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Students’ development in teaching practice experience: A review from mathematics education students

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A teaching practice is an effort to improve prospective teachers’ competence. Students’ development in the teaching practice is the key to its successful implementation. This study aims at describing and gaining an understanding of readiness of mathematics education students in conducting teaching practices. This study is a qualitative research with a type of phenomenology. Data were obtained from an open questionnaire of students from Indonesia and Malaysia. The participants of this study were 23 seventh semester students who have implemented teaching practices for 2 months. Data were analyzed using Bogdan & Biklen approach. The result revealed that students’ ability in conducting the teaching practice was good, but they still need to improve managing the classroom. The constraints experienced by the teachers were related to learning instructions and time allocations, while for the students, the learning equipment facilities, coordination, school policy, and culture became their problems. However, both students and teachers had their own various strategies in overcoming these obstacles.
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Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika 5 (1), 2018, 1-17
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Students’ development in teaching practice experience: A review from
mathematics education students
Heri Retnawati 1 *, Eny Sulistyaningsih 2, Lau Yoke Yin 3
1 Department of Mathematics Education, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta. Jalan Colombo No. 1,
Karangmalang, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia
2 SMA Negeri 2 Kebumen. Jalan Cincin Kota No.8, Karangsari, Kebumen, 54317, Indonesia
3 Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Methodish. Jalan Slim 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
* Corresponding Author. Email: heri_retnawati@uny.ac.id
Received: 8 March 2018; Revised: 23 April 2018; Accepted: 27 April 2018
Abstract
A teaching practice is an effort to improve prospective teachers’ competence. Students’
development in the teaching practice is the key to its successful implementation. This study aims at
describing and gaining an understanding of readiness of mathematics education students in conducting
teaching practices. This study is a qualitative research with a type of phenomenology. Data were
obtained from an open questionnaire of students from Indonesia and Malaysia. The participants of this
study were 23 seventh semester students who have implemented teaching practices for 2 months. Data
were analyzed using Bogdan & Biklen approach. The result revealed that students’ ability in
conducting the teaching practice was good, but they still need to improve managing the classroom.
The constraints experienced by the teachers were related to learning instructions and time allocations,
while for the students, the learning equipment facilities, coordination, school policy, and culture
became their problems. However, both students and teachers had their own various strategies in
overcoming these obstacles.
Keywords: students development, teaching practice, mathematics education students
How to Cite: Retnawati, H., Sulistyaningsih, E., & Yin, L. (2018). Students’ development in teaching practice
experience: A review from mathematics education students. Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika, 5(1), 1-17.
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21831/jrpm.v5i1.18788
Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21831/jrpm.v5i1.18788
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INTRODUCTION
The development of knowledge and
technology increasingly demands the readiness
of the community to participate in developing
competencies and competing in a wider scope.
The development of society nowadays is
inseparable from the role of education. In other
words, education plays an important role in the
development of an individual's competency in
accompanying the development of a competitive
era. Therefore, the implementation of education,
especially in formal education should be given
special attention such as on the teacher factors.
Teachers are professional educators who have
the primary duty to educate, to teach, to guide,
to direct, to train, to assess, and to evaluate
students from early childhood education to
secondary education level (Presiden Republik
Indonesia, 2005). Teachers have a significant
impact on the education success. Anthony &
Walshaw (2009, p. 150) mentioned that the
quality of teacher is directly proportional to the
quality of education it produces. The effective-
ness of learning process inside and outside the
classroom is determined by teacher competence
(Azhar, 2009). Teachers should have at least
four competencies namely, pedagogical com-
petence, professional competence, personal
competence, and social competence (Presiden
Republik Indonesia, 2005). A pedagogical com-
petence is the ability that must be possessed by
teachers in managing the learning process, such
as designing and implementing learning and
more importantly their understanding towards
students in order to become a good facilitator in
developing students potential. The second
competence is professional competence which
means teachers’ ability in mastering the learning
materials in certain subjects. Teachers must
understand the materials beforehand to deliver
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Heri Retnawati, Eny Sulistyaningsih, Lau Yoke Yin
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the materials widely and deeply to students, so it
will create a profound learning process and
students will be confident about the teachers’
ability. The third competence is the personal
competence which is defined as teachers’ ability
to become a role model for students including
steady personality, wise, a noble character, and
authoritative. The last competence is a social
competence. Social competence means teachers’
ability to interact with students, other teachers,
and the community. The four competencies must
be understood and possessed by a teacher to
create an effective learning which is succeed and
be able to achieve maximum results (Asep &
Abdul, 2008, p. 11).
The pedagogical competence, professio-
nal competence, personal competence, and
social competence are not only acquired by
teachers during the teaching practice, but also
formed since the beginning of their education in
prospective teacher program. The prospective
teacher program is carried out by the Institute of
Teacher Education (or in Bahasa known as
Lembaga Pendidik Tenaga Kependidikan/LPTK)
which opens a study program with specific
subject studies. An LPTK is a university assign-
ed by the government to organize teacher edu-
cation programs for early childhood education
on formal education, elementary education and/
or secondary education and to organize and
develop educational and non-educational prog-
ram (Menteri Riset Teknologi dan Pendidikan
Tinggi Republik Indonesia, 2017). An LPTK
does not only teach students to understand
certain subject matters, but also trains teachers
to have the competences which are ideal as
prospective teachers during the learning process.
An LPTK teaches various methods and learning
approaches used in the classroom, student
management, learning evaluation, and other
teachers’ competencies that needed by
prospective teachers.
The learning process conducted by
prospective teachers in LPTK is related to the
components of teacher competencies and how to
teach skills to students. In addition, the stan-
dards of graduates which have been determined
consist of attitude, knowledge, and skills
(Permenristekdikti No. 44, 2015). Skill-related
competency standards described in article 5
section 1 of the constitution stated that skills in
using concepts, theories, methods, materials,
and/or instruments were obtained through
learning, student work experience, and research
and/or community services. One program for
teacher candidates organized by LPTK is micro
learning. The Ministry of Research, Technology,
and Higher Education (2017) stated that in the
micro teaching program, prospective teachers
learn about basic teaching skills such as pupils
starting point, pupils’ characters, competencies,
materials, and it was conducted in the limited
time (Menteri Riset Teknologi dan Pendidikan
Tinggi Republik Indonesia, 2017). The micro
teaching program also gives prospective
teachers opportunity to practice various skills in
teaching and learning by controlling the
situation (Fatmawati, 2015, p. 211). BY joining
the micro teaching program, prospective teach-
ers will gain experiences as teachers. In
addition, prospective teachers will also get
constructing suggestions from lecturers or other
fellow students as a peer-evaluation. Various
kinds of suggestions and evaluations aimed at
improving the competence of prospective
teachers to implement a better learning process.
