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Vision statements and mission statements are both based on the core ethical values of an organization and are essential to its success because they give it direction. Vision statements drive the long‐term goals that determine where the organization would eventually like to be in the competitive landscape. Mission statements are more concrete and specific to an organization's competitive advantage, and are used to prioritize activities. A vision statement thus specifies where an organization is going and a mission statement gives an organization direction on how to get there. Mission statement construction and numerous benefits of a well‐conceived mission are delineated in the entry.
Mission and Vision
University of South Carolina, USA
Vision statements and mission statements are both based on the core ethical values of an
organization and are essential to its success because they give it direction. Vision state-
ments drive the long-term goals that determine where the organization would eventu-
ally like to be in the competitive landscape. Mission statements are more concrete and
specic to an organizations competitive advantage; they are used to prioritize activities.
Mission statement construction and the numerous benets of a well-conceived mission
are delineated below.
e concepts of mission and vision are linked and symbiotic, yet they refer to dier-
ent constructs. Another way to conceptualize this dierence is that a vision statement
species where an organization is going and a mission statement gives an organization
direction on how to get there. A best practice is for organizations to create both a vision
statement and a mission statement, and to incorporate both into decision making. Cor-
porate or management philosophy is comprised of vision, mission, and values in com-
bination with leadership and the many constructs that create organizational culture.
Vision is future-oriented and describes where an organization would like to be posi-
tioned in the market in 5, 10, 15, or 20 years’ time. It is a goal state embodying a
long-term ambition of where an organization would like to be in the future relative to
its competitors. Organizational vision is normally expressed through a simple one-line
vision statement. ese types of statement oer a strategic attainment goal that may be
somewhat ideal or normative relative to real-world constraints, but oers inspiration to
the organization to overcome barriers in a concerted eort. In that respect, vision state-
ments are key drivers of organizational innovation, the commitment and motivation of
employees, eectiveness, and success in the competitive arena.
What is the origin of organizational vision? Although vision statements may originate
with key founders or visionary leaders, many scholars view vision as originating from
organizational culture. Noting the connection to ethical values, the authors Larwood,
Falke, Kriger, and Miesing (1995, p. 741) regard vision as a pattern of organizational
values that underlies a unique visionary blueprint for an organizations future. e con-
nection of vision to ethics is indeed a prominent and strong one because the values of the
organization are the foundation of its drive and vision, explaining what that drive seeks
e International Encyclopediaof Strategic Communication. Robert L. Heath and Winni Johansen (Editors-in-Chief),
Jesper Falkheimer, Kirk Hallahan, Juliana J. C. Raupp, and Benita Steyn (Associate Editors).
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
DOI: 10.1002/9781119010722.iesc0111
to attain. Ethical values of an organization may, for example, include autonomy, inno-
vation, value, eciency, or market leadership. Clearly these core ethical values underlie
and support a vision statement because many of them are expressed in it as goals.
e core ethical values of an organization are essential to determining how it sees
itself in the competitive marketplace, and its strategic strengths become the very build-
ing blocks of a vision statement. According to Bowen (2016), values describe the core
beliefs that guide every decision and oer a priority order for consideration. e orga-
nization’s core ethical values support both its vision and mission. In addition, many
ethical values are abstract constructs by nature so they pair well with the more abstract
and future-oriented qualities of a vision statement.
If a vision statement is not expressed by a founder or leader, how does it arise, and
who implements it? e executive level or senior management normally takes the
lead in determining or rening organizational vision because of its close connection
to strategy. Senior management is wise to involve employee publics/stakeholders at
all levels of the organization when designing a vision statement. Qualitative research,
discussion forums, employee surveys, and anonymous feedback forms can oer
valuable insight into what people at all levels of the organization see as its desired
visionary goal. Employees may see the potential of an organization dierently than
management does, and these stakeholders can provide valuable insights into potential
long-term progress. Involving employees is so important that Talbot (2000, p. 12) called
it a golden rule—everyone aected by a decision should be involved in the making of it,
whenever possible and practical. Additionally, to include employees at all levels in the
discussions surrounding the creation of a vision statement, or when revisiting a current
vision statement, can create a level of employee commitment, “buy-in” in laymans
terms, that enhances the future eectiveness of the organization in numerous ways.
e literature of organizational communication is rich with discussions of the inter-
connectedness of vision, leadership, and organizational culture; many of those studies
also oer evidence of heightened success in real-world practice. Oswald, Mossholder,
and Harris (1994), for example, found that salience of vision among managers oered
higher levels of strategic involvement, resulting in heightened organizational commit-
ment and job satisfaction. Vision salience was operationalized by measuring the clar-
ity,sharedness,andappropriateness of organizational vision. ose constructs can be
thought of as the means of connection between internal publics/employees and the
organization’s vision: ey are how the vision becomes real.
