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Pharmacological Profile of Terminalia chebula Retz. and Willd. (Haritaki) in Ayurveda with Evidences

Authors:
  • Central Ayurveda Research Institute, Bhubaneswar

Abstract

The medicinal plant Terminalia chebula Retz. and Willd. Commonly known as Yellow myrobalan or Chebulic myrobalan or Haritaki is one among the major drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine which is native to South Asia mainly from India. Apart from its use in Ayurveda, it is extensively used in Unani, Amchi/Tibetan, Homeopathic systems of medicine. This is used in traditional medicine due to the wide spectrum of pharmacological activities associated with the biologically active chemicals present in this plant. It is a medium to large sized tree and fruit is the main officinal part. Detail description available in Ayurvedic texts about its pharmacological actions and medicinal uses in various dosage forms alongwith its side effects and contraindications. The purpose of this review is to gather the available traditional knowledge in the texts as well as published information on pharmacological and phytochemical analysis of the extracts and some of the isolated compounds of this plant as well as their toxic effects for highlighting the importance of this important medicine for use in human medical problems and maintenance of health. The main pharmacological activities observed are Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, Anticarcinogenic activity, Antimutagenic, radioprotective and Chemopreventive activity, Hepatoprotective activity, Cardioprotective activity, Cytoprotective activity, Antidiabetic and renoprotective activity, Antibacterial activity, Antifungal activity, Antiviral activity, Antiprotozoal activity, Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity, Anti-allergic activity, Adaptogenic and antianaphylactic activities, Hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic acivity, Gastrointestinal motility improving and anti-ulcerogenic activity, Antispasmodic activity, Anticaries activity, Wound healing activity, Purgative property, Immunomodulatory activity etc. Further, extensive investigation is needed to exploit its therapeutic ability to combat other various medical situations. More research study required for its bioactivity, mechanism of action, pharmacotherapeutics, toxicity, standardization, pre clinical trials and clinical trials for global safe use of this drug.
Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 10(3): July- September, 2018
115
ISSN 0975-4407 (Print)
2321-5836 (Online)
DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2018.00023.X
Vol. 10| Issue-03|
July- September , 2018
Available online at
www.anvpublication.org
Research Journal of Pharmacology and
Pharmacodynamics
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Pharmacological Profile of Terminalia chebula Retz. and Willd. (Haritaki)
in Ayurveda with Evidences
Dr. Sudhanshu Kumar Meher, Dr. Purnendu Panda, Dr. Banmali Das, Dr. G. C. Bhuyan,
Dr. K. K. Rath
Central Ayurveda Research Institute for Hepatobilliary Disorders, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
*Corresponding Author E-mail: drmeher@rediffmail.com
ABSTRACT:
The medicinal plant Terminalia chebula Retz. and Willd. Commonly known as Yellow myrobalan or Chebulic
myrobalan or Haritaki is one among the major drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine which is native to
South Asia mainly from India. Apart from its use in Ayurveda, it is extensively used in Unani, Amchi/Tibetan,
Homeopathic systems of medicine. This is used in traditional medicine due to the wide spectrum of
pharmacological activities associated with the biologically active chemicals present in this plant. It is a medium
to large sized tree and fruit is the main officinal part. Detail description available in Ayurvedic texts about its
pharmacological actions and medicinal uses in various dosage forms alongwith its side effects and
contraindications. The purpose of this review is to gather the available traditional knowledge in the texts as well
as published information on pharmacological and phytochemical analysis of the extracts and some of the isolated
compounds of this plant as well as their toxic effects for highlighting the importance of this important medicine
for use in human medical problems and maintenance of health. The main pharmacological activities observed are
Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, Anticarcinogenic activity, Antimutagenic, radioprotective and
Chemopreventive activity, Hepatoprotective activity, Cardioprotective activity, Cytoprotective activity,
Antidiabetic and renoprotective activity, Antibacterial activity, Antifungal activity, Antiviral activity,
Antiprotozoal activity, Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity, Anti-allergic activity, Adaptogenic and
antianaphylactic activities, Hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic acivity, Gastrointestinal motility improving
and anti-ulcerogenic activity, Antispasmodic activity, Anticaries activity, Wound healing activity, Purgative
property, Immunomodulatory activity etc. Further, extensive investigation is needed to exploit its therapeutic
ability to combat other various medical situations. More research study required for its bioactivity, mechanism of
action, pharmacotherapeutics, toxicity, standardization, pre clinical trials and clinical trials for global safe use of
this drug.
KEYWORDS: Haritaki, Terminalia chebula, Ayurveda, Chebulic myrobalan.
Received on 25.06.2018 Modified on 12.07.2018
Accepted on 23.07.2018 ©A&V Publications All right reserved
Res. J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics.2018; 10(3):115-124.
DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2018.00023.X
INTRODUCTION:
According to World Health Organization, about 80% of
world population relies chiefly on plant based traditional
medicine for their primary healthcare need. The
medicinal plant Terminalia chebula Retz. and Willd.
commonly known as Yellow myrobalan or Chebulic
myrobalan or Haritaki is native to South Asia from India
and Nepal east to southwest China (Yunnan) and south
to Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Vietnam. More than 100
species belong to the genus Terminalia which are big
Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 10(3): July- September, 2018
116
trees and they are found in different tropical regions of
the world. The trees that belong to this genus
Terminalia are known as a good secondary source of
metabolites like cyclic triterpenes and derivatives,
flavonoids, tannins and other aromatic metabolites. The
genus of this plant comes from the latin word
“terminus”, as the leaves of the tree are located at the
terminal part of the branches. It is extensively used in
Ayurveda, Unani, Amchi and Homeopathic medicine.
Terminalia chebula is a popular traditional medicine not
only used in India but also in other countries of Asia and
Africa. This is used in traditional medicine due to the
wide spectrum of pharmacological activities associated
with the biologically active chemicals present in this
plant. The observed health benefits may be credited to
the presence of the various phytochemicals like
polyphenols, anthocyanins, terpenes, flavonoids,
alkaloids and glycosides. The purpose of this review is to
gather the available traditional knowledge in the texts as
well as published information on pharmacological and
phytochemical analysis of the extracts and some of the
isolated compounds of this plant as well as their toxic
effects for highlighting the importance of this important
medicine for use in human medical problems and
maintenance of health.
Botanical group:
Kingdom: Plantae, Division: Magnoliophyta, Class:
Magnoliopsida, Order: Myrtales, Family: Combretaceae,
Genus: Terminalia (the leaves of the tree are located at
the terminal part of the branches), Species: chebula
(distorted from of the word Kabul) Retz.
