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Snakes (Reptilia: Serpentes) of Mizoram University Campus, Tanhril, Aizawl with notes on their identification keys

Authors:
  • Holy Child Society

Abstract

First inventory survey on the snake fauna of Mizoram University. Many species are new record for the state of Mizoram, northeast India.
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Snakes (Reptilia: Serpentes) of Mizoram University Campus, Tanhril,
Aizawl with notes on their identification keys
T. C. Laltanpuia, C. Lalrinchhana, Lalnunsanga, Lalrotluanga, Ricky Hmingthansanga¹,
Arti Kumari, Vanlalsawmi Renthlei, S. Lalrintluangi and H. T. Lalremsanga*
Department of Zoology, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796012, Mizoram, India.
*Corresponding author e-mail: htlrsa@yahoo.co.in
¹Department of History, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796012, Mizoram, India.
Abstract
A vawi khatna atan Mizoram University Campus chhungah rul (snake) chi hrang hrang eng ang
chi nge awm tih hre turin kum hnih (2007-2008) chhung vai khawm an ni a. Rul chi hrang hrang sawmhnih
leh pathum (23) ngawt mai an awm tih hmuhchhuah a ni a. Heng rul 23 te hi family pali (4) hnuaia awm
niin, Typhlopidae hnuaiah species (chi bing) 2, Colubridae hnuaiah 17, Elapidae hnuaiah 3 leh Viperidae 1
te an ni. Heng zinga 4 (Rhabdophis subminiatus, Bungarus niger, Naja kaouthia leh Ophiophagus
hannah) te hi tur hlauhawm tak nei niin, viper awmchhun Trimerusurus erythrurus chu tur hlauhawm
lutuk lo (mild venomous) a nih bakah a dang zawng species 18 te chu tur nei lo chi an ni ve thung. Hei
mai bakah hian species paruk (6) Boiga cyanea, Elaphe porphyracea, Gonyosoma prasina, Pareas
monticola, Rhabdops bicolor leh Trachischium tenuiceps te hi Mizoram atang a report la awm ngailo
te an ni bawk. Species 2, Dendrelaphis sp. leh Natrix sp. te chu lehkhabu, journal leh herpetologists
rawn hnuah pawh eng species nge an nih tih ala hriat theih loh.
Keywords:Snakes, reptilian, serpentes, herpetology, Mizoram University, Aizawl.
Introduction
Rul kan tih te hi 'Reptiles' class hnuai ami niin,
reptiles-te chu khawmuala cheng hmasa ber, ke
pali hmanga bawkvak (rul tiam lohin), ke zungtang
panga nei, an taksa phuhlipin a tuam, mahni a taksa
lumna nei lo (poikilothermous) niin tui nei chi (ovipa-
rous) an nih loh pawhin chhul chhunga tui keu a
hring leh chi (ovoviviparous) an ni. Khawvela rep-
tiles nung dam a la awmte hi order pali (4)-ah
thensawm an ni a. Chungte chu Testudines (satel
leh sumsi), Squamata (laiking leh rul), Crocodylia
(awle) leh Rhynchocephalia (tuatara) te an ni.
Order Squamata hi sub-order pahnih- Sauria
(laiking leh laitel) leh Serpentes (rul)-ah then darh
leh an ni. Khawvelah hian rul chi hrang hrang 3149
an awm a (Uetz, 2008), India ram bikah chuan chi
hrang 242 awmin species 57-te chu tur nei (poi-
sonous/venomous) an ni (Sharma, 2002). Mizoram
chhung bikah Pawar leh Birand (2001) khan rul
chi hrang hrang 20 an lo chhinchhiah tawh a, Harit
leh Ramanujam (2002) te'n 14, Matthew (2007)
i'n 38 leh Lalremsanga et. al. (2008) te'n 28 an
chhinchhiah ve thung. Rul chi hrang hrang hi
Mizoramah engzat chiah nge an awm tih hi mumal
taka zirchianna a la awm meuh lo a ni. Rulte hian
rannung in ei chhawnna (foodchain)-ah dinhmun
pawimawh tak an luah avangin nungchate khawsak
in relbawlnaah an pawimawh hle a. Chu mai bakah
pollution tlemna apiangah rul an tam a, hei hian
ecological indicator tha tak an nih zia a ti lang chiang
hle. Chuvang chuan chiangkuang lehzual a hre turin
a hmasa ber atan Mizoram University campus
chhunga rul awm te chu vai khawmin zirchian ani.
Mizoram University Campus hi Aizawl
khawpui atang a chhimthlang lam 8 km vela hla a
Science Vision 8(4) 112-127 : Snakes (Reptilia: Serpentes) of MiZOram University Campus, ........
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Snakes (Reptilia: Serpentes) of MiZOram University Campus, Tanhril, Aizawl with Notes on their ........
awm a ni a, 900 acres a zau a ni. A ram huam
chhunga thing to te hi tropical moist evergreen niin,
hmun zau zawk hi chu secondary type (vah che
reu hnua rawn to leh) in a huam kan ti thei awm e.
Nipui laiin 35 ºC a lum niin, thlasik lai erawh chuan
10 ºC lai ani ve thung a ni. Directorate of Agricul-
ture & Minor Irrigation, Aizawl atanga kan hmuh
danin, chawhruala kumkhat a ruahtui tla zat chu
2290 mm vel a ni a.
Materials and Methods
Kum 2007, February thla atang a kum 2008,
December thla thlengin Mizoram University
huamchhunga rul awm theihna zawng zawngte chu
ngun taka tlawh kual vek niin, chhun leh zanah
survey neih an ni hlawm a. Kan survey lai hian
Visual Encounter System (VES) kan hmang a.
Zana survey lai hian luikawr khawkrawk leh a
chheh vela thlaite chu a theih ang ang a dap chhuah
zel an ni a. Thing awmna hmun te fang kualin thinga
khawsa chi rul (treesnake) te pawh ngun taka zawn
an ni a. Campus atanga kan rul man leh mi thah an
rawn dah te hi a hun laia boruak vawh/lum zawng
(temperature) leh hnawn zawng (humidity), leh
manna hmun (location & elevation) mai bakah a
mantu/thattu hming (name of collector) leh man/
thah ni (date of collection) te chhinchhiah zel an ni
bawk. Specimen te hi ngun tak a zir chian hnuah
70% ethanol hmanga tihlumin, DNA sequencing a
tul takin an tisa them (tissue sample) te chu 100%
ethanol ah vawng thain deep freezer-ah dah that
zel an ni a. Tin, an taksa hi darkar 24 chhung 10%
formalin-a chiah hnuah 5% formalin-ah vawn that
leh an ni. Specimen reng rengte hi catalogue num-
ber (MZU/ZOO/R) pe zelin Museum of Zoology
department, Mizoram University-ah a duh apiang
tan a zir chian theih turin dah that zel an ni. Rul
kan thensawm dan leh koh duatna (common name)
hi Sharma (1999, 2002), Das (2002, 2003), Leviton
et. al (2003), Whitaker leh Captain (2006),
ruahmanna behchhan tlat a siam an ni.
Dan naran a Rul phuhlip in rem dan
(A) Lu (a sirzawngin); (B) Lu (hnunglam
atangin); (C) Lu (hnuailam atangin); (C) & (D)
Taksa tantlang a phuhlip (Dorsal scale row)
chhiardan. (Modified from Smith, 1943).
Thumal hmanlar hrilhfiahna
Snout = hmui hmawr/hnarkawn; rostral =
hmuichung hmawr; prefrontal = chal dar hnuai;
scales = phuhlip; loreal= mit leh hnarkaw inkar;
Pre-ocular = mit hmalam; post-ocular= mit
hnunglam; upper labial = hmui chung; lower labial
= hmui hnuai; temporal = bek/ thial pawn; Dorsal
scale row= Taksa lai tak tantlang zawnga phuhlip
awm zat; caudal = mei; anal = mawng bul; verte-
bral = hnungzang ruh; vent= mawngkua; MZU/
ZOO/R= Museum, Zoology department, MZU a
reptile vawnthatte chhinchhiahna.