Strategy and ongoing commitment also play central roles in determining the vision
of an organization. Cornelissen (2004) explained that a vision or strategic intent is the
desired future state of the organization. “It is an aspirational view of the general direc-
tion in which the organization wants to go, as formulated by senior management, and
requires the energies and commitment of members of the organization” (p. 24). Once
a vision statement is codied, it is essential for internal communication eorts to high-
light the vision of the organization among all publics/stakeholders within it. Although
these eorts tend to be sporadic, communicating about organizational vision should
be ongoing. Not only should the vision statement be used in onboarding new employ-
ees or annual training, it should be a routine part of team discussions and strategic
management decision making. e vision statement of an organization should be insti-
tutionalized throughout its organizational culture so that it is alive, active, known, and
frequently referred to, as opposed to being a forgotten part of a dusty policy manual.
Vision statements should drive organizational culture.
Vision can be determined by asking the question What is it that the organization is
pursuing? Narrowing down the core competencies and core values of the organization
can lend insight into its competitive advantage in the marketplace. What is important is
how that competitive advantage can be leveraged to create ideal or best-case-scenario
future outcomes.
By their nature, vision statements are aspirational and idealistic—they are sometimes
even radical, calling for the change or transformation of entire industries. Because they
are long-term they do not need frequent measurement and evaluation, but may be
revised every ve years or so for t, as markets, technologies, regulations, and compe-
tition change. However, their abstract nature makes vision statements relatively stable
and unchanging beacons that allow organizations and all of the publics/stakeholders
within them to have a common aim. Vision statements oer a driving force for the
organization as well as a reason for motivation, commitment, and a cohesive sense of
e inclusion of a vision statement in management’s strategic decision making is
essential. e question Wheredowewanttobein5or10years’time?canoenlend
clarity to the question of determining priorities and organizing limited resources.
Strategic eciencies and competitive advantage can therefore be doubled-down upon
and enhanced. e Microso founder Bill Gates had a radical vision statement, namely
to put a computer on every desk in America (Borden, 1997, p. 8). e power of that vision
is now evident. e competitive advantage of an organization can be honed by knowing
exactly where it wants to go: An astute vision statement drives competitive advantage.
Mission is the pursuit of a goal that is unique to an organization’s competitive
advantage—its specic strengths and oerings relative to competitors—while again
emphasizing its values. e best mission statements are general enough to drive the
strategic pursuit of numerous organizational goals and a plethora of organizational
objectives, yet are specic enough to focus and prioritize organizational activities
and resources. Unlike vision statements, mission statements are normally several
sentences long. Mission statements intend to answer the question Why do we exist?
Mission statements help management to organize the hierarchy of priorities that an
organization must face in daily and long-term operations.
Cornelissen (2004) used a stakeholder-values perspective to explain mission: “A mis-
sion is a general expression of the overriding purpose of the organization, which, ideally,
is in line with the values and expectations of major stakeholders and concerned with
the scope and boundaries of the organization” (p. 24). A mission is oen referred to
withthesimplequestionWhat business are we in? Statements of core values and more
specic goals and objectives oen follow mission statements. e core ethical values of
the organization shape not only its vision but also its mission: what it seeks to accom-
plish, what is desired or rewarded in the organization, and where the eorts of each
organizational member should be directed.
Focusing on the core competitive advantage of a business organization is key to cre-
ating a good mission statement. What is it that makes the organization unique? How is
it dierent from competitors? What are the strengths that it brings to the marketplace?
What is the distinguishing value of its product or service? In perhaps the most canonical
publication on mission statements, Pearce (1982, p. 15) wrote that the company mission
organization from other organizations/rms of its type and identies the scope of its
operations in product and market terms. Abratt (1989, p. 70) saw mission as a distilled
form of corporate philosophy that shapes strategic management.
As with vision statements, mission statements must be based on the ethical values of
the organization. ose values normally include concepts such as honesty but become
more specic in a mission statement. For example, do the organization’s ethical val-
ues drive behavior toward innovation or cost eciency, prestige market leadership or
low-cost volume, high-value consistency or individual tailoring, or ecacy versus lux-
ury? Further, which stakeholders should the organization prioritize? In its individual
industry and market position, should its prior commitment be to consumer publics,
business stakeholders, employees, or nancial stakeholders? A well-organized mission
statement can clarify the organization’s competitive advantage, management strategy
based on core values, strategic stakeholders, and priorities. In a management core of
competing perspectives and limited resources, a well-dened mission statement itself
can add to competitive advantage.
