitability criteria for measures of urban sprawl.
Article
The enormous success of the Chinese economy has caused remarkable urban spatial expansion, resulting in new urban forms and reshaped city profiles. This article assesses emerging urban spatial forms that are prevalent and sizable enough to have a substantial impact on transportation, the environment, and urban sustainability. Special economic zones (SEZs), university towns, central business districts (CBDs), and mixed land development in terms of urban agglomeration, transportation, and land use externality are examined. It is concluded that efficient gains would be significant if SEZs are integrated with each other as well as with the city proper, university towns are developed to accommodate no more than a couple of colleges, and CBDs are concentrated with high-value activities. It is further concluded that mixed land use may not be an appropriate policy instrument to promote smart growth in Chinese cities because of the high degree of existing mixed land-use patterns.
Article
To improve estimates of the long-term average seismic potential of the slowly straining South Central Mediterranean plate boundary zone, we integrate constraints on tectonic style and deformation rates from geodetic and geologic data with the traditional constraints from seismicity catalogs. We express seismic potential (long-term average earthquake recurrence rates as a function of magnitude) in the form of truncated Gutenberg–Richter distributions for seven seismotectonic source zones. Seismic coupling seems to be large or even complete in most zones. An exception is the southern Tyrrhenian thrust zone, where most of the African–European convergence is accommodated. Here aseismic deformation is estimated to range from at least 25% along the western part to almost 100% aseismic slip around the Aeolian Islands. Even so, seismic potential of this zone has previously been significantly underestimated, due to the low levels of recorded past seismicity. By contrast, the series of 19 M6–7 earthquakes that hit Calabria in the 18th and 19th century released tectonic strain rates accumulated over time spans up to several times the catalog duration, and seismic potential is revised downward. The southern Tyrrhenian thrust zone and the extensional Calabrian faults, as well as the northeastern Sicilian transtensional zone between them (which includes the Messina Straits, where a destructive M7 event occurred in 1908), all have a similar seismic potential with minimum recurrence times of M ≥ 6.5 of 150–220 years. This potential is lower than that of the Southern Apennines (M ≥ 6.5 recurring every 60 to 140 years), but higher than that of southeastern Sicily (minimum M ≥ 6.5 recurrence times of 400 years). The high seismicity levels recorded in southeastern Sicily indicate some clustering and are most compatible with a tectonic scenario where the Ionian deforms internally, and motions at the Calabrian Trench are small. The estimated seismic potential for the Calabrian Trench and Central and Western Sicily are the lowest (minimum M ≥ 6.5 recurrence times of 550–800 years). Most zones are probably capable of generating earthquakes up to magnitudes 7–7.5, with the exception of Central and Western Sicily where maximum events sizes most likely do not exceed 7.
Article
The "Marshallian" approach assumes a prohibitively hight cost of monitor ing the sharecropper's activities while the "monitoring" approach a rgues that landlords stipulate and effectively monitor sharecroppers' activities. The author presents new evidence using detailed data col lected from eight Indian villages. Most tenants own some land of thei r own; this provides a controlled environment in studying the impact of contractual arrangements. The differences in input and output inte nsities on owned minus sharecropped land of the same household are fo und to be sizable and significant, suggesting a rejection of the moni toring approach and supporting the notion of the "Marshallian produc tive inefficiency" of sharecropping. Copyright 1987 by University of Chicago Press.
It.Urb.80, Rapporto sullo stato dell'Urbanizzazione in Italia
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Astengo, G., & Nucci, C. (1990). It.Urb.80, Rapporto sullo stato dell'Urbanizzazione in Italia. Quaderni di urbanistica informazioni (pp. 8). Roma: INU.
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The economic costs of organised crime: Evidence from Southern Italy
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Sharecropping in history and theory
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Models of urban land use in Europe: Assessment tools and criticalities
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La città sostenibile
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Focus Cresme -Il mercato della casa in Italia: tra domanda e offerta
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