Another effort in building and improving
the competence of prospective teachers is
providing an opportunity for students to involve
in teaching practice. The teaching practice
program is a continuation component of the
LPTK education program. Implementation of
teaching practices provides new experience for
teachers to conduct a learning process in the real
environment (Kiggundu & Nayimuli, 2009, p.
345). The program is conducted through the
cooperation with several schools nearby the
LPTK or other schools that have made prior
arrangements both in Indonesia and abroad. The
teaching practice is carried out for two months
or within the predetermined time. The teaching
practice is also known as the Praktik
Pengalaman Lapangan (PPL). The Ministry of
Research, Technology, and Higher Education
(2017) stated that teaching practice is an activity
of prospective teachers to practice their ability in
conducting learning process in partner schools
(Menteri Riset Teknologi dan Pendidikan Tinggi
Republik Indonesia, 2017). Mannathoko (2013,
p. 115) mentioned that teaching practice is a
continuation of teacher education, because it
allows prospective teachers to apply theories
into practice. In addition, Kiggundu & Nayimuli
(2009, p. 348) stated that the teacher practice
teaches prospective teachers to cope with
various situations such as controlling and
managing students and also establishing good
relationships with counsellor teachers or
companion lecturers. Therefore, the quality of
the teaching practice is determined by several
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Heri Retnawati, Eny Sulistyaningsih, Lau Yoke Yin
Copyright © 2018, Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika
ISSN 2356-2684 (print), ISSN 2477-1503 (online)
variables such as teacher and prospective
teacher, mentor, and school where teaching
practice is implemented (Uçar, 2012, p. 3654).
The ultimate goal of teaching practice is that
students will be more familiar with the school
environment, the school administrative, and an
academic environment. Moreover, students will
be able to apply teaching skills in real situations
and gain various lessons from their experiences
during the teaching practices (Sudin, 2017, p.
35). The teaching practice is implemented in
seventh semester or at the end of the semester
before completing thesis. It means that the
teaching practice is carried out after students get
sufficient knowledge from the previous lectures.
Various competencies taught by lecturers are
used to build students’ readiness namely peda-
gogical competence, professional competence,
social competence, and personal competence.
According to Mannathoko (2013, p. 115), the
teaching practice should be planned and
prepared in such a way that it suits its purpose,
because the teaching practice can be a very
horrible experience if students do not prepare
well (Mannathoko, 2013). The Pedagogical
preparation is conducted from the courses taken
by students related to various forms of the
learning preparation until the evaluation process.
The learning preparation through various
courses can help students in an efficient learning
process (Mannathoko, 2013, p. 115). The
learning preparation consists of the making of
syllabus, lesson plan, and various learning
media, while the preparation of evaluation
process consists of the making of various items
of evaluation in the form of multiple choice,
essay, or other evaluation forms. The prepa-
ration of professional competence is conducted
by deepening and expanding the understanding
of a specific subject. The professional
competence of a science-related teacher is not
only sufficient on what material that will be
taught to students, but also on the cause-effect or
the development of the taught materials. The
preparation of social competence relates on how
social attitude reacts to the environment. The
preparation of social and personal competence is
closely related to the character. Therefore,
LPTK provides character education either
directly or indirectly to its students. The lectur-
ing process in order to prepare the competencies
of prospective teachers especially for mathe-
matics education students is conducted through
the subjects related to mathematics and edu-
cation subjects such as mathematics curriculum,
mathematics learning strategies, educational
psychology, assessment of mathematics learn-
ing, educational management, student develop-
ment, and other related courses. Other specific
preparations should also be made before
conducting the teaching practice. According to
Mannathoko (2013, p. 120), several things that
need to be prepared for teaching practices are
teaching and demonstrating the specific learning
methods, knowing the subjects and materials
that will be taught specifically, and making a
schedule to ensure that each student get
guidance from supervisors and get follow up of
any guidance.
On the other hand, the implementation of
a well-prepared teaching practice also has
various obstacles. The obstacle such as time
limitation causes students have not acquired the
intended ability yet (Azhar, 2009; Uçar, 2012, p.
2654). Another obstacle is that there are some
schools that are not pleased to be used as a
teaching practice place (Azhar, 2009). The
consideration of inavailability of schools as a
place for teaching practices is that teachers who
will be a supervisor have to finish the learning
sessions based on the syllabus or the initial plan
where limited timeis only available, in fact
teachers think that teaching practices will only
waste the time (Kiggundu & Nayimuli, 2009, p.
356). Azhar (2009) also stated that the obstacle
includes the presence of lecturers which are not
maximum in assisting students and tend to rely
on the monitoring from supervisor in the school.
Other obstacles in the implementation of
teaching practices are the language barrier and
the culture shock that affect the learning process
taken by a student if he or she comes from the
different area from the location of the teaching
practice (Kiggundu & Nayimuli, 2009). It will
also likely occur if the teaching practice is
implemented abroad. Therefore, the preparation
of the language and cultural aspects become
important factors for students who will conduct
the teaching practice in other regions or in other
countries. The lack of a good initial introduction
between the teaching practice team, teachers and
school staffs has also been one of the obstacles
for implementing the teaching practice. The
obstacle that occurs is that students are
uncomfortable with the atmosphere during
conducted the teaching practice either between
students, teachers, or other schools (Kiggundu &
Nayimuli, 2009; Uçar, 2012, p. 3654). The
situation has an impact on the process of the
Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika, 5 (1), 2018 - 4
Heri Retnawati, Eny Sulistyaningsih, Lau Yoke Yin
Copyright © 2018, Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika
ISSN 2356-2684 (print), ISSN 2477-1503 (online)
teaching practice implementation, especially the
teaching and learning process will not
maximum, so will not the teacher guidance. In
addition, Uçar (2012, p. 2654) also stated that
other obstacles in the implementation of the
teaching practice include the difference between
theoretical knowledge and practice in school,
schedule arrangement, laws, and regulations.
On the other hand, internal factors also
affect the implementation of teaching practice.
Students should practice to encounter a
sufficiently a large number of students in a class
with different attitudes and should be able to
adapt the theories they acquire in LPTK with the
school conditions (Akhmadeeva, Hindy, &
Sparrey, 2013; Kiggundu & Nayimuli, 2009, p.
