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introduction about the pestle analysis
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Salem Alanzi
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
Table of content
The collection of PESTEL analysis factors 11
Political factors 12
Economic factors 12
Socio-cultural factors 13
Technological factors 13
Legal factors 14
Environmental factors 15
Political changes 15
Economic Changes 16
Social changes 17
Technological changes 17
Environmental changes 18
Legal changes 18
Political 21
Economic 23
Socio-cultural 23
Technological 24
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
The purpose Of the PESTLE analysis is to make you look around
and see What is happening in the broader economic and business
environment. All Projects are part of a larger system, the economy.
Doing a PESTEL analysis helps you to look at all important factors
that might affect the success or failure of your project.
PESTEL is an acronym for the following factors (Political, Economic,
Social and cultural, Technological, Environment and Legal)
The core elements of the analysis are: ‘Political’, ‘Economic’, ‘Social’
and ‘Technology’. To these core elements are added ‘Environment’
and ‘Legal’ to make the PESTEL the potential issues to examine
could volumes and still only scratch the surface so this discussion
Focuses on the approach. The detail Will depend on the
corporation, its industrial sector and the countries within which it
The PESTLE analysis enables a manager to identify the key
macroeconomic factors that may have an influence on the future
development of the project.
Why is it successful? The identification of future macroeconomic
variables of interest and the construction of different scenarios
allow the manager to better anticipate the strategic decisions
needed to ensure the proper development and sustainability of
the business
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
Characterized by an ever-changing environment, Our Current
society differs in many ways from What it was before. Adapting to
the changing and competitive environment has now become a
necessity for any manager wanting to keep their business afloat
and prosper in the coming years. The environment
(macroeconomic dimension) has actually proved itself to be a
source of both opportunities and threats for any company on the
market, regardless of their industry sector. Therefore, a confirmed
anticipation of the lambda macroeconomic phenomenon Will
soon provides a direct competitive advantage for the executive if
this allows them to react efficiently before their competitors. On
the other hand, if a manager underestimates a momentous event
in the market, they Will quickly find themselves struggling against
competitors whose forecasts are more complete, as they Will have
to face their competitive and aggressive strategies. For example,
companies that did not anticipate the expansion and opportunities
offered by the internet in time had a bitter experience at the
beginning of the century.
As the ability to predict certain future events seems to be the key
to the success, good development and even, in some cases, the
survival of a company, there are always people who claim, after a
change in the environment, that the indicators were inevitably
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
moving in that direction anyway. Yet anticipating these indicators
is far from easy, and not everybody possesses Cassandra’s skills in
predicting the future
It is in this context of uncertainty that the PESTLE analysis
appeared, which aims to identify and analyze the macroeconomic
variable relevant to an organization in a specific environment.
The analysis was given the name PESTLE in reference to the
acronym formed by the initials of the six categories of
macroeconomic variables included in the model (Political,
Economic, Socio-cultural, Technological, Legal and Environmental).
Firstly, the model allows managers to identify the macroeconomic
variables to take into consideration for the development of the
business (opportunities vs. potential risks) for which realization
remains relatively uncertain. Then, the model can initiate the
conceptualization of different scenarios based on these uncertain
variables to better predict the future and make the right decisions
today in the interest of the future.
PESTLE analysis
Your work in analyzing the five factors affecting your industry may
have given you some ideas of the threats and opportunities your
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
organization is currently facing. However, Porter’s five forces
analysis does not help you to anticipate how the broader
environmental influences Will affect your industry how it may
change. You need to look beyond your industry boundaries to the
One way of doing this is through PESTLE analysis. You can use
PESTLE analysis to identity forces in the macro-environment that
are affecting your business now and are likely to continue to do so
in the future. You examine Political. Economic. Socio-cultural,
Technological, Legislative and Ecological aspects of the wider
The PESTLE Analysis is used as a tool to situational analysis for
business evaluation purposes and is one of the most used models
in the evaluation of the external business environment that is
highly dynamic (Gupta, 2013), A business interacts with its external
environment in its operations and the external factors are
uncontrollable by the business. Moreover, PESTLE analysis forms
the basis for the identification of the opportunities and the threats
that helps in the SWOT analysis. The PESTLE model takes into
account key aspects in the external environment and appraises
each of them to form conclusions of industry attractiveness,
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
market potential, to determine current market and industry
performance and to predict market or industry key success factors
and trends for future growth and success as explained.