Results
Mizoram University campus chhung atanga
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rul kan mante hi chibing (species) sawmhnih leh
pathum (23) an ni a, chhungkaw bil (family) pali
(4), Typhlopidae, Colubridae, Elapidae leh Viperidae
hnuai ami te niin, a chhungkaw bil tinte hriat hran
dan a hnuaiah hian tarlan an ni.
I. Mit langsarlo tak nei, har pan takin a tuam; taksa
phuhlip te tak te te intiat thep thawp nei; mei
tawite; khabe chunglamah chauh ha nei; phuhlip
taksa tan tlang zawnga chhiar a 16-36 anih
chuan………………......………Typhlopidae
II. Dul hnuai phuhlip hlaizawngin taksa hnuailam a
tan tlang parh a; ha tlar hmalam(premaxillary
teeth) neilo; mei mum sel sawl, zum ret rawt a
nih chuan………….....................Colubridae
III. Dul hnuai phuhlip hlai hlep hlawp; mit bul
phuhlip leh hnarkua phuhlip inkarah a hranpa in
phuhlip a awmlo; ha tlar (maxillary teeth)
hmalamah tur pek chhuahna ngho (poison) a
awm; mitmu dum bial chi (rounded pupil) anih
chuan……………………………....Elapidae
IV. Dul hnuai phuhlip hlai tak; ha tlar (maxillary
teeth) langsar lo; ngho hnunglam a inthlep thei
(foldable fangs); mitmu dum a chhuk zawnga in
rin thla (vertical pupil)…….......…..Viperidae
Kan rul man leh lak khawm te thu khawchang
chu a hnuai ami ang hi an ni e:
I. FAMILY: TYPHLOPIDAE (RUL
MITDEL)
1. Typhlops diardii Schlegel, 1839
Common Name: Large Blind Snake
Mizo Name: Rulmitdel/Chhawknghawl
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-157
An phuhlip inrem dan: hmui bial, lu sei zawng
chu a lu vang lam ½ atanga 3/5 a tawi, a chaldar
hnuai phuhlip chu a hmui chung lam nena in si, a
taksa teh kualin phuhlip chu 24-26 emaw 28, taksa
dung zuiin phuhlip 260-300.
An chanchin tawi: Rulmitdel zingah chuan a lian
pawl niin (Fig.1), kutzungtang tiat leh 43cm lai a
sei an ni thei. An mit hi hriat hran theih niin, an
taksa hnunglam hi a uk tak/dum a ni tlangpui, an
dul hnuailam leh sirte hi a uk dal deuh a ni thin. Rul
tur nei lo chi niin ngho (fang) pawh an nei hek lo.
Lei hnuaia khawsa chi an ni a, thing tawih leh
hnawmhnawk hnuaiah an awm duh hle. Insects
leh changpat an ei thin. Note hring chi an nih rualin
an tui thin bawk. Vawi khatah note 14 lai an nei
thei.
An Awmna Ramte: India hmarchhak, Myanmar,
Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Nias
thliarkar, Sumatra leh Borneo.
2. Typhlops jerdoni Boulenger, 1890
Common Name: Jerdon's Blind Snake
Mizo Name: Rulmitdel/Chhawknghawl
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-23
An phuhlip inrem dan: hmui bial, lu sei zawng
chu a lu vang lam ¼ atanga 3/5 a tawi, a taksa teh
kualin phuhlip chu 22 leh taksa dung zuiin phuhlip
260-280.
An chanchin tawi: Himalaya chhehvelah chuan
rulmitdel zinga tam ber a ngaih an ni. Rulmitdel
rau rauah, Typhlops diardii te ai chuan an sin zawk
a (Fig.2), 28cm vel thleng a sei an ni thei. An lu
hmawr hi a bial mai bakah an mei hmawr hi tawi
tein a zum bawk a ni. An mit hi a hriat hran theih a,
an taksa hnunglam hi rawng uk tak deuh anih loh
pawhin a dum tle zar thin. An dul hnuailam hi a uk
dal deuh niin, an hnar hmawr (snout) leh mawng
zawn (vent) erawh hi chu cream rawng a ni ve
thung. Mihring khawsakna bul velah pawh hmuh
tur an awm thin, lung hnuai leh thingkawrawng
chhungah te khawsain tlumpi leh changpat an ei
thin. Ngho (fang) leh tur bawm (venom gland) an
nei lova, mihring tan an seh a hlauhawm loh a ni.
An Awmna Ramte: India hmarchhak (West Ben-
gal hmarlam tiamin), Bhutan leh Myanmar.
Mizo zingah hian rintlak tak a puitu (evidence)
awm miah lova rulmitdelin tur hlauhawm tak nei
anga sawi hi kan awm chawk mai a. Hei hi thu dik
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lo hul hual a ni. Tur bawm (venom gland) leh tur
pek chhuahna ngho (fang) pawh nei lo hian
engtinmah mihring a chuk hlum theihna dan a awm
lo hrim hrim. Amaherawhchu rulin mi a chuk reng
rengin rilru hi a pawimawh khawp mai a. Rulngan
(King cobra) note keu hlim mihring chukhlum thei
thenkhat hian rulmitdel an an thin em avangin mi
tam tak chuan an ngaihpawlh thin (Abhijit Das
biangbiakna atangin) tih hi kan hriat a pawimawh
bawk.
II. FAMILY: COLUBRIDAE (RUL
SATLIAH)
3. Ahaetulla prasina Boie, 1827
Common Name: Oriental Vine Snake
Mizo Name: Rulvankai (a hring chi)
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-34; MZU/
ZOO/R-154
An phuhlip inrem dan: A taksa laitak hnungtan
zawngin phuhlip tlar 15; mit hmaah phuhlip 1; mit
hnungah phuhlip 2; chungah phuhlip 9; bekah
phuhlip 2+2 emaw 2+3; 4th, 5th leh 6th ten mit an
si; taksa hnuailam phuhlip 194-235; mei lam phuhlip
165-187 a pa-ah, 151-172 a nu-ah, mawng bula
phuhlip 2, a changin1 chauh.
An chanchin tawi: Rul sei zen zawn, 1.85m
thlenga sei an ni thei (Fig.3). Hmui sei tak neiin, an
hnar hmawr atanga mit thlengin tuiluankawr ang
takin a khuar kak a ni. An mitmu dum hi a khamphei
zawngin (horizontal pupil) a awm bawk. Rul hring
lar vet vawt tak niin an taksa vang tan zawngin
rawng eng leh dumin an tial thet thet bawk a ni. A
hring chi nilo, a uk chi pawh an awm ve thin.
Ramhnuaia thingkung leh thlai dang hniam te te a
cheng chi niin, an chaw laiking, uchang leh sava te
zawngin huanah leh rampalailengah an rawn chhuak
ve thin bawk. He rul kawlh leh ngampa tak hi rang
taka mi seh thei ni mah se tur neilo chi an ni a. An
chil (saliva) erawh chu tur chaklo tak a ni ve leh
thung si. An inhrohsak laiin an nghawng ti phek
vakin, phuhlip hnuai a rawng var leh dum a hmuh
theih thin. An note te hi a hrin a hring chhuak chi
(ovoviviparous) niin, vawikhatah note 4 atang a 6
an hring chhuak thei.
An Awmna Ramte: India hmarchhak leh Asia
chhimchhak
4. Amphiesma xenura Wall, 1907
Common Name: Cherrapunji Keelback
Mizo Name: ?
Specimen Examined: : MZU/ZOO/R-20; MZU/
ZOO/R-120; MZU/ZOO/R-121
An phuhlip inrem dan: taksa laitak hnungtan
zawngin phuhlip tlar 19; mit hmaah phuhlip 1; mit
hnungah phuhlip 2; hmui hnuaiah phuhlip 9; bekah
phuhlip 2+3; mit leh hnar inkarah 1; hnar kaw bulah
phuhlip 2; taksa hnuailam phuhlip 158-166; mei lama
phuhlip 82-105, mawng bula phuhlip 2.