To illustrate this, imagine the dierent management priorities that would organize
resources and decision making between these two divergent mission statements in agri-
We work diligently to be the world’s low-cost leader in reliable, productive, and disease-resistant
crops. (Organization A)
We engage in the highest level of innovative research and outside-the-box thinking for vast advance-
In this illustration, Organization A would prioritize cost eciency, routinization,
building upon the patents of others, and creating a reliable product with much con-
sumer value built in. It would likely be a mid-to-late market entrant working on crops
that are in steady demand. Conversely, Organization B would spend a great deal more
time and resources on the laboratory science needed to alter specic crops and would
be considered a market pioneer with a unique and more expensive product. Addi-
tionally, the core ethical values built into Organization A (value, reliability, output)
stand in contrast with the core ethical values of Organization B (experimentation, inno-
vation, leadership). Incentive structures in each organization would be dierent and
employees would experience greater rewards by working in concert with organizational
values (Bowen, 2015). is example illustrates how even a simple mission statement can
change the overall priorities and operations of an organization.
Some mission statements are parsimonious, such as this example from Bose Corpo-
ration (n.d.): We have a simple mission: think of better solutions, create better products,
help people enjoy the things they love. Such simple mission statements are oen followed
by an announcement of core values and guiding principles, such as, Maybe the most
important principle we live by is that innovation is not a destination, but a journey requir-
ing new ideas from new players. Other mission statements are more complex, composed
of several bullet points or a few short paragraphs. e current trend in industry is for
more detail in mission statements.
ere are nine detailed categories that mission statements oen discuss, specifying
general goals:
1. target markets;
2. principal products/services;
3. geographic domain;
4. technological advantage;
5. economic goals;
6. philosophy;
7. identity;
8. reputation;
9. employee concern.
Not every mission statement contains all of these elements, as many are dependent
upon industry, size of the organization, consumer or business orientation, strategic
publics/stakeholders, competitive market position, and so forth. However, these
nine categories oer a relatively complete and exible framework that guides mis-
sion statement construction. A closer look at mission statement construction is
Construction of a mission statement
e key to a successful mission statement is its ability to focus an organization’s
priorities, decision making, and resources on the core components that drive its
competitive advantage. A mission statement should help to hone the operations
of an organization by minimizing or eliminating extraneous activities, allowing
focus and teamwork, and driving organizational priorities and activities. ere are
several factors that go into the construction of a mission statement, each discussed
founder vision;
vision statement;
research (internal stakeholders; external stakeholders and publics);
analysis of core competencies in relation to competitive environment;
environmental factors (regulatory, industry, technological, etc.);
leadership and management style;
core ethical values.
It is likely that an organization’s founder or key leaders will have articulated their idea
of a vision or mission statement to drive the organization. Oen, that idea is enough of
a starting point but, as with vision, internal stakeholders should be heard and have a
voice and real input in creating the mission.
e vision statement of the organization, if one exists formally or informally, is a won-
derful starting point for articulating a more specically denedorganizational mission.
e vision statement drives where the organization is going and what values it will use
to get there, so the mission statement can build upon that foundation by articulating
core competencies. ose core competencies or focus areas comprise the competitive
advantage of the organization and give it the ability to prioritize resources that further
it toward that goal.
Research should be used to help determine, construct, or rene the mission state-
ment. Research inside the organization with internal stakeholders should be conducted,
employingbothqualitativeandquantitativeformats.Qualitative research can generate
in-depth understanding and answer “why” questions. It is important in the formative
stages of assessing how internal stakeholders view both strengths and weaknesses of
the organization. Quantitative research canbeusedtoascertaintheextentofagreement
with concepts across the entire organization and among employees at all levels. It is
important to include an element of the research that is anonymous to generate candid
input and feedback. Several rounds of data collection may be needed to rene poten-
tial mission statements and the ndings of quantitative and qualitative research. It is
unlikely that there will be complete levels of acceptance and agreement among every
stakeholder group within the organization, but ongoing research can incorporate many
of the interests of most stakeholders.
External publics and stakeholders may also be included in the research to under-
stand how the organization is viewed from the outside by consumers, investors, etc.
But more work needs to be done before a comprehensive mission statement can be
adopted. A good mission statement is not simply a public-opinion-created document.
Senior management must analytically scrutinize the competitive environment in which
the organization operates, seeking to identify core competencies and growth opportuni-
ties based upon the organization’s unique competitive advantage. Sometimes elements
of the organization will be divested or sold in order to focus on a narrow competi-
tive advantage. Other times, expansion becomes a part of the organizations mission.
Finance, technology, competitive market growth potential, and even the regulatory and
judicial environment warrant examination for their potential impact on the organi-
zation’s mission. is portion of the analysis becomes even more complex when the
organization is multinational or global.
Elements of leadership style and the organization’s unique management philoso-
phy should also be considered in developing the organization’s individual mission.
How hierarchical or authoritarian is the organization versus how decentralized or
participative? Oen the industry of a company lends itself more to one style than
another—manufacturing rms, for instance, are oen authoritarian and routinized
with a high division of labor. What needs to be worked out, however, is the ideal for
the industry that a specic organization belongs to when considered in concert with
its competitive advantage and vision statement.