The application of the model Will highly depends upon the
industry or market the organization is based in and factors to be
taken into consideration by one business competing in one
industry may differ from that of the factors that should be
concerned by a business within a different industry. The model is
also heavily used in academically related work such as research
reports, assignments, degree programs, business writings etc.
which Will also give the students a basic idea of this critical model
and how to use it in their academic writings. The benefits of this
model for a business is huge (Dwyer & Tanner, 2002). However,
limitations Should be also noted and Steps should be taken to
minimize any loopholes in the outcome derived from the model
for effective decision-making purposes (Thomas, 2007).
The value of a PESTEL analysis
This type of analysis is done when managers want to look at the
type of external influence that may affect the business in the
future. Each of the letters stands for a key area the organization
Will consider.
The key to PESTLE analysis is to identify a few important factors
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
that are likely to have a significant effect on your industry and
organization, Factors that are likely to interact with each other may
be particularly important as they may have greater implications on
your industry. When you have identified key factors, you can
consider how they may affect your industry using Porter’s five
competitive forces as a framework.
The model helps in the evaluation process of the dynamic and
competitive business envenoming the model appraises each of the
key factors, which are directly and indirectly affecting the business
performance so that strategies could be developed to overcome
the issues for a better market position (Johnson, et 2013). The
model enables the organization to understand its market position,
the trends and many aspects that is a to update the strategy,
targets and performance Schedules (Dwyer & Tanner, the model
can be also used in risk ascertainment and to develop risk
response strategies based on the risk capacity of the organization
One of major of the limitations that the outcome may become
Outdated in less time following the delivery changes if the is in a
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
technology-based industry (Wolfe & Buchwald). Moreover, the
process of the market survey is time-consuming and can be costly
to the company. Further. even though the model tries to highlight
the key aspects, further drill is essential for a more compensate
evaluate’ of factors in concern using other such as diagrams,
regression and analysis etc. The outcome of the model can have
distorted following the false inputs of the research which he also
for example, the research may not use the possible where they
may not give real picture. Thus, it is clear that Imitations and
weaknesses are also inherent to the that is to considered by the
(Vrontis & Pavbu, 2W8). it can be recommended to use the model
in collaboration with other two most important models Porte’s five
Forces and SWOT Analysis for a more effective and comprehensive
Situational Analysis.
PESTEL analysis factors
PESTEL analysis factors are: Political, economic, sociocultural,
technological, environmental and legal factors provide a
framework to analyses and categories environmental influences
impacting upon public health. Sometimes the same topic may
feature under two or more aspects of RESTEI analysis, e.g.
government policies provide insights into priorities (political) but
also may be a driver for technological advances. A PESTEL analysis
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
enables the identification of public health opportunities provided
by environmental conditions as well as current or emerging threats
The information from the PESTEI. analysis can be used to further
develop the SWOT analysis, e.g. local facilities for family planning
may have been identified as a strength within the SWOT analysis.
The PESTEI„ analysis may reveal the need to reduce the number of
teenage pregnancies. There is there- fore an opportunity to use of
the strengths identified (family planning facilities) to address the
issue of reducing the number of teenage pregnancies. However,
the SWOT analysis may have also identified a weakness in that the
family planning services are not situated near any of the schools,
there is restricted access to these facilities. Future opportunities
can have identified by reviewing current and emerging
governmental and organizational policies related to public health
and assessing how well these are or can met within current
constraints. Threats include anything that impacts upon the ability
to deliver public health to the population, e.g. funding issues, legal
constraints, etc.
The SWOT and PESTEI- analyses provide a view of how well the
current public health strategy is being achieved, and What the
future challenges may be. In order to develop a meaningful public
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
health strategy a needs assessment Will also have to be
The collection of PESTEL analysis factors
Since this is a popular and regularly used model, both for
completing business plans, production or marketing strategies,
and for launching new projects (e.g. when developing a new
product on a market that the company has not yet entered), the
approach must be specific.
The primary objective of the PESTLE analysis is the identification of
unavoidable macroeconomic changes that might have a significant
impact on the development of a company (in terms of its
products, its brand or even its entire organization). Therefore, it is
not about conducting a comprehensive study of the external
environment: the in-depth analysis of macroeconomic variables is
only relevant in relation to a specific company, so that it can
anticipate the changes that are likely to occur on its scale.
Indeed, of all the macroeconomic events that Will occur in the
coming years, only some of them Will exert a real influence on the
evolution of the company. Therefore, it is the manager’s
responsibility to distinguish between the variables that can directly
or indirectly affect the organization and those that Will only have a
minor impact on its sustainability. Hence, an executive at the head
Of an Oil company Will not react to the recent discoveries on the
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
contributions of shale gas in the same Way as an executive of a
shipping company, or the owner of a sandwich shop!