An chanchin tawi: Rul tur nei lo chi niin an rawng
hi a dum lam deuh niin rawng var leh sen ten te tak
te te in an tial bawk (Fig.4). An dul hnuai lam erawh
chu a var lam deuh a niin a sir tawn tawnah a
dumin a tial zeuh zeuh thin. 66cm vel a seiin an
thang thei. Tui luang bul a hnim zingah an awm
duh hle. An chanchin hi zir chian ala awm mumal
meuh lo.
An Awmna Ramte: Khawvel pum huapah India
ram a state pathum Meghalaya, Mizoram leh
Nagaland-ah chauh hmuh an la ni hrih. India
hmarchhak endemic species an ni tihna a ni.
5. Boiga cyanea Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril,
1854
Common Name: Green Cat Snake
Mizo Name: Rulrial
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-150 (Mizoram
atanga report hmasa ber)
An phuhlip inrem dan: mit hma phuhlip 1, lu
chunglam thleng; bekah 2+3; taksa laitak hnungtan
zawngin phuhlip tlar 21; hnungzangruh zawna
phuhlip (vertebral scale/mid-dorsal scale) an lian
bik; dulah 237-257; meiah 124-138.
An chanchin tawi: Rulrialte hi rul sei zen zawn
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tak niin (Fig.5), a thankin tawh chu a tlangpuiin 90-
150cm a sei niin, 2m aia sei erawh chu hmuh a la
nilo. A puitling tawh chu rawng hringduk niin an
dul erawh chu a var/eng lam an ni tlangpui. An
mitmu pawng hlet hlawt hi zawhte mit ang tak niin
an mitmu dum hi a chhuk zawnga in rin thla (verti-
cal pupil) a ni a. An ka chhung hi a dum hiam thung.
A note hi a pui anglo takin an taksa pumin rawng
uk an ni ve thung. Thla 8-14 chhungin a uk-buang
a a inthlak phawt hnuah a pui rawng angin a rawn
inthlak ve thung thin. Rulrialte hi an awmna ramah
chuan, tuipuizawl atanga teh a 2100m thlenga sang
hmun hran hranah hmuh an ni thin. Tui leh thlai
chinna hnai vai a awm, thingzar leh hnimhnawk
sang deuhah te an awm duh hle.
Rawng hringduk zar an nih avang hian hnim
hring zingah chuan hmuh an har thin hle. He rul
mawi tak mai hi zanlam a chaw zawng chi (noc-
turnal) niin chhunah erawh chuan thingkawrawng
leh thing zarah te inzial hlawm tlatin an hahchawl
thin. Zanlamah chuan rul che rang tak niin awlsam
takin an chaw, laiking, uchang, sava leh sazu lam
chi te an man zung zung thin a ni. Rul pawi sawi lo
tak niin an ha te tak te te hmanga mihring an seh
chuan khuai zuk ai pawhin a hlauhawm lo a ni. A
nu leh a pa hi intiat deuh rual niin, an in thlah hnu ni
42-50 hnuah 7 atanga 14 an tui thin. Ni 85 hnuah a
note an keu chhuak thin.
An Awmna Ramte: India (Sikkim, Darjeeling,
Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nicobar Islands), Viet-
nam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, West
Malaysia, China (Yunnan).
6. Boiga ochracea Gunther, 1868
Common Name: Tawny Cat Snake
Mizo Name: Sakhi-rul/Rul Sakhi
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-15
An phuhlip inrem dan: Taksa laitak hnungtan
zawngin phuhlip tlar 21; hnungzangruh zawna
phuhlip (vertebral scale/mid-dorsal scale) an lian
bik; mit hmaa phuhlip 1 lu chung lam thleng pha lo;
mit hnunga phuhlip 2 emaw 3; hmui chung lama
phuhlip 8; beka phuhlip 2+2 emaw 2+3; taksa
hnuaia phuhlip 221-252, mei lama phuhlip 89-119;
mawng lama phuhlip 1.
Description: Rul buang sen thing theng (Fig.6),
lu lawk bir ber niin ramhnuai leh ram palailengah
te an awm ber thin. Thingzar leh hnimhnawk hniam
vak loah an awm duh tlangpui. Rul tur neilo niin
zan lama chaw zawng chi (nocturnal) an ni. An
chawte chu sava, sava tui, laiking leh sazu lam chi
te an ni.
An Awmna Ramte: Bhutan, Cambodia, India
hmarchhak, Myanmar leh Nepal.
7. Coelognathus radiatus Boie, 1827
Common Name: Copper-headed Trinket Snake
Mizo Name: Rulhlai; rawng uk dal, a var lam deuh
a nih chuan 'Hlai-var' tiin an ko bawk.
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-13; MZU/
ZOO/R-14; MZU/ZOO/R-115
An phuhlip inrem dan: Taksa vang tan zawngin
tlar 19 emaw 21; mit hmaa phuhlip 1; mit hnung
lama phuhlip 2; beka phuhlip 2+3, taksa hnuai lama
phuhlip 222-250; mei bulah 82-108; mawng bula
phuhlip 1.
An chanchin tawi: Rul sei tak niin 2.3m laia sei
an ni thei (Fig.7). An taksa hnunglam hi a tlangpuiin
a buang-uk atang a eng-uk a ni thin. An phuhlip te
hi kil-nei chi (keeled scale) an ni a. Rin dum langsar
tak tak pali an taksa hmalamah awmin, cream
rawngin a khat mawi tawkin rin dum te hi an tial
bawk thin. A hnuailam rin dum pahnihte hi a
chunglam rin dum pahnih aia sin zawk niin a khat
tawkin an chum bung zauh zauh bawk a ni. An lu
rawng hi darsen (copper) uk lam niin, an mit atang
hian langsar takin rin dum pathum (tukkhum, kareh
hnung leh hnuailamah ngil takin) an kak chhuak a
ni. Rul tur neilo kawlh ve tak niin sazu leh sava an
ei thin. Ngawpik ai mah chuan hmun thengthaw
lam deuhah an khawsa duh chawk. Boruak daih
hunlai, zinglam leh tlailamah chaw an zawng thin.
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Tumkhatah 5-12 an tui thei a, an tui atanga ni 70-
95 hnuah an keu thin. Kum khat chhungin vawi 4
lai an tui hman thin.
An Chenna Ramte: India, China chhimlam, Asia
chhimchhak, Java, Borneo leh Sumatra.
8. Dendrelaphis pictus Gmelin, 1789
Common Name: Painted Bronzeback Tree
Snake
Mizo Name: Rulvankai (a uk chi)
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-152; MZU/
ZOO/R-153 MZU/ZOO/R-155
An phuhlip inrem dan: Taksa vang tan zawngin
tlar 15, hnungzangruh zawna phuhlip (vertebral
scale/mid-dorsal scale) an lian bik; bekah 2 + 2
emaw 1 + 1 emaw 1 + 2; hmuichungah 7-9; taksa
hnuai lama phuhlip 127- 204; mei lamah 103-174;
mawng bula phuhlip 1 emaw 2.
An chanchin tawi: Rul sei zin zen niin 74cm laia
sei an ni thei (Fig.8). An taksa chunglam rawng uk
tak leh hnuailam rawng eng dal hi an hnar kua
atanga in tan rawng dumin an taksa dung tluanin a
daidang a ni. An taksa chung lamah hian rawng
eng dal/cream rawngin a khat mawi tawkin a tial
a. Rawng hring-pawl an nghawnga det thet tute hi
an inhrosak laiin an langsar zual thin. Chhunlam a
chaw zawng chi (diurnal) niin uchang leh laiking
lam chi an ei thin. Heng tur nei lo rulvankai te hi
ramhnuaia khawsa chi niin mihring chenna hmun
leh huanah te pawh rawn luh chang an nei ve thin.
Pathianin mawi taka thinglerahte tleng delh delh
thei turin leh thingkung lama khawsa tur a A siam
an ni. A nu hian vawikhatah tui 3-8 nei theiin ni 75
atanga ni 76 hnuah a note 20-30cm a sei an rawn
keu chhuak thin.
An Awmna Ramte: Asia chhimchhak leh India.
9. Dendrelaphis sp.
Common Name: ?