Core ethical values are the foundation of everything that the organization does,
including its vision, mission, and operations. Core values allow those working within
the organization to agree upon what is considered good, worthy, or meritorious. ey
allow common goals that oer guidelines for both individual and group behavior.
ose values should be incorporated as the backbone of the mission statement to
the organization in times of uncertainty or to help resolve dilemmas.
A concise, comprehensive, specic, articulate, and strategic mission statement
emerges as the result of numerous considerations, analyses, and types of research. A
well-conceptualized mission statement oers numerous benets that can help drive
the organization toward success.
Multiple benefits of mission statements
Mission statements are practical investments in the future of an organization for a
number of reasons. As discussed above, they allow the prioritization of operations and
resources. Mission statements also encourage commitment and motivation among
internal publics and employees, and help to foster a collaborative, team-driven envi-
ronment toward common goals. A voluminous amount of research has been published
that shows the relationship between committed employees and overall organizational
eectiveness. A strong organizational culture, organized by a mission statement known
to all and driven by core ethical values, creates more eective employees and larger
eciencies of scale and cost reduction for the organization. A motivated workforce can
oer a formidable competitive advantage, and the mission statement is key to driving
that team eort toward common goals. Scores of researchers (e.g., Oswald et al., 1994)
have argued that an articulate and well-dened vision is essential during times of
organizational change, transition, or environmental turbulence.
Arguably an even greater value of mission statements is that they encourage the
long-term formation of relationships with stakeholders/publics by allowing the orga-
nization to be known. A visible and oen-referred-to mission statement allows both
internal stakeholders and external publics to understand the priorities and rationale
for management decisions.
Mission statements also have relationship outcomes because they underscore the
credibility of the organization. An astute mission statement encourages consistency
among management and in organizational behavior, minimizing distractions and for-
ays into potentially problematic decisions. When a mission statement is used to orga-
nize and prioritize operations, a consistent focus on mission emerges. at consistency
allows management to be known by external publics and internal stakeholders alike.
Over time, consistency allows the organization to meet the expectations of publics/
stakeholders. Ethical organizational behavior has been conceived as a precursor to
the formation of eective long-term relationships with stakeholders/publics (Bowen,
Hung-Baesecke, & Chen, 2016). Given that the organization’s behavior is ethical
or values-driven, meeting the expectations of publics/stakeholders allows trust to
emerge as a valuable component of long-term relationships. Organization–public
relationships are built on trust, commitment, satisfaction, and shared control. Trust
is arguably the most important component of relationships because it can insulate an
organization from negative events (such as crises, natural disasters, product failures),
allowing it valuable time to research, explain, adapt, and recover while maintaining
ongoing, trusting relationships with stakeholders. Mission statements are, therefore, an
invaluable component of strategic management and a vital aid in building relationships
between the organization and its stakeholders/publics.
Strategic use of vision and mission
Although they are oen confused, the distinction is clear: A vision statement addresses
the question Wheredowewanttogo?whereas a mission statement addresses the ques-
tion Why do we exist?
Although vision statements can be seen as optional they are exceptionally helpful
in organizing the future goal state or visionary aspiration of an organization. Using a
vision statement strategically can help the organization in long-term planning, scenario
building, issue identication and analysis, resolving ethical dilemmas, and helping to
determine the best allocation of limited resources. Vision statements allow an organi-
zation to operate consistently toward a future it has dened as successful and worthy of
Mission statements are not optional. It is exigent that every organization, regardless of
a strategic mission statement. At that point, the mission statement must be used in dis-
cussion of managerial dilemmas, routine decision-making, and problem-solving. For
example, a management team evaluating options to address a problem could pose the
question Whichoftheseoptionsbestsupportsourmission?To help create competitive
advantage and build teamwork and long-term organization–public relationships, the
mission statement must become an essential ber that is woven throughout the organi-
zations culture and pervades its operations.
SEE ALSO: Business Strategy; Core Values; Dominant Coalition; Leadership Commu-
nication; Strategic Communication, Ethics of
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keting Management, 5(1), 63–76.
Borden, S. M. (1997). Dene your own mission, vision and values. Journal of Management in
Engineering , Jan–Feb, 7–8.
Bose Corporation Innovations/Achievements. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Bowen, S. A. (2015). Exploring the role of the dominant coalition in creating an ethical culture
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Further reading
Bowen, S. A. (2013). Mission and vision statements. In R. L. Heath (Ed.), e encyclopedia of
public relations (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 570–572). ousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
David, F. R. (1989). How companies dene their mission. Long Range Planning, 22(1), 90–97.
Pearce, J. A., II., & David, F. (1987). Corporate mission statements: e bottom line. Academy of
Management Executive, 1(2), 109–115.