Vernacular names:
Arabian: Haleelaz, Assamese: Xilikha, Hilikha, Bengali:
Horitoky, Chinese: He Zi, English: Chebulic Myrobalan,
Yellow/Black myrobalan, Ink tree, Farsi: Haleel,
Gujarati: Harade, Himmej, Hindi: Harad or Harade,
Kannada: Alale, Analekai, Malayalam: Kadukai,
Marathi: Hirada, Odia: Harida, Sanskrit: Haritaki, Tamil:
Kadukkai, Telugu: Karakkaya, Kaduka, Tibetan: A-ru-
ra.
Synonyms in Ayurveda:
Various names are given to Terminalia chebula Retz.
and Willd in Ayurveda due to its multiple characteristics
like Haritaki, Abhaya, Amruta, Haimavati, Shiva,
Pathya, Pachani, Rohini, Kayastha, Shreyasi, Vijaya, etc.
based on its different pharmacological actions and
qualities.
Morphology of the plant:
Terminalia chebula Retz. and Willd. is a medium to
large deciduous tree, younger stems glabrescent, woody
growing upto 30 m (98 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1 m (3
ft 3 inch) in diameter. Leaves: Alternate to sub-opposite
in arrangement, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; oval,
laminae broadly elliptic to ellipticoblong, rarely ovate,
7 to 8 cm (2.8 to 3.1 inch) long and 4.5 to 10 cm (1.8 to
3.9 inch) broad with a 1 to 3 cm (0.39 to 1.18 inch)
petiole, the bases obtuse/cordate, the margins entire, the
tips acute, glabrescent/glabrous above with a yellowish
pubescence below. The fruit is drupe-like, 2 to 4.5 cm
(0.79 to 1.77 in) long and 1.2 to 2.5 cm (0.47 to 0.98 in)
broad, blackish, with five longitudinal ridges.
Inflorescence: Its paniculate spikes, terminal and
axillary; peduncles tomentose; bracts subulate, small,
caducous. Flowers: These are 2 mm long, 3-4 mm in
diameter; bracts nearly glabrous, 1.5-2.0 mm long; calyx
outside glabrous, inside densely villous, calyx-segments
triangular; stamens 3-4 mm long; ovary glabrous, ovoid,
1 mm long; style glabrous, 2.5-3.0 mm long. The dull
white to yellow flowers are monoecious, and have a
strong, unpleasant odour. They are borne in terminal
spikes or short panicles.Fruit: It is a drupe, glabrous, sub
globose to ellipsoid/ovoid, 2.55.0 cm by 1.5-2.5 cm,
usually smooth or frequently 5-angulate, ridged,
wrinkled, yellow to orange-brown in colour turning
blackish when dry. Fruits contain astringent substances-
tannic acid, Chebulinic acid, gallic acid etc. Resin and a
purgative principle of the nature of anthraquinone and
sennoside are also present. Seed: one, rough, ellipsoid,
1.0-2.0 cm by 0.2-0.7 cm and without ridges.
Geographical Distribution and habitat:
Terminalia chebula is found throughout South East Asia
like India, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and
Pakistan, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam,
Indonesia, Malaysia, Egypt, Philippines, Turkey and
Thailand. In China, native in W Yunnan; cultivated in
Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi (Nanning), and Taiwan
(Nantou). In India, it is found in the Sub Himalayan
tracks from Ravi eastwards to West Bengal and Assam,
ascending up to the altitude of 1500 meter in the
Himalayas. This tree is wild in forests of Northern India,
central provinces and Bengal, common in Madras,
Mysore and in the southern part of the Bombay
presidency1. Flowers appear from April to August and
fruits ripen from October to January.
Propagation, planting and harvesting:
Trees are generally grown from seeds. The fallen fruits
are collected and dried thoroughly first. Later the
hardened flesh is removed. Fermentation of the stones
gives the best germinative results, but clipping the broad
end of the stone without damaging the embryo, followed
by soaking in cold water for 36 hours gives good results
too. In India, seeds are usually sown in boxes or nursery
beds in spring or before the rainy season, covered with
soil, and watered regularly. Clay and sandy soils are
ideal for growing them. They require full sunlight and
ample amount of water for growing properly. A mere
20% success is reported. Transplanting from the nursery
into the field can be done in the first or second rainy
Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 10(3): July- September, 2018
117
season. Shading is desirable in early stages in the nursery
and after transplanting. Propagation by cuttings is
possible, but less successful than transplanting nursery-
raised seedlings. These trees cannot tolerate cold
temperatures below 16oC. In the forest, regeneration is
facilitated by creating small gaps in the canopy, and this
may be supplemented by sowing seeds in the
clearings.These deciduous trees remain leafless from
February to early April. The flowers bloom between
April and August. The trees bear fruits between
November and February. The fruits are harvested while
they are ripended. Harvesting is done by handpicking
the fruits.
Varieties as per shape of fruit as mentioned in
Ayurveda (7 types):
Vijaya variet is of alabu shape and used in all diseases
which are available in Vindhya mountains. This is
considered as best among 7 varieties. Rohini variety is
circular in shape, useful in wound healing, available in
Pratishtanaka, Jhansi and other parts of Madhya Pradesh.
Putana variety is having small fruits with big seeds, used
for external application and are available in Sindha area.
Amruta variety is having thick fruit pulp, useful for
panchakarma (detoxification) and is available in
Champa, Bhagalpur area. Abhaya variety is having five
creases in fruit skin, useful in eye disorders and is
available in Champa, Bhagalpur area. Jivanti variety is
having yellow coloured fruit, useful in all diseases and
available in Saurastra region of Gujarat. Chetaki variety
is having the creases in fruit skin which is useful for
purgation and is available in Himachal Pradesh2.
In fact only two types of Haritaki are available. The big
variety, available everywhere and used in the preparation
of Ayurvedic proprietary medicine, is the Vijaya variety,
useful for both rejuvenation and purificatory purposes.
The small variety (trade name-Jangi haritaki) is the
Chetaki variety mentioned in the classics. These are
immature, unripe, small, stoneless fruits used for
purgative purpose3.
Uses in Ayurveda as per various dosage form:
Chewing the Haritaki fruit causes increase in digestion
power whereas if it is made into a paste and eaten, it
clears and cleanses bowel. If it is steamed or boiled, it
becomes absorbent, useful in malabsoption symdrome.