Mizo Name: Rulvankai chi tho
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-155
An phuhlip inrem dan: Taksa vang tan zawngin
tlar 15, hnungzangruh zawna phuhlip (vertebral
scale/mid-dorsal scale) Dendrelaphis pictus angin
an lian ve lo; mit hmaah 1; mit hnungah 2; bekah 1
+ 2; hmuichungah 8; hmuihnuaiah 7; taksa hnuai
lama phuhlip 150; mei lamah 129; mawng bula
phuhlip 2.
He rulvankai (unidentified species) hi eng ang
rul chi chiah nge a nih hriat ala ni lova. 59.6cm vel
a sei a ni a(Fig.9). Rul tur neilo, thingkunga khawsa
chi a ni tih chu kan zirchianna atangin hriat a ni.
10. Elaphe porphyracea Cantor, 1839
Common Name: Banded Trinket Snake
Mizo Name: ?
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-113 (Mizoram
atanga report hmasa ber)
An phuhlip inrem dan: hmuichungah 8 awmin
4th leh 5th ten mit an si; taksa vang tan zawngin
tlar 19; taksa hnuai lama phuhlip 190- 218; mei
lamah 52-76; mawng bula phuhlip 2.
An chanchin tawi: Rul lu te ret rawt niin, 1.8m lai
a sei an ni ve thei (Fig.10). An rawng hi a sen
emaw serthlum rawng, a dumin sin ret rawtin mawi
taka tial an ni thin. Hmun sang lam, 800m aia sang
tlangram ngaw, vawt reih rawih, chhengchhe bawk
si hnuaiah an khawsa tlangpui. Zing lam leh tlai
lama chaw zawng chi (crepuscular) an ni. Sazu
lam chi, uchang leh chaichim an ei tlangpui.
An Awmna Ramte: Cambodia, China chhimlam,
India hmarchhak, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia
khawthlanglam, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Thai-
land, Tibet, China chhimlam leh Vietnam.
11. Gonyosoma prasina Blyth, 1854
Common Name: Green Trinket Snake
Mizo Name: ?
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-36 (Mizoram
atanga report hmasa ber)
An phuhlip inrem dan: hmuichungah 9 awmin
4th, 5th leh 6th ten mit an si; taksa lai tak vang tan
zawngin tlar 19; taksa hnuai lama phuhlip 191- 209;
mei lamah 91-111; mawng bula phuhlip 1 emaw 2.
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An chanchin tawi: Rul lu lawk lem lo tak niin,
1.2m lai a sei an ni thei (Fig.11). An taksa hnunglam
hi a hring a, hnuailam thung erawh chu a eng-hring
dal a ni ve thung. A chang chuan an mei hmawr hi
a uk ve that thin. Thingkung a khawsa chi niin tlang
rama thing hmun leh mau hmunah an awm duh
hle. Tuipui zawl atanga teh a hmun hniam lamah
hmuh ni ve thin mah se, hmun sang zawk 850-
2,560m a sangah an awm chawk. Rul tur neilo chi
niin chhunlamah an chaw laiking, sazu leh sava an
veh thin. March thla atanga May thla hi an tui hun
niin 5-8 vawi khatah an tui thin. Ni 58-60 hnuah
rawn keu chhuakin, a keu hlimte hi 23cm vela sei
an ni thin.
An Chenna Ramte: India hmarchhak, Myanmar,
China, Thailand, Vietnam leh Malaysia.
12. Oligodon albocinctus Cantor, 1839
Common Name: White Barred Kukri Snake
Mizo Name: ?
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-25; MZU/
ZOO/R-26; MZU/ZOO/R-27; MZU/ZOO/R-35
An phuhlip inrem dan: Taksa vang zawngin 19;
hmui chung lamah 7, 3rd leh 4th ten mit an si; mit
hmaah 1; mit hnungah 2; bekah 1+2; taksa hnuai
lamah 177-208; mei lamah 40-69; mawng bulah 1.
An chanchin tawi: Rul tur nei lo (non-venomous),
lian lem lo tak niin 76cm thleng a sei an thang thei.
An taksa hnung lam hi a uk-sen, a khat mawi tawk
a rawng var sin te tein a tial bawk (Fig.12). A tialtu
rawng varte hi an taksa chinah 19-27 niin an meiah
ve thung chuan 4-8 an ni ve thung. An luah, an
kamsir lehlam lehlam atanga intanin a hma zawngin
hawrawp 'V' ang tak chiang takin a awm thin. An
dul hi a var/cream rawng/a eng/tlem a sen no niin
rawngdumin a det thet thet bawk a ni. Ramhnuaia
cheng chi niin mihring khawsakna bul hnaiah pawh
an rawn chhuak ve thin. Zing leh tlai a chaw zawng
chi (crepuscular) niin sazu, uchang, laiking leh an
tui te an ei thin. Tlema la sen deuh chuan insects
an ei thin.
An Chenna Ramte: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India
hmarchhak, Myanmar, Nepal leh China (Tibet,
Yunnan).
13. Pareas monticola Cantor, 1839
Common Name: Assam Snail-eater
Mizo Name: ?
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-23 (Mizoram
atanga report hmasa ber)
An phuhlip inrem dan: Hmuichungah 6 emaw
7 awmin 3th leh 4th ten mit an si; taksa lai tak
vang tan zawngin tlar ; bekah 2+2 emaw 2+3; a pa
taksa hnuai lamah 180- 196; mei lamah 79-89; a
nu taksa hnuai lamah 177- 195; mei lamah 69-80.
An chanchin tawi: Rul tur neilo chi niin
hnapkhawn/piring an ei thin. A pa aiin a nu hi an
lianin an sei zawk thin a, 76cm a sei an ni thei. An
taksa rawng hi a eng-uk, a khat mawi tawka a
dum in a tial zeuh zeuh niin an taksa hnuailam hi a
eng dal, a dumin a chhun han zeuh zeuh an ni bawk
(Fig.13). An mit leh hnarkua inkar leh ka reh inkarah
rin dum fiah tak a awm thin bawk.
An Chenna Ramte: India hmarchhak leh China
(Tibet, Yunnan).
14. Psammodynastes pulverulentus H. Boie,
1827
Common Name: Mock Viper
Mizo Name: Mumal taka kohna a awm lo, a lian
deuh chu rulmuk ti a ko an awm bawk.
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-114
An phuhlip inrem dan: Taksa laia phuhlip tlar
17; mit hmaah 1 emaw 2; mit hnung lama phuhlip 2
emaw 4; beka phuhlip 2+3; hmuichungah 8; taksa
hnuai lama phuhlip 146-175; mei lama phuhlip 44-
71; mawng bulah 1.
An chanchin tawi: Rul lu lawk ve ber bur tak a
nih avangin tunhma chuan viper tak tak emaw tiin
'Mock viper' tiin an ko thin nghe nghe (Fig.14).
Mahse tur an nei lo a, an ha a that em avangin an
seh chu a na viau thung. Rul lian lem lo tak, 55cm
thleng a sei an ni thei. An taksa hnunglam hi a uk-
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dal atanga uk-tak emaw vut-buak rawng a ni
tlangpui. Langsar lo takin a dum leh a varin an
taksa dung tluanin a tial ve thin bawk. An tukhumah
hian fiah ang reng takin an mit zawn vel atanga
kakin sairawkherh pianzia ang tak a inchhu kalh
thin. An dul hnuailam hi chunglam aia dalin, rawng
uk emaw buangin a tial ve thin. Hmun hniam
atanga hmunsang tak thlengin hmuh tur an awm.
Lei lam a khawsa chi niin thingbuk hniam te teah
an lawn ve thin a, engtiklai pawhin mi she an in
ring reng. Chhun leh zanah chaw an zawng thin,
an chawte chu daidep (gecko), uchang, ram laitel
(skinks) leh a chang changing rul te zawkte an ni.
Kum khat chhungin no 3-10 vawi enge maw zat
an hring thei.
An Chenna Ramte: Bangladesh, Myanmar,
Cambodia, ,China, Hong Kong , India hmarchhak,
Bhutan, Indonesia, Laos , Nepal, Philippines, Tai-
wan, ,Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia.