Shannon A. Bowen, PhD, researches the ethics of strategic communication man-
agement and the dominant coalition. Her research in ethics has won numerous
awards, top papers at each major communication discipline conference, and the JJ&W
Behavioral Science Research Prize. She is Professor at the University of South Carolina
and formerly with the Newhouse School at Syracuse University. She is a regular
columnist for trade press PRWeek and a journal coeditor. She has published over 100
journal articles, reports, encyclopedia entries, book chapters, and books including An
Overview of the Public Relations Function and Excellence in Internal Communication
... La vision est un mot dont l'utilisation est devenue courante dans des univers aussi variés que la politique, l'administration, la religion, le monde des affaires, le syndicalisme, la société civile, (Campbell et Yeung, 1991 ;Inyang, 2013 ;Campbell, 2015 ;Bowen, 2018). Dit autrement et en un mot, on peut donner à la vision appliquée à une organisation la définition fonctionnelle suivante : ce qu'une organisation se propose de devenir ou ce que ses acteurs se proposent d'en faire. ...
... le leader qui se doit donc d'être (surtout) visionnaire en plus d'être charismatique (Campbell et Yeung, 1991 ;Bowen, 2018 (Bowen, 2018). On parle alors de vision partagée car elle condense les aspirations communes relatives à l'organisation ellemême par rapport auxquelles les différents acteurs ont pu construire un consensus (Inyang, 2013). ...
... le leader qui se doit donc d'être (surtout) visionnaire en plus d'être charismatique (Campbell et Yeung, 1991 ;Bowen, 2018 (Bowen, 2018). On parle alors de vision partagée car elle condense les aspirations communes relatives à l'organisation ellemême par rapport auxquelles les différents acteurs ont pu construire un consensus (Inyang, 2013). ...
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Les travaux sur les entreprises en Afrique portent généralement, sur celles-ci et sur le continent, des jugements définitifs avec des discours catastrophistes ou «euphoristes», condescendants ou lénifiants. Plutôt unanimes pour considérer les niveaux de « performance » des entreprises comme insatisfaisants, ces jugements sont prononcés à l’aune de corpus théoriques développés dans des contextes étrangers aux réalités des communautés concernées. Par conséquent, alors que les uns s’acharnent à faire le procès de la culture africaine pour expliquer la « sous-performance » des entreprise, d’autres s’échinent à en faire l’apologie mettant plutôt en accusation le modèle de l’entreprise moderne et son inadéquation dans le contexte africain (Etounga-Manguelle, 2000 ; Amah et Oyetunde, 2019). Cette controverse, quoiqu’intéressante, n’a pas permis l’émergence d’une réelle alternative au modèle dominant fondé sur l’axiomatique walrasienne. Or il existe des acteurs dont les initiatives socio-économiques semblent donner satisfaction aux acteurs locaux et aux communautés locales. Ce hiatus s’expliquerait par un refus de s’interroger sur la finalité des initiatives (Adler et Borys, 1993 ; Levillain, 2015). C’est fondamentalement cette question de la finalité et de son éventuel potentiel à permettre une meilleure compréhension des initiatives socioéconomiques qui est examinée dans le cadre dans cette thèse. Pour traiter cette question, une étude de cas multisite a été conduite (Eisenhardt ; Stake 2010 ; Journé, 2012). Elle a porté sur des initiatives (co)portées par El Hadji Djily Mbaye (EDM), personnage emblématique du monde des affaires sénégalais des décennies à cheval sur les périodes pré et postindépendance. Les données utilisées proviennent de sources secondaires (archives d’entreprise et familiales, coupures de presse, documents officiels, documents scientifiques) et de dix-neuf (19) entretiens réalisés avec des membres de sa famille, ses collaborateurs ou des personnes qui l’ont côtoyé de près. La préparation des données (Miles et al., 2014) a permis de répertorier neuf initiatives particulièrement intéressantes représentant les cas. Ces initiatives ont fait l'objet d’une analyse inter-site suivie d’une analyse inter-sites (Eisenhardt, 1989 ; Stake, 2010) via une catégorisation ontologique (Saldaña, 2013). L’analyse a fait émerger la centralité des communautés d’appartenance dont l’autonomisation constitue la principale finalité poursuivie via la mise en œuvre des différentes initiatives. Une mise en perspective des résultats avec des réalités inhérentes au contexte d’émergence à travers les travaux sur les sites symboliques (Zaoual, 1999) et ceux sur le management éco-social (Ndione, 2015), a permis de bâtir une représentation téléologique qui permettrait d’appréhender le fonctionnement des initiatives et qui enrichirait la compréhension que l’on peut avoir sur les entreprises dans des contextes africains. Mots clés : autonomisation, communauté, finalité, initiatives socio-économiques. Studies on companies in Africa generally bears on them and by extension on the continent, definitive judgments with catastrophic or euphoric, condescending or soothing discourses. While they are rather unanimous in considering the unsatisfactory levels of “performance” of companies, these judgements are nevertheless pronounced in the light of theoretical corpuses developed in contexts that have little to do with the realities of the communities concerned. Consequently, while some are determined to criticize African culture to explain the "underperformance" of African business, others are toiling to defend it, accusing the model of the modern business and its inadequacy in the African context (Etounga-Manguelle, 2000; Amah and Oyetunde, 2019). This controversy, although interesting, did not allow the emergence of a real alternative to the dominant theoretical model based on Walrasian axiomatics. However, there are actors whose socio-economic initiatives seem to give overall satisfaction to local actors and local communities. This