If it is fried and used, it is useful in Tridosha imbalance
conditions. Haritaki if eaten after food, it heals to
eliminate all toxic effects due to food poisoning. If it is
taken along with salt, it balances kaphs, whereas if taken
with sugar, it balances pitta and if taken with ghee, it
balances vata disorders2.
Chemical composition:
A number of glycosides have been isolated from
Terminalia chebula, including the triterpenes
arjunglucoside I, arjungenin, and the chebulosides I and
II. Other constituents include a coumarin conjugated
with gallic acids called chebulin, as well as other
phenolic compounds including ellagic acid, 2,4-
chebulyl-β-D-glucopyranose, chebulinic acid, gallic
acid, ethyl gallate, punicalagin, terflavin A, terchebin,
luteolin, and tannic acid4,5. Chebulic acid is a phenolic
acid compound isolated from the ripe fruits6,7. Luteic
acid can be isolated from the bark8. T. chebula also
contains terflavin B, a type of tannin, while chebulinic
acid is found in the fruits9.
Other constituents:
The major bio-active constituents of the fruit are tannins,
anthraquinones, chebulinic acid, chebulagic acid,
chebulic acid, ellagic acid and gallic acid. The other
minor compounds include corilegin, β-D-glucogallin,
glucose and sorbitol. Polyphenolic compounds,
triterpene glycosides, terchebulin, punicalagin, terflavin
A, flavonoids, reducing sugars and starch are other
constituents of the fruit. Terpenene glycosides,
arjungenin and arjunglucoside-I. 18 amino acids and a
small quantity of phosphoric, succinic, syringic and
quinic acids.
Medicinal qualities and Systemic use as in Ayurvedic
classics:
Rasa-Five types of tests except lavana (salt) i.e. seed
kernel is Madhura (sweet), pulp of fruit is Amla (sour),
skin is Katu (punjent), fruit rind is Tikta (bitter) and
Seed is Kasaya (astringent) but there is dominancy of
Kashaya rasa. Guna or quality is laghu (light) and ruksha
(dry), Virya or potency is ushna (hot), Vipaka is sweet
(Madhura), Doshakarma: Alleviates vitiation of all 3
doshas i.e.Tridosha hara due to sweet, bitter and
astringent tastes, it balances pitta, due to its pungent,
bitter and astringent tastes, it balances kapha and due to
its sweet and sour taste, it balances vata dosha.
External uses: Local application of Haritaki is Anti-
inflammatory. In conjunctivitis it can be used for
application on eyelids. A decoction of Haritaki is used
for wound and also used for gargaling in the diseases of
mouth and throat.
Digestive System: Due to Anulomana karma it helps in
normalizing bowel movements. (Haritaki 1 to 3 grams is
administered with a cup of hot water to relieve ama
(undigested food constituents) in case of Irritable Bowel
Disease associated with low digestive power).Further,
useful in loss of appetite, vomiting, pain in abdomen,
early stage of ascites, Hemorrhoids, Hepatomegaly,
Splenomegaly and parasitical infestation. If the bark of
Haritaki if eaten properly with chewing in mouth, it
Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 10(3): July- September, 2018
118
improves digestion. Powdered Haritaki reduces
constipation in a dose of 3-6 gm. A fine powder of
Haritaki is used as a tooth powder which strengthens the
gums. Purgation induced by Haritaki is relived by its
own. Bala Haritaki (small variety) is useful in
hemorrhoids. Useful in piles/hemorrhoids by reducing
the size of pile mass and bleeding. (Sitz bath with 2 table
spoon of haritaki powder in 10 liters water for 10
minutes, before bath, is useful in reducing the swelling
and healing). 10 g of Haritaki powder with grapes may
be taken to get relief in hyperacidity 10. 10-15 g of dry
Haritaki or Triphala i,e. Powder of Hairtaki (Terminalia
chebula), Vibhitaki (Terminalia bellerica) and Amalaki
(Phyllanthes emblica) in equal quantities with warm
water may be consumed after dinner to relieve
constipation 2. Useful in spleenomegaly (3 to 5 gram
once or twice a day is administered with 2 to 3 grams of
jiggery)11.
Circulatory System: As Haritaki is raktagami
(exhibiting much action on Rakta Dhatu), it is used in
weakness of Heart, Vatarakta (gout) and other disorders
of the blood. Cures anemia (5 gram of Haritaki powder
to be taken and mix well with equal quantity of jaggery
powder to form a bolus. 2 bolus twice daily after meals
for 60 days is to be consumed)12, Haritaki is useful to
reduce anemia 13, useful in jaundice and oedma.
Respiratory System: Rhinitis, Cough, Hoarseness of
voice, Hiccups and Dyspnoea, COPD, wheezing,
breathing difficulty are releaved by Haritaki as it reduces
congestion.
Reproductive System: Useful in Shukrameha,
Leucorrhoea and acts as a uterine tonic.
Urinary System: Useful in Dysurea, retention of urine,
Calculus (Haritakyadi sidha Dugdha) and urinary tract
disorders, useful in diabetes (every morning and
evening, 1 tea spoon of Haritaki powder with a little
honey may be consumed. Constant intake of Haritaki
helps to control diabetes)14.
Nervous System: Useful in headache, weakness of the
nerves and the brain, as well as in Vata disorders and
diminished vision and improves intelligence (Medha).
Skin: Useful in Erysipelas and other skin disorders,
Haritaki prevents accumulation of pus in skin diseases
and acts as a Rasayana. Haritaki with oil is extremely
helpful in healing of wounds especially in burns. It helps
to improve skin complexion.
Rasayana: Antiageing, rejuvenative, nourishing (after
removing seeds of 2 to 4 dry Haritaki fruits, it may be
cut in to 2 to 3 pieces followed by cooking in 4 parts of
milk till it becomes soft. After cooling, little ghee and
honey will be added. This recipe may be prepared daily
and consume to attain good immune power)15, improves
body weight (Bruhmani), improves life expentency/span
by maintaining healthyness (Ayushya). Haritaki acts as a
rejuvenator (by clearing the mala present in the body).
For the purpose of rasayana karma (rejuvenation, anti
ageing purpose), Haritaki is taken along with different
ingredients in different seasons (ritu) which is popular as
Ritu Haritaki. In rainy season (varsa ritu), Haritaki is
given along with saindhava (rock salt), in autumn season
(sarat ritu), haritaki is given along with sarkara (sugar),
in early winter (hemanta ritu), haritaki is given along
with sunthi (ginger), in winter (sisira ritu), haritaki is
given along with pippali (long pepper), in spring season
(vasanta ritu), haritaki is given along with madhu
(honey) and in summer (greshma ritu), haritaki is given
along with guda (jaggery). Dose: 2-4 gm for Rasayana
action. It causes natural detoxification of bodily toxic
materials.