Macroeconomic variables are classified into six distinct, though
relatively interdependent, categories:
Political factors
The political trends in a country (government pressure, monetary
policy, etc.) significantly influence the company that chooses to
establish itself there: established public authorities are making
more and more decisions that can have a direct impact on daily
operations and the prospects of a company’s financial (notional
interest, etc.) and social (employment assistance, subsidies, etc.)
aspects. Other elements, such as conflict, the level of corruption, or
the degree of state intervention should also be considered.
Furthermore, an entrepreneur who launches a commercial
business in a country with perpetual governmental conflict should
ensure that they respond to the needs of the indigenous
inhabitants, which Will be different from those living in a country
with stability and peace. Also note that there are bodies such as
the European Commission and the World Trade Organization
(WTO) that govern international trade policies.
Economic factors
While it is virtually impossible for a company to change the
economic situation, it can definitely make preparations in order to
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
better deal with fluctuations. Observing the evolution of a
country’s CDP, its tax rates and the growth of the inhabitants’
purchasing power Will prove crucial in possess- sing all the factors
necessary for managerial decision-making. The economic success
of a business also involves the observation of key figures relevant
to the sector and the analysis of consumer trends. Thus,
anticipating a significant decrease in purchasing power allows the
company to adapt its overall strategy to minimize tosses.
Socio-cultural factors
Knowing the characteristics of a population (demographics, age
distribution, etc.) in order to understand its buying behavior is
essential to conquer a market. Moreover, history roots and
traditions as well as religious and socio-cultural influences
(fashion, media, means of communication, etc.) allow the company
to refine their analysis of the specific needs of the individuals
involved. For example, nationals Of Mediterranean countries
develop different needs in many ways to those of their
counterparts in the Baltic countries due to their culture, the climate
in which they live or their religion.
Technological factors
Today, many experts are busy working in every corner of the
planet, seeking to revolutionize existing processes. While some of
these findings are not likely to influence the target market, others
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
have the potential to completely change all norms. The internet
revolution came as a surprise to many managers, and those who
anticipated its increased use gained a significant competitive
advantage. Therefore, it seems natural to investigate the practices
in (research and development) and innovation in the chosen field
(core business) of the company. Continually questioning the
product, as well as the processes involved in its preparation and
acquisition by the customer, is the key to successful technological
Legal factors
Staying informed of regulations (labor laws, trade laws, etc.) in the
country where the company is or Will be located legislation
varies from one place to another is now one of the best ways to
protect the company from possible legal attacks and act in the
best way possible within legal constraints. For example, regulations
concerning the carrying of weapons are not the same in every
country, and any astute trader wishing to engage in this sector Will
quickly adapt their communication and distribution according to
the legislation in force in the country concerned. Tax incentives
may also lead the well-informed manager to turn towards some
countries rather than others.
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Environmental factors
The 21St century is a continuation of the positioning the
environment and sustainable development at the heart of debates
more than ever- The worrying climate change, constantly
increasing pollution, waste sorting that varies from one country to
another, etc.: nowadays these aspects interest and preoccupy
more and more people and those.
The PESTEL analysis Explanation
PESTEL analysis is a very detailed study of these changes using a
range of published sources such as government surveys, statistics
about the State Of the economy, social trend surveys, as well as
some primary analysis.
It is important to remember that their Will be considerable overlap
between PESTEL factors so it is not necessary to neatly categories
them into a separate
Political changes
A shift in political thinking associated with a change in
government can have a major impact on business. For example,
the Conservative government Of 197997 emphasized the
importance of individuals in society looking after themselves and
promoted an enterprise culture which encouraged business
initiative. While the current Labor government is still very
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
concerned with the development of enterprise and partnership
with business, it is also concerned with creating an ‘inclusive
society’ in which the state seeks to include everyone rather than to
exclude: for example. through job creation schemes so that
everyone is included in work in the economy. Under Labor, taxes
on business have increased and measures such as the adoption of
the minimum wage are seen by some businesses as harmful
because it may raise their costs. Other political changes of
significance are different parties• views on the European Union.
For example, Labor is far more committed to the UK adopting the
euro than is the Conservative Party.
Economic Changes
The economy goes through a cycle of periods of increasing
economic activity followed by periods of recession. Business needs
to be aware of where the economy stands in relation to this cycle.