hiatus is largely explained by what can be considered as a refusal to question the purpose of initiatives (Adler and Borys, 1993; Levillain, 2015). It is fundamentally this question of purpose and its possible potential to enable a better understanding of socioeconomic initiatives that is examined in this thesis. To address this issue, a multi-site case study was conducted (Eisenhardt, 1989, 1991; Stake 2006, 2010; Journé, 2012). It focused on initiatives (co)led by El Hadji Djily Mbaye (EDM), an emblematic figure in the Senegalese “business world” for decades straddling the pre- and post-independence periods. The data used come from secondary sources (company and family archives, press clippings, official documents, scientific documents) and from nineteen (19) interviews conducted with members of his family, his collaborators or people who were close to him. The preparation of the data (Miles, Huberman and Saldaña, 2014) led to the identification of nine particularly interesting initiatives, which are considered as cases. These initiatives were the subject of a within-case analysis followed by an across-case analysis (Eisenhardt, 1989; Stake, 2006, 2010) via an ontological categorization (Saldaña, 2011, 2013). The analysis brought out the centrality of the communities of belonging, whose empowerment is the main purpose pursued via the implementation of the various initiatives. Putting these results into perspective with the realities inherent to the context of emergence through the work on symbolic sites (Zaoual, 1999) and that on eco-social management (Ndione, 2015), has enabled to build a teleological representation which would make it possible to understand the functioning of the various initiatives and which would enrich the understanding that one can have of companies in African contexts. Keywords: empowerment, community, Djily Mbaye, purpose, socioeconomic initiatives.
... The organisational mission and vision are often confusing in terms of what each represents and express in an organisation. The mission statement as defined by (Bowen, 2018) are more specific and direct to an organisational focus on competitive advantage such that it shows the priority of activities. Thus, the report explains the mission of an organisation as the quest for an organisational goal that uniquely derives a competitive advantage from the description of specific strengths and available opportunities in comparison with the competitors in consideration of the organisational values. ...
... It is understood to be the organisational goals in a long-term expression, which offer strategic alignment of the goal for the normative world. It, therefore, pushes for innovation, commitment and motivation to reduce the barriers that could hinder the achievement of the goals (Bowen, 2018). The vision statement hence, expresses a long-term position that determines where the organisation would wish to be within the competitive environment (Bowen, 2018). ...
... It, therefore, pushes for innovation, commitment and motivation to reduce the barriers that could hinder the achievement of the goals (Bowen, 2018). The vision statement hence, expresses a long-term position that determines where the organisation would wish to be within the competitive environment (Bowen, 2018). Papulova (2014) notes the mission and vision as aspects of strategy formulation in strategic management, which is strategic planning. ...
... The mid-term to long-term goals of an organisation are described in its Vision statement (Kaplan, Norton, & Barrows Jr., 2008). In other words, vision is a coherent and powerful statement of what an organisation desires to become in the future (Bowen, 2018;Wilson, 1992). Therefore, a vision could be described as a state of the future expressed in form of goals set at present. ...
... Vision statement is tool of motivation, strategic guidance and direction to the organisation. It also facilitates organsiational strategy formulation and execution (Bowen, 2018;Horwath, 2005;Ilesanmi, 2011;Kantabutra, 2008;Madu, 2013;Wilson, 1992). Goal setting and definition as well clarification of social responsibilities of organisations, are enhanced via vision statements (Deazeley, 2014;Ilesanmi, 2011;Wilson, 1992). ...
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Vision statements is one the basic tools of strategic planning and management, whose importance in any organisation, be it public or private, cannot be overemphasized. Although, the statements differ in terms of its contents, characteristics, readability and composition. These differences, however, are subjects of interests to researchers. This paper is on the readability and content analysis of vision statements of Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Nigeria. Specifically, the study aims to determine whether the components identified in the relevant literature are adopted in the vision statements and to measure the readability levels of the statements. The study being descriptive and qualitative nature employed secondary data sourced from the official websites of each of the 14 DMBs selected for the study. In evaluating the contents of the vision statements, a criteria suggested by Wilson (1992) was followed. To examine the readability of these statements, the study employed the Gunning Fog index(GFI) of readability. The results of GFI's readability analysis indicate that the vision statements of DMBs in Nigeria are easy to read and understand. However, the results of the content analysis indicate that generally, the selected DMBs' vision statements do not include all the essential components as stated in relevant literature. The study therefore, recommends that top management of banks should take the lead in 'living out' the vision and encourage the popularization as well as the use of the vision statement vocabularies by employees and other internal stakeholders of banks in their day-today operations and activities.