Medicines in market:
Abhayarishta, Triphala Churna, Agastya rasayana,
Brahma rasayana, Dashamoola Haritaki etc.
Side effects and contraindications:
Though Haritaki has immense health benefits, due to its
astringent and hot nature, it is contraindicated in few
cases. Haritaki is best avoided in Adhva and Ati Khinna
(people who have walked for very long and who are
tired). Balavarjita (who have depleted immunity and
strength), Rooksha (who are feeling dry and are
emaciated), Krusha (having lean body),
Langhanakarshita (who have fasted for long), Pittadhika
(in people with increased Pitta/burning sensation),
Garbhavati (in pregnant woman), Vimuktarakta (after
blood letting treatment), during and soon after
menstruation, Kshut (hungry), Trishna (thirsty),
Ushnarta (who are having severe thirst, hunger and have
got exposed to Sun for long), Ajeerna (in patients
suffering from indigestion), Strimadya karshita (those
who are emaciated due to increased sexual activity and
alcohol), Mukshashosha (in people having dry mouth),
Hanusthambha (in people with neck stiffness),
Galagraha (in people with dry throat), Navajvara (in
early stages of fever) etc. Though there are a few
nutritive health benefits, Haritaki is more of cleansing,
moisture absorbing, weight reducing in nature. Hence it
is advised to avoid during pregnancy. In most of the
contraindications explained above, all have dryness, lack
of water supply kind of symptoms. Haritaki, already
being astringent, is not advisable because it may further
contribute to dryness. Haritaki is best avoided in infants,
upto 5 years of age. It should be given under medical
supervision in children. Single herb usage of Haritaki is
contra indicated in lactating mother. It may decrease
breast milk production.
Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 10(3): July- September, 2018
119
Haritaki in Tibetan medicine:
Haritaki is named as a-ru-ra, ‘a’ means best of medicines
and cures all diseaess caused by tridosha (vata, pitta and
kapha, 3 physiological body elements), ‘ru’ means the
fruit has flesh, bone and skin which clears diseases due
to imbalance of tridosha and ‘ra’ means it’s body is like
that of rhinocerous and clears the diseases from all
dhatus (7 anatomical body constituents). Hariraki is
called as ‘man-mchog-rgyal-lo’ means king of the best
of medicines16, 17.
Pharmacological activity:
1. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity:
i) The leaves, bark and fruit of Terminalia chebula
possessed high antioxidant activity and phenolics
were found to be responsible for this activity18
ii) Aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula inhibited
xanthine/xanthine oxidase activity and was also an
excellent scavenger of DPPH radicals19
iii) Terminalia chebula in a polyherbal formulation
(Aller-7/NR-A2) inhibited free radical induced
hemolysis and also significantly inhibited nitric
oxide release from lipopolysaccharide stimulated
murine macrophages20.
iv) Six extracts and four compounds of Terminalia
chebula fruit exhibited antioxidant activity at
different magnitudes of potency21.
v) Strong antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of
Terminalia chebula was observed by studying the
inhibition of radiation induced lipid peroxidation in
rat liver microsomes at different doses22, Methanolic
extract was also found to inhibit lipid peroxide
formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide
radicals in vitro23. Acetone extract has stronger
antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol and
HPLC analysis with diode array detection indicated
the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives,
hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonol
aglycones and their glycosides, as main phenolic
compounds24.
vi) An evaluation of extracts of five traditional
medicinal plants viz, Quercus infectoria Olive.,
Terminalia chebula Retz., Lavendula stoechas L.,
Mentha longifolia L., Rheum palmatum L from Iran
on the inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity
and scavenging of free radicals. In general Q.
infectoria and T. chebula significantly inhibited
tyrosinase activity and DPPH radical. Both activities
were concentration-dependant but not in linear
manner. It is needed to study the cytotoxicity of
these plant extracts in pigment cell culture before
further evaluation and moving to in vivo
conditions25
2. Anticarcinogenic activity:
i) A group of researchers have reported the inhibitory
action on cancer cell growth by the phenolics of
Terminalia chebula Retz fruit and found that
chebulinic acid, tannic acid and ellagic acid were the
most growth inhibitory phenolics of T. chebula26.
ii) Ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit inhibited
cell proliferation and induced cell death in a dose
dependent manner in several malignant cell lines
including human (MCF-7) and mouse (S115) breast
cancer cell line, human osteosarcoma cell line
(HOS-1), human prostate cancer cell (PC-3) and a
non-tumorigenic immortalized human prostate cell
line (PNT1A). Besides, acetone extract of bark and
fruit powder of Terminalia chebula harbors
constituents with promising anticarcinogenic
activity Chebulagic acid, a COX-LOX dual inhibitor
isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz.,
induces apoptosis in COLO-205 cell line27
3. Antimutagenic, radioprotective and
Chemopreventive activity:
i) Antimutagenic activity of aqueous extract and
hydrolyzable tannins from Terminalia chebula in
Salmonella typhimurium has been documented28
ii) Gamma radiation induced strand breaks formation
in plasmid PBR322 DNA was inhibited by aquesous
extract of Terminalia chebula19.
iii) The administration of aqueous extract of Terminalia
chebula prior to whole body irradiation of mice
resulted in a reduction of peroxidation of membrane
lipids in the mice liver as well as a decrease in
radiation induced damage to DNA. It also protected
the human lymphocytes from undergoing the
gamma radiation-induced damage to DNA exposed
in vitro29.
iv) Terminalia chebula showed chemopreventive effect
on nickel chloride -induced renal oxidative stress,
toxicity and cell proliferation response in male
Wistar rats30.
4. Hepatoprotective activity:
i) A mixture of chebulic acid (CA) and its minor
isomer, neochebulic acid with a ratio of 2:1 isolated
from ethanolic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits
showed strong hepatoprotective activity31.
ii) Ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula was found to
prevent the hepatotoxiocity caused by the
adminstration of rifampicin, isoniazid and
pyrazinamide (combination) in sub-chronic model
(12 weeks)32.
iii) Protective effects of an aqueous extract of
Terminalia chebula fruit on the tert-butyl
hydroperoxide-induced oxidative injury was
observed in cultured rat primary hepatocytes and rat
liver have also been documented 22, 23done
iv) Terminalia chebula in an herbal formulation (HP-1)
Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 10(3): July- September, 2018
120
showed hepatoprotective activity against carbon
tetrachloride induced toxicity in rat hepatocytes33.