354). Some aspects that need to be considered is
the time management in the implementation of
learning using various methods or learning
approaches, as well as characters and different
students’ abilities. The low internal motivation
of students to implement the teaching practice
also belongs to an obstacle in the teaching
practice implementation (Azhar, 2009).
Although students of teacher candidates had
variety of provisions to become a professional
teacher, there are students who actually prefer
not to implement the teaching practice (Azhar,
2009). It will certainly affect the students in
implementing the teaching practice if the
implementation of teaching and learning process
does not carry out thoroughly and is not
maximal in accordance with the knowledge
obtained from the program in LPTK. Another
obstacle is the lack of confidence in using
technology. Students sometimes have low
confidence in using technology, even though in
the 21st century teaching demands prospective
teachers to utilize the technology during
learning process in order to compete globally
(Jansen & van der Merwe, 2015).
There are various strategies to overcome
the obstacles of the implementation of teaching
practices. Overcoming the lack of harmonization
between students, teachers, and school can be
done by conducting a good initial introduction
among the teaching practice team, lecturers,
teachers, and school staffs or communities, so it
creates a warm atmosphere and warm welcome
from the school (Kiggundu & Nayimuli, 2009,
p. 352). In addition, there should also be an
instruction from school that explains the roles of
teacher in order to guide and support the
teaching practice students. The improvement of
awareness and responsibilities of each aspect is
also important and so is the training for teacher
and related parties which are responsible for the
implementation of teaching practice either
directly or indirectly (Uçar, 2012, p. 2658).
Another alternative to overcome the obstacle is
that the LPTK should have data related to the
internal and external conditions of schools that
will be the location of the teaching practice
(Kiggundu & Nayimuli, 2009, p. 357). It aims to
determine whether the schools can be the
locations of the teaching practice or not, and
also useful as a consideration in the preparation
for the teaching practice related to the language
or a cultural aspect. The introduction process
can be carried out by visiting prospective
schools or surveys and then followed by the
advises from lecturer about how to overcome the
anxiety and also the use of verbal or non-verbal
language in improving teaching and learning
skills during the implementation of the teaching
practice (Kiggundu & Nayimuli, 2009, pp. 348
349). The strategy that can be carried out to
overcome schools’ or teachers’ disaffection at
schools is to reconsider the timing of the
implementation. Schools will be more willing to
work with LPTK as a place of the teaching
practice implementation, if it is not implemented
at the end of the semester or the end of the
learning year (Kiggundu & Nayimuli, 2009, p.
356), because at the end of the semester or the
end of learning is a crucial time in completing
materials according to syllabus or lesson plans
that has been made before. In addition, Juangsih
(2015, p. 82) stated that to develop the ability of
prospective teachers in the teaching practice,
LPTK needs to establish cooperation with
universities or schools abroad in order to create
prospective teachers who are able to compete in
a broader scope, the international scope, as a
response of the development of the current era.
The strategy to anticipate the constraints
of internal factors of students is by conducting
the micro teaching program (Kiggundu &
Nayimuli, 2009). In micro teaching program,
prospective teachers will be trained to adjust
theories and the actual learning conditions at
school, such as the duration, methods and
learning approaches, as well as the diversity of
students’ characteristics. Meanwhile, to increase
the students’ motivation it is necessary to apply
some strategies in facilitating various activities
such as workshops, seminars, consultations
which are conducted continuously (Wahyudi,
2016, p. 103). Various activities are also
accompanied by designing and preparing an
Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika, 5 (1), 2018 - 5
Heri Retnawati, Eny Sulistyaningsih, Lau Yoke Yin
Copyright © 2018, Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika
ISSN 2356-2684 (print), ISSN 2477-1503 (online)
environment that is able to form the expected
character and support the preparation of the
prospective teachers (Azhar, 2009; Juangsih,
2015). The strategy to overcome obstacles
related to the use of technology in learning is
guiding students to improve their ability in
utilizing the technology which is in accordance
with the development of the 21st century (Jansen
& van der Merwe, 2015). Based on the
description above, it is necessary to identify the
readiness, constraints, and strategy in the
teaching practice in order to improve the quality
of prospective teachers.
METHODS
This study is a qualitative research using
the phenomenology approach, because it
described the readiness of mathematics edu-
cation students to conduct the teaching practice.
The data were obtained through an open
questionnaire to students from Indonesia and
Malaysia. There are two main topics of open
questionnaire, that are students’ readiness and
students’ ability in the teaching practice. Stu-
dents’ readiness in the teaching practice covered
the pedagogical competence, professional com-
petence readiness, social competence readiness,
personality competence readiness, and the
quality of lesson plan. The students’ ability in
the teaching practice covered students’ ability to
conduct learning, handle constraints in guiding
teaching practice students, prepare strategies in
guiding teaching practice students, and
suggestions related to the teaching practice
implementation. The participants of this study
were 23 students in seventh semester who
implemented the teaching practice for 2 months.
Data were analyzed using Bogdan & Biklen
approach, through reducting data, categorizing
the data into many themes and sub-themes, and
then making conclusions as results.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Result
The information about the readiness of
prospective teachers in carrying out teaching
practice activities was obtained through a
questionnaire addressed to school teachers as
supervisors as well as the teaching practice
students. The result of questionnaires related to
the readiness of the teacher candidates was
reduced into several sub-themes, namely the
readiness of teaching practice students, the
students' ability at the teaching practices, the
obstacles during the teaching practices, the
strategies in guiding students, the development
of the teaching practice students’ skills, and
suggestions for the future teaching practice
implementation. Students’ readiness was seen
from readiness in pedagogical, professional,
social, personality, and the lesson plans.
Students’ ability was seen from the ability to
open and close the teaching and learning
practices. The obstacles during the teaching
practice were viewed from the teacher's point of
view in guiding students as well as students’
constraints during the teaching practices. The
development of students' ability was seen from
before and after the implementation of the
teaching practice program. The results of the
reduction of each sub-theme is presented as
follows.
The Students’ Readiness in the Teaching
Practices
Pedagogical Competence
The students’ readiness related to the
pedagogical competence could be seen from the
ability of the learning process management. The
management included designing and implement-
ing the learning process and understanding the
learners. The preparation of learning consisted
of making syllabus, lesson plans, and various
learning media. The readiness of learning imple-
mentation included mastering learning methods
or learning models, while understanding stu-
dents included mastering students’ characteris-
tics. Table 1 shows that students’ readiness of
pedagogical competence of teaching practice
had been good, especially those related to the
lesson plannings. However, students still need to
improve the learning implementation and to
understand students’ characteristics.