Boom periods encourage business strategies of expansion and
growth while recessions create a hostile environment. Other
economic factors that business needs to take into account are
changes in interest rates and changes in exchange rates. A rise in
interest rates discourages business growth, while reductions in
interest rates have the reverse effect. A rise in the Price of the
pound against competing currencies may have a negative impact
on businesses that export because this raises UK prices relative to
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
those of competing firms. A reduction in the pound makes U K
goods more competitive. Other key economic indicators that need
to be considered in a PESTEL analysis include inflation, consumer
expenditure and disposable income, and various costs (transport,
energy, Communication and raw material costs).
Social changes
Over time many changes take place in society which are relevant
to business. Key changes include those in population, in tastes and
buying patterns. in employment patterns, and so on. Trends and
tastes are constantly changing leading to regular changes in
buying patterns. Employment patterns also need to be studied: for
example, the growing numbers of women in the workplace have
led to an increased demand for convenience food, and so on.
Other important social changes are Shifts in values and culture,
education and health, and distribution of income.
Technological changes
The application of information and communication technologies in
the first decade of the twenty-first century is having a dramatic
impact on business. More people than ever before are buying on-
line, forcing most large businesses to develop strategies involving
e-commerce. Other technological changes involve the product of
new research initiatives, levels of expenditure on research and
development, and government support of new technologies.
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
Environmental changes
Increasingly. organizations have had to develop environmental
strategies. Today there are international and British standards for
environmental quality procedures. Organizations need to in the
forefront of making these changes rather than come from a catch
‘up position. In addition, organizations need to respond to ‘green
issues’ being voiced by customers and community groups.
Legal changes
Organizations need to anticipate and prepare themselves for
changes in the law. For example, recently the European Union has
created new legislation making airlines responsible for paying
compensation for delayed and cancelled flights, leading to
substantial increases in Costs for airlines. A good P ESTEL analysis
is not simply a list of changes in the environment that may affect
the business, rather it involves identifying the key structural
change in the business environment that are relevant to a specific
business, and the links that exist between these changes. The P
ESTEL analysis enables the organization to create the strategies
that prepare it for change in advance of the changes occurring.
The PESTEL analysis Examples
Political future
o Political parties and alignments at local and national level
o Legislation, e.g. on taxation and employment law
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
o Relations between government and the organization
(possibly influencing the preceding items in a major way
and forming a part of future corporate strategy)
o Government ownership of industry and attitude to
monopolies and competition
Soclo-cuttural future
o Shifts in values and culture
o Change in lifestyle
o Attitudes to work and issues
o ‘Green’ environmental issues
o Education and health
o Demographic changes
o Distribution of income
Economic future
o Total GDP and GDP per head
o Inflation
o Consumer expenditure and disposable income
o Interest rates
o Currency fluctuations and exchange rates
o Investment by the state, private enterprise and foreign
o Cynicality
o Unemployment
o Energy costs, transport costs, Communication costs, raw
material costs
Technological future
o Government investment policy
o Identified new research initiatives
o New patents and products
o Speed of change and adoption of new technology
o Level Of expenditure on by organization’s rivals
o Developments in nominally unrelated industries that
might be applicable
Environmental future
o ‘Green’ issues that affect me environment
o Level and type of energy consumed renewable energy?
o Rubbish, waste and its disposal
Legal future
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
o Competition law and government policy
o Employment and safety law
o Product safety issues
Some strategists may comment that the future is so uncertain that
prediction is useless. If this view were true, then strategic management
would not be playing such a significant role in organizations today. It is
recognized that the future cannot be controlled, but by anticipating the
future, organizations can avoid strategic surprises and be prepared to
meet environmental changes.
PESTLE analysis Checklist of issues
Political Government policies, attitudes to industry, competition,
monopolies, government stability, taxation policies, foreign trade
regulations, political alignments at local, national, regional and global
Economic GNP and GDR inflation, interest rates, exchange rates,
investment by state, private enterprise, consumer expenditure,
disposable income, infrastructure costs and availability, e.g. energy,
transport and communications
Socio-cultural Demography, consumerism, education and health,
social attitudes to work, health, the environment, social mobility,
income distribution
Technological Government spending on research, adoption of new
technology, new products and developments, obsolescence of existing
Legislation Employment law, taxation law, company law, health and
safety law, patent law, industry regulations
Ecological Pollution control, planning policies, transport policies,
disposal of waste.
Description of the PESTEL Analysis technique
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
PESTLE analysis provides a framework for investigating and
analyzing the external environment for an organization. The
framework identifies six key areas that should be considered when
attempting to identify’ the sources of change.