5. Cardioprotective activity:
Terminalia chebula extract pretreatment was found to
ameliorate the effect of isoproterenol on lipid peroxide
formation and retained the activities of the diagnostic
marker enzymes in isoproterenol induced myocardial
damage in rats.34 Its pericap has also been reported to
have cardioprotective activity in isolated frog heart
model35.
6. Cytoprotective activity:
i) Gallic acid (GA) and CA were isolated from the
extract of the herbal medicine Kashi (myrobalan, the
fruit of Terminalia chebula) as active principal that
blocked the cytotoxic T-lyphocyte-mediated
cytotoxicity. Granule exocytosis in response to anti-
CD3 stimulation was also blocked by GA and CA at
the equivalent concentrations36.
ii) The ethanolic extract of Terminalia chebula fruit
exhibited a notable cytoprotective effect on the
HEK-N/F cells. In addition its extract exhibited
significant cytoprotective effect against UV-induced
oxidative damage. These observations were
attributed to the inhibitory effect of the Terminalia
chebula extract on the age dependent shortening of
the telomere length as shown by the Southern Blots
of the terminal restriction fragments of DNA
extracted from sub-culture passages37. It exhibited
the development of duodenal ulcers and appeared to
exert a cytoprotective effect on the gastric mucosa
in vitvo38.
iii) Cytoprotective effect on oxidative stress and
inhibitory effect on cellular aging of its fruits have
also been documented39.
7. Antidiabetic and renoprotective activity:
i) Terminalia chebula fruit and seeds exhibited dose
dependent reduction in blood glucose of
streptozotocin induced diabetic rats both in short
term and long term study and also had
renoprotective activity40,41.
ii) Water extract of dry fruits of Terminalia chebula at
a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight improved the
glucose tolerance as indicated by 44% of reduction
in the peak blood glucose at 2nd hour in glucose
tolerance test in diabetic (streptozotocin induced)
rats.42 The fruit extract of Terminalia chebula exerts
a significant and dose-dependent glucose lowering
effect in the rat model of metabolic syndrome.43
iii) Chebulagic acid, isolated form Terminalia chebula
Retz, proved to be a reversible and non-competitive
potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor of maltase with a
K (i) value of 6.6 muM. The inhibitory influence of
chebulagic acid on the maltase-glucoamylase
complex was more potent than on the sucrase-
isomaltase complex. The magnitude of alpha-
glucosidase inhibition by chebulagic acid was
greatly affected by its origin. These results show a
use for chebulagic acid in managing type-2
diabetes44.
8. Antibacterial activity:
i) Terminalia chebula exhibited antibacterial activity
against a number of both Gram-positive and Gram-
negative human pathogenic bacteria45.
ii) It is effective in inhibiting the urease activity of
Helicobactor pyroli, an ubiquitous bacterium
implicated in the development of gastritis, ulcers
and stomach cancers46. Ethanedioic acid and ellagic
acid isolated from butanol fraction of Terminalia
chebula fruit extract had strong antibacterial activity
against intestinal bacteria, Clostridium perfingens
and Escherichia coli47.
iii) GA and its ethyl ester isolated from ethanolic
extract of Terminalia chebula showed antimicrobial
activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
aureus (S. aureus)48.
iv) Ripe seeds of Terminalia chebula also exhibited
strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus49.
v) The aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula strongly
inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans,
salivary bacteria50.
vi) Diffusate of Terminalia chebula showed an
inhibitory effect against strain X-100 of the
bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv.citri
indicating its usefulness for the management of
citrus canker disease which is a disease affecting
citrus species of plants51.
vii) It has also growth inhibitory action against
Salmonella typhi, 52 Klebsiella53, Shigella47 and
intestinal bacteria50.
viii) Growth inhibitory activity of active component from
Terminalia chebula fruits against intestinal
bacteria.54
ix) Ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit showed
strong antibacterial activity against multidrug-
resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli and
phenolics were found to be responsible for this
antibacterial activity55,56
x) A study on Terminalia chebula fruit extract treated
cotton fabric for health care application showed anti
microbial activity57
9. Antifungal activity:
i) An aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula exhibited
antifungal activity against a number of
dermatophytes and yeasts58, 59.
ii) It is effective against the pathogenic yeast Candida
albicans and dermatophytes Epidermophyton,
Floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and
Trichophyton rubrum58.
iii) Its inhibitory effect on three dermatophytes
(Trichophyton spp.) and three yeasts (Candida spp.)
Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 10(3): July- September, 2018
121
has also been documented60.
iv) An aqueous extract of galls of Terminalia chebula
showed inhibitory effects on three dermatophytes
(Trichophyton spp.) and three yeasts (Candida spp)
v) In vitro anticandidal activity of methanol extract of
Terminalia chebula was observed against
clotrimazole resistant Candida albicans61.
vi) Seed extract exhibited antifungal activity against
Trichophyton glabrata58
10. Antiviral activity:
i) Terminalia chebula fruits afforded four
immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase
inhibitors, GA (I) and three galloyl glucoses (II-IV).
Their galloyl moiety plays a major role for
inhibition against the 3′-processing of HIV-1
integrase of the compounds62.
ii) Terminalia chebula has also retroviral reverse
transcriptase inhibitory activity.63
iii) It protects epithelial cells against influenza A virus,
supporting its traditional use for aiding in recovery
from acute respiratory infections64.
iv) The methanol and aqueous extracts of T. chebula
showed a significant inhibitory activity with IC50≤5
µg/mL on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse
transcriptase65.
v) It also demonstrated the therapeutic activity against
herpes simplex virus both in vitro and in vitvo
tests66.
vi) These finding prompted a team of Japanese
researchers to investigate T. chebulas's effect on
human cytomagalovirus (CMV). They found that T.
chebula was effective in inhibiting the replication of
human cytomagalovirus in vitro and in an AIDS
model with immunosuppressed mice and concluded
that it may be beneficial for the prevention of CMV
diseases and immonocompronised patients67.
vii) It is also helpful in sexually transmitted diseases and
AIDS68.
viii) Tannins from T. chebula are effective against potato
virus x69.