Table 1 is the result of data reduction
related to the readiness of students' pedagogical
competence from teacher's point of view. Table
2 also shows the same result but from students’
point of view. In conclusion, students have
developed the pedagogical competence, despite
the classroom management and the material
management still need to be improved.
Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika, 5 (1), 2018 - 6
Heri Retnawati, Eny Sulistyaningsih, Lau Yoke Yin
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ISSN 2356-2684 (print), ISSN 2477-1503 (online)
Table 1. The Readiness of Students’ Pedagogical Competence (Teachers’ Point of View)
Student Pedagogical Competence
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Students’ pedagogical competence had
been good. Students always reviewed
the syllabus, made and constructed
lesson plan and learning media, and
consulted the learning instruction to the
supervisor.
Lesson plan
The readiness of students’ pedagogical
competence had been good (making lesson
plan and constructing instructional media).
Students needed to improve the learning
implementation (the mastery of learning
methods) and to understand pupils’
characteristics better.
Students’ pedagogical competence had
been good, but it was lack in the
implementation of learning aspect.
Learning
implementation
Mastering the learning methods was
needed to be improved.
The understanding of the pupils’
characteristics was still lacking
Mental readiness had been good.
Understanding
students’
characteristics
Table 2. The Readiness of Students’ Pedagogical Competence (Students’ Point of View)
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Lesson plan
Students have acquired the pedagogical
competence. However, they found difficulties
in the classroom such as classroom
management and materials management
Learning
implementation
Understanding
pupils’
characteristics
Professional Competence
The prospective teachers had to develop
the professional competence. Professional com-
petence is the ability of a teacher to understand
and master the learning materials based on the
competencies or the subjects. A teacher must
understand the material that will be taught to
students in order to create a profound learning
process. Students’ readiness on professional
competence could be developed by deepening
and expanding the understanding of the subject.
The professional competence of teachers cannot
be attained only by knowing what material they
taught, but also know how the cause and effect
of the subject material which being taught.
Table 3 shows that the professional readiness of
most students had been good, especially in
mastering subject materials. However, students
still need to improve their ability in practicing
questions in order to make the learning process
becomes more varied.
There are various ways that students can
do to develop their professional competence,
such as consulting learning instructions with
mentors, studying, reading various references,
and preparing a large set of questions. Table 4
shows that most students had been ready for
professional competence. However, there were
some students who had not yet understood the
materials, references to varied questions, learn-
ing methods, and learning trajectories.
Social Competence
Not only pedagogical and professional
competencies, the teaching practice students
also required to have a good social competence.
Teachers’ social competence is teachers’ ability
to interact with students, other teachers, or
communities. The development of social com-
petence of teaching practice students related to
how social attitudes response to the surrounding.
Table 5 shows that the preparation of students'
social competence in general had been very
good. This is the evident from the interaction
between students and school staffs.
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Table 3. The Readiness of Students’ Professional Competence (Teachers’ Point of View)
Students Professional Competence
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Students had mastered the subject
materials, but they still had to improve
their ability in practicing questions
The mastery of subject
materials
The readiness of students’ professional
competence has been good, but students
also need to increase the variation of
practice questions and how to solve them
using the simplest way.
There were still lack of ways in
solving the practice questions
Practice questions
Table 4. The Readiness of Students’ Professional Competence (Students’ Point of View)
Students Professional Competence
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Students had been ready based on the result of
consultation with the tutor.
Professional
competence in
general
Students’ professional
competence had been ready, but
they still need to deepen the
subject materials and references
to create various practice
questions.
Students had been ready because they had studied
before teaching the materials in the classroom.
Students had been ready because they had read
various references and prepared various questions.
Students were still lacking in practicing the varied
questions
Practice questions
The materials being taught were still not deep
enough.
Deepening of
matters
Table 5. The Readiness of Students’ Social Competence (Teachers’ Point of View)
Students, Social Competency
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Students’ social competence had been good. Students
were able to socialize with students and school staffs.
Interaction with
school staffs
Students’ social competence had
been very good. It could be seen
from the interaction between
students and school staffs.
Students’ social competence had been good. It could
be seen from the social relationships among students
in working together
Students’ social competence had been good. Students
were able to communicate with teachers before the
implementation of the teaching practice and express
the opinions using polite expressions.
Table 6. The Readiness of Students’ Social Competence (Students’ Point of View)
Students’ Social Competence
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Students’ social competence had been developed.
Students were able to communicate with other
students, friends, and school community.
Interaction with
school staffs or
community.
Students’ social competence had
been well prepared.
Teaching practice students had been ready and were
also able to maintain communication with students
and teachers
Students had been ready to adjust to the new
environment by conducted 5S (senyum, sapa, salam,
sopan, dan santun) during the teaching practice
program.
Table 7. The Readiness of Students’ Personality Competence (Teachers’ Point of View)
Students Personality Competence
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Students were good, polite, and able to act and talk
like a real teacher
The attitude as a
role model
Students’ personality
competence had been very good.
Students had tried to be humble, courteous, and
friendly
Students had been already confident in front of the
class
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The results in Table 5 cannot be separated
from the preparation of the students before the
teaching practice program. Table 6 explains that
there are various preparations made by students
to improve the social competence, ranging from
communicating with fellow students to the
school community. In triggering the communi-
cation, students practiced 5S (senyum, sapa,
salam, sopan, dan santun) during the teaching
practice program. Thus, it can be concluded that
students’ social competence has been develop.
Personality Competence
Aside from social competence, there is a
personality competency that must also be
developed by teaching practice students. Social
competence and personality competence are
closely related to individual’s character. Essen-
tially, teacher's personality competence is
related to the teacher's ability to become a role
model for students in terms of steady
personality, wise, having a noble character, and
authoritative. Table 7 shows that students’
personality competence had been very good.
The results in Table 7 are also supported
by the results in Table 8. However, there were
some students who had not ready, for example
they were not confidence to appear in front of
the class and also feel less assertive. To put into
a nutshell, students’ personality competence had
developed.
The Quality of Lesson Plans
Lesson plan is a requirement for teachers
or prospective teachers before conducting teach-
ing and learning process in the classroom. A
good lesson plan should be structured systema-
tically, because it will be manifested in the class
full of students. Lesson plan is also related to the
process of composing the subject matters, the
use of instructional media, the use of the learn-
ing approach/learning method/learning model,
and the assessment in a considerable time to
achieve the learning objectives. Basically, the
lesson plan aims at implementing the more
efficient and effective learning. Table 9 explains
that the quality of the students’ lesson plan had
been good. However, students need to add some
methods or learning models to be more varied.