15. Pseudoxenodon macrops Blyth, 1855
Common Name: Large-eyed False Cobra
Mizo Name: Chawngkawrsuak
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-111
An phuhlip inrem dan: Taksa laia phuhlip tlar
19; mit hmaah 1; mit hnungah 3; bekah 2+2;
hmuichungah 8; taksa hnuai lama phuhlip 151-180;
mei lama phuhlip 55-80; mawng bulah 2.
An chanchin tawi: Tur nei ve lo mah se,
chawngkawr ang chiahin a inhrohsak apiangin a
awr a ti phek thei. Rul pian laihawl tak niin 1.16m
laia sei a thang thei a ni (Fig.15). Mitmu lian ke
kaw tak neiin mitmu dum bial chi (rounded pupils)
an nei bawk. An rawng hi a hnunglam a uk-buang
lam niin rawng eng, serthlum rawng leh buang-sen
ten an tial ve zeuh zeuh thin. An hnungzang sir zai
zaiah hian rawngdumin leh lam leh lamah a khat
awn mawi tawkin a tial zeuh zeuh bawk. An dul
hnuai hi a eng niin rawng dum chhunhan (black
spots) lian deuh hlek emaw inrin (cross-bars) in a
tial thin bawk. Khawmuala khawsa chi niin
ramhnuai hmun sang vak loah an awm thin. Uchang
leh laiking an ei thin. A nu hian tumkhatah tui 10 lai
a nei thei.
An Awmna Ramte: India hmarchhak, Nepal,
Myanmar, Thailand, West Malaysia, Vietnam, Laos
leh China chhimthlang.
16. Rhabdops bicolor Blyth, 1854
Common Name: Yellow-bellied Forest Snake
Mizo Name: ?
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-17; MZU/
ZOO/R-158; MZU/ZOO/R-159 (Mizoram atanga
report hmasa ber)
An phuhlip inrem dan: Taksa laia phuhlip tlar
17; mit hmaa phuhlip 2; mit hnung lama phuhlip 2
emaw 3; beka phuhlip 1+1; hmuichungah 5; taksa
hnuai lama phuhlip 187-214; mei lama phuhlip 63-
84; mawng bulah 2.
An chanchin tawi: Rul lian lem lo tak niin 67.5cm
vel thleng a sei an ni ve thei (Fig.16). An taksa
hnunglam dum hi ara hriam ang takin a hnuailam
eng da deuh emaw var lek lek nen a daidang a.
Rul tur neilo niin pangang leh changpat lam an ei
thin. An chanchin zirchian ala awm meuh lo.
An Awmna Ramte: India hmarchhak, Myanmar
hmarlam leh China (Yunnan).
17. Rhabdophis subminiatus Schlegel, 1837
Common Name: Red-necked Keelback
Mizo Name: Rulnghawngsen
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-29; MZU/
ZOO/R-30; MZU/ZOO/R-31; MZU/ZOO/R-116;
MZU/ZOO/R-119
An phuhlip inrem dan: Taksa laia phuhlip tlar
19; mit hmaah 1; mit hnungah 3; bekah 2+3;
hmuichungah 8; taksa hnuai lama phuhlip 163-190;
mei lama phuhlip 88-100; mawng bulah 2.
An chanchin tawi: Rul pian laihawl leh lu lawk
lam deuh 1.3m lai a sei an thang thei. An tukhum
hi rawng eng leh senin langsar tak niin taksa
hnunglam hi a hring-uk dal lam deuh a ni tlangpui.
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An mit hnuai leh ka-reh chunglam inkarah hian,
awn deuh hlekin a dum a inrin thla a awm thin. A
noteah ve thung chuan a tukhum leh a nghawng
rawng eng inkarah fiah takin a dum a awm thin
(Fig. 17), a puitlingah erawh chuan a dum hi a awm
tawh lo (Fig. 18). Dil leh kawrte bul hnai, tlangram
leh phairuam thing hmunah an awm duh hle. Chhun
leh zanah an chaw uchang leh utawk an zawng
thin. Thingkung sang vak loah leh lei depah an
khawsa thin. Tun hma chuan tur nei lova ngaih an
ni thin a, amaherawhchu an ngho tha tak, tur bawm
(venom gland) nen a inzawm hmang hian mihring
an chuk a, duhtawka an thial bawk chuan thihna
hial a thlen ve thei a ni. A nu hian tum khatah 5-17
a tui thei a, an tui atang a ni 50 hnuah a note 13-
19cm a sei an rawn keu chhuak thin. Kum khat
chhungin vawi enge maw zat an tui hman thin. A
nu hian a tui te hi an veng ve thin bawk.
An Chenna Ramte: India hmarchhak, Nepal,
China chhimlam leh Asia chhimchhak.
18. Natrix sp.
Common Name: ?
Mizo Name: ?
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-18
An phuhlip inrem dan: taksa laia phuhlip tlar 19;
mit hmaah 2; mit hnungah 2; bekah 3+2;
hmuichungah 8; hmuihnuaiah 8; taksa hnuai lama
phuhlip 150; mei lama phuhlip 87; mawng bulah 1.
An chanchin tawi: He Natrix hi eng species nge
a nih hriat ala nilova. Rul tur neilo niin a thankin
tawhte chu a an taksa chunglam a uk eng atanga
vutbuak tak niin an taksa hnuailam hi a var lam a
ni thung (Fig.19). An chanchin hriat chian ala ni lo.
19. Trachischium tenuiceps Blyth, 1854
Common Name: Orange-bellied Oriental Slen-
der Snake
Mizo Name: ?
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-47 (Mizoram
atanga report hmasa ber)
An phuhlip inrem dan: taksa laia phuhlip tlar 13;
mit hmaa phuhlip 2; mit hnung lama phuhlip 2; beka
phuhlip 1+1, taksa hnuai lama phuhlip 125-140; mei
lama phuhlip 28-42.
An chanchin tawi: Rul tur neilo niin a thankin tawh
te chu a an taksa chunglam a uk tak niin an taksa
hnuailam hi eng lar vet a ni thung. A la thankin lo
ve thung erawh chu an taksa chunglam rawng hi a
uk dal lam a ni (Fig. 20). An chanchin kim chang
taka zir ala awm lo.
An Chenna Ramte: India (Sikkim leh Darjeeling)
III. FAMILY: ELAPIDAE (COBRAS LEH
KRAITS)
20. Bungarus niger Wall, 1908
Common Name: Black Krait
Mizo Name: Hlaidum (?)
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-151
An phuhlip inrem dan: Taksa laia phuhlip tlar
15; mit hmaa phuhlip 1; mit hnung lama phuhlip 2;
beka phuhlip 1+2, taksa hnuai lama phuhlip 178-
235; mei lama phuhlip 43-56, a malin; mawng bula
phuhlip 1.
An chanchin tawi: Rul dum tle zer zur leh phuhlip
nal hen hun niin an taksa hnuailam erawh chu a
var lam deuh, rawng dum lamin a kap thim that
thin bawk (Fig. 21). Lu lawk lem lo tak neiin mit te
lam deuh mitmu dum bial nei chi an ni. Sei zawngah
chuan 1.43m laia sei an ni thei. Tur (neurotoxin),
hriatna thazam lam khawih pawi thei chak tak nei
chi an nei a. Amaherawhchu krait chi ho reng reng
hi rul zakzum leh zaidam tak niin, mihring an chuk
ngai meuh lo. Enge an ei thin tih zirchian la ni chiah
lo mah se, sazu an ei ve thin tih erawh chu hriat a
ni (Saibal Sengupta biangbiakna atangin). A nu hian
January atangin March bawr velah 15-30 a tui thin
An Awmna Ramte: India ram state bikah chuan
Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Uttarakhand leh
West Bengal-ah chauh an awm tih hriat a ni. India
ram pawnah chuan Nepal-ah chauh.
21. Naja kaouthia Lesson, 1831
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Common Name: Monocled Cobra
Mizo Name: Chawngkawr
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-9; MZU/ZOO/
R-16; MZU/ZOO/R-110
An phuhlip inrem dan: Taksa lai takah avang
zawngin 19-21 (a tlangpuiin 21); an awr pharh lai
ah 27-33; mit hmaah 1; mit hnungah 3; hmui
chungah 7; beka phuhlip 2+3; taksa hnuai lamah
164-196; meiah 43-58.