11. Antiprotozoal activity:
i) A combination of T. chebula and four other
botanicals (Boerhavia diffusa, Berberis aristata,
Tinospora cordifolia, and Zingiber officinale) had a
maximum cure rate of 73% in experimental amoebic
liver abscess in hamsters70 and 89% in experimental
caecal amoebiasis in rats showing its antiamoebic
activity against Entamoeba histolytica71
ii) The acetone extract of T. chebula seeds showed anti
plasmodial activity against Plasmodium
falciparum72.
12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity:
i) Aqueous extract of dried fruit of T. chebula showed
anti-inflammatory by inhibiting inducible nitric
oxide synthesis73.
ii) Chebulagic acid from immature seeds of T. chebula
significantly suppressed the onset and progression
of collagen induced arthritis in mice74.
iii) Terminalia chebula in a polyherbal formulation
(Aller-7) exhibited a dose dependent anti-
inflammatory effect against Freund's adjuvant
induced arthritis in rats75.
13. Anti-allergic activity:
i) Aller-7, a polyherbal formulation of seven medicinal
plants including Terminalia chebula exhibited
potent in vitro antiallergic activity in isolated
guineapig ileum substrate75.
14. Adaptogenic and antianaphylactic activities:
i) T. chebula fruit was one of the six Ayurvedic herbs
administered to animals to test their adaptogenic
potential. All six traditional rasayana plants were
able to aid the animals against a variety of different
stressors working in different ways76.
ii) Besides, animal studies show that when extract of T.
chebula was administered following induction of
anaphylactic shock, the serum histamine levels were
reduced, indicating its strong antianaphylactic
action77.
iii) Water soluble fraction of Terminalia chebula had a
significant increasing effect on anti-dinitrophenyl
IgE-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production
from rat peritoneal mast cells indicating its strong
antianaphylactic action77.
15. Hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic acivity:
i) Hypolipidemic activity of Terminalia chebula
extract against experimentally induced
athersclerosis have been documented78.
ii) It also possessed hypocholesterelomic activity
against cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia
and atherosclerosis in rabbits79.
16. Gastrointestinal motility improving and anti -
ulcerogenic activity
i) Although its traditional use as laxative is well
established, Terminalia chebula fruit has been
shown to increase gastric emptying time80.
ii) This action appeared to be balanced with a
protective effect on the gastrointestinal mucosa,
with the improvement in the secretory status of
Brunner's gland involved in the protection against
duodenal ulcer81.
iii) Comparison of enteroprotective efficacy of triphala
formulations (Indian Herbal Drug) on methotrexate-
induced small intestinal damage in rats and
foundthat triphala unequal formulation provides
significantly more protection against methotrexate-
induced damage in rat intestine82.
Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 10(3): July- September, 2018
122
17. Antispasmodic activity:
One of the numerous studies of Terminalia chebula
demonstrated its ‘anti-vata’ or ‘anti-spasmodic’
properties by the reduction of abnormal blood pressure
as well as intestinal spasms. This confirm its traditional
usefulness for spastic colon and other intestinal
disorders83.
18. Anticaries activity:
The aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula strongly
inhibited the growth, sucrose induced adherence and
glucan induced aggregation of Streptococcus mutans.
Mouth rinsing with a 10% solution of the extract
inhibited the salivary bacterial count and glycolysis of
salivary bacteria for upto 90 min post rinsing53, 84.
19. Wound healing activity:
Topical administration of an alcoholic extract of
Terminalia chebula leaves on the healing of rat dermal
wounds showed that Terminalia chebula treated wounds
healed faster as indicated by improved rates of
contraction and decreased period of epithelialization85
20. Purgative property:
Purgative action of an oil fraction from Terminalia
chebula has been documented86
21. Immunomodulatory activity:
Crude extract of Terminalia chebula stimulated cell-
mediated immune response in experimental amoebic
liver abscess in golden hamsters70, aqueous extract of
Terminalia chebula produced an increase in humoral
antibody titer and delayed type hypersensitivity in mice87
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:
Terminali chebula is one of the most ingenious plants
having a wide range of pharmacological and medicinal
activities. This multifaceted medicinal plant is the
distinctive source of various types of compounds having
various chemical structures. Though it has a number of
pharmacological activities due to the presence of various
types of bioactive compounds, little work has been done
on the probable medicinal applications of this plant
against the diseases particularly on mutagenicity having
radioprotective and Chemopreventive activity,
immunomodulatory effect and role against multidrug
resistant bacterial pathogens. Hence extensive
investigation is needed to exploit its therapeutic ability to
combat other various medical situations. Extensive study
required for its bioactivity, mechanism of action,
pharmacotherapeutics, toxicity, standardization, pre
clinical trials and clinical trials for global safe use of this
drug.
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... Terminalia chebula fruit ethanol extract shown significant antibacterial action against multidrug resistant uropathogenic bacteria. This antibacterial action was discovered to be caused by phenolics and Escherichia coli [16] . ...
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Dandruff is hair loss along with scaling of scalp, which is most common hair related problem. Even though it does not as such affect health but it had a larger impact confidence diminishing cosmetic impact. In Ayurveda it is described as Darunaka. Ayurveda emphasises on bahya upakrama for treatment of Darunaka like lepa and oil application etc. Bhringrajadi taila is one of the oils recommended by Sharangdhar Samhita in taila prakarana for Darunaka. So, this study aims to review the pharmacological activity regarding its anti-dandruff effect. A study on each ingredient of Bhringrajadi taila collectively demonstrated anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, anti-pruritic, antioxidant and exfoliation effects that substantiate its therapeutic role in Darunaka.
... This plant have many biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-imutagenic, antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-diabetic, renoprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-arthritic actions. Polyphenols, terpenes, anthocyanins, flavonoids, alkaloids glycosides, coumarin, and tannins are among the phytochemicals that responsible to above health benefits [72][73][74]. It has shown therapeutic effectiveness against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro and in vivo by suppression of retroviral reverse transcriptase activity in virus [73,75]. ...
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Herpes are a group of similar viruses that are responsible for a number of infecting diseases, the most important of which are herpes simplex, herpes zoster and pseudopox. Resistance to traditional antiviral medications is becoming increasingly common, making treatment of such infections even more difficult. For example, the usage of nucleoside analogues like acyclovir to target the DNA-polymerase of the virus on a regular and long-term basis promotes the generation of resistant viruses. As a result, a different treatment is required. Natural products, such as herbal remedies, have been shown to have in vitro and in vivo activity against herpes viruses, and have shown to be a valuable source for new antivirals development and separation. The goal of this review is to highlight the most promising extracts and pure chemicals obtained from plants and marine species that have in vivo anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) action. Natural products as new anti-HSV medications offer a number of benefits, including fewer side effects, minimal toxicity, and lowered resistance, and a variety ways of deed.