In designing the lesson plan, there were
some difficulties experienced by teaching
practice students. The difficulties were related to
the preparation of learning instructions, learning
activities, the use of learning methods or learn-
ing models, and also time allocation. To over-
come these problems, students also used various
strategies. Table 10 shows various strategies to
overcome the difficulties in preparing learning
instructions and learning activities. Students also
consulted learning instructions with the teacher.
In terms of facing difficulties using learning
methods or learning approaches, students tried
to find learning methods or learning models
which will help pupils understand the materials.
Student Ability in Teaching Practice
Students’ Ability to Implement Learning
Teachers’ ability related to the learning
implementation could be seen from the class-
room management, the mastery of learning
materials, delivering materials, facilitating
pupils’ needs, asking questions and answering
pupils’ question, so do the preparations made by
students before doing the teaching practice.
Table 11 also shows that some students had
mastered the class. In addition, students also had
been good in mastering and delivering the
materials, facilitating pupils’ needs, asking
questions and answering pupils’ question. There
was also the evident of the pupils’ enthusiasm
during learning season. Thus, it can be said that
the ability of teaching practice students in imple-
menting learning had been good, but they still
need to improve classroom management skills.
It cannot be denied that there were still
difficulties experienced by professional teachers
in conducting teaching and learning in the
classroom, so were the teaching practice stu-
dents. The dominant problem experienced by
most teaching practice students was related to
the classroom management as illustrated in table
12, that the difficulty was in conditioning the
classroom in order to be conducive as well as
the difficulty in terms of how to draw pupils’
attention to concentrate to the lesson. However,
teaching practice students did not remain silent
about the problems encountered, there were
various strategies used to manage the classroom
for example rebuking some pupils to make them
focus on the lesson.
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Table 8. The Readiness of Students’ Personality Competence (Students’ Point of View)
Students Personality Competence
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Students’ personality competence had been ready. Students also
tried to show a good personality
The attitude as
a role model
Students’ personality
competence had been
very good. However,
some students were a bit
of unconfidence.
For some students, the personality competence had not been ready
and mature yet, and also had lack of confidence.
Students personality competence had not been ready and strict yet
Table 9. The Readiness of Students’ Lesson Plan
Readiness of Students Lesson Plan
Sub Theme
Verification Result
The quality of students’ lesson plan has been good, although
students found difficulties in preparing lesson plan at the
beginning but in the end of the teaching and learning practice
program the lesson plan had been good.
Lesson plan made by students was in accordance to the steps
of learning
Preparation of
lesson plan
In general, the quality of
students’ lesson plans
had been good, but
students need to improve
the variation of learning
methods and learning
models
Students’ lesson plan has been good, but students need to
improve using various methods or models of learning
The use of learning
methods or learning
models
Table 10. The Difficulties in Preparing Learning Instruction and Its Solutions
The Difficulties
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Difficulty: developing learning activities which made students
understand the materials.
Strategy: consulting the learning activities to the experts
Developing
learning activities
In general, students
found difficulties in
planning the learning
instructions, especially
in designing students’
worksheet, preparing the
materials, arranging the
time allocation, and
developing the lesson
plan. However, there
were various strategies
which could be applied
by students to overcome
these problems.
Difficulty: determining learning models and learning methods
which was suitable to the pupils’ characteristics
Strategies: searching and implementing the learning models to
help pupils understand the materials
The use of learning
methods or learning
models
Difficulty: the syntaxes had to be included in the lesson plan
Strategies: consulting the problems with the teacher and
checking the previous lesson plan
The development of
learning
instructions
Difficulty: developing students’ worksheet
Strategy: consulting the problems to teacher
Difficulties: time allocation and developed lesson plan
Strategies: allocating the considerable time to develop lesson
plans including the rubrics
Time allocation
Table 11. The Data Reduction of Students’ Ability in Conducting Teaching and Learning Process
Students’ Ability
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Students were able to handle the classroom well.
Students were still lacking in classroom management
Students’ ability in conducting teaching and learning
process had been good and pupils were also enthusiastic
Classroom
management
Students’ ability in
implementing learning
process had been good,
but they need to improve
the ability in managing the
classroom.
Students had been good in mastering and delivering the
learning materials, facilitating students, and answering
students’ question.
Mastering and
delivering materials
Table 12. The Difficulties in Managing the Classroom and Its Solutions
The Difficulties and Its Solutions
Sub Theme
Verification Data
Difficulty: conditioning the pupils
Strategies: changing the seating position, giving some
time to be silent, grouping pupils based on their
heterogeneity, giving pupils learning medias, increasing
the volume when speak in the classroom, engaging pupils
in classroom activities, approaching pupils
Classroom
management
Most of students were unable to
manage the classroom to be in a
conducive situations and drive
pupils’ attention to the lesson.
There were various strategies to
manage the classroom, while to
drive pupils’ attention, teacher
need to rebuke them.
Difficulty: driving pupils’ attention
Strategy: managing pupils
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Table 13. The Ability to Close the Learning Session
The Ability to Close the Learning Session
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Students were able to close the session well.
The ability to close
the learning session
In general, students’ ability in
closing the learning session,
had been good, but students
also need to improve the time
management, so they had
enough time to reflect and
conclude the lesson.
Students had been good in closing the session, and also
conducting reflection and drawing conclusion
Doing reflection
Students need to improve the ability in reflecting and
emphasizing on the essential concepts, and evaluation.
Students had not concluded the material yet
Drawing conclusion
Table 14. Difficulties in Closing the Learning Session and Its Strategies
Difficulties and Strategies
Sub Themes
Verification Result
Difficulty: time management
Time
management
In general, students
found difficulties in
closing and conducting
follow-up learning.
There were some
strategies in coping the
difficulties.
Strategy: giving assignment
Difficulty: unable to draw conclusion
Strategy: giving stimulus, drawing conclusion, giving deadline,
reviewing material
Drawing
conclusion
Difficulty: students were not willing to do their assignment
Evaluation
Strategy: reviewing materials that had been studied
Difficulties: students were lazy in working and collecting homework
Strategy: showing assertiveness
Table 15. The Difficulty in Guiding Students
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Learning instruction
Most of teacher did not find any
difficulties in guiding students, but most
of them had not enough time to guide the
students
Time
No obstacle
Students’ Ability to Close the Learning Session
Another teachers’ responsibility is to be
able to close the learning session. The ability to
close the learning session is related to the ability
on reflecting and concluding learning materials.