... Mission statements were lauded for providing direction, unity, ethics, and communicating values (Bayrak, 2020;Bowen, 2018;Sun &Leithwood, 2015). School leadership programs implore starting with goals and a vision (Sammons, 2005;Skaalvik, 2020), and even when shortcomings were found, there was the assumption changes in utilization could make mission statements valuable and necessary . ...
... In such matters, ethical judgment is key, and agencies should work to offer this expertise through development of both moral character to assist in identifying moral dilemmas (Place, 2019) and ethical analysis skills to help counsel on resolve ethical problems (2018a, Bowen, 2005). The ethical counseling function can be seen through the public leadership of an agency in publications, as well as through counseling clients on how to maintain ethical management in line with their individual mission and vision (Bowen, 2018b). ...
This exploratory study examines approaches the world’s top public relations agencies used to respond to the risks posed by a new U.S. administration during President Trump’s first 100 days in office. Public relations agencies discussed the Trump victory in a few ways, including such approaches as Columnist/Blogger, PR Counsel, and Expert. A few prominent themes emerged from the data as agencies’ attempted to reflect on the Trump victory: Populism Wins; Trump as a Wildcard; Trump as a Disruptor or as a Reality Check; and Risk: The New Caution. Overall, the response of the public relations industry to the unknowns and collective risk posed by the Trump administration appeared to be rather haphazard than strategic. While believing that the Trump presidency would affect crisis management at their clients’ companies, global agencies missed opportunities to act as issues managers and ethics counselors in a critical time.
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Public schools widely use mission statements, and many educational administration programs teach mission statements as a necessary lever for school improvement. A mixed methods investigation examined three levels. An experiential phenomenological analysis examined graduate students’ experiences with mission statements within their own schools and professional life. A thematic analysis examined 80 schools in the Midwestern United States, broken down by high and low performance on state academic testing, ecological differences, quantitative structures of the mission statement, and qualitative themes and dimensions. A meta-synthesis compared findings with previous research. There were structural differences in mission statements, but the conclusion was mission statements were a legacy practice which served the political spectacle, and practitioners adopted the practice out of conformity. There was no direct evidence mission statements achieved the stated purpose. Recommendations were made to refashion mission statements and the school improvement process around four factors.
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Blended learning approach is an education program that combines online digital media with traditional classroom methods which requires the physical presence of both teacher and student, with some element of student control over time, place, path, or pace. In this study, the researcher examined the effect of blended learning approach on the performance of technical college students in woodwork, in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study was a pretest, posttest control quasi experimental type. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two co-educational technical colleges in Oyo State. Twenty (20) students of Government Technical College Ibadan were used for Blended Learning Approach (BLA) as experimental group while also 20 students of Government Technical College Awe participated as control group for Conventional Learning Method (CLM). Three research instruments were used for this study, Blended learning approach package on introduction to woodjoint, Learners’ achievement test (LAT) and Questionnaire on students’ attitudes towards blended learning approach (QSATBLA). BLA package was evaluated and validated by educational technologists to ensure that the package is developed in line with the principle of instructional design while ICT expert ensured that navigation process runs appropriately. LAT was subjected to reliability using Kuder-Richardson formula 20 (KR-20) with the reliability index of 0.81 while QSATBLA also subjected to reliability utilizing Cronbach alpha with an index of 0.85. The findings of the study showed that there was a significant difference in the mean scores of experimental and control groups (t(38)=7.74, p<0.05) in favour of the experimental group and there was significant difference in the attitude of experimental and control groups with t(38)=-3.623, p>0.05. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others, that teachers in technical colleges should expose themselves to various available instructional software packages that can foster improve their teaching strategies and further enhance teaching competency and students should be exposed to blended learning approach to promote and encourage positive students’ social interaction. Keywords: Blended learning approach, Traditional classroom methods, Technical College and Woodjoint,
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In the last ten years, we have witnessed a proliferation of investors claiming blended value strategies, i.e., pursuing both economic and social returns in their investments. Aside from this rush for self-selecting in a blended value finance context, we still do not know to what extent the investors’ claims actually reflect investment decisions. Evidence suggests that, in some cases, such investors tend to maximize the social performance over the financial performance; in some others, the effect is reverted, but literature currently lacks studies aligning the analysis of the investment decisions with the investment portfolios. Yet, it is still unclear whether blended value investment decisions are enacted as a result of investors’ deliberate strategies and what influences this relationship. In this paper we tackle this issue, analyzing the extent to which investors’ finance firms pursuing goals aligned with their strategic aspirations. Specifically, adopting a Fractional Logistic Regression model, we test the effect of investors’ aspirations toward social impact on the extent to which their investees (i.e., the portfolio of firms in which they invest) pursue social returns. Results suggest the existence of a positive and significant investor–portfolio alignment effect (i.e., the higher the investors’ aspirations toward social impact, the higher the number of investees with higher social aspirations). Yet, this effect is influenced by contingencies at both investor and portfolio levels. Investors with strong aspirations toward social impact that: (i) invest in countries with high levels of social inequality, and (ii) are located in countries that support social progress and maximize, in their portfolios, the presence of businesses pursuing social impact. We discuss implications for future researchers, policymakers and practitioners.