An chanchin tawi: Mizoram a chawngkawr kan
hmuh tam ber, monocled cobra te hi a buang-uk
deuh a tang a vutbuak-uk deuh an ni tlangpui. 2.3m
laia sei an ni thei. An hriat hran dan awlsam tak
chu an tukhum hnuaia hawrawp O ang taka bial
inchhu hi a ni (Fig.22). Amaherawh chu a thenah
chuan hmuh theih mang lovin a awm ve thung. An
nghawng hmalam sir tawn tawnah hian a dumin
chhunhan langsar tak a inchhu thin, chumi hnuai
chiahah chuan an nghawng tan tlang zawngin
rawng dum lam deuh (black banded) a inrin phei
raih bawk a ni. Hmun hnawng lama cheng thin
niin, huan leh mihring chenna hmunah pawh an
chaw sazu, leh uchang te zawngin an rawn kal
thin. A chang changing sangha leh rul dangte pawh
an ei ve thin. Zinglam leh tlailam a chaw zawng
chi (crepuscular) niin tur hlauhawm tak neurotoxin
an nei bawk. A nu hian January leh March inkarah
tui 15-30 neiin, ni 50 hnuah te an keu thin.
An Awmna Ramte: India hmarlamNepal,
Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaya hmarlam,
Cambodia, Vietnam chhimlam, Laos chhimlam leh
China (Yunnan, Sichuan).
22. Ophiophagus hannah Cantor, 1836
Common Name: King Cobra (Hamadryad tiin an
ko bawk)
Mizo Name: Rulngan
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-117; MZU/
ZOO/R-118
An phuhlip inrem dan: Taksa lai takah avang
zawngin 15; tukhumah phuhlip lian (large occipital
shield) 2; beka phuhlip 2+2; taksa hnuai lamah 240-
254; meiah 84-104.
An chanchin tawi: Rul tur nei zinga lian ber niin
5.5m laia sei an ni thei, an tur hi hriatna thazam ti
chhe chi (neurotoxin) a ni a. An vawi khat chukah
8ml lai a tam an ngho kaltlangin tur an pe chhuak
thei a, chu chu sai thankin tawh tan pawh a
thihpuina tham a ni. Complex species an nih avangin
an khawsakna ram a zirin an pianphung leh rawng
pawh a inang lo hlawm hle. A tlangpuiin Mizorama
rulngante hi a dum hlang tle zur a nih loh pawhin a
dum tle zur a var/eng lamin a khat mawi tawka a
tial zauh zauh an ni thin (Fig.23). A tlangpuiin an
awm hi eng lar tek tawk niin an lu a phuhlip te hi an
phawkphaw hraw hle thin bawk. Khawvela rul
zawng zawng zingah chuan rawlchhuah (hram) leh
bu chhep thin awmchhun nia hriat an ni (Matthew,
1999; Sharma, 2002). Lei hrul leh thingkungah te
an khawsa thin. Chhunlam a chaw zawng chi (di-
urnal) niin an chaw pui ber chu rul dangte an ni,
tangkawng leh sazute pawh an ei ve zeuh zeuh
thin. Rul dang ei chi an nih avangin rul che rang
tak an ni a, amaherawhchu an chet ran lam hi an
taksa len zawngah a innghat thui hle (Romulus
Whittaker biangbiakna atangin). Rul zakzum leh
mi chhinchhiah thei tak an nia, a na zawngin
mihringte an tibuai zen zen ngailo. Ram ngaw ual-
au, tui awm hnaihna lamah khawsa thinin, thlasik
tawp lam hi an inthlah hun a ni. Dan naranin a nu
hian vawi khatah tui 24 nei theiin ni 63 hnuah a
awp keu thin. A nuin a tui a awp chhung hian a pa
in alo veng thin bawk.
An Awmna Ramte: Himalaya bulthut, India
hmarchhak leh chhimthlang, Indo-China, Indo-
Malaya leh Sulawesi.
IV. FAMILY: VIPERIDAE (VIPERS LEH
PIT-VIPERS)
23. Trimeresurus erythrurus Cantor, 1839
Common Names: Spot-tailed Pit Viper.
Mizo Name: Rultuha; a nu hi a pa aia lian zawk fe
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niin ‘Zawngral’ tia koh hi niin kan hria.
Specimen Examined: MZU/ZOO/R-156; MZU/
ZOO/R-161; MZU/ZOO/R-203
An phuhlip inrem dan: Hmuichungah 9-13; taksa
lai tak vang tan zawngin tlar 23-25; beka phuhlip te
hi kil nei chi (keeled scale) niin an te zual hle a ni;
a pa taksa hnuai lamah 153- 174; mei lamah 62-
79; a nu taksa hnuai lamah 151- 180; mei lamah
49-61.
An chanchin tawi: Rultuha chanchin hi zir mumal
a la awm loh avangin an chanchin hriat mumal vak
a la awm lo. Rul lu lawk lel lawl leh hring nalh tak
niin, an dul sirah hian rawng eng/var in an taksa
dung zuiin tialtu a awm thin (Fig.24). An dul
hnuailam hi a var atanga eng dal lam deuh a ni
thin. An mei hmawr hi a uk that bawk thin. An mit
rawng hi a eng-uk dal deuh niin an mitmu dum hi
viper dangte angin a chhuk zawngin (vertical pu-
pil) a awm thin. Phuhlip kil nei (keeled scales) nei
chi an ni a. An mit leh hnarkaw inkarah hian kua
(loreal pit) awmin thil lum hriatna (thermal detec-
tor) atan an hmang tangkai hle. Thingkung lama
khawsa chi niin, zanlamah an chaw, sava, uchang
leh chaichim an ei thin. An tur hi thisen lam tichhe
chi (haematoxin) niin, mihring an chuk chuan
thihpuina em nilo mah se hliamna tak an thlen ve
thei. A pa hi 57.5cm a sei ni theiin a nu erawh chu
1.05m thleng a sei ni theiin a pa aiin an lian zawk
hle thin. A nu hi no hring chi (ovoviviparous) an ni.
An Awmna Ramte: India, Bangladesh leh
Myanmar.
Discussions
Mizoram university campus zau lo tak
chhungah hetiang zozai rul, an rawn pian to dan
(evolutionary & phylogeny)-ah pawh in hlat tak
tak an lo awm ve hi a makin a ropui kan ti a.
Biodiversity hotspot chhung a awm Mizoram hi
biodiversity-ah a san zia a ti lang chiang hle a ni.
Tuna kan hmuh lohte pawh hi an awm lo ang tih a
sawi mai theih loh a ni. A chunga kan tarlan tak
zingah khian a hnuai ami te hi C.A.M.P. (1997)
chuan nasa taka an zirchian hnuah criteria
pawimawh tak tak hnuaiah a dah hlawm a,
Trachischium tenuiceps hi Critically endangered
(CR)/ngunthluk tak a venhim ngai tawh hnuaiah;
Pareas monticola, Psammodynastes
pulverulentus, Pseudoxenodon macrops,
Rhadops bicolor, Rhabdophis subminiatus te hi
Vulnerable (VU) /mang (extinct) mai thei dinhmun
a ding tawh; Amphiesma xenura, Boiga
ochracea, Bungarus niger, Elaphe
porphyracea, Oligodon albocinctus, Typhlops
diardi, Trimerusurus erythrurus te hi Data defi-
cient (DD) /an chin chang la hriat mumal loh lutuk
avang a an dinhmun pawh hriat chian hleih theih
loh hnuaiah an lo dah reng tawh a ni.