Students also equipped with such things. Table
13 shows the evident that in general students’
ability in closing the learning session had been
good. However, students still need to improve
the time management, so that there was enough
time to reflect and draw conclusions related to
learning materials together with pupils.
Table 13 shows that students' ability to
close the learning session had been good. In
fact, professional teachers sometimes encounter-
ed the difficulties in closing the lesson. Table 14
shows that teaching practice students were still
having difficulties in closing and following up
the learning. The difficulties experienced by
teaching practice students included time mana-
gement, drawing conclusions, and evaluation.
Basically, if the time management is good, then
there will be enough time to draw conclusions
with the pupils at the end of the lesson.
Constraints in Guiding Teaching Practice
Students
The implementation of a well-prepared
teaching practice was also inseparable from
various problems. Some of the problems were
related to the time allocation, so that students
need to develop the ability of becoming pros-
pective teachers. It was also found by the
teachers as supervisors in guiding students.
Table 15 shows that some teachers had no
problem in guiding the students. However, some
teachers still found difficulties due to time
constraints to guide students. In addition, the
delay in submitting the lesson plan was also a
constraint for teachers to direct students during
the process of teaching and learning activities in
the classroom.
Teaching practice students also expe-
rienced some obstacles during teaching practice
program. Table 16 shows that most teaching
practice students experienced the dominant
constraints associated with the learning equip-
ment facilities, coordination, school policy, and
culture. However, there are several strategies
can be taken by students related to the problem.
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Table 16. Students Difficulties during Teaching Practice
Students Difficulties during Teaching Practice
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Difficulty: projectors were not available in some classes
School
facilities
Most of students
encountered some
difficulties during
teaching practice program
in term of learning
instruments, coordination
and culture. There are
various strategies to
overcome these
difficulties.
Strategy: borrowing projector or not using projector
Difficulties: supporting facilities in mathematics teaching and
learning were not sufficient enough, such as ruler, and Cartesian
coordinate board
Strategy: conducting the learning using incomplete facility
Difficulty: lack of coordination between students and schools
Strategies: preparing and improving coordination with the schools
Coordination
Difficulty: being a substitute teacher and teaching immediately
without enough preparation
Strategy: borrowing teacher’s handbook and a lesson plan as a
guideline during teaching process
Difficulty: lack of coordination between students and their own
group.
Strategies: revising and improving coordination among students.
Difficulty: incompatibility between school’s policy and reality
Strategy: adjusting to the reality
School
Policy
Difficulty: the differentiation of students’ culture and background.
Strategy: adjusting to the new environment
Culture
Table 17. The Strategies in Guiding Students
Strategies in Guiding Students
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Coordinating before the teaching practice program was conducted
Coordination
Various strategies were
used by teachers in
guiding students
Conducting evaluation in the end of learning session and giving the
advices in terms of the learning implementation
Evaluation
Discussion-Practice and Observation-Discussion (D-P-D)
Method
Table 18. Students’ Development during Teaching Practice (Teachers’ Point of View)
Students’ Development
Sub Theme
Verification Result
The students’ ability increased after involving in teaching
practices than before.
General theme
Students’ classroom
management skills, ability
in delivering materials,
communication skills, self-
confidence and teaching
experience had improved.
Students’ personal competence, social competence,
professional competence, and pedagogical competence
had been good. In the end of the session, all competencies
had been good.
Students’ classroom management were getting better.
Classroom
management
Students’ ability in delivering learning materials had
improved
Delivering learning
material
Students’ competences were getting better, in term of
articulation and self-confidence
Communication
The increasing of learning experience.
Teaching
experience
Strategy in Guiding Teaching Practice Students
Various problems in the teaching practice
implementation required various strategies to
cope them. The less harmonious relationship
between the teacher and the student could be
overcome with a better introduction in the initial
stage, and also guidances and supports from the
supervisor. Those methods could be used to
overcome the problem. The problem of students’
anxiety and the use of verbal or nonverbal
language could be overcome by asking gui-
dances or doing consultation before the imple-
mentation of learning. It was also conducted by
teachers in guiding teaching practice students.
Table 17 shows that there are various strategies
used by the teachers to guide students, ranging
from a pre-implementation guidance, an
evaluation at each teaching and learning process,
and to the used of D-P-D (Discussion-Practice-
Discussion) methods.
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Table 19. Students’ Development during Teaching Practice (Students’ Point of View)
Students’ Development
Sub Theme
Verification Result
Students were more confidence and mature in
encountering others people who had different
characteristics.
Personality
competence
The students’ development focused on
the personal competence, professional
competence, social competence, and
pedagogical competence.
Students were more fluent in using the formal
language.
Social competence
Students were more capable in managing the
classroom
Pedagogical
competence
Students became ready in various conditions
Students were better in managing the learning
materials and became more professional
Professional
competence
Students’ ability in designing lesson plans and
teacher administrations improved
Students knew better how to design lesson
plans based on the right syntaxes and
students’ handbook
Table 20. Teachers’ Suggestion for the Improvement of Teaching Practice
Suggestion
Verification Data
Improving classroom management
The suggestions were improving classroom
management, time management, social competence
among teaching practice components, as well as the
preparation in term of teaching practice provision
and designing learning instructions.
Improving social competence between students,
teachers, and lecturers
Improving provision from the former university
Improving time management
Improving the ability in designing lesson plans
Developing the teaching practice activities from the
experiences
The Development of Teaching Practice
Students’ Ability (Before-After)
The implementation of teaching practice
is expected to increase the pedagogical, pro-
fessional, social, and student competence. This
can be seen from some teachers’ statements
regarding to the development of student's ability
before and after participating in the teaching
practice program in Table 18. Table 18 shows
that all students had improved their ability
including the improvement in managing the
classroom, delivering learning materials, com-
municating skills, and attaining self- confidence.
In addition, teaching practice students
also experienced the development of capabilities
during the teaching practice program. Table 19
shows the development of students' abilities to
develop all competencies that must be possessed
by a professional teacher or a prospective
teacher. The development of the perceived
capability of students after participating the
teaching practice activities included pedagogical
competence, professional competence, social
competence, and personality competence.
Suggestions Related to the Teaching Practice
Implementation
There were some advices given by the
teachers as supervisors, namely the improve-
ment of classroom management, the optimi-
zation of time management, the improvement of
social competence, the designed of learning
instructions and teaching practice provisions in
order to grasp a better results of teaching
practices in the future. The result of data
reduction related to suggestions from teachers
for the improvement of teaching practice
implementation in the future is presented in
Table 20.