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Recent neuroscientific research has caused a paradigm shift in our understanding of the meaning and scope of compassion. Derived from the Latin root compassiō, compassion used to be a religious emotion that implied suffering with the perceived sufferer, whereas now it is examined as a psychological, neuroscientific, neurobiological, and thus natural, phenomenon. The newly arisen research interest in compassion led to the development of secular compassion training programs that follow closely in the footsteps of the “mindfulness revolution.” Whereas the latter has been criticized for its reductionist appropriation of Buddhist thought by the capitalist west, in this paper, I demonstrate that the secularization of compassion is the result of innovative activities by representatives of the Buddhist traditions. I argue that some of the causes for the recent secularization and sciencization can be traced back into the fourteenth century Tibet, namely to the innovative exegetical activities of the scholars of the Tibetan Lojong tradition. I argue that from the perspective of the tradition, the sciencization of compassion resembles a deliberate purposeful “translation” effort that fits into the “two-track approach” of Buddhist propagation.
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This study builds on the public relations theory of organization–public relationships (OPRs) by exploring the role of ethics as a precursor to building OPRs. We qualitatively explore the existing relationship variables in the context of ethical behavior as a precursor to building authentic, long-term relationships with publics that will eventually benefit an organization’s effectiveness and reputation. These variables have not yet been explored in terms of ethics. We conducted elite interviews with public relations professionals of North America, Europe, and Asia who were either: (1) chief communications officers at the top of responsibility in the public relations function or (2) highly placed public relations professionals involved in the agency world who are in charge of regions or the heads of independent consultancies. Prior studies show that trust is a crucial variable of OPR and building on that foundation, we examine how ethics and trust are interrelated as part of complex relationships. Our research contributes to the foundation of ethics in building trust in both OPRs and the excellence theory within public relations. This study provides analysis and implications for the public relations industry in the use of ethics as a precursor to OPR, to build relationships between organizations and publics.
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Through 28 elite interviews with CEOs (6) and CCOs (22), this study examined the role of leadership and internal communication in building an ethical communication climate and ethical organizational culture. Internal communications is viewed as central to creating organizational culture that creates positive engagement for internal stakeholder or employees. Based upon a review of the literature and these research findings, results indicated that CEOs should use authentic leadership style. Importantly, CCOs can enhance the role of ethics in the organization by enacting a conscience counselor role on ethics for the dominant coalition, creating ethical discussion around the core values of the organization, and creating stakeholder engagement in internal relations around ethics through discussion, modeling exemplar behavior, and reward or incentive systems. Attention to these activities helps to foster an organizational culture that is ethically engaged and optimally strategic and proactive, rather than simply equating ethics with matters of legal compliance.
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Chief executives in one national and three regional samples participated in a study of the content and structure of their organizational visions. Executives clustered in three groups distinguished by differing orientations to derived factors. Cluster membership was found to be related to the rapidity of firm change, the amount of control the executives exercised over firms, and other variables. Vision showed a multifaceted structure, with factors for vision formulation, implementation, and innovative realism being most prominent. No differences in vision were found with respect to region or firm size, but the responses of executives differed from those obtained in an earlier study of business school deans.
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The author analyses the conceptual development of the corporate image process. Emphasis is placed on the difference between corporate image, corporate identity and corporate philosophy. These concepts are combined into a new process for the development image in the eyes of an organisation's publics.
PART ONE: MAPPING THE FIELD Circumscribing Corporate Communications Theory and Practice Corporate Communications in Historical Perspective Marketing, Public Relations and Corporate Communications Corporate Communications in Theoretical Perspective Stakeholders, Identity and Reputation PART TWO: CORPORATE COMMUNICATION IN PRACTICE Communications Strategy Theory and Practice The Organization of Communications Theory and Practice Communication Practitioners Theory and Practice PART THREE: RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT The Future of Corporate Communications
Seventy-five mission statements were obtained from chief executive officers of large companies. Content and statistical analyses of these documents reveal the inclusion of nine key components. Profiles of the mission statements of manufacturing and service firms are developed and guidelines are provided for writing and using mission statements.