Rulte hian rannung in ei chhawnna (foodchain)
hi kan hriat miah loh hlanin an lo thunun hle a, huan
thlai ei chhetu sazu leh insects suattu a tan phei
chuan an tangkai hle. Chuvang chuan rul kan hmuh
apiangte hi hlauhawm a ngai lovin fimkhur takin ti
hlum mai loin i humhalh tlat zawk ang u. India ramah
ngei pawh hian rul tam takte hi Dan pui, the Wild-
life (Protection) Act of 1972 hian a veng tlat bawk
a ni. Hmun changkang zawkah te chuan rul tur
(venom) hi rul tur damdawi (antivenom) leh
damdawi chi hrang hrang siam nan an hmang
tangkai hle a. Mi rethei tam tak ten eizawnna
mumal tak an neih phah nghe nghe a ni. Ram
changkang apiangah mahni ram chhunga Pathianin
cheng ve tur a A siam nungchate zirchian leh
humhalh tlat hi an ngai pawimawh hle a. Keini
Mizo, Christian ni bawk si te pawh hian nungcha
leh thlai chi hrang hrang hlu tak tak Pathianin kan
ram chhung ngeia min pekte hi an boral hma hian
thang leh thar te tan ngun lehzual a zirchiang leh
humhalh tlat turin tan ila thar teh ang u khai.
Acknowledgement
He kan hnathawh chung changah hian Zool-
ogy Department, MZU a kan thawhpui te mai
bakah University campus huam chhunga rul thi an
Snakes (Reptilia: Serpentes) of MiZOram University Campus, Tanhril, Aizawl with Notes on their ........
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hmuh leh an mahni thah ngei phur tak a min pe
zeltu Security staff leh department hrang hrang a
zirlai leh staff dangte lakah lawmthu kan sawi tak
meuh meuh a ni. Tin, specimen zir chianna a nasa
tak a min puitu Abhijit Das, Research scholar, P.G.
Snakes (Reptilia: Serpentes) of MiZOram University Campus, Tanhril, Aizawl with Notes on their ........
Department of Zoology, Utkal University,
Bubhaneshwar, Orissa, leh ramchhung leh pawn
lam atang a thurawn min petu herpetologists te
chungah pawh lawmthu kan sawi a ni.
References
C.A.M.P. (1997). 'Reptiles of India' Conservation Assessment and Management Plan: Hosted by
the Forest Department of Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore during 19th - 23rd May 1997.
Das, I. (2002). A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of India. New Holland
Publishers Ltd., London, UK. 144 pp.
Das, I.(2003). Growth of knowledge on the Reptiles of India, with an introduction to systematic, tax-
onomy and nomenclature. J. Bombay.nat.His.Soc. Vol.100 (2&3): 446-501.
Harit, D.N. and Ramanujam, S.N. (2002). Reptilian fauna of Mizoram, India. Cobra 47:5-7.
Lalremsanga, H.T., Sailo, S. and Hooroo, R.N.K. (2008). Preliminary survey on the herpetofauna of
Mizoram, northeast India. State Level symposium on Recent Advances in Science and Technology
organised by Mizoram Science Society in collaboration with Science, Technology and Environment,
Govt. of Mizoram on 30th May, 2008.
Leviton, A.E., G.O.U.Wogan, M.S.Koo, G.R.Zug, R.S.Lucas and J.V.Vindum.(2003). The dangerously
venomous snakes of Myanmar: Illustrated Checklist with keys. Proceedings of the California Acad-
emy of Sciences. Vl.54(24): 407-462pp.
Matthew, R. (1999). Snakes in northeast India. In Snakes in India: A Source Book. (ed. B.D.Sharma).
Asiatic Publishing House. 351pp.
Matthew, R. (2007). Reptilia. In Fauna of Mizoram, State Fauna Series, 14: 545-577.
Pawar, S. and Birand, A. (2001). A survey of amphibians, reptiles, and birds in Northeast India. CERC
Technical Report #6, Centre for Ecological Research and Conservation, Mysore. 118pp.
Sharma, B.D.(1999). Snakes in India: A Source Book. (ed. B.D.Sharma). Asiatic Publishing House.
351pp.
Sharma, B.D.(2002). Some aspects of venomous Indian snakes. In Indian Poisonous Snakes: An eco-
logical and clinical study. (ed. B.D.Sharma). Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. xiii+341pp.
Sharma, B.D.(2002). Special adaptations of snakes. In Indian Poisonous Snakes: An ecological and
clinical study. (ed. B.D.Sharma). Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. xiii+341pp.
Smith, M. A.(1943). The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the
Indo-Chinese Sub-region. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. III. Serpentes. Taylor and Francis, London. xii
+ 583 pp.,166 figs., foldout map.
Uetz, P. (2008). Reptilian Database. In http://www.reptile-database.org/db-info/SpeciesStat.html. Ac-
cessed on 23rd December 2008.
Whitaker, R. and Captain, A. (2006). Snakes of India: A Field Guide. Draco Books, Chennai. 247pp.
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Figure (1) Typhlops jerdoni (non-poisonous) (2) T. diardii (non-poisonous)
Figure (3) Ahaetulla prasina (non-poisonous) (4) Amphiesma xenura (non-poisonous)
Figure (5) Boiga cyanea (non-poisonous) (6) B. ochracea (non-poisonous)
Snakes (Reptilia: Serpentes) of MiZOram University Campus, Tanhril, Aizawl with Notes on their ........
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Fig. (7) Coelognathus radiatus (non-poisonous) (8) Dendrelaphis pictus (non-poisonous)
Fig. (9) Dendrelaphis sp. (non-poisonous) (10) Elaphe porphyracae (non-poisonous)
Fig. (11) Gonyosoma prasina (non-poisonous) (12) Oligodon albocinctus (non-poisonous)
Snakes (Reptilia: Serpentes) of MiZOram University Campus, Tanhril, Aizawl with Notes on their ........
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Fig.(13) Pareas monticola (non-poisonous) (14) Psammodynastes pulverulentus (non-poisonous)
Fig. (15) Pseudoxenodon macrops (non-poisonous) (16) Rhabdhops bicolor (non-poisonous)
Fig.(17) Rhabdophis subminiatus (juvenile) (18) R. Subminiatus (deadly poisonous)
Snakes (Reptilia: Serpentes) of MiZOram University Campus, Tanhril, Aizawl with Notes on their ........
127
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Fig. (19) Sinonatrix sp. (non-poisonous) (20) Trachischium tenuiceps (non-poisonous)
Fig.(21) Bungarus niger (deadly poisonous) (22) Naja kaouthia (deadly poisonous)
Fig. (23) Ophiophagus hannah (deadly poisonous) (24) Trimerusurus erythrurus (mild poisonous)
Snakes (Reptilia: Serpentes) of MiZOram University Campus, Tanhril, Aizawl with Notes on their ........
... macularius and P. monticola) are recognised from Northeast India (Aengals et al., 2018). P. monticola was first reported by Laltanpuia et al. (2008) from Mizoram. The present work deals with the detailed information on ...
Thesis
Full-text available
In the present study, P. monticola were documented from 13 localities within 7 districts of Mizoram states at the elevational range between 760-1410 m a.s.l which fall in the elevational range given by existing literature i.e <1800 m (Das, 2012; Uetz et al, 2019; Das & Das, 2017). In this study, the longest specimen is reported with a total length of 739 mm (MZMU 991) which is longer than the existing maximum length i.e 730 mm (Smith, 1943). The maximum number of ventrals in female shows 200 (MZMU 1539) which is greater than the existing records i.e 196 (Purkayastha, 2013), and the maximum number of subcaudals in male shows 93 (MZMU 1508) with 86 in female (MZMU 1486) which are also greater than the existing records i.e 87 in male and 80 in female (Smith, 1943). Moreover, subcaudals mixed of paired and single was documented in the specimen of MZMU 1505 which is not reported in the existing papers. Some of the specimens were also found to have pre-oculars while most of them were lacking of this feature as well as few variations in the pholidosis within the whole sample. The present study reported that they are oviparous laying up to 9 eggs which is the maximum new clutch size different from the existing paper i.e 8 eggs and the mean (range) measurements of eggs were reported for the first time. In this paper, gravid female was found to lay eggs during June and hatched out after incubation for 47 days which was reported for the first time with new hatchling size 125 mm and 163 mm which is smaller than the existing report i.e 168-178 mm (Das, 2012; Smith, 1943; Das & Das, 2017) However, the phylogenetic study does not yet reveal any cryptic intraspecific diversity within the Mizoram population of P. monticola which may be due to insufficient genetic data as well as morphological analysis, so that further extensive analysis with large sample size is crucial to assess the morphological variations and to elucidate intraspecies genetic diversity with that from different geographical areas. According to IUCN criteria, the conservation status of P. monticola is currently not accessed.