Discussion
The teaching practice program or known
as Praktik Pengalaman Lapangan (PPL) con-
ducted annually by a certain level of university
students are considered as an opportunity for
students to apply the theories that had been
learnt (Azeem, 2011, p. 308). The teaching
practice program is also a time for students to
evaluate their own teaching experiences through
interaction with teachers and lecturers, through
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self-reflection, by applying various approaches,
strategies and skills with a purpose to create a
meaningful learning (Komba & Kira, 2013, p.
157). In addition, the teaching practice is also
considered as an important thing to do, because
the teaching practice program develops teaching
experiences and prepares students to the real
work (Msangya, Mkoma, & Yihuan, 2016, p.
113). The teaching practice program involves
many aspects namely universities, schools, and
students. In addition, the teaching practice
program is started from the preparation to the
evaluation for example advices from related
parties. Ideally, the entire teaching practice pro-
cess includes classroom observation, preparation
of lesson plans, actual classroom teaching,
discussion with supervisors, and teaching
documentation (Komba & Kira, 2013). In
details, some aspects that need to be considered
in the implementation of teaching practice are
the students’ readiness in implementing teaching
practice program, the ability of teaching practice
students, the constraints in guiding teaching
practice students, strategies in guiding teaching
practice students, the development of teaching
practice student skills before and after imple-
menting the teaching practices, and suggestions
related to the implementation of teaching
practices provided by the teachers as supervisors
of teaching practice students at the school.
From the teachers’ perspective, the
students’ readiness in implementing teaching
practice activities included the readiness of four
competencies as follows, pedagogical compe-
tence, professional competence, social compe-
tence, personality competence, and the ability in
designing lesson plans. The development of
pedagogical competence of teaching practice
students could be seen from designing learning
preparation, conducting learning implementa-
tion, and understanding students’ characteristics.
In general, teachers in at school said that the
students’ development of pedagogical compe-
tence had been good in term of designing lesson
plans and constructing instructional media.
However, the ability to master learning methods
and understanding the students’ characteristics
still need to be improved. Students also express-
ed the same conditions. Based on the aspects of
learning preparation, learning implementation,
and understanding students’ characteristic,
students’ pedagogical competence had been
ready, but the improvement in conditioning the
classroom and managing materials were still
needed. In term of the students’ difficulties in
pedagogical issues, Ogonor & Badmus (2006, p.
1) stated that the pedagogical competence tends
to have higher levels of difficulty than other
competencies.
The second competence is the professio-
nal competence. Professional competence relates
to the mastering of subject materials as well as
the mastering of practice questions. One of the
objectives of teaching practice implementation
is to train teachers who have professional skills
(Msangya et al., 2016, p. 113). Based on the
results submitted by teachers as supervisors, the
students’ professional competence had been
good, but students still need to experience
various practice questions and how to solve
them using simple methods. Students also
showed the same opinions about the professio-
nal competence. Students’ ability in solving the
practice questions and deepening the materials
had been good, but some students still need to
deepen the learning materials and practice more
practice questions. These evidences are in line
with what Perry (Azeem, 2011) said that
teaching practices provides an opportunity for
students to develop specific knowledge accord-
ing to their field.
Another competence to be considered is
the social competence. Social competence relat-
ed to the interaction among school communities.
The interaction between students and schools’
communities could be seen from communication
or socialization before the learning conducted.
In general, from teachers’ perspective, the deve-
lopment of students’ social competence had
been very good especially in the interaction
between students and school communities.
Moreover, students’ perspective also showed
that the development of students’ social com-
petence had been very good. In conclusion, the
social competence of teaching practice students
was well developed.
The last competence that must be possess-
ed by teaching practice students is the
personality competence. Personality competence
related to the attitude and character of teaching
practice students. According to Msangya et al.
(2016, p. 113), another goal of the implemen-
tation of teaching practice is to create teachers
who have an attitude and ethics which suitable
to the commitment of the profession. In
teachers’ point of view, teaching practice
students already had the attitude as a role model.
In general, the development of students’
personality competence had been very good.
Merryfield (Azeem, 2011) stated that teaching
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practice provides an opportunity for students to
show a good attitude by doing a good learning
process. However, a slightly different result was
presented from students’ point of view on the
development of personality competence. Some
students had been ready enough, but some
others have not yet, because they thought that
they were still lack of confidence, less firm and
do not have a mature personality.
The learning process cannot be separated
from the development of lesson plans. It also
needed to be considered in the implementation
of teaching practices. Based on the observation
from teachers’ point of view, lesson plan could
be seen from two aspects, namely the pre-
paration of lesson plan and the use of learning
methods or learning models. The lesson plan
made by students was good, but the variations of
learning methods or learning models was still
needed. Although the lesson plan made by the
teaching practice students has been confirmed
good, in fact some students still found it difficult
to design the lesson plan along with the strategy.
Some difficulties encountered by students were
the learning tools preparation, learning acti-
vities, the use of learning methods or learning
models, and time management. Ogonor &
Badmus (2006, p. 1) mentioned that one of the
obstacles encountered during teaching practice
is the pressure in time management. However,
various learning difficulties could be overcome
by students in various ways such as the
preparation of learning tools and the preparation
of learning activities, can be solved by consul-
tating with teachers. In addition, the use of
various learning methods and techniques could
also overcome the problems in the teaching
practice implementation (Azeem, 2011, p. 308).
So that, it could be inferred that students still
found difficulties in planning the lessons,
especially in designing lessons activities,
preparing learning tools of students’ worksheet,
preparing learning materials, allocating time,
and preparing lesson plans.
Various preparations that had been done
either by students or teachers were expected to
achieve the better results. The successful imple-
mentation of teaching practices could not be
separated from the students’ ability at teaching
practice which was the core activity of annual
teaching practice program. Students’ ability at
teaching practices could be seen from two core
aspects namely, the ability to conduct and close
the teaching practices. The implementation of
teaching practice also could be seen from how
students managing the classroom, mastering
subject materials, and delivering subject
material to pupils. In general, based on teachers’
point if view, students’ ability in conducting the
learning had been good, but they need to
improve the classroom management skill.
Constraints in the classroom management was
perceived by teaching practice students. Most
students felt difficult to create a conducive
classroom and attract pupils’ attention to the
lesson. However, teaching practice students also
applied various strategies to manage the class-
room and sometimes, to get pupils’ attention
they also admonished them.