These six areas are:
Examples of political factors could be a potential change of
government, with the corresponding changes to policies and
priorities, or the introduction of a new government initiative. These
may be limited to the home country within which the organization
operates, but this tends to be rare these days since many changes
have an effect in several countries. The development of bodies
such as the European Union and the growth of global trade and
multinational organizations have changed the scope of political
activity. This has increased the possibility of political issues arising
that may impact upon the organization and how it operates.
The political context is important because governments set the
rules of the game through policies designed to encourage What
the government sees as beneficial to society and discourage
activities which cause harm, supported by legislation and the rule
of law. It is important that the strategic analysis identifies the
relevant government policies and draws out the implications.
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
The most effective approach is to get inside the mind of
government to understand What the government is trying to
achieve, this shifts the analysis forward from the current policy
debate to provide insight into the legislation in the pipeline. A step
yet further is to ‘Work out What the government should be doing
even if the government does not yet know it.
Approaching the analysis from the perspective of government
allows clear foresight of future polite and advanced insight that no
amount of political intelligence could buy_ Such deep insight can
only come from analysis beyond the boundaries of the
corporation’s direct interest. This is another example of the
benefits of using a wide-angle analytic lens. “this approach is not
just responsible behavior but leads to more robust strategy.
Political appraisal by business Will Often lead onto political
lobbying to defend the business of the corporation. This generate
a negative reaction from NGOs and sections of the press. The
enlightened strategic analysis proposed here leads the corporation
to understand where resistance is pointless and shifts the
corporation into a space where it can lobby for those elements Of
future government policy that fit both a better future and the
corporation’s strategies direction_ The latter has not been set, in
the first iteration of the strategies analysis, but as the strategy
takes shape the external analysis can be reviewed and further
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
The output from the examination of the political landscape may
An assessment of relevant current government policy priorities;
An analysis of the direction of future policy; and
Identification Of areas where there is likely to be government
policy when it wakes up to the issue
Economic factors may also be limited to the home country, but as
global trade continues to grow, economic difficulties in one nation
tend to have a broad, Often worldwide, impact. Examples of
economic factors could be the level of growth within an economy,
or market confidence in the economies within which the
organization operates. The 2008 sub-prime mortgage Crisis in the
USA, with its subsequent worldwide impact, is a good example of
an economic situation that affected many organizations.
Socio-cultural factors are those arising from customers or
potential customers. These changes can often be subtle, and they
can be difficult to predict or identify until there is a major impact.
Examples could be demographic issues such as an increase in the
number of working mothers, or consumer behavior patterns such
as the rise of disposable fashion.
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
This area covers factors arising from the development of
technology. There are two types of technological change: there
can be developments in I T, and there can be developments in
technology specific to an industry or market, for example
enhancements to manufacturing technology.
IT developments can instigate extensive business impacts, often
across industries or business domains and on a range of
organizations. It is often the case that there is a failure to
recognize the potential use of the technology at least until a
competitor emerges with a new or enhanced offering. For
example, increased functionality of mobile techn0100′ or extended
bandwidth for internet transactions can present opportunities to
many organizations. However, the identification of such
technological advances is critical if an organization is to recognize
the potential they Offer.
Legal It is vital to consider factors arising from changes to the law,
since the last decade has seen a significant rise in the breadth and
depth of the legal regulations within which organizations have to
operate. Legal compliance has become such an important issue
during this period that many business analysis assignments have
been carried out for the purpose of ensuring compliance with
particular laws or regulations. Some legal issues may originate
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
from the national government but others, for example EU laws or
global accounting regulations, may operate across a broader
spectrum. One key issue when considering the legal element of
the PESTLE analysis is to recognize laws that have an impact upon
the organization even though they originate from countries other
than that in which the organization is based. This situation may
occur where an organization is operating within the originating
country or working with other organizations based in that country.
Recent examples of this have concerned changes to international
financial compliance regulations, such as the SarbanesOxley Act
in the USA and the Basel II Accord.
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Pestle Analysis Introduction
Important links
Pestle Analysis Introduction
PESTEL analysis factors
The PESTEL analysis Explanation
The PESTEL analysis Examples
Description of the PESTEL Analysis technique
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... Political, Economic, Sociocultural, Technological, Legal and Environmental (refer figure 4). The analysis can formulate the different situations based on these six factors to enhance future prediction and make the decisions making the process more relevant (Alanzi, 2018). ...
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.