... Terminalia chebula Retz., the fruit of which is commonly known as Chebulic Myrobalan or Haritaki, is one of the major medicinal plants in Tibetan and Ayurvedic systems of medicine (Sharma et al., 2019). In Tibet, Haritaki is called "a-ru-ra" and recognized as "man-mchog-rgyal-lo" which means "king of medicines" (Meher et al., 2018). Haritaki is often used in traditional medicine for its wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as antiinflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-DM, and hepato-protection (Gupta, 2012;Silawat and Gupta, 2013). ...
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications pose a major public health threat which is approaching epidemic proportions globally. Current drug options may not provide good efficacy and even cause serious adverse effects. Seeking safe and effective agents for DM treatment has been an area of intensive interest. As a healing system originating in Tibet, Traditional Tibetan Medicine (TTM) has been widely used by Tibetan people for the prevention and treatment of DM and its complications for hundreds of years. Tibetan Materia Medica (TMM) including the flower of Edgeworthia gardneri (Wall.) Meisn., Phyllanthi Fructus, Chebulae Fructus, Huidouba, and Berberidis Cortex are most frequently used and studied. These TMMs possess hypoglycemic, anti-insulin resistant, anti-glycation, lipid lowering, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects. The underlying mechanisms of these actions may be related to their α-glucosidase inhibitory, insulin signaling promoting, PPARs-activating, gut microbiota modulation, islet β cell-preserving, and TNF-α signaling suppressive properties. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the mode and mechanisms of action of various active constituents, extracts, preparations, and formulas from TMM. The dynamic beneficial effects of the products prepared from TMM for the management of DM and its complications are summarized. These TMMs are valuable materia medica which have the potential to be developed as safe and effective anti-DM agents.
... The pharmacological and medicinal activities of the plant include antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, antimutagenic, antiproliferative, antispasmodic, wound healing, retinoprotective, and chemopreventive [49][50][51]. Moreover Terminalia chebula has been identified with potential antiviral efficacy against both DNA and RNA viruses. The tannins of Terminalia chebula of determined to prevent viral entry, resulting in minimized release of virions [52]. ...
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The World Health Organization (WHO) data proposes that 8.5% of reported COVID-19 cases belong to pediatric population who are aged less than 18 years. Supportive care alone is recommended in asymptomatic, mild, or moderate pediatric COVID-19 patients by the panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 20 geographically diverse North American institutions. This review article focuses on the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of Urai mathirai in the management of pediatric COVID-19 patients. The literature was looked, in databases such as Medline/PubMed Central/PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of science, Directory of open access journals (DOAJ), and reference lists to distinguish published manuscripts relevant to the use of Urai mathirai to prevent or treat COVID-19 in children. The herbs found in Urai Mathirai and their bioactive phytoconstituents possess antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory and other pharmacological effects relevant to the management of signs and manifestations of COVID-19. The viability of Urai Mathirai in the prophylaxis and management of pediatric COVID-19 patients could further be established by future clinical studies.
... Amalaki also is vata, kapha, pitta har which helps in removal of doshas and reduce the burning sensation in skin due to sheet virya. [10] Haritaki has tri-ethyl chebula which is a sturdy antioxidant and free radical scavenger, which assist for anti oxidative capability. This help in pigmentation of white skin in shwitra. ...
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... Conventionally, it was also used to cure asthma, sore throat, vomiting, hiccough, diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding piles, ulcers, gout, heart and bladder diseases (Bag et al., 2013). Despite immense health benefits, it is contraindicated in a few cases because of its astringent and hot nature (Meher et al., 2018). ...
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The chronicle of the medicinal plants has been widely acknowledged in terms of serving mankind all around the world. Medicinal plants are reported to have reduced or fewer chances of side effects as allopathic medicines. This article is aimed to review and demonstrate the conventional and medicinal utilization of the three constituents of Triphala. Triphala is a polyherbal formulation in Ayurvedic medicine. It comprises an equal proportion of the three medicinal plants namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Emblica officinalis. Triphala is supposed to be significantly effective in coping with the complication of human body systems. It is well known for detoxifying the human body and also boosting the immunity system. Terminalia chebula, also referred to as 'King of Medicines', is a well-known remedy in abdominal disorders and revitalization of the human systems. Terminalia bellirica has got importance from its curative potentials. The different parts of the Terminalis bellirica have been used in the therapeutic cures. Likewise, Emblica officinalis is widely accepted for its efficacy in cooling effect, anti-venom effect, and cardioprotective effect. It is an integral part of the medicine that supports wellness and healthy aging.
... According to Kaur et al. (2002) and Jagetia et al. (2002), Triphala is used in popular traditional medicine for the treatment of many chronic diseases such as ageing, heart ailments, hepatic diseases, etc. Meher et al. (2018) observed the pharmacological activities of the medicinal plant T. chebula, viz, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, antiviral activity, antiprotozoal activity, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity. Elizabeth (2005) conducted the antimicrobial activity of Bahera against 9 human microbial pathogens. ...
... Terminalia chebula (commonly known as Black Myrobalan or Chebulic Myrobalan) is a medium to the large deciduous tree, native to South Asia from India and Nepal east to Southwest China, and South to Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Vietnam. [1] The tree yields a fruit which has an abrasive seed but a fleshy pulp. The seed, called "Harda" is also used in Indian cooking. ...
Chapter
Terminalia chebula Retz. (Family: Combretaceae) is one of the valuable medicinal plants commonly known as Chebulic myrobalan, Yellow myrobalan, Haritaki, or Harro. It is a medium sized deciduous tree that occurs in tropical and subtropical zones at 300 to 1980 m latitude. It is indigenous to South Asian countries including Nepal, India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the South-West part of China, and Vietnam. It is extensively used in different systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Unani, Amchi, Tibetan medicine, and Homeopathic medicine. The edible and healthy wild fruit of this plant is regarded as the “mother of medicines” in Ayurveda, and the “king or best of medicine” in Bhutan and Tibetan. This fruit has magical healing power due to the presence of highly potent phytochemicals like flavonoids, terpenoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, lignans, and anthocyanins. From time immemorial this fruit is traditionally used to cure many diseases and ailments. Fruits contain several bioactive compounds like ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, casuarinin, chebulagic acid, chebulic acid, chebulanin, chebumeinin A and B, corilagin, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, neochebulinic acid, punicalagin, punicalin, quercetin, rutin, terchebulin, terflavin A, vanillic acid, and many other fatty acids, amino acids and essential minerals. Several in vitro and in vivo experiments proved that the extracts or isolated compounds possess remarkable and promising pharmacological activities like antiallergic, antiarthritic, anticancer, anticaries, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiprotozoal, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant, and wound healing properties. The main aim of this book chapter is to provide the reported scientific information regarding the ethnomedicinal uses, bioactive phytochemicals, and the pharmacological activities of T. chebula fruit extracts and isolated compounds. The chapter also provides insights on distribution, cultivation, formulations, traditional uses, market value, and trade prospects along with the safety profile and clinical data of fruits of T. chebula.