... Fauna of Mizoram (2007) is a document of Zoological Survey of India, which is mainly based on the state faunal surveys in the state. Studies on reptiles have been carried out in Mizoram (Harit & Ramanujam, 2002, Harit, 2008, 2009, 2010Lalthanpuia et al., 2008;Lalrinchhana and Solanki, 2015;Mathew, 2007aMathew, , 2007b on various aspects. Hunting of reptiles (lizards) has also been reported (Lalrinchhana and Solanki, 2015). ...
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Reptiles are beautiful creatures of nature, which includes Crocodiles & Alligators, Turtles & tortoises, Lizards & Snakes. They have their own ecological significance and render their very valuable silent services to mankind in various ways. Reptiles are cold blooded animals and frequently come out for basking under sun and remain in open area. These are slow moving animals. During basking and while crossing the roads, these animals are killed by vehicular traffic on roads and lose their lives. This paper highlights the preliminary report of reptilian mortality due to vehicular traffic on roads, with special reference to Champhai-Zokhawthar road on Indo Myanmar border at Champhai district of Mizoram, North East India.
... More recently it has been reported from the Zunheboto District of Nagaland (Mathew 2005;Sen and Mathew 2008;Lele et al. 2018). However, the species was never reported from Mizoram by earlier researchers (Mathew 2007;Lalremsanga et al. 2011;Laltanpuia et al. 2008). ...
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The Mandarin Rat Snake Euprepiophis mandarinus (Cantor, 1842) is a widely distributed species in the Indo-Chinese region with western-most limits in North East India. However, it is known from very few localities in the extreme northeastern states in India. Herein, we report E. mandarinus based upon a roadkill specimen collected from the Champhai in Mizoram. The record of Champhai extends the known distribution of the species by about 292 km SW from the localities previously recorded. Morphological variation of the Indian population is discussed.
... More recently it has been reported from the Zunheboto District of Nagaland (Mathew 2005;Sen and Mathew 2008;Lele et al. 2018). However, the species was never reported from Mizoram by earlier researchers (Mathew 2007;Lalremsanga et al. 2011;Laltanpuia et al. 2008). ...
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Full-text available
The Mandarin Rat Snake Euprepiophis mandarinus (Cantor, 1842) is a widely distributed species in the Indo-Chinese region with western-most limits in North East India. However, it is known from very few localities in the extreme northeastern states in India. Herein, we report E. mandarinus based upon a roadkill specimen collected from the Champhai in Mizoram. The record of Champhai extends the known distribution of the species by about 292 km SW from the localities previously recorded. Morphological variation of the Indian population is discussed.
... A review of the P. margaritophorus complex is underway. P. monticola was found close to the border of Myanmar in Mizoram Province, India (Laltanpuia, et al. 2008; own observations, Fig. 5) and can be expected to be found in Myanmar. ...
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A new species of the genus Pareas is described from northern Myanmar. It differs from all other known species of the genus by coloration, which is mainly uniform, and its size (one of the largest species in the genus). Furthermore it is characterized by a low number of supralabials (six), a loreal that touches the orbit, presence of a presubocular and absence of a preocular. The new species was found at an elevation of 1890 m a.s.l. and is regarded as an inhabitant of high elevation mountainous areas.
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We evaluate the presence of three sympatric species of Asian Bronzeback Snakes (genus Dendrela- phis Boulenger, 1890) from Mizoram State, India. These are taxonomically complicated species that were recently, either resurrected (D. proarchos Wall, 1909, D. biloreatus Wall, 1908) or redefined (D. cyanochloris (Wall, 1921)). In the light of morphological and molecular data, we confirm the validity of D. proarchos from Mizoram, Northeast India, and subsequently confer the specimen ofD. pictus (Gmelin, 1789) (CHS791) from Hainan (China) to D. proarchos. We also provide the first molecular phylogenetic data for the lesser-known species D. biloreatus as well as the first molecular samples of D. cyanochloris from Mizoram, Northeast India which seems to be the closest sample from Darjeeling, India (type locality). Apart from this, we also affirm the southwestern population in the distribution range of the latter species as D. cyanochloris sensu stricto, while conferring the southern population from Pinag Island, Malaysia to D. vogeli Jiang, Ren, Guo, Wang, Ding & Li, 2020, and the northeastern populations comprising Kachin (Myanmar), Tibet, Yunnan and Hainan (China) to D. ngansonensis (Bourret, 1935). Our present mitochondrial gene trees using the genes 16S rRNA, COI, and Cytb suggest the presence of cryptic diversity within several Dendrelaphis species, which will require rigorous genetic sampling and integrative taxonomic analysis to examine whether these lineages represent distinct species. This study also presents natural history and additional data on the distributional localities of Dendrelaphis species from Mizoram State, Northeast India.
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Full-text available
We evaluate the presence of three sympatric species of Asian Bronzeback Snakes (genus Dendrela- phis Boulenger, 1890) from Mizoram State, India. These are taxonomically complicated species that were recently, either resurrected (D. proarchos Wall, 1909, D. biloreatus Wall, 1908) or redefined (D. cyanochloris (Wall, 1921)). In the light of morphological and molecular data, we confirm the validity of D. proarchos from Mizoram, Northeast India, and subsequently confer the specimen ofD. pictus (Gmelin, 1789) (CHS791) from Hainan (China) to D. proarchos. We also provide the first molecular phylogenetic data for the lesser-known species D. biloreatus as well as the first molecular samples of D. cyanochloris from Mizoram, Northeast India which seems to be the closest sample from Darjeeling, India (type locality). Apart from this, we also affirm the southwestern population in the distribution range of the latter species as D. cyanochloris sensu stricto, while conferring the southern population from Pinag Island, Malaysia to D. vogeli Jiang, Ren, Guo, Wang, Ding & Li, 2020, and the northeastern populations comprising Kachin (Myanmar), Tibet, Yunnan and Hainan (China) to D. ngansonensis (Bourret, 1935). Our present mitochondrial gene trees using the genes 16S rRNA, COI, and Cytb suggest the presence of cryptic diversity within several Dendrelaphis species, which will require rigorous genetic sampling and integrative taxonomic analysis to examine whether these lineages represent distinct species. This study also presents natural history and additional data on the distributional localities of Dendrelaphis species from Mizoram State, Northeast India.
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Thesis
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CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Study on the morphology, distribution and phylogenetic status of the genus Bungarus (Reptilia : Serpentes: Elapidae) in Mizoram, India written by Lalbiakzuala has been written under my supervision. He has fulfilled all the required norms laid down within the M.Phil. regulations of Mizoram University. The dissertation is the result of his own investigation. DECLARATION I, Lalbiakzuala, hereby declare that the subject matter of this dissertation is the record of work done by me, that the contents of this dissertation did not form basis of the award of any previous degree to me or to do the best of my knowledge to anybody else, and that the dissertation has not been submitted by me for any research degree in any other University/Institute. This is being submitted to the Mizoram University for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Zoology.
Article
Full-text available
Based on the first molecular phylogenetic analyses of samples from northeast India, specimens referred to Rhabdops from this region are more closely related to the southeast and east Asian natricine genera Opisthotropis Günther, 1872 and Si-nonatrix Rossman & Eberle, 1977 (as well as to New World and western Palearctic natricines) than to peninsular Indian (true) Rhabdops. Morphologically, these northeast Indian populations differ from other natricines by having a single ('fused' or unpaired) internasal shield and a single prefrontal shield. Given the morphological and phylogenetic distinc-tiveness of these northeast Indian populations, we refer them to a new genus, Smithophis gen. nov., and transfer Rhabdops bicolor (Blyth, 1854) to Smithophis bicolor comb. nov. Based on morphological and molecular variation within our northeast Indian sample, we additionally describe Smithophis atemporalis sp. nov. from the state of Mizoram.
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