The learning implementation could not be
separated from the closing learning session. The
ability of teaching practice students in closing
the learning session was also seen from how to
reflect, summarize, or draw conclusions. Based
on the teachers’ observation, the overall ability
of students in closing the learning session had
been good. However, some aspects still need to
be fixed in the term of managing the time
allocation, so there will be enough time for
reflection and conclusions. Students’ point of
view also showed the same result. The closing
of learning session was related to managing the
time allocation, drawing conclusions, and
evaluating the learning process. In general,
students were still having difficulties in closing
session and doing the follow-up learning. How-
ever, teaching practice students also conducted
various strategies to overcome problems by
giving assignment, giving stimulus, giving early
learning conclusion, giving deadlines, or
reviewing materials that had been studied.
The successful implementation of teach-
ing practice did not only depend on teaching
practice students, but also teachers as super-
visors who provided guidances and directions
for the students. Being a supervisor, the teacher
also experienced various obstacles in guiding
students in the teaching practice program. Some
obstacles were related to the learning tools and
time allocation. The delay in submitting learning
tools or lesson plans became problems that some
teachers had to encounter. Moreover, another
obstacle was the limited time in providing gui-
dance. However, most teachers as supervisors
did not experience significant constraints in
guiding teaching practice students. Some con-
straints encountered by teachers made teachers
could not provide maximum guidance to
teaching practice students (Ogonor & Badmus,
2006, p. 1).
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Students also experienced their own
matters related to learning facilities, coordina-
tion, school policy, and culture. Those matters
were faced by most of the teaching practice
students. The learning facilities constraints were
also submitted by Ogonor & Badmus (2006, p.
1). However, in overcoming the constraints of
limited facilities, students applied various stra-
tegies for example by using available facilities
or borrowing facilities from other schools. The
constraints in creating a good coordination was
handled by refining and improving coordination
either with other students or the schools, while
constraints in school policy and cultural
constraints could be overcome by adjusting
students to the new environment.
Various matters encountered by teachers
in guiding teaching practice students were
addressed by several strategies namely coordi-
nation, evaluation, and applying methods. The
strategy used in the coordination constraint was
to guide students before teaching practice
program implemented. The strategies used to
overcome evaluation constraints were by
conducting evaluation at the end of the teaching
and learning activities and providing suggestions
related to the learning implementation. The
strategy used to overcome the problems in terms
of methods was by carrying out discussion-
practice-discussion (D-P-D). An effective
interaction between students and teachers was
supported by the opinion of Kelly & Tannehill
(2012, p. 48) that during the teaching practice
implementation, students are in an ideal position
to get direction and discuss with teachers and
lecturers as well as other colleagues in school.
The teaching practice program conducted
by the university certainly has a goal to improve
the ability of prospective teachers before they
face reality and train them to become a
professional teacher. It is all because the quality
of an educator is directly proportional to the
quality of education produced (Anthony &
Walshaw, 2009, p. 150). Therefore, teaching
practice students are expected to experience
significant progress after the implementation of
teaching practice program. The development of
students’ abilities was related to the classroom
management, material delivery, communication,
teaching experience, and general development.
Based on the data, it was found that according to
teachers’ perspective, students’ abilities had
improved, such as in managing the classroom,
delivering learning materials, communicating
with colleagues and teachers, increasing
teaching experience, and becoming more
confidence.
Students also experienced the develop-
ment of their skills after involving in the
teaching practice program. Their personal
competence, social competence, pedagogical
competence, and professional competence had
developed. Students’ self-confidence and
attitude also enhanced. They were able to use
Bahasa more fluent, manage the classroom with
various conditions, manage learning materials,
and design lesson plans. Brown & Brown
(Azeem, 2011) also mentioned that teaching
practice program gives students opportunities to
improve their competencies for example student
self-confidence.
Teaching practice program is one of the
qualified teacher education programs which is
expected to be developed in every implementa-
tion. It is because a teacher has an important role
in the formation of one's future as the next
generation (Msangya et al., 2016, p. 113). The
success of teaching practice implementation can
be achieved if there are evaluations and
suggestions submitted for future improvement.
Some suggestions are provided by teachers as
supervisors including improving classroom
management, time management, social compe-
tence among teaching practice components, as
well as teaching practice preparation and
learning instructions.
CONCLUSION
The teaching practice activity began with
the students’ development in pedagogical
competence, professional competence, social
competence, personality competence, and also
the quality of the lesson plan. In general, based
on observations by teachers, students’ ability
conducting the learning during teaching practice
had been good, but students still need to
improve in managing the classroom. During
teaching practice program either teachers or
students were facing problems. The constraints
experienced by the teachers were related to the
learning instructions and time allocations. The
problems experienced by students were related
to the learning equipment facilities, coordi-
nation, school policy, and culture. However,
both students and teachers had their own various
strategies in overcoming these obstacles. Thus,
according to the teachers, during the teaching
practice, students develop the ability of
managing classroom, delivering materials,
communicating, becoming more confidence and
Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika, 5 (1), 2018 - 16
Heri Retnawati, Eny Sulistyaningsih, Lau Yoke Yin
Copyright © 2018, Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika
ISSN 2356-2684 (print), ISSN 2477-1503 (online)
improving teaching experience. The improving
abilities were also percieved by students for
example increasing confidence and becoming
more mature in attitude, becoming more fluent
in using Bahasa, mastering various condition,
managing materials, and designing lesson plans.
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... Otherwise, they would not have had this experience. In a microteaching programme, prospective teachers are trained to adjust theories to the actual learning conditions at school such as the duration of lessons, teaching methods and learning approaches as well as the diversity of students' characteristics (Retnawati, Sulistyaningsih & Yin, 2018). ...
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Evaluasi pembelajaran
  • J Asep
  • H Abdul
Asep, J., & Abdul, H. (2008). Evaluasi pembelajaran. Yogyakarta: Multi Pressindo.
Problems of prospective teachers during teaching practice
  • M Azeem
Azeem, M. (2011). Problems of prospective teachers during teaching practice. Academic Research International, 1(2), 308. Retrieved from www.savap.org.pk
Kondisi LPTK sebagai pencetak guru yang profesional
  • A Azhar
Azhar, A. (2009). Kondisi LPTK sebagai pencetak guru yang profesional. Jurnal Tabularasa, 6(1), 1-13. Retrieved from http://jurnal.unimed.ac.id/2012/index.php/ tabularasa