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Combinatorial therapy is highly recommended for treating age-linked dysfunctions since multiple organs and biological targets are simultaneously affected. Ayurveda employs a holistic treatment strategy where drug combinations of higher therapeutic potential is utilized as a treatment regimen. Rasayanas are one of the most commonly used formulation in Ayurveda. Narasimha Rasayana is a predominant formulation in Ayurveda reported for bringing out anti-aging and rejuvenation effects. However, the mechanism of action of Narasimha Rasayana is least studied due to its complexity in terms of large number of bioactive ingredients present. The objective of current study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism of action of bioactive components present in Narasimha Rasayana. Systems pharmacology approach was employed for the elucidation of molecular mechanism of bioactive components present in Narasimha Rasayana. The target genes, interacting partners, diseases transcription factors and pathways associated with bioactive components were explored to understand the molecular mechanism. Systems pharmacology studies concluded the interactions of bioactive components with key molecular components of pathways reported for aging. We have identified the interaction of bioactive components present in Narasimha Rasayana with key biomarkers involved in aging pathways such as mTOR and insulin signalling pathways. The bioactive components such as gallic acid, epicathechin, plumbagin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin and genistein were found to interact with components of PI3K/AKT signalling pathway, insulin signalling pathway and mTOR signalling pathway via FOXO transcription factors.
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The present study intended to evaluate the beneficiary effects of ethanolic extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruits (EETC) by using alloxan-monohydrate induced diabetic control by using Wistar Albino rats. The toxicity study was performed on aliquot doses of EETC (100 to 500 mg kg -1 b.wt.) and predetermined the LD 50 value on 30 days evaluation; also the behavioral changes, symptoms and mortality have been checked, the EETC showed the nil toxicity up to 500 mg kg -1 b.wt. The effect of EETC (200 mg kg -1 b.wt.) was compared with the glibenclamide (600 mg kg -1 b.wt.) that is often used as a standard drug and the anti-diabetic activity has been conducted for 30 days. After the completion of the study, animals were dissected through cervical dislocation and collected the blood, serum and pancreas. The collected samples were performed under parameters like biochemical and anti-oxidant enzymes related to diabetes such as, weight variation, blood glucose, plasma insulin, serum and liver protein, serum and liver cholesterol, serum and liver triglyceride, serum and liver phospholipids, SGOT (Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase), SGPT (Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase), ACP (Acid Phosphatase), ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase), GSH (Glutathione reductase), GPT (Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase), GPX (Glutathione Peroxidase),CAT (Catalase) and histopathological sections of the pancreas, the above parameters calculated and showed that the significance at p<0.001 to 0.05. The histopathological changes caused after induction of alloxan showed the granular cytoplasm, dilatation, shrunken nuclei and inflammation, which were reduced after treatment of the EETC (200 mg kg -1 b.wt.). Excess proliferation of epithelium in the pancreas was observed in diabetic rats, which was reduced after administration of the EETC (200 mg kg -1 b.wt.). From the evaluation of the present study on EETC has been confirmed that having the pharmacological action against the diabetic condition, even though the mechanism of the action is unknown, also it can be used further molecular compound analysis and define the chemical to the action.
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An HPTLC method was developed for the estimation of gallic acid rutin and quercetin from aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula, precoated silica gel GF 254 as stationary phase and mobile phase for tannins toluene: acetone: glacial acetic acid (3:1:2 v/v/v/v/v) and mobile phase for rutin and quercetin, ethyl acetate: dichloromethane: formic acid: glacial acetic acid: water (10:2.5:1:1:0.1, v/v/v/v/v). Detection and quantification were performed densitometrically at λ = 254 for gallic acid and 366 nm for rutin and quercetin. The R f values of gallic acid, rutin and quercetin are 0.30, 0.13 and 0.93 respectively. The total peak areas of the standards (gallic acid, rutin and quercetin) and the corresponding peak areas of extracts were compared and the Gallic acid, rutin and quercetin content was estimated to be 8.380, 0.170 and 0.10331 % w/w.
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This study was to determine the difference of antioxidant activities between unfermented extracts and fermented products for Terminalia chebula Retzius, and to recognize antioxidative patterns. The methanol extract, water extract, 95 % ethanol extract, fermented product of dried powder at 25 °C and fermented product of residues after 95 % ethanol extraction at 37 °C showed good antioxidant activities based the scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay and the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) assay, respectively. The methanol extract, water extract, 95 % ethanol extract, fermented product of dried powder at 15 °C and fermented product of water extract at 25 °C exhibited a good value of antioxidant activity based on the pyrogallol-luminol assay. The antioxidative pattern plots revealed valuable information and showed good correlation between scavenging effect on DPPH radical assay and HRP-luminol-H 2 O 2 assay. These results may represent promising plant-sources of medicine in the future.
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The present study describes the anti-bacterial activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Terminalia chebula Retz fruit against microorganism like: Bacillus substils, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus flexineria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For this purpose hydro-alcoholic extract of fruit were prepared and tested by "Disc Diffusion Method". As a result of this study it was found that the extract of fruit generally revealed anti-bacterial activity against both gram-positive bacteria (B. subtils, S. aureous and S.epidermis) and gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, S. flexineria and S. auriginosa).
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Effects of methanol extract of Terminalia chebula on antibacterial activity and the generation of superoxide radical in Bacillus subtilis, as well as on syncytium formation and cytopathic activity in virus-infected baby hamster kidney cells were examined. The extract effectively inhibited syncytium formation in a concentration-dependent manner, and infectious virus production was markedly reduced. However, glycoprotein synthesis was not affected. These results collectively indicate that methanol extract of T. chebula potentially inhibit glycosylation by acting as a suppressor of intracellular glycosylation trafficking.